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Sample records for women attending family

  1. Human papillomavirus detection in cervical scrapes from women attended in the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Faccini Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to survey the prevalence of human papillomavirus, associated risk factors and genotype distribution in women who were referred to cervical cancer screening when attended in a Family Health Program. METHOD: we conducted a cross-sectional survey, investigating 351 women. Polymerase chain reaction for DNA amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were used to detect and typify the papillomavirus. RESULTS: virus infection was detected in 8.8% of the samples. Among the 21 different genotypes identified in this study, 14 were high risk for cervical cancer, and the type 16 was the most prevalent type. The infection was associated with women who had non-stable sexual partners. Low risk types were associated with younger women, while the high risk group was linked to altered cytology. CONCLUSION: in this sample attended a Family Health Program, we found a low rate of papillomavirus infection. Virus frequency was associated to sexual behavior. However, the broad range of genotypes detected deserves attention regarding the vaccine coverage, which includes only HPV prevalent types.

  2. Non-fistulous urinary leakage among women attending a Nigerian family planning clinic

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    Ijaiya MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Munir'deen A Ijaiya1, Hadijat O Raji1, Abiodun P Aboyeji1, Kike T Adesina1, Idowu O Adebara2, Grace G Ezeoke11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, NigeriaAbstract: Urinary leakage is an important gynecological challenge, which has a substantial impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of non-fistulous urinary leakage among women attending the family planning clinic of the University of Ilorin teaching hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional study carried out between January 3 and April 25 2009. One hundred and two women experienced urinary leakage out of 333 women interviewed, giving a prevalence rate of 30.6%. Stress incontinence was the most common urinary leakage (prevalence rate 12.0%. This is followed by urge incontinence (10.8%, urinary incontinence (4.8%, and overflow incontinence (3.0%. None of the women afflicted sought medical help. Conclusively, this study has demonstrated that non-fistulous urinary leakage is a common problem among women of reproductive age in this environment.Keywords: non-fistulous urinary leakage, family planning, women, prevalence, types

  3. A social work study on the effect of family life education on marital satisfaction of women attending in Isfahan Counseling Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Rahimi Rezaee; Karim Afshari Neia; Mokhtar Ariri

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effective of family life education (FLE) on marital status among women attending in Isfahan counseling centers. The methodology of this research was quasi experimental with pre-test and post-test design and control group. Statistical populations were women attending in Isfahan city counseling centers. For selecting statistical sample, 30 women from women attending in counseling centers were selected as volunteers and randomly distributed between experimental and control...

  4. Quality of family planning counseling among women attending prenatal care at a hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Birara, Malede; Rominski, Sarah D

    2017-05-01

    To assess the quality of family planning counseling among women attending a prenatal clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between February and April, 2015, at the prenatal care clinic of Saint Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pregnant women in their third trimester were interviewed about their experience of family planning counseling. Data were collected via a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of satisfaction with the counseling service. During the study period, 400 women were interviewed. Only 139 women (34.8%) were counseled about family planning. Among those counseled, 126 (90.6%) decided to use a contraceptive method after delivery and 46 (36.7%) decided to use an injectable contraceptive. Women were more likely to report high satisfaction when their provider asked about their partner's attitude toward contraceptive methods (adjusted odds ratio 6.6; Pfamily planning methods (adjusted odds ratio 5.1; Pfamily planning counseling to improve satisfaction and quality of care. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Yemeni Women Attending Primary Healthcare Centers in Sana’a City towards Family Planning

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    Essam H. AlSafadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs of Yemeni women attending primary healthcare centers (PHCCs in Sana’a city towards family planning (FP. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending three PHCCs in Sana'a city; namely, in Hadah, Al-Soneinah and Madhbah zones, between 21 November and 1 December 2011. The study included a sample of 281 married women, where data about socio-demographic characteristics and the KAPs towards FP were collected by interviewing women using a pre-designed, structured questionnaire and then analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of the married women attending the PHCCs in Sana'a, the majority of respondents were from urban areas (96.4%; 271/281, aged between 25–29 years old (23.1% 65/281, employed (75.8%; 213/281 and with primary or secondary levels of education (60.9%; 171/281. In addition, the majority of women had a marriage length of 6–11 years (65.5%; 182/281 and 3–4 children (44.8%; 126/281. The majority of respondents (89.7% knew about FP, and 60.2% considered it as birth spacing. Moreover, most respondents (87.5% were aware of at least four methods of FP, and 53.6% heard of modern FP contraceptive methods. Of them, 85.9% and 74.0% heard of contraceptive pills and intrauterine contraceptive devices (ICDU, respectively; however, the least known contraceptive method was the use of male condoms (28.1%. Healthcare providers were the source of information on FP for the majority of respondents (60.5%. The majority of respondents believed that the optimum spacing between births should be two or three years, being 31.7% and 38.8%, respectively. In addition, most respondents (80.8% believed that both couples must share the decision-making on FP. Socio-cultural beliefs and values were thought to be the most common (57.3% barriers to the practice of FP. Conclusions: Although the majority of Yemeni women seeking healthcare after

  6. A social work study on the effect of family life education on marital satisfaction of women attending in Isfahan Counseling Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rahimi Rezaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effective of family life education (FLE on marital status among women attending in Isfahan counseling centers. The methodology of this research was quasi experimental with pre-test and post-test design and control group. Statistical populations were women attending in Isfahan city counseling centers. For selecting statistical sample, 30 women from women attending in counseling centers were selected as volunteers and randomly distributed between experimental and control groups. The main hypothesis of this research states that FLE increases marital satisfaction and their subscales in women. In this study, the dependent variable was marital-satisfaction and the independent variable was family life education conducted to case group in 10 sessions. The results of this survey show that the FLE improved marital satisfaction (p<0.01 and it was effective on the subscales (p<0.01.

  7. Contraception matters: indicators of poor usage of contraception in sexually active women attending family planning clinics in Victoria, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong Jason

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unintended pregnancy (mistimed or unwanted remains an important health issue for women. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with risk of unintended pregnancy in a sample of Victorian women attending family planning clinics. Methods This cross-sectional survey of three Family Planning Victoria Clinics from April to July 2011 recruited women aged 16-50 years with a male sexual partner in the last 3 months, and not intending to conceive. The questionnaire asked about contraceptive behaviours and important factors that influence contraception use (identified from a systematic literature review. Univariate analysis was calculated for the variables of interest for associations with contraceptive use. An overall multivariate model for being at risk for unintended pregnancy (due to inconsistent or ineffective contraceptive use or non-use was calculated through backward elimination with statistical significance set at Results 1006 surveys were analyzed with 96% of women reporting contraception use in the last 3 months. 37% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy due to imperfect use (61% inconsistent users; 31% ineffective methods or never using contraception (8%. On multivariate analysis, women at risk for unintended pregnancy compared with women not at risk were 1 partner in the last 3 months (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3-4.6. These women were dissatisfied with current contraception (OR 2.5, 95% 1.8-3.5; felt “vulnerable” to pregnancy (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-3.0; were not confident in contraceptive knowledge (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.8; were unable to stop to use contraception when aroused (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9 but were comfortable in speaking to a doctor about contraception (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.1. Conclusion Despite reported high contraceptive usage, nearly 40% of women were at risk for unintended pregnancy primarily due to inconsistent contraceptive use and use of ineffective

  8. Awareness and practice of family planning methods in women attending gyne OPD at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

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    Tuladhar, H; Marahatta, R

    2008-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14th May 2008 to 14th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out often methods, but only 65.0% had ever used it and contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.5% which was slightly higher than the national data as 28.5%. The best known method of temporary contraception was depo provera (78.0%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (74.0%) and condom (71.0%) and least known methods were vaginal foam tablets/jelly (34.0%) and natural methods (16.0%). Among permanent family planning methods, awareness about female sterilization (81.0%) was more than male sterilization (77.0%) which was in accordance with studies done in other countries. Knowledge about emergency coritraception was quite low (12.0%) as it was newly introduced in the country. Regarding current use of contraception depo provera (11.0%) was the most widely used followed by oral contraceptive pills (4.5%) and condom (4.5%). 5.5% had undergone female sterilization while only 2.5% of male partner had sterilization Knowledge of non contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 35.0% of the respondents, 27.0% reported awareness that condoms protect from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) while knowledge about various adverse effects was widespread (52.5%). The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.5%), both printed and electronic. This study also observed that with increase in level of education, awareness also increased. Although most of the women were aware about the methods, they were ignorant about the details like duration of protection, return of fertility on discontinuation and non contraceptive benefits. The most common reason for discontinuation of FP

  9. Awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women attending urban health care center Azizabad Sukkur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.A.; Nisar, N.

    2008-01-01

    To assess level of awareness and pattern of utilizing family planning services among women (15-49 years) of reproductive age at Urban Health Center, Azizabad Sukkur, Sindh. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2005 at Urban Health Care Center Azizabad Sukkur. Two hundred women of reproductive age group were interviewed by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire visiting the health care center during the study period. Information was obtained after taking informed consent regarding socio demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and pattern of utilizing family planning services. The data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package SPSS version 13. About 75% of women and 42.5% husbands were found illiterate, 85% women were housewives, 69.5% were married before 18 years of age and 54% had nuclear family. Regarding desired number of children women responded one child (3%), 2-3 children (11%), 4-5 (37.5%), more than five children (36%), 5.5% said that children are God gifted and 7% did not answer. About 60% of women reported use of at least one contraceptive method and 40% had never used any contraceptive method. The women who received counseling from the health care provider were 48.5% and only 6% received information through media. Religious prohibition, shortage of female staff and cost of family planning contraceptive methods were the main reasons identified for not utilizing contraceptive methods. The unsatisfactory variables were long waiting hours at the center, non-availability of contraceptive, shortage of the female staff and cost. Limited number of women was aware and practice contraception in the area and utilization of family planning services were low. The efforts should be made for providing information to couple and improving quality of family planning services in the area. (author)

  10. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial ... support, along with a General Health Questionnaire and a family APGAR as ... inability to enjoy day to day activities (11.2%), lack of concentration at work ...

  12. Survey of the attitude to, the knowledge and the practice of contraception and medical abortion in women who attended a family planning clinic.

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    K M, Umashankar; M N, Dharmavijaya; Kumar D E, Jayanta; K, Kala; Nagure, Abed Gulab; Ramadevi

    2013-03-01

    To assess the attitude to, the knowledge and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending the family planning clinic at the mvj medical college , hosakote , Bangalore, India. Between 1(st) of August, 2011 and 31st of July, 2012 200 women attending family planning clinic of the mvj medical college, hosakote, Bangalore India of which 105 requested for medical termination of pregnancy (mtp), 95 for family planning advice, were interrogated on a structured questionnaire. The age of women ranged in between 20-45 years, 71 (35.5%) were illiterate, 30 (15%) had primary school education and 99 (49.5%) had diplomas from high school and above. Patients were grouped into low and high socio-economic status according to modified kuppuswamy socio-economic status scale: (i). upper class, (ii). Upper middle class, (iii). Middle class, (iv). Lower middle class, (v). lower class.consent of both husband and wife was taken. They were counseled about the various contraceptives available and allowed to choose whichever suited them best. Among the 200 women 85 (42%) did not use contraception; 51 (25.5 %) were on the barrier method; 49 (18.31%) used intrauterine devices (iud); 12 (6%) used oral pills and and 3 (1.5%) used other methods. the request for mtp was on grounds of unplanned pregnancy in 55.25% cases or failure of contraception in 44.7%. there was no eugenic indication of the women, 3 (1.5%) had heard about emergency contraceptives, however none had used them; 20 (10%) had heard of medical abortion and 12 (6%) had previously undergone mtp with satisfaction. the various methods of contraception accepted by the women post abortion were ocps by 11 (10.47%), iuds by 54 (51.5%) and female sterilization by 26 (24.71%). in the other group, 23 (24.2%) had iuds removed and reinserted; 37.8% had iuds inserted; 26 (27.36%) women underwent sterilization operation; and 6 (6.31%) had iuds removed opting for pregnancy. statistical analysis was done using spss software

  13. Predicting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection using risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase urine dipsticks among asymptomatic women attending a family planning clinic in Kenya.

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    Tyndall, M W; Kidula, N; Sande, J; Ombette, J; Temmerman, M

    1999-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to exert a tremendous health burden on women in developing countries. Poor socioeconomic status, inadequate knowledge, lack of diagnostic facilities, and shortages of effective treatment all contribute to the high incidence of STIs. The use of clinical algorithms for the detection and management of STIs has gained widespread acceptance in settings where there are limited resources. Evaluation of these algorithms have been few, especially in women who are not recognized as members of high-risk groups. To develop a simple scoring system based on historical and demographic data, physical findings, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase (LE) urine dipsticks to predict cervical gonococcal and chlamydial infection among asymptomatic women. One thousand and forty-eight women attending an urban family planning clinic in Nairobi were randomly selected to participate. After the identification of factors that were associated with infection, we assigned one point each for: age 25 or younger, single status, two or more sex partners in the past year, cervical discharge, cervical swab leukocytes, and a positive LE urine dipstick. Identification of any one of these six factors gave a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 30% for the detection of cervical infections. A positive LE urine dipstick had a sensitivity of 63 % and a specificity of 47% when used alone and did not contribute to the identification of infection if a physical examination was performed. The application of existing clinical algorithms to this population performed poorly. The use of risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and the urine LE dipstick, used alone or in combination, as predictors of gonococcal or chlamydial cervical infection was of limited utility in low-risk, asymptomatic women. Accurate diagnostic testing is necessary to optimize treatment.

  14. Human papilloma virus-16/18 cervical infection among women attending a family medical clinic in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muammar, T.; Hassan, A.; Kessie, G.; Cruz, D.M.D.; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N.; Mohammed, Gamal E.

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence information is lacking on human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) infections in cervical tissues of women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In addition, there are no observations on progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Pap smear and HPV-16/18 detection by PCR followed by Southern blotting was performed on 120 subjects (Saudi and other Arab nationals) during routine gynecological examination. Some HPV-positive was followed for 4 years by Pap smears at every 6 months and by HPV DNA detection at the end of four years. Overall HPV-16/18 prevalence was 31.6%. HPV-16 prevalence alone was 13.3%, HPV-16 as a mixed infection with HPV-18 was 15% and all HPV-18 was 18.3%. Ten subjects had cervical abnormalities with the Pap smear test, six of whom were HPV-16/18 positive, 1 with HPV-16, 1 with HPV-18 and 4 with a mixed infection of HPV-16/18. Of all 23 HPV-16/18-positive subjects, either as individual or mixed infection, followed for years, 7 showed abnormal cytology, 6 at initial examination and 1 during follow-up. Of these 7, 6 reverted to normal without treatment and 1 was treated and became normal after 3 years. None of the subjects progressed to CIN-III. A high prevalence of HPV-16/18 was found, but with low rate of progression to CIN. A significant association with abnormal cytology was found only in patents with HPV-16/18 mixed infection. (author)

  15. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  16. Quasi-experimental Study of Systematic Screening for Family Planning Services among Postpartum Women Attending Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sudharsanam; Kumar, Somesh; Sethi, Reena; Charurat, Elaine; Lalchandani, Kamlesh; Schuster, Anne; Sood, Bulbul

    2018-01-25

    Systematic screening helps increase family planning uptake through integration with other services, including immunization. Though successfully demonstrated at health facilities, this strategy has not been demonstrated in communities. This study assessed the effectiveness of systematic screening to increase postpartum family planning use during community health days in India without adversely affecting immunization services. The study was conducted during 180 individual Village Health and Nutrition Days in Jharkhand, India. All health workers were trained in postpartum family planning counseling. Intervention providers were also trained in systematic screening. 217 postpartum women aged 15-49 years participated in baseline and endline exit interviews and routine service statistics were analyzed from 2,485 facility visits at affiliated health centers. No difference in family planning service use was found in the intervention group, but significantly fewer interviewed women reported receiving family planning services at endline in the comparison group (p = 0.014). Family planning acceptance at affiliated health centers increased significantly in intervention areas (p family planning services when integrated with community-based services in Jharkhand.

  17. A qualitative study of safe abortion and post-abortion family planning service experiences of women attending private facilities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, Suzanne; Wendot, Susy; Nafula, Inviolata; Footman, Katharine

    2018-04-24

    To inform improvements in safe abortion and post-abortion family planning (PAFP) services, this study aimed to explore the pathways, decision-making, experiences and preferences of women receiving safe abortion and post-abortion family planning (PAFP) at private clinics in western Kenya. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 women who had recently used a safe abortion service from a private clinic. Interviews explored abortion-seeking behaviour and decision-making, abortion experience, use and knowledge of contraception, experience of PAFP counselling, and perceived facilitators of and challenges to family planning use. Respondents discovered their pregnancies due to physical symptoms, which were confirmed using pregnancy testing kits, often purchased from pharmacies. Respondents usually discussed their abortion decision with their partner, and, sometimes, carefully-selected friends or family members. Some reported being referred to private clinics for abortion services directly from other providers. Others had more complex pathways, first seeking care from unsafe providers, trying to self-induce abortion, being turned away from alternative safe facilities that were closed or too busy, or taking time to gather financial resources to pay for care. Participants wanted to use abortion services at facilities reputed for being accessible, clean, medically safe, and offering quick, respectful, private and courteous services. Awareness of reputable clinics was gained through personal experience, and recommendations from contacts and other health providers. Most participants had previously used contraception, with some reports of incorrect use and many reports of side effects. PAFP counselling was valued by clients, but some accounts suggested the counselling lacked comprehensive information. Many women chose contraception immediately following PAFP counselling; but others wanted to delay decision-making about contraception until the abortion was complete

  18. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Anshu

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  19. Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron Deficiency Anaemia In Reproductive Age Women Attending Obstetrics And ... prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in reproductive age women, and their relation to ... Thus iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy in well-educated set up ...

  20. Factors associated with infertility among women attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate and determine the factors associated with infertility in women attending the gynaecology clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: Using an unmatched case-control study design, women attending the gynaecology clinic for infertility ...

  1. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.

  2. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  3. Factors Affecting Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendants by Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This underscores the need to investigate factors responsible for low use of skilled attendants at birth. The main purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting utilization of skilled attendants at birth by pregnant women in Kasama district in order to help contribute to the reduction of maternal and child complications.

  4. Utilization of skilled birth attendants at delivery among urban women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Nigeria and the Presence of skilled birth attendants at delivery is a key strategy towards reducing the rate. Objective: To determine the rate and factors that affect utilization of skilled birth attendants (SBA) among Igbo women in Nnewi, South-Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: ...

  5. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  6. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria among Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...

  7. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...

  8. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and syphilis in pregnant women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among women attending antenatal care clinics (ANCs). Blood samples were tested for syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and

  9. Plasmodium parasitaemia among pregnant women attending ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...

  10. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  11. Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal Care in a Developing Country: A Veritable Tool for Slowing Population Growth. ... Background: The use of modern contraceptives has been embraced by developed nations as a means of achieving controlled growth rate. Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation ...

  12. Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...

  13. Contraceptive practices adopted by women attending an urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To estimate proportion of couples using contraceptive methods, identify reasons for their adoption & non adoption and to assess unmet needs for contraception. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of four months duration was conducted among married women in reproductive age group (15 – 49 years) attending ...

  14. Induced abortion among women attending antenatal clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Unsafe abortion is a public health concern because of its impact on maternal morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to document on induced abortion in Yaounde, Cameroon. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Six antenatal clinics in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods: Women attending ...

  15. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  16. Prevalence Of Malaria Parasitaemia In Pregnant Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were ...

  17. Efectos secundarios de los anticonceptivos hormonales en usuarias del método asistentes a las consultas de planificación familiar Side effects of hormonal contraceptives methods in women attending family planning departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Arrate Negret

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de las 375 mujeres en edad fértil (de 15 a 49 años que acudieron a la consulta de Planificación Familiar del Policlínico Docente Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta febrero del 2011, a fin de identificar los efectos secundarios más frecuentes producidos por los anticonceptivos hormonales ofertados en este servicio, para lo cual se midieron las variables: edad, hábitos tóxicos, factor de riesgo preconcepcional, anticoncepción hormonal, aparición de efectos colaterales o no y modo en que fueron solucionados. En la casuística predominaron el grupo etario de 20-34 años, el cafeísmo, el déficit nutricional como causa de visita a la consulta y el uso del contraceptivo Triquilar®. La mayoría de las pacientes presentó reacciones adversas, fundamentalmente trastornos gastrointestinales y ganancia de peso, no obstante, gran parte de las afectaciones clínicas se resolvieron espontáneamente. Se recomendó implementar un programa de educación en salud reproductiva para médicos y enfermeros de la familia, con vistas a mejorar la calidad en dicha atención preconceptiva y desarrollar una campaña de divulgación en la población sobre los diferentes métodos anticonceptivos, su uso y complicaciones.A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 375 women in reproductive age (15 to 49 years, who attended the family planning department of the Municipal Teaching Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to February 2011, in order to identify the most common side effects caused by hormonal contraceptives offered in this service, for which variables such as age, toxic habits, preconception risk factors, hormonal contraception, occurrence of side effects and ways to solve them were measured. Age group of 20-34 years, coffeeholism, nutritional deficiency as a cause of visit and use of the contraceptive Triquilar® prevailed in

  18. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Aleixo Neto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  19. Domestic violence against women attending gynecologic outpatient clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Agaee, Saideh; Eslami, Samira

    2007-07-01

    Violence against women and threat of violence are some of the main barriers to women's empowerment and equal participation in the society. However, they often go unnoticed and undocumented and therefore unresolved. For women, one of every five years of healthy life lost because of injury, disease, or premature death is attributable to violence. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of domestic violence in women attending three obstetric and gynecologic clinics in Tehran, and to determine the association between domestic violence and demographic factors. One thousand women, 15-64 years old, attending three obstetric and gynecologic clinics affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey with self-administered questionnaire. The association between demographic factors (age, level of education, religious believes, annual income, job, husband's employment status, drug and alcohol abuse, previous custody of husbands) and domestic violence was assessed by questionnaire. Five hundred and ninety out of the 1000 women had experienced at least one form of violence (physical, mental, not sexual) from their husbands, 196 women had experienced some forms of controlling behavior and mental violence, and 361 women had been physically threatened. Low level of education in women, nongovernmental job, previous custody, psychiatric disorders of men, and coercive marriage for women were associated with an increased risk of domestic violence. With the high prevalence of domestic violence, health workers should not ignore the seriousness of domestic violence. Health and social personnel should be appropriately trained before "asking all cases" becomes a policy within health and social services.

  20. Women's experiences with family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, M

    1994-06-01

    India's family planning programs target rural women because they do not have political power. Interviews with those in Maharashtra show their lack of choice and low access to resources and their need for safe contraception. In 2 rural villages, for every dead child, a woman bears, on average, 2 more children. When a child dies, villagers first suspect the mother of having performed voodoo or witchcraft. Other suspected women are deserted women, widows, and menstruating women. Health and family planning services are not based on people's perceptions of body, anatomy, illness, and cure. People are not informed about interventions, particularly contraception. Women are not comfortable with contraceptives, and when physician ignore genuine symptoms and sequelae, it reinforces women's suspicions about contraceptives. Sterilizations performed in camps result in more side effects than individually performed sterilizations. During 1975-1977, women were kidnapped and sterilized under very unhygienic conditions. Common complaints after sterilization are menstrual disturbances and lower back pain. Many private physicians treat these complaints by performing hysterectomy. Women rarely are involved in the decision-making process determining whether or not they should undergo sterilization. They are often given false promises, if they accept sterilization. Indian women have little choice in contraceptives. The low biodegradability of condoms poses a disposal problem. Health workers often dispose of IUDs, pills, and condoms which they claim have been accepted. Auxiliary nurse midwives are pressured to meet family planning targets, so they harass women to accept contraception. Village women do not trust them. Health workers often steal cases from each other. Many complain that minorities are responsible for the population explosion, but the minority's family size is basically the same as that of the majority. Low access to general health services and harassment to fulfill family

  1. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Women, Families, and Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Marian B.; And Others

    Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…

  3. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  4. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... Ordinioha and Brisibe: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in South‑South Nigeria. 14. Nigerian Journal ... that they may have, and social and family supports for .... through the mass media, 21 (18.42%) read it in the internet, while 13 .... while all the Muslim respondents and Christians of the. 7th Day ...

  5. The Value of Attending a Women's College: Education, Occupation, and Income Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Cornelius

    1994-01-01

    A study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 compared effects of attendance at a women's college for one to six years (n=125) with attendance at only coeducational colleges (n=1832). Findings indicated significant occupational achievement benefits were realized for each year of attendance at a women's…

  6. Rastreamento da depressão pós-parto em mulheres atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família Post-partum depression screening among women attended by the Family Health Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bezerra da Silva Cruz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de depressão puerperal (DP sua associação com transtorno mental comum (TMC nas mulheres atendidas por duas unidades do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF da cidade de São Paulo e identificar os fatores de risco associados à DP. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal com 70 puérperas atendidas nas Unidades do PSF, Fazenda da Juta II e Jardim Sinhá, entre outubro de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. Como instrumentos utilizaram-se: questionário com informações sociodemográficas econômicas e dados obstétricos e perinatais; Self-Report Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20, para rastreamento de TMC e a Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Scale (EPDS, para avaliação de DP. Para testar as associações entre variáveis explicativas (fatores de risco e a presença de DP foram utilizados os testes t de Student, chi2 e chi2 de tendência linear, quando indicados. Para avaliar a concordância entre a EPDS e o SRQ foi utilizado o coeficiente de concordância kappa (kapa. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de TMC e de DP foi de 37,1%. As escalas apresentaram boa concordância (kapa = 0,75. As variáveis explicativas idade materna, cor, escolaridade, ocupação e estado civil, além de idade, ocupação e instrução do companheiro, renda familiar, número de gestações, paridade, abortamentos, filhos vivos, partos prematuros, idade gestacional, tipo do parto, planejamento da gestação, Apgar de 1º e 5º minuto, sexo e peso do recém-nascido e aleitamento materno não apresentaram significância estatística. Quanto maior a percepção de suporte social do marido, menor a prevalência de DP (p=0,03. CONCLUSÃO: devido à alta prevalência e impacto negativo sobre a mãe e seu filho, é valioso sensibilizar o profissional de saúde para a importância da DP.PURPOSE: to estimate the prevalence of Family Health Program postpartum depression (PPD and its association with minor mental disorders (MMD among women attended in two (FHP PSF units

  7. Women's choice of maternal healthcare in Parung, West Java, Indonesia: Midwife versus traditional birth attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Yenita; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Iida, Mariko

    2018-02-14

    In the 1990s, the Indonesian government launched programmes to train traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and increase the number of midwives. To identify and compare the factors that influence women's choice of a midwife or a TBA for maternal healthcare in Indonesia. This study used a descriptive design for comparing women's choice of maternal healthcare. The participants were (1) married women, (2) experienced birth within two years, (3) living in a rural or urban village, and (4) capable of communicating in the Indonesia language. Three instruments were used: (1) traditional belief questionnaire, (2) preference for caregiver questionnaire, and (3) women-centered care (WCC) questionnaire which measured women's perceptions of care that they received during pregnancy. A total of 371 women participated in this study. All these subjects answered based on their most recent birth within the last two years. Of the 371 women, 207 (55.8%) chose a midwife and 164 (44.2%) chose a TBA for giving birth. Women choosing midwives were generally satisfied and perceived receiving WCC. Factors determining choice were (1) women's background, (2) perception of WCC, (3) satisfaction, (4) choice of antenatal care (ANC), (5) family encouragement, and (6) traditional beliefs. The choice of caregivers was determined by not only education, parity, usual source of healthcare payment, and family encouragement but also traditional beliefs. Indonesian women's choice of a midwife instead of a TBA for their maternal healthcare resulted in a higher satisfaction of care and more ANC visits. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of domestic violence among antenatal women attending a Nigerian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuse, A N I; Ushie, A P; Etukidem, A

    2009-01-01

    Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well being and not just the absence of disease. Domestic violence (synonyms: spouse abuse, partner or intimate violence, family violence) is a public health problem which is defined as any intentional abuse of a family member (mostly females but not exclusive) by his/her partner that causes pain or injury. There is paucity of data on domestic violence mainly because of under-reporting by the victims. However, domestic violence is said to be a more frequent occurrence than other recognized pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, twin pregnancy or gestational diabetes for which women are routinely screened during the antenatal period. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a local Nigerian mission hospital in Jos, Plateau state. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study of women attending antenatal clinic at ECWA Evangel Hospital, Jos over a six month period using the Abuse Assessment Screen developed by McFarlane to detect the prevalence of domestic violence. The data were analysed using Epi Info Version 2002. Three hundred and forty pregnant women were studied. Majority of them were married and were mostly aged between 20 and 39 years. Domestic violence prevalence was 12.6% (43) in the current pregnancy and 63.2% (215) previously. The study establishes that women in our environment experience domestic violence during pregnancy and majority of them also have a previous history of abuse. There is the need to routinely screen for domestic violence in pregnant women so as to prevent potential adverse pregnancy outcomes and to interrupt existing abuse.

  9. Evaluating gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies in the city of Teresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Deus Moura de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies and correlate theresults obtained with the assiduousness of attending the consultations offered by the program, oral hygiene habits, mother’s educational level, family income, child’s age and the number of carious surfaces. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one patients were selected, and divided into two groups for comparative purposes. Group 1 (experimental was composed of 262 children of both sexes, between the ages of three and six, who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies; Group 2 (control consisted of 79 children in the same age group, who did not attend the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies, but who were attended at the Social Perinatological Institute of Piaui by other health professionals. The exams were performed in dental offices to determine the Gingival Bleeding Index. Results: It was noted that 74.8% of the children from experimental group and 82.3% of control group presented gingival bleeding in one of the sites assessed. Lower Gingival Bleeding Index values were related to the higher educational level of the mothers, supervision or brushing by adults and increase in the number of daily brushings. The Chi-square test showed that the variables are dependent (p<0.001, that is, Gingival Bleeding Index is subject to the number of consultations attended at the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies. Spearman’s Coefficient (= -0.292 proved that the higher the number of consultations attended at the program, the lower was the Gingival Bleeding Index (p<0.001. Conclusion: The children who presented the lowest gingival bleeding indexes were those who most assiduously attended the preventive maintenanceconsultations of the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies.

  10. Birth preparedness and complication readiness in pregnant women attending urban tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhara Kamineni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is a strategy to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care and is based on the theory that preparing for childbirth and being ready for complications reduce delay in obtaining care. Study Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and predictors of birth preparedness, knowledge on danger signs, and emergency readiness among pregnant women attending outpatient clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Patients and Methods: Six hundred pregnant women attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital for the first time in an urban setting were interviewed using a tool adapted from the “Monitoring BP/CR-tools and indicators for maternal and new born health” of the “JHPIEGO.” The outcomes of the study were birth preparedness, knowledge of severe illness, and emergency readiness. Results: Six hundred pregnant women were in the study. Mean age of respondents was 25.2 (±4 years. The mean gestation at enrolment was 18.7 ± 8 weeks. Among the women who participated in the survey, 20% were illiterate, 70% were homemakers and nearly 70% had a monthly family income >Rs. 15,197 (n = 405. Three hundred and sixteen mothers (52% were primigravida. As defined in the study, 71.5% were birth prepared. However, 59 women (9.8% did not identify a place of delivery, 102 (17% had not started saving money, and 99 mothers (16.5% were not aware of purchasing materials needed for delivery. The predictors of birth preparedness are multiparity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–3.1, registration in the antenatal clinic in the first trimester (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.2–6.1, educational status of women (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0, and pregnancy supervison by a doctor (OR: 5, 95% CI: 2.8–6.6. One hundred and sixty-four women (27% made no arrangements in the event of an emergency, 376 women (63% were not aware of their blood group

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of domestic violence among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishal, Poonam; Pun, Kunta Devi; Darj, Elisabeth; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Swahnberg, Katarina; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2017-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of domestic violence (DV) and its associated factors among pregnant women in Nepal. The secondary aims were to investigate disclosure of DV by women to health-care personnel and to assess whether health-care personnel had asked women about their experience of DV. This cross-sectional study included 2004 pregnant women between 12 and 28 weeks of gestation attending routine antenatal care at two hospitals in Nepal from August 2014 to November 2015. In this study, DV was defined as fear of a family member and/or an experience of physical, emotional or sexual violence. Associated risk factors were analysed using logistic regression analyses. Twenty-one per cent of the women had experienced DV; 12.5% experienced fear only, 3.6% violence only and 4.9% experienced both violence and fear. Less than 2% per cent reported physical violence during pregnancy. This study found that just 17.7% had ever been asked by health-care personnel about DV, and of the women who had reported DV, only 9.5% had disclosed their experience to health-care personnel. Women of young age and low socio-economic status were more likely to have experienced DV. Women who reported having their own income and the autonomy to use it were at significantly lower risk of DV compared to women with no income. A substantial proportion of women reported having experienced DV. Victims had rarely disclosed their experience of DV to health-care personnel. This study underlines the importance of integrating systematic assessment of DV in antenatal care.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for spousal violence among women attending health care centres in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamdouh, H M; Ismail, H M; Kharboush, I F; Tawfik, M M; El Sharkawy, O G; Abdel-Baky, M; Sallam, H N

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of, and factors affecting, spousal violence among 3271 ever-married women attending 12 randomly selected family health centres in Alexandria Governorate. More than three-quarters of the participants (77%) reported experiencing spousal violence during their marital life. Emotional violence was the most common type reported (71.0%), followed by physical (50.3%), economic (40.8%) and sexual (37.1%) violence. The study confirms the high prevalence of spousal violence across all socioeconomic strata. Logistic regression analysis indicated large family size, divorce or separation, low educational attainment of husband, smoking habit and drug use in husband, husband's psychological status and history of exposure to physical violence during adolescence were associated with spousal violence. This high rate of spousal violence highlights the urgent need for government and civil society to address the issue, which hinders progress toward Egypt's development goals.

  13. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraception among Postpartum Women Attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure to plan a pregnancy can adversely affect the health of the family as a whole. High parity is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths and is associated with nutritional problems of both mother and child. Hence, good knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women are important. This study is aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the postpartum women attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Objective To determine the knowledge, attitude and the practice of various contraceptive methods among the postpartum women. Method A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology on 400 postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who delivered and came for follow-up in this institution. All the postnatal women were interviewed with pre-designed questionnaire and information on sociodemographic variable, awareness and knowledge of various contraceptive methods, previous and current use of family planning methods, source of information, utilization and reasons for use/non-use of family planning methods were obtained. Data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The results were presented as percentages, means, tables and charts. Result Majority of the participants 363 (90.8%) were aware of contraceptive usage. Amongst 60.5% of women who had previously used contraception, OCPs were the commonest one. Maximum number of participants (60.35%) had used modern contraceptives in the past. The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.7%). The reason of using contraception was spacing between the subsequent pregnancies, while the most common reason of discontinuation or not willing to use family planning methods was husband being abroad, fear of side effects and not knowing which contraceptives to use. Conclusion The contraceptive awareness and knowledge among the postpartum women was high but

  14. Women's persistent utilisation of unskilled birth attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... facilities to address the discrepancy between antenatal attendance and delivery by skilled birth attendance. We hope that the information generated from this study will be used by the policy makers leading to appropriate interventions or strategies which will reduce the number of home deliveries and maternal deaths.

  15. Facilitating successful reintegration: Attending to the needs of military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Kilmer, Ryan P; Larson, Jacqueline C; Armstrong, Laura Marie

    2017-01-01

    Subsequent to the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the experiences of military service members (MSVMs) and veterans have garnered increasing attention. A growing body of work has begun to shed light on their reintegration, a process that can bring with it transitions and challenges for service members and their families. Although many families adapt effectively, some have difficulty navigating this process, which can lead to a host of short- and long-term negative consequences for families. The literature to date is not well-developed regarding strategies for supporting successful reintegration of MSVMs and veterans in the context of military families. Guided by the ecological framework, this article summarizes selected evidence regarding factors that influence reintegration and puts forth recommendations for research and practice to promote the wellness of military families. Informed by findings regarding the diverse challenges faced by these families and grounded in the ecological framework, the authors highlight the need to assess both proximal and distal factors related to families' reintegration experiences and the need to intervene at multiple levels and across multiple contexts. Of primary importance, the authors recommend strategies to enhance the capacity of families' natural settings and describe selected capacity- and resource- enhancement approaches for families, neighborhoods, schools, and communities that facilitate resilience and promote wellness. Other recommendations include focusing on the accessibility, integration, and coordination of services; considering the long-view and developing strategies for longer-term support; developing mechanisms for family support; and evaluating efforts to address needs of families and promote family resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness....

  17. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Determinants of Home Delivery among Women attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. Unskilled home delivery is a threat to maternal and child health. ... home delivery after attending antenatal services, this study employed a cross-sectional design and a non-probability purposive ... deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Effect of a reorganized after-hours family practice service on frequent attenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    1999-01-01

    of this reorganization on the use of services by frequent attenders (FAs). METHODS: From 1990 to 1994, methods of contact and annual costs per attender were analyzed in an ecological time-trend study based on aggregated administrative data collected from the database of the Public Health Insurance, Aarhus County......, Denmark (600,000 inhabitants). The study only included attenders ages 18 and over. FAs were defined as the group that, within each calendar year (12 months), had 4 or more contacts with the after-hours family practice service. RESULTS: FAs made up 9.5% of the attenders and accounted for more than 40...

  20. The role of women in family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Jaka Vadnjal; Blaž Zupan

    2010-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognised as generally very important players, the role of women is oft en defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarely adequately recognised and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles of women, ...

  1. Women in family enterprises in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Maret Kirsipuu; Uno Silberg

    2014-01-01

    This article objective is to give an overview of the women in family enterprises on the basis of theoretical sources and approaches. In order to achieve this goal, an overview of the research findings have been provided, which have analyzed a woman's role in the family business. Family firms and family entrepreneurs have been defined differently by different authors, but what all definitions have in common is the family is involvement in business activities. A family entrepreneur can be both ...

  2. The impact of family size on children’s school attendance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Kezia C. Bansagan; Hazel Joyce C. Panganiban

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work has been done to determine the effects of family size on the education of children. Using a sample from the October 2006 Labor Force Survey, this paper attempts to determine the impact of family size on children’s education as measured by school attendance while considering socioeconomic factors. Results have shown that family size is significantly and negatively correlated with children’s school enrollment. Even after controlling for family size and birth-order effect, th...

  3. Periodontal status in infertile women attending in vitro fertilization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarthi Lalasa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that altered hormonal levels in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy and infertile women not undergoing this treatment can lead to increased attachment loss, suggesting that these women may require constant periodontal monitoring.

  4. Empowerment, intimate partner violence and skilled birth attendance among women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Betty; Nankinga, Olivia; Wandera, Stephen Ojiambo; Ndugga, Patricia; Kabagenyi, Allen

    2016-05-04

    There is limited research on how the empowerment of women and intimate partner violence (IPV) are associated with skilled birth attendance (SBA) among rural women in Uganda. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate the association between women's empowerment, their experience of IPV and SBA in rural Uganda. Using data from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we selected 857 rural women who were in union, had given birth in the last 5 years preceding the survey and were selected for the domestic violence (DV) module. Frequency distributions were used to describe the background characteristics of the women and their partners. Pearson's chi-squared (χ (2)) tests were used to investigate the associations between SBA and women's empowerment; and partners' and women's socio-demographic factors including sexual violence. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between SBA and explanatory variables. More than half (55 %) of the women delivered under the supervision of skilled birth attendant. Women's empowerment with respect to participation in household decision-making, property (land and house) (co)ownership, IPV, and sexual empowerment did not positively predict SBA among rural women in Uganda. Key predictors of SBA were household wealth status, partners' education, ANC attendance and parity. For enhancement of SBA in rural areas, there is a need to encourage a more comprehensive ANC attendance irrespective of number of children a woman has; and design interventions to enhance household wealth and promote men's education.

  5. Women Prisoners: Reintegration into Family and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Martha E.; Ackerman, Rosalie J.

    Little research exists that addresses the issue of rehabilitation of women prisoners. To examine the effectiveness of a group psychotherapy program in assisting women prisoners to make the transition to the community and their families, 16 institutionalized women participated in a workshop. The program involved both individual and group…

  6. Family-led rehabilitation after stroke in India (ATTEND): a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lindley, R I; Anderson, C S; Billot, L; Forster, A; Hackett, M L; Harvey, L A; Jan, S; Li, Q; Liu, H; Langhorne, P; Maulik, P K; Murthy, G V S; Walker, M F; Pandian, J D; Alim, M

    2017-01-01

    Background: \\ud \\ud Most people with stroke in India have no access to organised rehabilitation services. The effectiveness of training family members to provide stroke rehabilitation is uncertain. Our primary objective was to determine whether family-led stroke rehabilitation, initiated in hospital and continued at home, would be superior to usual care in a low-resource setting.\\ud \\ud Methods: \\ud \\ud The Family-led Rehabilitation after Stroke in India (ATTEND) trial was a prospectively ran...

  7. Short Report: Psychiatric Morbidity among Infertile Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study included 107 women with primary infertility in the study group and 99 healthy fertile women in the control group. The 12th version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and were administered to both groups to determine their levels of psychological ...

  8. Pattern of mental illness among women attending an infertility clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.

  9. An Assesment of Emergency Contraception Knowledge of Women Attending the Primary Health Care Center in Umraniye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatih Onsuz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determined the knowledge of women who were in reproductive age that were attending to a primary health care center which was having family planning service in Umraniye. METHODS: This descriptive research has been performed at a primary health care center in Umraniye, between 18-20 December 2006. In our study study sample isn’t selected and we include women of reproductive age who are attending to the primary health care with any cause in the study dates. Study has been performed at 241 women (89.9% that has been interwieved of 268. Study data has been collected by a three part questionnaire which has 33 question. The data has been evaluated by chi square and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 28 (25p-75p. Small part of participants have heard emergency contraception (13.7%. There was a significant relationship between hearing the method, being nullipar and high education level (p<0.05. The participants who were hearing the method just 60.6% of them also knew the aim of the method (8.3% of the all participants. In the same group of the participants only 36.4% knew correctly of taking time of the pills and 9.0% of them knew correctly of taking piece of tablet after an unprotected sexual intercourse. Only one of the women who were determining of hearing the method also ever used it. There was a statistically significant difference between young age and high education level and knowing correctly of the aim of the method. Also there was a statisticaly significant difference between high education level and knowing correctly of taking time of the method after an unprotected sexual intercourse (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Although awareness of emergency contraception is at an apparent level the using rate of the method is at a very low level. Giving education about the aim, taking time and how taking of the method to the women who are living at the study area is providing of giving shape

  10. Psychological distress as a predictor of frequent attendance in family practice: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Fink, Per; Olesen, Frede

    2001-01-01

    In cross-sectional studies, psychological distress has been associated with frequent health care utilization. However, there is a need for prospective studies to confirm these findings. This cohort study evaluated whether psychological distress predicted frequent attendance in family practice.......16 [0.99-1.36] for SCL and OR 1.31 [1.05-1.65] for Whiteley). Psychological distress involved an increased risk of future frequent attendance among adult patients consulting family practice in the daytime about an illness........ In 1990, 185 consecutive adults who consulted their primary care physician (PCP) about an illness were rated on two psychometric scales (Hopkins Symptom Check List [SCL-8] and Whiteley-7), and their annual number of face-to-face contacts with a family practice was followed until 1996. Frequent attenders...

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike O. Omosun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital] from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed. Results: Many respondents (85.7% had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3% said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7% were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption. Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.

  12. prevalence of malarial parasites in pregnant women attending sir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...

  13. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...

  14. urinary tract infections in symptomatic pregnant women attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...

  15. Factors associated with Infertility among Women attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    University Teaching Hospitals, Women and Newborn Hospital, Private Bag RW1X, Lusaka, Zambia. ABSTRACT ... 8.42); marital status (married OR 1.16; single OR 0.017); partner's .... Lifestyle and Reproductive Performance in the. General ...

  16. Walking, biking or sport: how Spanish women attending breast cancer screening meet physical activity recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; Salas, Dolores; Vallés, Guillermo; Abad-Fernandez, Ma Soledad; Vidal, Carmen; Sanchez-Contador Escudero, Carmen; Ascunce-Elizaga, Nieves; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Pedraz, Carmen; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Vioque, Jesús; Pollán, Marina

    2015-10-01

    The aim is to analyse physical activity (PA), the fulfillment recommendation of at least 150 min of moderate PA, through walking/biking (W&B), sport, both types of PA and the factors associated with inactivity by Spanish women who attended breast cancer screening programmes. The DDM-Spain is a multicentre cross-sectional study involving 3584 women, aged 45-68, attending screening in seven Spanish cities. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including age, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, family burden and PA. PA was converted into metabolic equivalent of task (METs), categorized as low ≤ 600 METs min per week (m/w), moderate 600-3000 METs m/w and high ≥ 3000 METs m/w. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with inactivity for each type of PA. No women achieved a high level of PA through sport. 79.2% achieved a high or moderate level of PA by W&B. Lack of sport was associated with being overweight (odds ratio OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval CI: 1.06 to 1.62), body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (OR = 1.85; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.38), smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.00) and living with a disabled person (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.81), whereas enough sport practice was associated with higher educational or socio-economic level (SEL). Regarding W&B, inactivity was associated with BMI ≥ 30 (OR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.49 to 2.45) and living with someone >74 (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.48 to 2.58). Inactivity for both types of exercise was associated with a BMI ≥ 30 (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.63 to 2.8), smoking (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.81) and living with someone >74 (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.28). Family burden and BMI ≥ 30 are inversely associated with both types of PA. W&B is the most common type of PA regardless of educational and SEL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic determinants of childbearing desires among married women attending health centers in Hamedan (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Hosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in values and attitudes of the Iranian society during the past few decades have greatly influenced the reproductive decisions and actions of individuals and families, especially women. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of childbearing desires of married women attending Health Centers in Hamedan. Methods: Data were collected through a survey which was conducted during November and December, 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 273 eligible women who were selected randomly. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Results showed that 70.7 percent of women did not want to have another child in addition to the children they had at the time of survey. Among these women, 55 percent and 84.3 percent had one and two children, respectively. Further, 78.4 percent of respondents stated that two children were the ideal number of children for the households. The most important reasons for the two-children pattern were economic problems and families’ problems in rearing and training the children, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of stopping childbearing was higher among working women,women with more children, women at the end of reproduction age, women evaluating children’s benefits lower than their expenditures, and women with little tendency to prefer sons to daughters. Conclusion: Population policies to prevent further decline in fertility should be focused on employment, family, and quality of life, especially among women without children, women with one child and newly married couples.

  18. Quality of life Among Women who were Attending to Trakya University Hospital Menopause clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tokuç

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the menopause symptoms and the impact of menopause and some socio-demographic variables and the hormon replacement therapy on quality of life among women who were attending to a menopause\tMatreial and METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional and descriptive study which was conducted on 299 women who were\tattending to Trakya University Hospital Menopause Clinic, between February –September 2005. After applying a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS, SF-36 Health Survey and Hospital\tAnxiety and Depression Scale were applied by trained interns respectively.\tRESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 52.07±6.12 r(36.0 – 76.0. The mean age of menopause was 45.8±5.1 (26.0 – 56.0. 18.9 % of women were still using HRT, 37.0% have used in the past and 44.1% of them have never used HRT. Women who were stil using HRT, who were stil working, who were educated more than 8 years and who have had no problems in the family have had significantly lower MRS scores and significantly higher SF-36 scores than the others. While MRS scores and SF-36 scores were increasing, the HAD scores were decreasing significantly.\tCONCLUSION: We could say that the menopause symptoms effected the women’s health and quality of life, negatively. But it was\tnot the only determinant of health perception and quality of life. The socio-economic, environmental and cultural factors and life style were also effective in menopause period like the other periods of life.

  19. Vaginal candidiasis and its risk factors among women attending a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwadioha, S I; Nwokedi, E O P; Egesie, J; Enejuo, H

    2013-03-01

    The study was set to detect Candida species in female genital discharge and validate the associated risk factors. A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from women with abnormal vaginal discharge (test group) and a control group who were attending gynaecology, family planning, antenatal care or HIV/STI clinics of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria and analysed for microscopy and culture in microbiology laboratory from December 2008 to December 2009. Data on epidemiologic indices were collected from the patients, using structured interviewer- administered questionnaires. Candida species were detected in the test group in 60% (n=600/1000) cases of infective vaginal discharge while 12% (120/1000) in the control group. The isolation rate of Candida albicans was 69% more than the non- albicans. Distribution of vaginal candidiasis in the test group, was prevalent in young adults age group of 21 to 30 years with 50% (n=300/600), in patients with pregnancy 38% (n=225/600) and patients with chronically debilitating illnesses 26% (n=157/600). The result shows that vaginal candidiasis is quite common and Candida albicans is the most prevalent species. We therefore recommend early diagnosis and prompt treatment of vaginal candidiasis in all women clinics especially among the patients with chronic debilitating illness, pregnancy and young adults in order to avert the complications of vaginal candidiasis and reduce HIV transmission.

  20. Women in family enterprises in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article objective is to give an overview of the women in family enterprises on the basis of theoretical sources and approaches. In order to achieve this goal, an overview of the research findings have been provided, which have analyzed a woman's role in the family business. Family firms and family entrepreneurs have been defined differently by different authors, but what all definitions have in common is the family is involvement in business activities. A family entrepreneur can be both an individual whose entrepreneurial activities involve family members and a company, which was founded by family members. In family entrepreneurships, the members have trust towards each other and they communicate frequently, which will help them to achieve a common goal. The studies reflect predominantly men as family entrepreneurs in whose business activity the family members, including wife and children participate. The European Union has not yet provided a coherent definition of the family business, while increasing the role of women in family businesses in ensuring gender equality and giving importance to the role of the woman as the family entrepreneur

  1. Women, Working Families, and Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Janelle Jones; John Schmitt; Nicole Woo

    2014-01-01

    One of every nine women in the United States (11.8 percent in 2013) is represented by a union at her place of work. The annual number of hours of paid work performed by women has increased dramatically over the last four decades. In 1979, the typical woman was on the job 925 hours per year; by 2012, the typical woman did 1,664 hours of paid work per year. Meanwhile, women's share of unpaid care work and housework has remained high. Various time-use studies conclude that women continue to do a...

  2. Family planning and social position of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Hasna

    1993-04-01

    This presentation began with at least three biases: (i) Acceptance of a secular approach to the problem of artificially controlling human reproduction; (ii) acceptance of an absolute egalitarian position in matter of choices and applications of family planning methods; and (iii) acceptance of the view that a small family gives women more opportunities to flourish as humans. The conclusion of the presentation is: though in implementing family planning programmes much deviation from the egalitarian principle could be found, in reality the implementation itself does bring about some opportunities for women to enhance their position in society. Undoubtedly the malpractices in family planning programmes cause death and miseries to women. But, until better methods are invented for both male and female sexes to replace the harmful ones and the male members of the society feel equal responsibility in matters of controlling reproduction, women have now no other choice but to accept the lesser evil.

  3. Contraceptive‑seeking Behavior of Women Attending Antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, 1Department of Public ... cross‑sectional study of 430 antenatal women using structured self‑administered ... KEY WORDS: Antenatal, contraception, population control Nigeria ... hence, the need to study the contraceptive-seeking behavior.

  4. Geophagy and parasitic infections in pregnant women attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. ... was not associated with parasitic infections in pregnant women, geophagy was found to have a significant association with education, history of geophagy and the feeding problems.

  5. Prevalence of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...

  6. The perceptions of pregnant women, attending antenatal clinics, on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of the participants were happy with their relationship with the clinic staff. More than half of the participants expected negative reactions from family members if they followed the programme advice, because of the negative attitudes of their male partners and the elders' resistance to change, owing to their cultural ...

  7. Women's Autonomy and Skilled Attendance During Pregnancy and Delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kc, Situ; Neupane, Subas

    2016-06-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance during pregnancy and delivery in Nepal. Methods We adopt data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011). We include only married women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey (N = 4148). Women's autonomy was assessed on the basis of four indicators of decision making: healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, household purchases and spending earned money. Each indicator was dichotomized (yes/no) and then summarized into a single variable to measure overall autonomy. Next, we measured health attendance (skilled vs. unskilled) during antenatal and delivery care. The association between women's autonomy and skilled attendance was analysed using a logistic regression model. Results Most women had a medium (40 %) and high (35 %) level of overall autonomy. The proportion of women accessing skilled providers during antenatal and delivery care was 51 and 36 %. Women with autonomy in healthcare, visiting friends or relatives, making household purchases and spending money earned were associated with a higher likelihood of receiving care from skilled providers during antenatal care and delivery. An elevated probability of access to skilled attendance during antenatal (aOR 1.33; 95 % CI 1.10-1.59) and delivery care (aOR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.12-1.70) was reported among women with higher levels of overall autonomy. Conclusion Women's autonomy was significantly associated with the maternal health care utilization by skilled attendants. This study will provide insights for policy makers to develop strategies in improving maternal health.

  8. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Domestic Violence Against Women Attending a Primary Care Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Fatima Hamza

    2015-05-27

    Domestic violence (DV) against women can negatively affect the physical, mental, sexual, and reproductive health of the women as well as the well-being of their children. The objective was to estimate among Saudi women the prevalence of different types of DV, to identify its associated risk factors, and to determine the immediate victims' reactions to such violence. A cross-sectional study was carried between March and July, 2011. Self-administrated questionnaire was administered to ever-married Saudi women attending Al-Wazarat primary health care center, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Out of the 720 women studied, 144 (20%) reported exposure to DV over the last year. The most common DV types were emotional (69%), social (34%), economic (26%), physical (20%), and sexual violence (10%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the following characteristics were independently associated with DV: younger women age, longer duration of marriage, higher women education, lower husband education, working husbands, military occupation, fewer children, husbands with multiple wives, smoking husbands, aggressive husbands, presence of chronic disease in women or husbands, and non-sufficient family income. The most common impacts of DV on women were medical or behavioral problems (72%) and psychiatric problems (58%). The most common reactions to DV were seeking separation (56%) and doing nothing (41%). More than 90% of children of abused women suffered psychological or behavioral problems. In conclusion, DV against Saudi women is considerable and the response is generally passive. Promoting a culture non-tolerant to DV and providing accessible, effective, and trustful social services to abused women are critically needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Determinants of contraceptive use and future contraceptive intentions of women attending child welfare clinics in urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wuni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family planning is an integral component of maternal and child health services in Ghana. Although knowledge on contraception is universal and most women attend maternal and child health services, contraceptive use remains low among women after delivery. This study aimed to determine factors influencing current use and future contraceptive intentions of women who were attending child welfare clinics within 2 years of delivery in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana. Methods We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study among mothers in six selected health care facilities. Data was collected on their socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive experiences and future contraceptive intentions. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-squared (χ2 test. Factors associated with current use and future contraceptive intentions were determined using Poisson regression with a robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P < 0.1 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 590 women were recruited into the study. Overall, 50.2% of the women were using contraception, 30.7% modern and 19.5% traditional methods. Compared to previous use, more women were using and would prefer the more effective contraceptive methods in future. Significant factors associated with current contraceptive use were, level of education (p = 0.02, discussing family planning during antenatal care (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.53, or with one’s partner (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47 and previous contraceptive use (adjusted RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.56-2.33. Family planning discussions during child welfare clinic (adjusted RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99-1.26 or with one’s spouse (adjusted RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34, desire to space children (adjusted RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.55, previous (adjusted RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27 and current (adjusted RR, 1

  11. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Motivators for women to attend cervical screening: the influential role of GPs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Mairead

    2014-08-01

    Participation in organized cervical cancer screening has declined recently. While research has focussed on barriers to screening participation, less attention has been paid to what motivates women to attend. Moreover, little is known about health care provider\\/practitioner-level barriers and facilitators to participation. Better understanding of these issues could help inform strategies to improve participation.

  13. Women's opinions about attending for breast cancer screening: Stability of cognitive determinants during three rounds of screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    Examines women's opinions about attending breast cancer screening. Stability of beliefs and intentions towards repeat attendance at breast cancer screening; Assessment of whether cognitions changed in the course of the programme; Increase of attendance in subsequent rounds of breast cancer screening

  14. The role of women in family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Vadnjal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognised as generally very important players, the role of women is oft en defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarely adequately recognised and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles of women, different views on managerial, ownership and transition issues and possible gender discrimination are examined. The findings support the paradigm of a different, more feminine style of management, while signs of discrimination are not clearly revealed.

  15. Soviet women and the autonomous family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, S; Imbrogno, N I

    1989-01-01

    "The USSR family is changing in form from that of a social collectivity, a bedrock conception to socialism, to that of an autonomous family. Autonomy discloses a lack of homogeneity, an independence of choices over life-styles and a flexibility toward an interpretation given to the meaning of a socialistic state. Women are exceedingly active in making greater use of their legal rights to divorce and abortion and demanding equal status with men both in the workplace and in the home. Women are initiating major social changes, are readily adapting to changing relations and patterns in a complex society and are serving to spearhead changes in the family unit. These factors have generated major changes in the normative, behavioral and structural dimensions of marriage and family life in the Soviet Union." excerpt

  16. Attendance at Mental Health Appointments by Women Who Were Referred During Pregnancy or the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Avril S; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Yang, Sarah Nagle; Rosenthal, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    To describe characteristics of women referred to mental health care during pregnancy or the year after giving birth and to identify characteristics associated with attendance at mental health intake visits. Retrospective record review of referral documentation. Women's health practices and perinatal mental health clinics in urban areas. The sample included 647 women during pregnancy or the year after giving birth who were referred for mental health treatment. We reviewed the referral data sent from women's health care providers to perinatal mental health clinics to determine if mental health visits occurred. Fifty percent of the 647 women who accepted perinatal mental health referrals had intake appointments. Women were more likely to participate in an intake appointment if in-home services were offered (p women who accepted referrals to mental health services, only half attended intake appointments. For this group of pregnant women and those in the first year after birth, in-home mental health visits were most likely to result in care engagement, which has important implications for service delivery. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivators for women to attend cervical screening: the influential role of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mairead; Murphy, Judith; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Sharp, Linda

    2014-08-01

    Participation in organized cervical cancer screening has declined recently. While research has focussed on barriers to screening participation, less attention has been paid to what motivates women to attend. Moreover, little is known about health care provider/practitioner-level barriers and facilitators to participation. Better understanding of these issues could help inform strategies to improve participation. To explore the role of GPs in influencing women's cervical screening behaviours and investigate other motivators for women to attend for a cervical smear. Ten focus groups were conducted in Ireland, shortly before the launch of a national cervical screening programme. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and transcripts were analysed thematically. GPs greatly influence women's screening behaviours and can have a positive or negative impact on women's participation in screening. Four major subthemes emerged in relation to this: the attitude of the GP; prompting by the GP; trust in the GP and women's relationships with their GP. Two main motivators to screening participation were identified: personal reasons/benefits (e.g. potential of smears to be life-saving); and practical issues/convenience. Women's also expressed desires for what they would like to see incorporated in the national screening programme (e.g. an 'out-of-hours' service). GPs can impact positively and negatively on women's cervical screening participation. Providing on-going support to GPs around their cervical screening practices is essential to maximize screening attendance. Targeted information materials that focus on the personal reasons and benefits of having smear tests could help stimulate women to participate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania METHODS: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1...... during pregnancy, AOR 3.57, (95% CI 1.85 - 6.90) and AOR 3.21, (95% CI 1.69 - 6.11) respectively. For social support in terms of communication, talking to a member of the family of origin at least monthly was associated with decreased odds of IPV and repeated episodes of IPV during pregnancy, AOR 0...

  19. Risk factors related to heartburn in pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic, Rajavithi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovavisarach, Ekachai; Phromsila, Raweewan

    2012-08-01

    To determine the risk factors related to heartburn in pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic, Rajavithi Hospital. Self-reporting questionnaire about demographic data and risk factors related to heartburn in those pregnant women between May 1 and July 31, 2010. Heartburn was found in 55 out of 452 pregnant women (12.2%). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and risk factors between the heartburn and non-heartburn groups. Consumption of alcoholic drinks was a reversely significant risk factor of heartburn (OR 0.11, CI 0.01 to 0.78) (p = 0.005). Heartburn was not uncommon, and no associated factors were demonstrated.

  20. Factors associated with non-attendance, opportunistic attendance and reminded attendance to cervical screening in an organized screening program: a cross-sectional study of 12,058 Norwegian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Tormod

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality may be reduced by organized screening. Participant compliance with the attendance recommendations of the screening program is necessary to achieve this. Knowledge about the predictors of compliance is needed in order to enhance screening attendance. Methods The Norwegian Co-ordinated Cervical Cancer Screening Program (NCCSP registers all cervix cytology diagnoses in Norway and individually reminds women who have no registered smear for the past three years to make an appointment for screening. In the present study, a questionnaire on lifestyle and health was administered to a random sample of Norwegian women. The response rate was 68%. To address the predictors of screening attendance for the 12,058 women aged 25-45 who were eligible for this study, individual questionnaire data was linked to the cytology registry of the NCCSP. We distinguished between non-attendees, opportunistic attendees and reminded attendees to screening for a period of four years. Predictors of non-attendance versus attendance and reminded versus opportunistic attendance were established by multivariate logistic regression. Results Women who attended screening were more likely than non-attendees to report that they were aware of the recommended screening interval, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of hormonal contraceptive and condom use. Attendance was also positively associated with being married/cohabiting, being a non-smoker and giving birth. Women who attended after being reminded were more likely than opportunistic attendees to be aware of cervical cancer and the recommended screening interval, but less likely to report a history of sexually transmitted infections and hormonal contraceptive use. Moreover, the likelihood of reminded attendance increased with age. Educational level did not significantly affect the women's attendance status in the fully adjusted models. Conclusions The

  1. Praying for Mr. Right? Religion, Family Background, and Marital Expectations among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Glenn, Norval D.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between multiple aspects of religious involvement--affiliation, church attendance, subjective religiosity--and marital expectations among college women. In addition, the authors investigate whether religious involvement mediates the link between family background and marital expectations. These issues are…

  2. Wife abuse: a hidden problem. A study among Saudi women attending PHC centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkandi, A; Rasheed, F P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure the prevalence, severity and type of wife abuse experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Women were interviewed in private at health centres using a questionnaire which included items from the Modified Conflict Tactic Scale, Kansas Marital Scale and the lie scale of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory. Of 689 eligible women, 25.7% reported physical abuse and 32.8% emotional abuse without physical violence. Of those physically abused, 36.7% suffered minor and 63.3% severe incidents. The lifetime prevalence of abuse among the women was 57.7%. Only 36.7% of 109 abused women had informed and discussed the issue with their primary care physician.

  3. HIV Surveillance Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics: Evolution and Current Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Jacob; Garcia Calleja, Jesus M; Marsh, Kimberly; Zaidi, Irum; Murrill, Christopher; Swaminathan, Mahesh

    2017-12-05

    Since the late 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel serosurveillance among pregnant women attending select antenatal clinics (ANCs) based on unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) has provided invaluable information for tracking HIV prevalence and trends and informing global and national HIV models in most countries with generalized HIV epidemics. However, increased coverage of HIV testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and antiretroviral therapy has heightened ethical concerns about UAT. PMTCT programs now routinely collect demographic and HIV testing information from the same pregnant women as serosurveillance and therefore present an alternative to UAT-based ANC serosurveillance. This paper reports on the evolution and current direction of the global approach to HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs, including the transition away from traditional UAT-based serosurveillance and toward new guidance from the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS on the implementation of surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs based on routine PMTCT program data. ©Jacob Dee, Jesus M Garcia Calleja, Kimberly Marsh, Irum Zaidi, Christopher Murrill, Mahesh Swaminathan. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 05.12.2017.

  4. Determinants of contraceptive use and future contraceptive intentions of women attending child welfare clinics in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuni, Caroline; Turpin, Cornelius A; Dassah, Edward T

    2017-08-01

    Family planning is an integral component of maternal and child health services in Ghana. Although knowledge on contraception is universal and most women attend maternal and child health services, contraceptive use remains low among women after delivery. This study aimed to determine factors influencing current use and future contraceptive intentions of women who were attending child welfare clinics within 2 years of delivery in Sunyani Municipality, Ghana. We conducted an analytical cross-sectional study among mothers in six selected health care facilities. Data was collected on their socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive experiences and future contraceptive intentions. Categorical variables were compared using the chi-squared (χ 2 ) test. Factors associated with current use and future contraceptive intentions were determined using Poisson regression with a robust error variance to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P contraception, 30.7% modern and 19.5% traditional methods. Compared to previous use, more women were using and would prefer the more effective contraceptive methods in future. Significant factors associated with current contraceptive use were, level of education (p = 0.02), discussing family planning during antenatal care (adjusted RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.53), or with one's partner (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47) and previous contraceptive use (adjusted RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.56-2.33). Family planning discussions during child welfare clinic (adjusted RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99-1.26) or with one's spouse (adjusted RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34), desire to space children (adjusted RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.17-1.55), previous (adjusted RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27) and current (adjusted RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22) contraceptive use were predictive of clients' intention to adopt family planning in the future. Effective counselling on family planning during antenatal and child

  5. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuehi OM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olufunke M Ebuehi, IA AkintujoyeReproductive and International Health Unit, Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women’s perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria.Methods: A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1 statistical software.Results: Almost half (48.8% of the respondents were in the age group 26–35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6% of the respondents had been pregnant 2–4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: “taking normal delivery” (56.7%, “providing antenatal services” (16.5%, “performing caesarean section” (13.0%, “providing family planning services” (8.2%, and “performing gynaecological surgeries” (5.6%. About 6/10 (61.0% respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7% respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%, normal delivery (36.1%, “special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits” (1.9%, “concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong” (15.1%, and family planning services (1.9%. Reasons for using TBA services were: “TBA services are cheaper” (50.9%, “TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment” (34.0%,

  6. Family environment, coping, and mental health in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    This study examined associations among family environment, coping, and emotional and conduct problems in adolescents attending therapeutic day schools due to mental health problems. Adolescents (N = 417; 30.2% female) ages 13-20 (M = 15.25) reported on their family environment (affective involvement and functioning), coping (emotion-focused support-seeking, cognitive restructuring, avoidant actions), and emotional and conduct problems. Poorer family environment was associated with less emotion-focused support-seeking and cognitive restructuring, and more emotional and conduct problems. Emotional problems were negatively associated with cognitive restructuring, and conduct problems were negatively associated with all coping strategies. Cognitive restructuring accounted for the relationship between family environment and emotional problems. Cognitive restructuring and emotion-focused support-seeking each partially accounted for the relationship between family functioning and conduct problems, but not the relationship between family affective involvement and conduct problems. Findings implicate the role of coping in the relationship between family environment and adolescent mental health. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Past trauma and present functioning of patients attending a women's psychiatric clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borins, E F; Forsythe, P J

    1985-04-01

    A women's psychiatric clinic, incorporated within a university teaching general hospital and staffed entirely by women, was opened in March of 1980. The authors studied a sample of 100 women who came to the clinic and characterized them by demographic variables, psychiatric diagnoses, health problems, chronic illness, death in the family, and traumatic incidents. Death in the family before she was 18 was found to predict a woman's subsequent request for or completion of sterilization. Physical or sexual abuse was significantly related to abortion, and abortion and trauma were significantly correlated.

  8. Personal experiences of women with diabetes who do not attend pre-pregnancy care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, H. R.; Temple, R. C.; Ball, V. E.

    2010-01-01

    with previous poor pregnancy outcome (41%). Barriers included conceiving faster than anticipated (45%), fertility concerns (31%), negative experiences with health professionals (21%), desire for a 'normal' pregnancy (17%) and the logistics of attending (10%). Conclusions More integrated diabetes...... and reproductive health/contraceptive advice, increased awareness of the potentially short time between stopping contraception and conception and more intensive support between pregnancies are required, particularly for women with previously poor outcomes. Research is also needed into how communication between...

  9. Health and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics in Western Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C; Ouédraogo, Hermann Z; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary

    2013-07-11

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. χ2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.

  10. Communication About Sexual Matters With Women Attending a Danish Fertility Clinic: A Descriptive Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil Eldridge, Katrine; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have shown that sexuality is an important aspect of life. Nevertheless, sexual matters are only rarely discussed between patients and doctors. Other studies have suggested that women undergoing fertility treatment compose a group of patients with low satisfaction...... in their sexual life. Aim: To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over...... 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Main Outcome Measure: Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women’s comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included...

  11. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanga, north eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, M; Theilgaard, Z P; Bakari, V

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Tanga, Tanzania. Retrospective data on syphilis and HIV status during 2008-2010 were collected from antenatal clinic (ANC) records. Prospective data were...... collected from HIV-infected (n = 105) and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (n = 100) attending ANCs between April 2009 and August 2010. Syphilis prevalence showed a declining trend (3.1%, 1.4% and 1.3%), while HIV prevalence was stable (6.1%, 6.4% and 5.4%) during 2008-2010. HIV-infected women had...... significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis (18.8% versus 5.0%; P HIV-uninfected women. There were no statistically significant...

  12. Awareness of human papillomavirus among women attending a well woman clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, J; McCaffery, K; Forrest, S; Szarewski, A; Cadman, L; Wardle, J

    2003-08-01

    To assess the level and accuracy of public understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United Kingdom. Women attending a well woman clinic were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing HPV awareness and specific knowledge about the virus. Questionnaires were completed by 1032 women, of whom 30% had heard of HPV. Older women, non-smokers, and those with a history of candida, genital warts, or an abnormal smear result were more likely to have heard of HPV. Even among those who had heard of HPV, knowledge was generally poor, and fewer than half were aware of the link with cervical cancer. There was also confusion about whether condoms or oral contraceptives could protect against HPV infection. In this relatively well educated sample, awareness and knowledge of HPV were poor. Public education is urgently needed so that women participating in cervical cancer screening are fully informed about the meaning of their results, especially if HPV testing is soon to be introduced.

  13. Premenstrual symptoms and remedies practiced by Malaysian women attending a rural primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani Omar

    2009-06-01

    Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a rural primary care clinic situated in Hulu Langat, Malaysia. All women of reproductive age (18 to 44 years old attending the clinic during the study period and who fit the selection criteria were included. Premenstrual symptoms and severity were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Shortened Premenstrual Assessment Form (SPAF. It consists of 10 items that measure changes in mood, behaviour and physical symptoms. The respondents were also asked if they had used any remedy to relieve their symptoms. Results: A total of 158 women were included in the study. The majority of the respondents were Malay (70.3%, followed by Indian (16.5% and Chinese (10.8% women. About 75% of the women experienced at least one of the premenstrual symptoms. Approximately 7% of them reported experiencing severe symptoms in all three subscales of the SPAF. The frequently reported symptoms were body ache (75.3%, abdominal pain (75.3%, irritable feeling (63.9% and breast discomfort (61.4%. The symptom score was higher among Malay women (p = 0.034, and those with a higher household income (p = 0.037 and higher educational level (p = 0.01. There was no significant association between premenstrual symptoms and age, marital status, menstrual cycle and age of menarche. The common remedies used were vitamins (19%, a healthy diet (15.8% and analgesics (13.3%. Approximately 60% of the women did not use any remedy to reduce their premenstrual symptoms. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms were common among women attending the clinic. The symptoms affect them significantly both physically and emotionally. Thus, it is essential for primary care providers to take an active role in identifying, educating and managing premenstrual symptoms among women.

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus among women attending prenatal care at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong, Samuel A; Ntumy, Michael Y; Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ogum-Alangea, Deda; Modey-Amoah, Emefa

    2015-12-01

    To determine the burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana. The present cross-sectional study enrolled women at 20-24 weeks of pregnancy attending their first prenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, between March and November 2013. Participants underwent a 2-hour, 75-g oral glucose tolerance test between 24 and 28 weeks. The odds of GDM among different body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) groupings were calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Among 399 women screened, 37 (9.3%) had GDM. Compared with women with a BMI in the normal range (18.50-24.99), obese women (BMI >30.0) had an increased risk of GDM (odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-8.20; P=0.034]; overweight women (BMI 25.00-29.99) had a slightly elevated risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.41-3.55; P=0.742). Maternal age, parity, education, employment status, place of residence, and previous pregnancy complications did not affect the risk of GDM. GDM was found in 10% of pregnant women in Accra. Women who were obese by 20-24 weeks of pregnancy had a significantly increased risk of GDM. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Perception and utilization of traditional birth attendants by pregnant women attending primary health care clinics in a rural Local Government Area in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, Olufunke M; Akintujoye, Ia

    2012-01-01

    In developing countries, most childbirth occurs at home and is not assisted by skilled attendants. This situation increases the risk of death for both mother and child and has severe maternal and neonatal health complications. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant women's perceptions and utilization of traditional birth attendant (TBA) services in a rural Local Government Area (LGA) in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. A quantitative design was used to obtain information using a structured questionnaire from 250 pregnant women attending four randomly selected primary health care clinics in the LGA. Data were analyzed using Epi Info (v 3.5.1) statistical software. Almost half (48.8%) of the respondents were in the age group 26-35 years, with a mean age of 29.4 ± 7.33 years. About two-thirds (65.6%) of the respondents had been pregnant 2-4 times before. TBA functions, as identified by respondents, were: "taking normal delivery" (56.7%), "providing antenatal services" (16.5%), "performing caesarean section" (13.0%), "providing family planning services" (8.2%), and "performing gynaecological surgeries" (5.6%). About 6/10 (61.0%) respondents believed that TBAs have adequate knowledge and skills to care for them, however, approximately 7/10 (69.7%) respondents acknowledged that complications could arise from TBA care. Services obtained from TBAs were: routine antenatal care (81.1%), normal delivery (36.1%), "special maternal bath to ward off evil spirits" (1.9%), "concoctions for mothers to drink to make baby strong" (15.1%), and family planning services (1.9%). Reasons for using TBA services were: "TBA services are cheaper" (50.9%), "TBA services are more culturally acceptable in my environment" (34.0%), "TBA services are closer to my house than hospital services" (13.2%), "TBAs provide more compassionate care than orthodox health workers" (43.4%), and "TBA service is the only maternity service that I know" (1.9%). Approximately 8/10 (79.2%) of the users (past

  16. Risk factors for high blood pressure in women attending menopause clinics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-10

    We analysed risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) among women around menopause. Eligible women were consecutively attending first-level outpatient menopause clinics in Italy for general counseling or treatment of menopausal symptoms. During the visit BP was measured three times. The mean of second and third of the three diastolic BP values for women was >90mm of mercury and/or reporting any current pharmacological treatment for high BP were considered hypertensive. Out of 45,204 women who entered the study with information on blood pressure, 12,150 had high BP. The odds ratios (OR) of high BP increased with age: in comparison with women aged or =58, respectively. Women with high BP were less educated than those without (OR education >12 versus 26. In comparison with women reporting no regular physical activity, the multivariate OR of high BP was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.99) for women reporting regular activity. In comparison with peri-menopausal women, post-menopausal women were at increased risk (OR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) and the risk tended to increase with age at menopause. Current use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with a lower risk of high BP (OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.84-0.94). This large cross-sectional study suggests that, after taking into account the effect of age, post-menopausal women are at greater risk of high BP, but current HRT use slightly lowers the risk. Other determinants of high BP were low level of education, overweight, and low level of physical activity.

  17. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness among Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu, MBBS, FWACP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on factors associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness (BP/CR is central in designing cost effective programs for reducing maternal deaths among women. This study assessed factors influencing BP/CR among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ogbomoso, South West Nigeria. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between January and April, 2015. Systematic sampling technique was employed to recruit 400 women attending antenatal clinic at Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p <0.05. Results: More than half (51.3% of our respondents were in the 30-39 age category. Only 40.3% of these respondents were reported well prepared for births and were complication ready. The proportion of women who had BP/CR was significantly higher among those in the middle socio-economic group (51.6%, p<0.05, those who practiced Christianity (76.4%, p<0.05 and those from Yoruba ethnic group (80.1%, p<0.05. Respondents in lower socio-economic group were 42% less likely to have prepared for birth compared to women in the high socio-economic class (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.34-0.99. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: The proportion of Nigerian women in our sample who were well-prepared for birth and its complication was below average. There is need for more awareness programs on BP/CR; such programs should target all women especially the vulnerable group

  18. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  19. Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niama, Roch Fabien; Loukabou Bongolo, Nadia Claricelle; Bayonne Kombo, Edith Sophie; Yengo, Ruth; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Mandingha Kosso, Etoka-Beka; Louzolo, Igor; Macosso, Lucette; Dzeret, Ghislain; Dzabatou Babeaux, Angélie Serge Patrick; Puruehnce, Marie-Francke; Parra, Henri Joseph

    2017-01-01

    HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics sites for the first time between September and December 2011 and who accepted to participate in the study were enrolled. The objective was to estimate the syphilis and HIV infection rate in this population. A study was conducted in 44 selected ANCs from 12 departments (5 urban and 7 rural). Pregnant women who accepted to participate in the study, attending selected sentinel ANCs sites for the first time between September and December 2011 were enrolled. To detect HIV antibodies, two consecutive ELISA assays were used (Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag/Ac, (BioRad, France) and Enzygnostic Intergral II (Siemens, GMBH, Marbug-Germany). In case of discordant results, the Western blot test II, HIV1 and 2 (Bio-Rad, Marne la Coquette, France) was used as the reference method. The RPR (Bio-Scan, Karnataka, India) test was performed to detect syphilis infection. The RPR positive results were confirmed using the TPHA test (Biotech, Cambridge, UK). Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. A total of 2979 pregnant women attending ANCs were enrolled. The global HIV infection rate was estimated to be 3.6% (CI: 95%; 3.0-4.4). As expected, HIV prevalence was significantly higher in women aged above 25 years (4.4% (3.4-5.6), p = 0.026) and those attending urban ANCs (5.04%, p pregnant women (3.92%). The risk for syphilis occurrence was significantly higher among the single women compared to the married ones (4.4% VS 2.7%; p HIV and syphilis coinfection occurred in 22 cases (0.73%). The prevalence's of syphilis and HIV were relatively low. Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with HIV and syphilis infections respectively. Therefore, substantial effort is needed to reinforce prevention strategies in this population to prevent mother-to-child and further horizontal transmissions of these infections.

  20. Cervical cytopathological changes among women with vaginal discharge attending teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Magdi M; AlHag, Fatma Tage El Sir; Khalifa, Mohammed Ahmed; El Nabi, Abdulla H

    2017-01-01

    To find cytology changes among women attending obstetrics and gynaecology clinic with complaints of vaginal discharges. This descriptive hospital-based cytological study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of the obstetrics and gynaecology department. Two hundred women with complaints of vaginal discharge were selected. Their detailed histories were documented on a special request form. Pap smears were then obtained and sent for cytological examination to the cytopathology department. All low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cases were advised to follow-up with Pap smears in the next 6-12 months. Those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were further investigated by a cervical biopsy and managed accordingly. The statistical analysis was performed using, the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Chi-square and cross-tabulation were used in this study. The cytological examination of Pap smears showed no changes (i.e. negative findings) in 88 (44%) cases, while Candida species infection was the most prevalent, which was found in 67 (33.5%) of the cases. Bacterial vaginosis was found in 39 women (19.5%); 6 women (3%) were reported with dyskaryotic changes. Two cases were found to have LSIL and 4 women had HSIL. Infection is common among the illiterate group of women. Women with vaginal discharges should undergo screening tests for evaluation by cervical smear for the early detection of cervical precancer conditions. There is an urgent need to establish a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan.

  1. Red Cell Alloimmunization to Rhesus Antigen Among Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman

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    Tamima Al-Dughaishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We sought to measure the presence of allosensitization to Rhesus D (RhD antibodies in antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and assess the fetal outcome in sensitized women. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of pregnant Omani women who registered at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital between June 2011 and June 2013. Pregnant women were tested for ABO blood type and were screened for RhD antigen and antibodies at their first antenatal clinic visit. In women who tested positive for the RhD antibodies, an antibody titer was performed to evaluate the severity of their case. Results: Data was available on 1,251 pregnant women who were managed and delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. The prevalence of RhD negative pregnant women was 7.3%. Blood group O was the most common followed by A, B, and AB. The rate of RhD negative alloimmunization was 10%, and anti-D was the most common antibody detected. There were no stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Postnatal transfusion was necessary for only one baby. Conclusions: The prevalence of RhD negativity was comparable to other Asian countries. Previous RhD alloimmunization and history of miscarriages were the most common maternal medical history.

  2. [Positive impact of a video and TV documentary on attendance of women to catch-up collective vaccinations and reasons for non-attendance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painvin, C; Schlumberger, M; Chhem, Dy Bun; Savannarom, Dim; Phong, Phing; Gilberg, S

    2011-02-01

    The impact of medical documentaries on attendance to immunization sessions is not documented in developing countries. The impact of a video and TV medical documentary on women's vaccination during a catch-up tetanus collective immunization was studied in Cambodia (2002-2004). A medical video documentary produced locally was publicly shown in 10 villages chosen at random among 63 villages to be covered by collective tetanus immunization. In each village where the video was shown, 33 women, older than age 11, were selected at random and questioned about their tetanus vaccination records, to assess if they attended the video and to evaluate their knowledge about tetanus. A second interview was conducted after the first collective vaccination to check their attendance and to record reasons for non-attendance. The same interview was conducted 10 months later, after the documentary was shown on a local TV channel and a second collective tetanus vaccination conducted. Data were collected from 323 (98%) women. Seventy-eight (24%) women saw the video documentary and only eight (2.4%) saw it on TV. Compared to farmers, shopkeepers saw significantly less the documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.77,P = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.10 Women of childbearing age with no school education were significantly more attracted by the video documentary (χ² of Yates: 5.99,P = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.10 women, although their final immunization coverage was not better. The documentary did not increase the knowledge that contamination for tetanus may come from earth and tools, but not from air and water, and that all ages are at-risk for tetanus, but it increased significantly the knowledge that vaccination can prevent the disease (χ² of Yates: 13.98;P = 0.0001; 95% CI: 1.28 Women who saw the video documentary attended the first collective session more often than those who did not (χ² of Yates: 11.00; P = 0.0006; 95% CI: 1.23 women more than 45 years of age. Women who saw the documentary either on video or on TV

  3. Work-family role conflict and job performance among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability that further ... However, this relationship between work-family role conflict and low job performance is considered higher among women with more children and less spousal/family ...

  4. Women's experiences of attending a creative arts program during their pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demecs, Ilona Pappne; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny

    2011-09-01

    number of women attending the program was small, the positive experiences expressed by participants warrant further development, implementation and investigation of similar approaches to childbirth preparation. Based on this study, it would seem that such a program is indeed feasible and that women would attend. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Education about Preventive Behaviors of Urinary Infection Based on Health Belief Model by Attending and Non- Attending Educational Programs in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Noroozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy, maternal and fetal complications and serious consequences will follow. So, the purpose of this study is comparison of education effect between attend and non-attend methods on promotion prevailing behavior from urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 pregnant women coming to Bushehr medical center, in two group (70 people each were studied. In attend group, two education meetings, including 1.5 hour were hold based on the health belief model with an interval of a week. Non-attend education group, just received a booklet arranged based on health belief model. The information about awareness, structures model and function were collected before, one week and three months later via questionnaire. The urinary test results were collected before and three months after the intervention. After getting information, data were analyzed by software SPSS version 20 via perfect tests. Results: Before educational intervention, knowledge, preventive behaviors of urinary infection and all structures model were same in both groups. After the intervention, average of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly in attend education group (P≤0/001, and in non-attend education group, awareness score and perceived susceptibility, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly. Average of perceived susceptibility, barrier, self-efficacy, awareness, and mean of preventive behaviors of urinary infection between two groups were different significantly (P≤0/001. Conclusion: Regarding to changes in health belief model constructs, knowledge and function in two groups after education, using booklets based on health belief model for pregnant women can be useful due to their

  6. Frequency and risk factors of hepatitis c virus in pregnant women attending military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, R.; Razzaq, K.; Imran, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of anti-Hepatitis C virus antibodies in pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi and to analyze risk factors for disease acquisition in them. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of gynaecology and obstetrics Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from Feb 2013 to Jul 2013. Material and Methods: All pregnant ladies attending Military Hospital Rawalpindi were tested for anti HCV antibodies by third generation ELISA method and evaluation of potential risk factors for acquisition of HCV infection was done. Results: Six point ninety five percent of study population was found to be positive for anti HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Six point nine five percentage of study pregnant ladies were found to have anti HCV antibodies. These HCV positive pregnant women were more likely to have history of blood transfusion, therapeutic injection use and surgery. (author)

  7. Perceptions of focused prenatal care among women attending two tertiary centers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, George U; Onwusulu, Daniel N; Ezeama, Chukwuemeka O; Afiadigwe, Evaristus A; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ikechebelu, Joseph I; Ugboaja, Joseph O; Okwuosa, Ayodele O

    2015-11-01

    To determine women's perceptions and expectations of focused prenatal care visits. The present questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women in their third trimester attending two tertiary health centers in southern Nigeria between January and March 2012. Obstetric data, histories, and information on preferences for prenatal visits were obtained using questionnaires. A total of 353 questionnaires were appropriately completed. Among 277 participants who stated a preference for the number of prenatal care visits, 241 (87.0%) reported a preference of more than four. Among 203 parous women, 132 (65.0%) had no previous negative obstetric experience. Only previous stillbirth (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-6.77; P = 0.039) among multiparous women, and HIV/AIDS (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.06-1.17; P = 0.048) among all women were significantly associated with a preference for more prenatal visits. Previous negative obstetric experiences did not generally affect preference for prenatal visits. However, pregnant women expressed dissatisfaction with a reduced number of visits. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Padrão de atividade física entre gestantes atendidas pela estratégia saúde da família de Campina Grande - PB Physical activity patterns in pregnant women attending the family health program of Campina Grande - PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jousilene de Sales Tavares

    2009-03-01

    .INTRODUCTION: The benefits of physical activity during pregnancy on fetal growth, maternal health and pregnancy outcomes have been debated; however, studies on the physical activity patterns during this period are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physical activity patterns of pregnant women attending the Family Health Strategy at the municipality of Campina Grande, PB. METHODS:A cohort of 118 pregnant women was followed from 2005 to 2006. Follow up started on the 16th gestational week and continued at every four weeks to assess clinical conditions and collect obstetric and socio-economic information. A specific questionnaire on physical activity was applied on the 16th, 24th and 32nd gestational weeks, which was estimated through the weekly sum of the metabolic equivalent (MET. Daily activities were classified in four groups: labor, household, walking, and inactivity. According to the physical activity pattern, women were classified as sedentary, or performing light, moderate or vigorous activity. The data set was analyzed in Epi Info 3.4.1 RESULTS: The socioeconomic characteristics of the cohort described a population of low levels of income and education. The physical activity pattern observed since the first gestational trimester was low, ranging from light to sedentary and it decreased along pregnancy. On the 32nd gestational week 100% of the women were sedentary. Regarding physical activity groups, women spent more time on household activities followed by recreational activities. CONCLUSION:The physical activity pattern observed was inadequate form the beginning of pregnancy and it worsened in the third gestational trimester.

  9. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition statu...

  10. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study design: Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and ...

  11. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  12. A study on status of anaemia in pregnant women attending urban health training centre, RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia in pregnant women has been regarded as very dangerous as it causes many maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcome largely depend upon the status of anaemia in pregnant women. Anaemia affects pregnant  women all over the world - 52% in  developing  countries  compared  with  23%  in  the  developed  world. The difference in prevalence of anaemia in different parts of India including Jharkhand can be attributed to the different factors. A knowledge of these factors associated with anemia will help to formulate multipronged strategies to curtail this important public health problem in pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: (1 To know the socio-demographic profile of pregnant women attending Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi. (2 To know the status of anaemia among those pregnant women and its association with different factors. Material & Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done at ANC clinic of UHTC, RIMS, Ranchi to determine the status of anaemia in pregnant women and various socio-demographic factors associated with it. Hemoglobin level of 149 pregnant women selected by consecutive sampling was estimated by Cyanmethemoglobin method. Statistical Analysis: Template generated in MS excel sheet and analysis was done on SPSS software. Result: Out of total 149 pregnant women anaemia was found to be present in 99 (66.4% women. A statistically significant association of anaemia (p<.05 was found with parity and birth interval from last birth.  But the association of anaemia with ethnicity, education and other factors like gestational age (trimester was not found to be statistically significant (p>.05.  Conclusion: Occurrence of anaemia was much higher in this area as compared to national average. It indicates that the anaemia continues to be a major public health problem.  Efforts should be geared towards the early detection and treatment of anaemia before delivery. 

  13. [Anxiety and body image among women growing up in families with addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelek, Agnieszka; Betkowska-Korpała, Barbara; Jabłoński, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the correlation between body image and anxiety symptoms as well as psychological discomfort experienced by women growing up in alcoholic families. The group of 61 women (27 years old on average) was surveyed with Body Self Questionnaire and MMPI-2 personality test questionnaires and the results were measured on Scale 7 (Pt). All the participants also attended psychotherapy sessions focused on disorders resulting from growing up in families with alcohol problems. The analysis showed negative correlation (p emotional spheres, as well as functioning cognitive schemes.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE IN BARPETA DISTRICT, ASSAM

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    Dhritishna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.

  15. Canada's residential school system: measuring the intergenerational impact of familial attendance on health and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Motivations and reasons for women attending a Breast Self-Examination training program: A qualitative study

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    Huang Chiun-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. Methods A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. Results It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. Conclusions We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  17. Motivations and reasons for women attending a breast self-examination training program: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rea-Jeng; Huang, Lian-Hua; Hsieh, Yeu-Sheng; Chung, Ue-Lin; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Bih, Herng-Dar

    2010-07-10

    Breast cancer is a major threat to Taiwanese women's health. Despite the controversy surrounding the effectiveness of breast self-examination (BSE) in reducing mortality, BSE is still advocated by some health departments. The aim of the study is to provide information about how women decide to practice BSE and their experiences through the training process. Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited. A descriptive study was conducted using small group and individual in-depth interviews to collect data, and using thematic analysis and constant comparison techniques for data analysis. It was found that a sense of self-security became an important motivator for entering BSE training. The satisfaction in obtaining a sense of self-security emerged as the central theme. Furthermore, a ladder motivation model was developed to explain the participants' motivations for entering BSE training. The patterns of motivation include opportunity taking, clarifying confusion, maintaining health, and illness monitoring, which were connected with the risk perception for breast cancer. We recognize that the way women decide to attend BSE training is influenced by personal and social factors. Understanding the different risk assessments women rely on in making their health decisions is essential. This study will assist researchers and health professionals to gain a better understanding of alternative ways to deal with breast health, and not to be limited by the recommendations of the health authorities.

  18. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, N.; Munir, A.A.; Majeed, R.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  19. The Study of Trichomoniasis in Pregnant Women Attending Hamadan City Health Centers in 2015

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    Zarifeh Akbari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Trichomoniasis is one of the most non-viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide that causes some complications such as adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women in Hamadan, west of Iran. Methods This study was conducted on 1200 pregnant women attending the Hamadan city health centers in 2015. After gathering socio-demographic characteristics and clinical signs and symptoms of the women, first-voided morning urine was collected from the all participants and subjected to sediment wet-mount preparations and Dorset culture medium for detection of T. vaginalis. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results T. vaginalis was diagnosed in 0.6% (7/1200 of the urine samples using two parasitological methods. Dorset culture medium and direct wet-mount examination of the urine sediments were positive in 7 (0.6% and 4 (0.3% samples, respectively. There was no relationship between trichomoniasis and age, education, occupation, place of living, husband's job, and history of contraceptive methods (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results demonstrated the rate of T. vaginalis infection in pregnant women is relatively low in the area but, because of the importance of this issue in pregnant women, it can be substantial during antenatal care.

  20. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women attending Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, K M; Onoja, A B; Tofa, U A; Garba, K N

    2014-03-01

    Primary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is a frequent and serious threat to the fetus. As there is no vaccine alternative measures are needed to prevent congenital CMV infection. This study determined CMV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody among pregnant women in order to ascertain the immune status of mothers to guide policy makers. A semi-structured questionnaire was initially administered to obtain information on demographic details, stage of pregnancy and risk factors. Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive. Based on stages of pregnancy 6/6(100%), 52/60(86.7%) and 106/114(93.0%) were seropositive among women in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM screening to know the extent of active infection. There is also need for public enlightenment on the methods of transmission, effective prevention and control strategies.

  1. How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals.

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    Judith Stephenson

    Full Text Available To determine the extent to which women plan and prepare for pregnancy.Cross-sectional questionnaire survey of pregnant women attending three maternity services in London about knowledge and uptake of preconception care; including a robust measure of pregnancy planning, and phone interviews with a range of health care professionals.We recruited 1173/1288 (90% women, median age of 32 years. 73% had clearly planned their pregnancy, 24% were ambivalent and only 3% of pregnancies were unplanned. 51% of all women and 63% of those with a planned pregnancy took folic acid before pregnancy. 21% of all women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking alcohol in the 3 months before pregnancy; 48% of smokers and 41% of drinkers reduced or stopped before pregnancy. The 51% of all women who reported advice from a health professional before becoming pregnant were more likely to adopt healthier behaviours before pregnancy [adjusted odds ratios for greatest health professional input compared with none were 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.54-3.54 for taking folic acid and 2.18 (95% CI 1.42-3.36 for adopting a healthier diet before pregnancy]. Interviews with 20 health professionals indicated low awareness of preconception health issues, missed opportunities and confusion about responsibility for delivery of preconception care.Despite a high level of pregnancy planning, awareness of preconception health among women and health professionals is low, and responsibility for providing preconception care is unclear. However, many women are motivated to adopt healthier behaviours in the preconception period, as indicated by halving of reported smoking rates in this study. The link between health professional input and healthy behaviour change before pregnancy is a new finding that should invigorate strategies to improve awareness and uptake of pre-pregnancy health care, and bring wider benefits for public health.

  2. Metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension attending a family practice clinic in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasein, N; Ahmad, M; Matrook, F; Nasir, L; Froelicher, E S

    2010-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is being reported more frequently in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Patients with hypertension attending family practice clinics in the University of Jordan Hospital between February and July 2006 were assessed for the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its individual components. Of 345 patients studied, 65% had metabolic syndrome. Females were more likely to meet Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria for the diagnosis. Diabetes mellitus was the most frequent component of metabolic syndrome in males, while low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high waist circumference ranked first and second in females. Primary care providers should be alert to the importance of screening patients with hypertension for metabolic syndrome to prevent and manage these combined conditions.

  3. Analysis of sexual activity without obstetric risk pregnant women attending public hospitals in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Guibovich Mesinas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the characteristics of sexual activity in pregnant women without obstetric risk who attend public hospitals in Lima. Material and Methods: exploratory, multicenter, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted during the first half of 2014 in 9 public hospitals in Lima. The sample was made up of pregnant women without obstetric risk who attended the outpatient clinic of obstetric departments. A non-probabilistic model is used for convenience. An expert validated survey was conducted on patients who voluntarily agreed to participate and signed the informed consent. The information was analyzed using STATA 21 software. Results: 1991 pregnant women answered the survey, 924 (46.4% were between 15 and 25 years, most were married, and Catholic (81.8% and 1380 (69.3% were born in Lima. Most had several previous pregnancies (46.3%, with term pregnancy and 86.3% informed they had no pre-term infants. 1347 (67.6% had vaginal delivery. The frequency of sexual acts, sexual desire, the response pattern and the fear of exercising sexual intercourse decreased at higher gestational age. Fear of sex acts increased from 12.6% to 76.2% in the third quarter. Most informed of a lack of orgasm during intercourse (42.8%. The position for intercourse went from "him on her" in the first quarter to "sideways" during the third quarter, with statistical significance. Conclusion: sexual activity in pregnant women of Metropolitan Lima tend to decrease in frequency, desire, and response cycle. The "sideways" position was the most often used in the third trimester.

  4. Eating behavior and body image perception of pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guimarães Nobre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256

  5. Utilisation of family planning techniques among women: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of family planning by women will promote sustainable development and general wellbeing of women at the rural community. The study assessed utilization of family planning techniques among women in the rural area of Lagos state. Sixty respondents were randomly selected for the study. Structured interview ...

  6. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  7. Performance of the Xpert HPV assay in women attending for cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Cuzick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study evaluated the Xpert HPV Assay in women attending screening in general practice by comparing Xpert with two established HPV tests, cytology and histology. Methods: A prospective study in women aged 20–60 years attending screening in Bristol, Edinburgh and London using residual Preservcyt cytology samples. Sample order was randomised between Roche cobas4800 and Cepheid Xpert assays with Qiagen hc2 third. Results: 3408 cases were included in the primary analysis. Positivity for Xpert was 19.6%, cobas 19.2% and hc2 19.9% with high concordance (kappa=86.8% vs cobas, 81.55 vs hc2. Xpert, cobas and hc2 showed similar sensitivity (98.7%, 97.5%, 98.7% for CIN2+. All pairwise comparisons had high concordance (Kappa ≥0.78 with any abnormal cytology. Xpert and hc2 were positive for all cases of ≥moderate dyskaryosis (N=63, cobas was negative in two. Histology was available for 172 participants. 79 reported CIN2+, 47 CIN3+. All CIN3+ was positive on Xpert and hc2 and one case negative for cobas. One case of CIN2 was negative for all assays. Conclusions: The performance of Xpert HPV Assay in a general screening population is comparable to established HPV tests. It offers simplicity of testing, flexibility with non-batching of individual samples and rapid turnaround time. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Xpert, Cervical screening, HPV testing

  8. Prevalence of depression among women attending a primary urban care clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Ahmad, Rozali

    2012-07-01

    Depression affects more women than men in Malaysia. The objective of this paper was to determine the prevalence of depression and its associated factors among women attending a government primary care clinic. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive adult female patients attending the clinic during the data collection period were invited to participate. The participants completed self-administered questionnaires (including the validated Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], which was translated into the Malay language). A total of 895 female patients participated in the study (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of depression (PHQ-9 scores ≥ 10) was 12.1%. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, certain stressful life events were found to be associated with depression (p depression among participants in this study was clinically significant and corresponded with the findings of other international studies. Factors associated with depression need to be highlighted and addressed accordingly. Clinicians in Malaysia should be aware of this prevalence when making diagnoses in primary care.

  9. The relationship of women's status and empowerment with skilled birth attendant use in Senegal and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Kyoko; Gipson, Jessica D

    2015-07-24

    Maternal mortality remains unacceptably high in sub-Saharan Africa with 179,000 deaths occurring each year, accounting for 2-thirds of maternal deaths worldwide. Progress in reducing maternal deaths and increasing Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) use at childbirth has stagnated in Africa. Although several studies demonstrate the important influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use, this evidence is limited, particularly in Africa. Furthermore, few studies empirically test the operationalization of women's empowerment and incorporate multidimensional measures to represent the potentially disparate influence of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. This study examined the relationship of women's status and empowerment with SBA use in two African countries--Senegal and Tanzania--using the 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys (weighted births n = 10,688 in SN; 6748 in TZ). Factor analysis was first conducted to identify the structure and multiple dimensions of empowerment. Then, a multivariate regression analysis was conducted to examine associations between these empowerment dimensions and SBA use. Overall, women's status and empowerment were positively related to SBA use. Some sociodemographic characteristics showed similar effects across countries (e.g., age, wealth, residence, marital relationship, parity); however, women's status and empowerment influence SBA use differently by setting. Namely, women's education directly and positively influenced SBA use in Tanzania, but not in Senegal. Further, each of the dimensions of empowerment influenced SBA use in disparate ways. In Tanzania women's higher household decision-making power and employment were related to SBA use, while in Senegal more progressive perceptions of gender norms and older age at first marriage were related to SBA use. This study provides evidence of the disparate influences of women's status and empowerment on SBA use across settings. Results indicate that efforts to

  10. Women, family, and work in Indonesian transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J F; Leinbach, T R; Falconer, K F

    1993-04-01

    The gender contribution to employment may be a critical factor in determining household economic viability. The significance for the resettlement program of the poor and landless from Indonesia's Inner Islands to the Outer Islands is clear. The aim of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of the role of women in off-farm employment (OFE) in a sample of South Sumatra, Indonesia transmigrants during the summer of 1989 at 9 different sites with different agricultural environments, settlement histories, and access to markets. A summary is provided of the literature on women's work and peasant household economies in Indonesia. Spatial and structural characteristics of employment among transmigrant women are described as well as life course influences on men's and women's OFE. A descriptive and explanatory model is presented that characterizes women's work and includes the influences of changing family structure on time allocation. Women's work appears fundamentally different from men's; household domestic work has a degree of flexibility in timing and tasks can be accomplished simultaneously. The hypothesis is that women will try to maximize their levels of flexibility and simultaneity in their income generating efforts. Discussion focuses on several theories of peasant household economies: 1) the Chayanov peasant model which posits that labor allocation for farm production in order to satisfy consumption needs is dependent on household demographic structure and the consumer labor balance; and 2) the New Home Economics theory which emphasizes the single utility function of the household. The villages represent 3 irrigated rice-growing and double cropping areas with established infrastructures and access to markets; 3 area with tidal swamp rice production and few resources; and area with rainfed rice production and limited resources and an area with ample resources; and 2 areas with smallholder rubber production. There were 560 ethnically Javanese households

  11. [Violence against women and family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Ochoa, Urbicio; Muñoz Pérez, Esteban; Navarro Solares, Alhondra; Nuño Gutiérrez, Bertha Lidia; Navarro Núñez, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    prevalence of violence against women in Mexico fluctuate within 30 to 60%, but health and court administration institutions' numbers are under real ones, they only include extreme violence or pressed charges against them aggressor. To asses the level of knowledge on the norms and procedures for the attention of domestic violence in family practitioners workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Colima, México. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the September-December 2005 period. The indicator was obtained of a self-administered questionnaire. The data collection instrument was design to asses the level of knowledge in five areas: definition, norms, classification, risk factors and domestic violence indicators. An knowledge index was constructed and analyzed using frequencies distribution and percentages. The age average was 41 years; medical practice 20 years. 72% men, 28% women; 91% had sentimental couple; 53% was family medicine specialist and 2% mastery; 53% worked in the morning shift and 47% in the evening one. The 91% didn't know the Mexican official norm; 91% without training on domestic violence, 74% ignored the types that exist; 76% ignored the cycles; 63% didn't register it as diagnostic in the clinical file; 52% know that the integral attention health registration leaf has a specific item for this problem. The average of guessed right answers was of 19 (range 15-24). The level of knowledge on the norms and procedures for the attention of domestic violence in family practitioners workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Colima, México; was low degree in 0%, moderate in 81% and highly in 19%.

  12. Male-Partnered Bisexual Women's Perceptions of Disclosing Sexual Orientation to Family Across the Transition to Parenthood: Intensifying Heteronormativity or Queering Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R; Ellawala, Themal; Ross, Lori E

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from queer and communication privacy management frameworks, this study examines the narratives of 22 bisexual, male-partnered women who were interviewed during the perinatal period and one year postnatally about their disclosures of sexual identity to family of origin. Most women rarely discussed their sexual identity with family; participants who had disclosed described such disclosures as provoking discomfort. Some women stated that their parental status seemed to invalidate the need to talk about their sexual history or identity with family, due its declining salience and increased concerns about judgment. This study reveals how partnership and parenthood statuses contribute to the intensification of heteronormative pressures in relation to family. Therapists should attend to the role of heteronormative values regarding partnering, family-building, and parenting. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  13. Human papillomavirus infection among women attending health facilities in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaj, Aida A.; Senok, Abiola C.; Al-Mahmeed, Ali E.; Botta, Giuseppe A.; Issa, Abdulla A.; Arzes, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the associated risk factors in Bahrain's female population. This study was carried out between March to December 2004, which includes cervical scrapings for Pap smear and HPV-DNA testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, obtained from 100 women attending the Gynecology Clinic at Salmaniya Medical Center and Sheikh Sabah Health Center in the Kingdom of Bahrain. We distributed questionnaires that include the sociodemographic data as well as information on risk factors such as smoking, parity, and the contraceptive used. Eleven women (11%) with normal cytology were HPV-positive. The RFLP analysis detected HPV-types 16, 18, 45, 62 and 53. Positive women were significantly older (43.3+-10.1 years) than negatives (36.5+-9.9 years; p=0.04), however, there was no difference in age of first sexual contact (positive: 18.1+-5.7 years versus negative: 20.6 +- 4.4 years). Polygamy, smoking and hormonal contraception was not identified as risk factors, but positive women showed higher parity. In this study on HPV infection in Behrain, the 11% positivity with high risk HPV types, in the presence of normal cytology suggests that in addition to the cervical cancer screening program, offer of HPV testing deserves consideration. (author)

  14. [Prevalence and factors associated with anemia in pregnant women attending the General Hospital in Douala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchente, Charlotte Nguefack; Tsakeu, Eveline Ngouadjeu Dongho; Nguea, Arlette Géraldine; Njamen, Théophile Nana; Ekane, Gregory Halle; Priso, Eugene Belley

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is a public health problem, prevalent among children and women of childbearing age. Our study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in pregnant women at Douala General Hospital. We conducted a cross sectional study from July 2012 to July 2013. All consenting pregnant women attending antenatal consultation and having undergone complete blood count (CBC) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, individual's obstetrical history and the results of the CBC were recorded on a pre tested data collection sheet. Anemia was defined according to the WHO criteria. After some descriptive statistics, we performed a bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and Fisher exact probability test in order to determine the factors associated with anemia. P value prevalence was 39,8%. The average age was 29,89±4,835 years. The mean hemoglobin level was 10.93 ± 1.23. Normochromic normocytic anemia (53,3%) was prevalent. Anaemia was severe in 2,4% of cases. Anemia in pregnancy was significantly associated with a personal history of chronic diseases (P = 0.02) and of anemia in a previous pregnancy (P = 0.003). Anemia was more frequently observed during the 3rd trimester (P = 0.04) and breastfeeding played a protective role (P = 0.02). The prevalence of anemia during pregnancy remains high. A better management of chronic diseases in pregnant women and of postpartum follow-up is necessary to treat anemia before a subsequent pregnancy.

  15. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-26

    Oct 26, 2010 ... Technology helps Asian women balance family and work ... for instance, that provides homebound women with technical and business skills. ... books present the findings of IDRC-funded research exploring the impact of ...

  16. Women education: problems and implications for family responsibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The writer examined education in the context of its availability for the women folk. The paper also elucidates the problems of women education, and the implications of poor women education for family responsibility. It was suggested in the paper that for optimal national development, women who are the first teachers in the ...

  17. Exploring Group Composition among Young, Urban Women of Color in Prenatal Care: Implications for Satisfaction, Engagement, and Group Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Cunningham, Shayna D; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Stasko, Emily; Tobin, Jonathan; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-01-01

    Group models of prenatal care continue to grow in popularity. However, little is known about how group composition (similarity or diversity between members of groups) relates to care-related outcomes. The current investigation aimed to explore associations between prenatal care group composition with patient satisfaction, engagement, and group attendance among young, urban women of color. Data were drawn from two studies conducted in New Haven and Atlanta (2001-2004; n = 557) and New York City (2008-2011; n = 375) designed to evaluate group prenatal care among young, urban women of color. Women aged 14 to 25 were assigned to group prenatal care and completed surveys during their second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Group attendance was recorded. Data were merged and analyzed guided by the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using multilevel regression. Analyses explored composition in terms of age, race, ethnicity, and language. Women in groups with others more diverse in age reported greater patient engagement and, in turn, attended more group sessions, b(se) = -0.01(0.01); p = .04. The composition of prenatal care groups seems to be associated with young women's engagement in care, ultimately relating to the number of group prenatal care sessions they attend. Creating groups diverse in age may be particularly beneficial for young, urban women of color, who have unique pregnancy needs and experiences. Future research is needed to test the generalizability of these exploratory findings. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  19. Anxiety and depression symptoms among women attending group-based patient education courses for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    List?l, Wenche; H?berg-Vetti, Hildegunn; Eide, Geir Egil; Bjorvatn, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Background Women carrying BRCA-mutations are facing significant challenges, including decision making regarding surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. They often report that they are left alone with these important decisions. In order to enhance the genetic counselling session we organized a group-based patient education (GPE) course for women with BRCA-mutations. The study aims were to characterize women attending a group-based patient education (GPE) course for hereditary breast and ovaria...

  20. Perception of orthodox health care centers among pregnant women attending traditional birth attendants clinics in two local government areas of Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Okewole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Adequate antenatal care and skilled obstetric assistance during delivery are important strategies that significantly reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to assess the awareness, attitudes and perception of orthodox health care centres among pregnant women patronizing traditional birth attendants in Mushin and Lagos Island local government areas of Lagos state. Methods: The survey was a community-based descriptive cross-sectional survey that employed interviews to collect data from 300 antenatal care attendees of seven traditional birth attendants′ clinics in Lagos Island and Mushin local government areas between December 2010 and January 2011 using a structured questionnaire. Results: The women ranged in age from 17-43 years with a mean age of 27.6 ± 4.6 SD and most of them were primigravidas (41.5%, married (88% and traders (44.1%. Most of the women (61% and their husbands (56.7% had completed their secondary education. The majority (81.7% of respondents were aware of a modern health facility around where they lived, the most commonly known being private hospitals (43.7%. Most of them (67.3% were aware of antenatal care services provided at these facilities but only 31.3% had ever made use of the antenatal services. Most of the women were not willing to deliver in hospitals because they didn′t like the attitude of the health workers (37.3% and because it was far from their houses (12.7%; the majority (75% preferring to deliver with traditional birth attendants because they give good service. However, almost all (98.5% of the women that had children took them to the orthodox health facilities for immunization, primarily the primary health care centers (55.7%. Conclusion: Traditional birth attendants are patronized by a wide array of women who are aware of orthodox health facilities but have a negative attitude towards their services. Improvements in communication and interpersonal skills of

  1. A study on knowledge and practices of antenatal care among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pune, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Bhai Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maternal health status of Indian women was noted to be lower as compared to other developed countries. Promotion of maternal and child health has been one of the most important components of the Family Welfare Programme of the Government of India. For sustainable growth and development of country, there is a need to improve MCH Care in the country. Safe motherhood by providing good antenatal care (ANC is very important to reduce maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate and to achieve millennium development goals. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice on ANC among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pune and their association with various sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 384 pregnant women in their 3 rd trimester attending the antenatal clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pune, Maharashtra during October 2011 to September 2012. Pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data by interview after obtaining informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 and Epi Info Software. Results: Study reveals that about 58% women had adequate knowledge regarding ANC. It was found that almost all the variables such as age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, and socioeconomic status (SES had a significant association with awareness about ANC. 100% women were having a positive attitude toward ANC. Around 70%, women were practicing adequately, and variables such as education and SES had a significant association with practices about ANC. Conclusion: These findings can be used to plan a Health Intervention Program aiming to improve the maternal health practices and eventually improve the health status of the women.

  2. Psycho-social influences upon older women's decision to attend cervical screening: A review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Kirsty A; Moss, Esther; Redman, Charles W E; Sherman, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide (WHO, 2016). In many developed countries the incidence of cervical cancer has been significantly reduced by the introduction of organised screening programmes however, in the UK, a fall in screening coverage is becoming a cause for concern. Much research attention has been afforded to younger women but age stratified mortality and incidence data suggest that older women's screening attendance is also worthy of study. This paper provides a review of current evidence concerning the psycho-social influences that older women experience when deciding whether to attend cervical screening. Few studies have focussed on older women and there are significant methodological issues with those that have included them in their samples. Findings from these studies indicate several barriers which may deter older women from screening, such as embarrassment and logistical issues. Drivers to screening include reassurance and a sense of obligation. Physical, social and emotional changes that occur as women age may also have an impact on attendance. This review concludes that there is a clear need for better understanding of the perceptions of older women specifically with regard to cervical cancer and screening. Future research should inform the design of targeted interventions and provision of information to enable informed decision-making regarding cervical screening among older women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer among Women Attending a Reference Service in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro Lopes, Tiara Cristina; Gravena, Angela Andréia França; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Dell`Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2017-11-26

    Background: Cancer is a major public health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for reducing mortality. This study aimed to analyze factors associated with delay in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among women attending a reference cancer service. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with data collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer and treated from October 2013 to October 2014 at a cancer reference hospital in Paraná, Southern Brazil. Results: A total of 82 participants were enrolled during the study period; their average age was 58.2 ± 11.5 years. The average time taken for final diagnosis of breast cancer was 102.5 ± 165.5 days. Treatment onset was delayed in the majority of cases, and the average time elapsing from diagnostic biopsy to onset of primary treatment was 72.3 ± 54.0 days. The odds of treatment delay were higher among the women with a low educational level. Conclusions: The results underline the need for proposals aimed at early detection, identification of risk factors and timely provision of treatment by health managers that focus on this group. Creative Commons Attribution License

  4. The Prevalence of the Beta Thalassemia Trait among the Pregnant Women who attended the ANC Clinic in a PHC, by using the NESTROF Test in Bangalore, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Masthi, N R Ramesh; Niveditha, Sr; Suvarna, R

    2013-07-01

    Contaxt: Every year in India 6000 to 8000 children are born with thalassaemia major. The birth of such a child produces considerable physical and economic strain on the affected child, its family and the community at large. Thus, the emphasis must shift from the treatment to the prevention of such births in the future. To find out the prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics in a Primary Health Centre, by using the NESTROF test; to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the study subjects, to find out the pregnancies which were 'at risk' of delivering babies with Thalassaemia major and to find out the 'awareness' of the pregnant women regarding Thalassaemia. This exploratory study was conducted in a PHC which was attached to the Department of Community Medicine of a medical college which was situated in Bangalore, India, for a period of 3 months. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic and the husbands of the NESTROF positive women were included in the study. The details regarding the sociodemographic characteristics of the women were collected on a structured proforma and the NESTROF test was performed. Out of the 210 pregnant women who were tested, 18 (8.5%) were thalassaemia carriers. 12 (66.6%) of them were between 20 - 25 years of age. 5 (27.7%) were born out of 2(nd) degree consanguineous marriages. 7 (38.8%) had a history of abortions, among which 6 (33.3%) were in the 1(st) trimesters of their pregnancies. Out of the 18 positive women, 9 (50%) had turned up with their husbands. All of the husbands were negative for the Thalassaemia carrier status. Thus, there was no pregnancy which was at a risk of delivering babies with thalassaemia major. None (100%) of the pregnant women were aware of the disease, thalassaemia. The prevalence of the Beta Thalassaemia trait among the pregnant women was 8.5%.

  5. Risk factors for syphilis and hiv infection in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, K.; Bano, K.A.; Sherwani, M.I.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Attending a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening.

  7. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Attending a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:29114264

  8. The Traditional Birth Attendant in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning: A Guide to Her Training and Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderese, Maria de Lourdes; Turnbull, Lily M.

    The publication provides guidelines for assisting developing countries in determining strategies for the utilization and training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs). TBA's are persons (usually women in rural areas) who assist the mother at childbirth and who initially acquired their skills through experience rather than formal training. After…

  9. Contraceptive choices among women attending the fertility research unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E Shehu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most sensitive and intimate decisions made by any individual or couple is that of fertility control . The knowledge of the factors which influence contraceptive choices may increase its acceptance and uptake. This study determines the choice and reason for contraception among new clients attending the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study a structured questionnaire was administered to 251 consecutive clients, who attended the Fertility Research Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto between 1 July 2008 and 31 December 2008. Results: Most (58.2% of the clients were between 21 and 30 years of age. Many (42.6% were grand multipara. Majority (76.9% of the clients were married. The main source of knowledge of contraception and referral (45.8% was the physicians. Child spacing (87.7% was the most common reason given for contraceptive use. Majority (55.8% of the clients chose Implanon and the least preferred method of contraception was the condom (2.0%. Conclusion: Our data shows that the most commonly chosen contraceptive method in the study population was the Implanon. Child spacing was the main reason for seeking family planning while the source of contraceptive knowledge was the physicians.

  10. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Lykke-Sylvest, Randi; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34–39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen....... A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards...... and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s...

  11. Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum in sexually active women attending public health clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobão, T N; Campos, G B; Selis, N N; Amorim, A T; Souza, S G; Mafra, S S; Pereira, L S; Dos Santos, D B; Figueiredo, T B; Marques, L M; Timenetsky, J

    2017-08-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum and U. parvum have been associated with genital infections. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of ureaplasmas and other sexually transmitted infections in sexually active women from Brazil and relate these data to demographic and sexual health, and cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β. Samples of cervical swab of 302 women were examined at the Family Health Units in Vitória da Conquista. The frequency of detection by conventional PCR was 76·2% for Mollicutes. In qPCR, the frequency found was 16·6% for U. urealyticum and 60·6% U. parvum and the bacterial load of these microorganisms was not significantly associated with signs and symptoms of genital infection. The frequency found for Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis was 3·0%, 21·5%, 42·4% and 1·7%, respectively. Higher levels of IL-1β were associated with control women colonized by U. urealyticum and U. parvum. Increased levels of IL-6 were associated with women who exhibited U. parvum. Sexually active women, with more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months, living in a rural area were associated with increased odds of certain U. parvum serovar infection.

  12. Deriving a clinical prediction rule to target sexual healthcare to women attending British General Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, N L; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Bremner, S A; Jones, C I; Gersten, A; deVisser, R O

    2018-07-01

    Some women attending General Practices (GPs) are at higher risk of unintended pregnancy (RUIP) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than others. A clinical prediction rule (CPR) may help target resources using psychosocial questions as an acceptable, effective means of assessment. The aim was to derive a CPR that discriminates women who would benefit from sexual health discussion and intervention. Participants were recruited to a cross-sectional survey from six GPs in a city in South-East England in 2016. On arrival, female patients aged 16-44 years were invited to complete a questionnaire that addressed psychosocial factors, and the following self-reported outcomes: 2+ sexual partners in the last year (2PP) and RUIP. For each sexual risk, psychosocial questions were retained from logistic regression modelling which best discriminated women at risk using the C-statistic. Sensitivity and specificity were established in consultation with GP staff. The final sample comprised N = 1238 women. 2PP was predicted by 11 questions including age, binge-drinking weekly, ever having a partner who insulted you often, current smoking, and not cohabiting (C-statistic = 0.83, sensitivity = 73% and specificity = 77%). RUIP was predicted by 5 questions including sexual debut years, and emergency contraception use in the last 6 months (C-statistic = 0.70, sensitivity = 69% and specificity = 57%). 2PP was better discriminated than RUIP but neither to a clinically-useful degree. The finding that different psychosocial factors predicted each outcome has implications for prevention strategies. Further research should investigate causal links between psychosocial factors and sexual risk. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women attending three infertility clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.

  14. Social aspects related to smoking in an elderly population attending the Health Family Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kümpel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Smoking habits increase occurred in the XX century, especially in the 50-60ths decades; countries like Brazil and Spain, among others, saw a significant decrease of its consume in the 1990ths decade; however, social repercussions were harmful for a long period of time. Objectives: Assess the social aspects related to smoking in an elderly population; evaluate the main social factors that led to smoking. One hundred and sixty subjects with 60 or more years were included into two groups: non-smoking (G1 (N=80 and smoking (G2(N=80 groups; both had a smoking history over 20 packs/years, e.g., equivalent of one smoked pack per day for 20 years; and also those who did not present dementia or any condition that would not allow them to respond the questionnaires applied in the study. All subjects included attended the health family program in the Capão Redondo region, São Paulo (SP city, Brazil. Mean age was: 66.7+ 5.95 and 67+13 years G1 and G2, minimum and maximum age was 60 and 80 years old, respectively. Mean house residents were: 3.45 + 1.57 and 4.6 +2.1 of G1 and G2, respectively, having more smokers with lower financial and educational resources; an illiterate presented a significant higher risk then a subject with completed undergraduation. Smoking brings important social repercussions over families; parents/friends that smoke are significant stronger related risk factors for other people to start smoking.

  15. [Intimate partner violence and family dysfunction among Mexican women seen a Primary Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Mora, M I; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for intimate-partner violence (IPV) in women who attended a Family Medicine Unit in Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 297 women were interviewed and evaluated using two validated scales: violence and severity index and family APGAR to assess family functioning and IPV respectively. The mean age (± SD) was 40.6±13.8 years, and 120 (40.4%) women had suffered IPV: 47 (15.8%) psychological violence; 31 (10.4%) sexual violence; 77 (25.9%) physical violence, and in 19 (6.4%) there were actions that threatened the lives of women. The most common causes of domestic violence were women who reported that their partner had been jealous, or suspicion from friends (37.4%). Twenty two (7.4%) of the women with domestic violence reported that they had sought help. The prevalence of IPV was high and associated with the education level of the couple and family functioning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  17. Predicting College Women's Career Plans: Instrumentality, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra E.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how college women's instrumentality and expectations about combining work and family predicted early career development variables. Specifically, 177 undergraduate women completed measures of instrumentality (i.e., traits such as ambition, assertiveness, and risk taking), willingness to compromise career for family, anticipated…

  18. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 oct. 2010 ... Technology helps Asian women balance family and work ... eHomemakers believes that acquiring micro-business skills can increase women's confidence and improve family well-being. This is the goal ... HarassMap permet de relever les incidents de harcèlement sexuel et de violence sexuelle en Égypte.

  19. Factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening among women aged 30-60 years in Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budkaew, Jiratha; Chumworathayi, Bandit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with women's decisions to attend cervical cancer screening and to explore those linked with intention to attend in the coming year and to continue regular screening. A community based case-control study was conducted among woman 30-60 years of age in catchment area of Chatapadung Contracting Medical Unit (CCMU), networking of Khon Kaen Center Hospital, Thailand. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data, and in-depth interviews were then performed to explore in greater detail. There were 195 participants. Only one third (32.3 %) had been screened for cervical cancer within the past 5 years. Some 67.7% reported that they had not been screened because they had no abnormal symptoms, single marital status, and no children. Only 10.6% of those never had screening intent to be screened within the next 12 months. High family income (adjusted OR=2.16, 95%CI=1.13-4.14), good attitude towards a Pap test (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.09-4.23), and having received a recommendation from health care providers were important factors associated with decisions to attend cervical cancer screening (OR=1.73, 95%CI=1.01-4.63). From in-depth interviews, there were five reasons of their decisions to attend cervical cancer screening including yearly check-up, postpartum check-up, having abnormal symptom, encouragement by health care providers, and request from workplace. High family income, good attitude towards a Pap test, and receiving proper recommendation by health care providers, were important factors associated with decision to have cervical cancer screening among women 30-60 years old. Trying to enhance these factors and reduce barriers regarding screening, may increase the coverage rate for cervical cancer screening in Thailand.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among Igbo women of south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Joe-Ikechebelu, N N; Obiajulu, F N

    2005-11-01

    A total of 200 Nigerian women visiting Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital's antenatal clinic were interviewed about their knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning. About 90% were literate. Their knowledge (80%) and approval (87%) of family planning was high, but the practice of modern family planning was low (25%) with most women involved in Billings/safe period (56%). The common methods used were Billings/safe period, condom, withdrawal and the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). A total of 81.5% of the respondents are still willing to give birth while 77% agreed that their last pregnancy was planned. A total of 58.5% of respondents were educated about family planning in the antenatal clinic. The most common source of family planning information was mass media, closely followed by health workers, while the most common single reason for non-practice of family planning was rejection by the husband. We therefore conclude that despite the high education/literacy with the attendant and high knowledge and approval rate of family planning in this part of Nigeria, the practice of family planning is still low, especially due to partner objection. Policy makers should therefore increase male involvement in family planning programmes and pursue a more aggressive public awareness campaign.

  1. Determinants of family planning service uptake and use of contraceptives among postpartum women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Katelyn M; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Kiene, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    Uganda has one of the highest unmet needs for family planning globally, which is associated with negative health outcomes for women and population-level public health implications. The present cross-sectional study identified factors influencing family planning service uptake and contraceptive use among postpartum women in rural Uganda. Participants were 258 women who attended antenatal care at a rural Ugandan hospital. We used logistic regression models in SPSS to identify determinants of family planning service uptake and contraceptive use postpartum. Statistically significant predictors of uptake of family planning services included: education (AOR = 3.03, 95 % CI 1.57-5.83), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 7.15, 95 % CI 1.58-32.37), partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.80, 95 % CI 1.36-2.37), and perceived need of contraceptives (AOR = 2.57, 95 % CI 1.09-6.08). Statistically significant predictors of contraceptive use since delivery included: education (AOR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.95), prior use of contraceptives (AOR = 10.79, 95 % CI 1.40-83.06), and partner communication about contraceptives (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.34-2.44). Education, partner communication, and perceived need of family planning are key determinants of postpartum family planning service uptake and contraceptive use, and should be considered in antenatal and postnatal family planning counseling.

  2. Help or hindrance? South Asian women in the family firm

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, Spinder; Scott, Jonathan; Hussain, Javed

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the often neglected issue of the contribution of South Asian women to both entrepreneurship and the management of family businesses. We conceptualise the family as a highly gendered institution. Two in-depth case studies, as illustrative typological exemplars, were undertaken with Asian women entrepreneurs who share both ownership and management of larger businesses which are household names, yet represent a tiny fraction of the Asian women in business. Respondents wer...

  3. Women's Employment and Family Stability In Nigeria: A Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the experiences of working women in Ibadan metropolis and its impact on family stability. A total of 156 working women, both in the formal and informal sectors of the economy, participated in the study. Since the majority of Nigerian women are engaged in the informal sector, a larger proportion of ...

  4. Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Waldfogel

    1998-01-01

    As the gender gap in pay between women and men has been narrowing, the 'family gap' in pay between mothers and nonmothers has been widening. One reason may be the institutional structure in the United States, which has emphasized equal pay and opportunity policies but not family policies, in contrast to other countries that have implemented both. The authors now have evidence on the links between one such family policy and women's pay. Recent research suggests that maternity leave coverage, b...

  5. Breastfeeding practice and knowledge among women attending primary health-care centers in Riyadh 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah Faleh Al-Mutairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast milk is the best natural essential nutrition to newborns and infants. However, the practice of breastfeeding (BF has declined in Saudi Arabia. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of BF with their determinants among mothers in Riyadh. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 252 mothers attending the well-baby clinics in Riyadh from March 2016 to May 2017 were selected randomly with their consent and studied by a standardized questionnaire. Results: Of the 252 women, 69.4% were 25–35 years of age and 56.7% with a bachelor degree or higher education. Nearly 75% mothers had education on BF before our study. Mixed feeding was the most preferred method (51.6% followed by artificial milk (29.4%. The most reported reason for discontinuing BF was breast milk insufficiency (37.3% and of breastfeed continuation was their perceived benefit (36.6%. Excellent knowledge was observed among 12.7%, good knowledge in 57.1%, and unsatisfactory level in 30.2% mothers. The regression model shows that high school education improved the knowledge by 10.9 points (P = 0.024 and undergraduate by 18.7 points (P value = 0.001 when compared to women who were literate. Women with parity> 5 improved knowledge score by 17.3 points (P < 0.001. Conclusion: We observed that majority (57.1% of Saudi mothers had a moderate level of knowledge on BF benefits and 19% had practiced exclusive BF. There is a need for better educational programs to increase awareness on its benefits for the health situation in the country on the long term.

  6. Employed Women: Family and Work--Reciprocity and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore-Guinn, Ada L.; Akcali, F. Ozge; Fledderus, Susan Winter

    1999-01-01

    In a study of 173 employed women, family environment predicted four areas of job satisfaction: present work, pay, supervisor, and job in general. There was a correspondence between values related to family and to job and between abilities expressed in the family environment and in work. Social forces impinged on job satisfaction. (SK)

  7. Women's attitudes towards receiving family planning services from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are age, level of education, knowledge about family planning benefits and districts. Conclusion: Women's perception towards family planning services delivered by CHWs in Western region in Kenya is quite low. To improve the demand and supply for family planning services in this region, there is need to invest a ...

  8. The Role of the Family and Women Under Contemporary Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Suzanne; Seymour, Lee

    This paper examines how selected aspects of contemporary urban environment influence the form and function of the family and the position of women within the family and within society. The study was undertaken within the framework of Marxian analysis and with a specific focus on how advanced industrial capitalism perpetuates the family in its…

  9. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  10. Status of women and family planning: the Indian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, K E

    1989-06-01

    This article examines the extent to which the status of women is related to awareness, knowledge, and practice of family planning in India. It uses both macro-level data for the states of India and date from household surveys and field studies to assess the extent of interaction between the women's status indicators and family planning indicators. Results show a definite statistical relationship between women's status and women's ability to control fertility. The strongest relationship to adoption of family planning is the educational attainment of women, followed by age at marriage, and women's work participation, particularly in nonagricultural activities. Evidence from various surveys on the effects of crucial variables on reproductive behavior include 1) a marked reduction in fertility with increases in the educational level; 2) lower fertility for working women, and especially for non-manual workers; 3) a reduction in fertility with increases in age at marriage; and 4) a higher percentage of couples practicing family planning who have 2 or more surviving children, particularly if they have boys. A 1972 survey of 3 Indian states showed that 1) husbands impose a variety of restrictions on wives, with rural husbands placing more restrictions than urban husbands; 2) women's role in decision making in household affairs is positively correlated with the degree of awareness and knowledge of contraceptives as well as adoption of family planning; and 3) interspousal communication was significantly related to the practice of family planning in both rural and urban areas. In conclusion, to help encourage adoption of family planning and reduce fertility, India should 1) emphasize education for women, 2) enforce the legal minimum age at marriage, 3) promote employment opportunities for women, 4) improve women's role in decision making, and 5) encourage interspousal communication in family affairs.

  11. Women behind the Scenes in Family Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    The success of family businesses is largely due to a circular relationship in which three intangible factors enhance each other: love for the family business, trust among different business factors, and freedom of behaviour for family members (Gallo et al., 2001). These values are the cornerstone on which family members base their commitment to the business. But how can family members of advanced generations, especially those who are not active in the business, become more comm...

  12. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Azerkan

    Full Text Available Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women's perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend.Eight focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis.The main theme was "Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders". Investigation of women's rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities.The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women to attend.

  13. When Life Got in the Way: How Danish and Norwegian Immigrant Women in Sweden Reason about Cervical Screening and Why They Postpone Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerkan, Fatima; Widmark, Catarina; Sparén, Pär; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tillgren, Per; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden have an increased risk of cervical cancer compared to Swedish-born women. In addition, Danish and Norwegian immigrant women follow the national recommendations for attendance at cervical screening to much lesser extent than Swedish-born women. The aim of this study was to explore how Danish and Norwegian immigrant women in Sweden reason about attending cervical screening, focusing on women's perceptions as to why they and their compatriots do not attend. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with Danish and Norwegian immigrant women living in Stockholm. The women were between 26 and 66 years of age at the time of the FGDs, and were aged between <1 and 48 years old when they immigrated to Sweden. A FGD guide was used, which included questions related to cervical screening, and obstacles and motivators to attend cervical screening. The FGDs were tape recorded and transcribed, and the results analysed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "Women have a comprehensive rationale for postponing cervical screening, yet do not view themselves as non-attenders". Investigation of women's rationale for non-attendance after being invited to cervical screening revealed some complex reasons related to immigration itself, including competing needs, organisational and structural factors and differences in mentality, but also reasons stemming from other factors. Postponing attendance at cervical screening was the category that linked all these factors as the reasons to why women did not attend to cervical screening according to the recommendations of the authorities. The rationale used to postpone cervical screening, in combination with the fact that women do not consider themselves to be non-attenders, indicates that they have not actively taken a stance against cervical screening, and reveals an opportunity to motivate these women to attend.

  14. The Closing Digital Divide: Delivery Modality and Family Attendance in the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Liu, Na

    2018-01-22

    Although family-focused, evidence-based programs (EBPs) have the potential to reduce disparities in health and behavioral outcomes for youth, access to such programs is severely limited in the most affected areas, including African American communities in the rural South. As expanding the reach of EBPs is the primary goal of translational research, interest is growing in the potential of technology as a viable platform to disseminate services to areas with limited resources. To test whether African American families in the rural South would be willing to engage in a technology-based family-focused EBP to prevent adolescent risk behavior, we examined attendance using data from two arms of a three-arm community-based trial of the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) program. In the overall study, sixth graders (N = 412) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) in-person, small group sessions led by facilitators; (b) self-directed, technology-based sessions; or (c) a literature control with home-mailed educational materials. Results indicated that attendance was higher in the technology condition than in the small group condition. Parental age, education, and socioeconomic status did not limit attendance in the technology condition. We conclude from these results that the use of technology can be an acceptable strategy for disseminating parenting EBPs to African American families in the rural South.

  15. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Sylvest, Randi; Nyboe Andersen, Anders; Pinborg, Anja; Westring Hvidman, Helene; Schmidt, Lone

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34-39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. A sample of 10 single women and 10 cohabiting women was chosen with equal distribution of postgraduate education length. Data were analysed using content analysis following the method of Graneheim and Lundman and consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ). The general attitude towards family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a 'ticking biological clock' and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s and may be useful in a fertility assessment and counselling setting.

  16. The return of the Traditional Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lane

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.

  17. The effect of community maternal and newborn health family meetings on type of birth attendant and completeness of maternal and newborn care received during birth and the early postnatal period in rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Danika; Frew, Aynalem Hailemichael; Mohammed, Hajira; Desta, Binyam Fekadu; Tadesse, Lelisse; Aklilu, Yeshiwork; Biadgo, Abera; Buffington, Sandra Tebben; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and newborn deaths occur predominantly in low-resource settings. Community-based packages of evidence-based interventions and skilled birth attendance can reduce these deaths. The Maternal and Newborn Health in Ethiopia Partnership (MaNHEP) used community-level health workers to conduct prenatal Community Maternal and Newborn Health family meetings to build skills and care-seeking behaviors among pregnant women and family caregivers. Baseline and endline surveys provided data on a random sample of women with a birth in the prior year. An intention-to-treat analysis, plausible net effect calculation, and dose-response analysis examined increases in completeness of care (mean percentage of 17 maternal and newborn health care elements performed) over time and by meeting participation. Regression models assessed the relationship between meeting participation, completeness of care, and use of skilled providers or health extension workers for birth care-controlling for sociodemographic and health service utilization factors. A 151% increase in care completeness occurred from baseline to endline. At endline, women who participated in 2 or more meetings had more complete care than women who participated in fewer than 2 meetings (89% vs 76% of care elements; P care completeness (P care were nearly 3 times more likely to have used a skilled provider or health extension worker for birth care. Women who had additionally attended 2 or more meetings with family members were over 5 times as likely to have used these providers, compared to women without antenatal care and who attended fewer than 2 meetings (odds ratio, 5.19; 95% confidence interval, 2.88-9.36; P care by engaging women and family caregivers in self-care and care-seeking, resulting in greater completeness of care and more highly skilled birth care. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Posttraumatic stress disorder in women with war missing family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraković, Devla; Avdibegović, Esmina; Sinanović, Osman

    2014-12-01

    Research in crisis areas indicate that survivors' responses to the forced disappearance of family members are similar to reactions to other traumatic events. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women with war missing family members in Bosnia and Herzegovina 18 years after the war in this region (1992-1995). The study included 160 women aged 47.1±14.0 from three regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was carried out in the period from April 2010 to May 2011. Of the 160 participants, 120 women had a war missing family member and 40 women had no war missing family members. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) were used for data collection. Basic socio-demographic data and data concerning the missing family members were also collected. Women with war missing family members experienced significantly more traumatic war experiences (18.43±5.27 vs 6.57±4.34, pfamily members. Women with war missing family members showed significantly more severe PTSD symptoms. Based on the results of this study, it was determined that the forced disappearance of a family member is an ambiguous situation that can be characterized as a traumatic experience.

  19. Anemia and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic in Wolayita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedefaw, Lealem; Ayele, Asrat; Asres, Yaregal; Mossie, Andualem

    2015-04-01

    Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem which affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of anemia among pregnant women. We conducted a facility based cross-sectional study on 363 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Wolayita Soddo Otona Hospital from January to March 2014. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaire based interview. Four milliliter of venous blood and five grams of fecal samples were collected from each pregnant woman. Hematological parameters were determined using CELL DYN 1800(®) (Abott, USA) Hematology analyzer. Stool samples were checked for intestinal parasites using both direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 39.94% (95% CI: 34.7 - 45.2%), of which the majority (60%) had moderate anemia. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.55±2.97 g/dl. Age 15-24 years (AOR: 9.89, 95%CI:2.68-21.41), family size >5 (AOR:7.74, 95%CI:4.15-16.47), multigravida (AOR:2.66, 95%CI:1.1.31-4.53), having low income (AOR:5.81, 95%CI:2.93-14.11), current clinical illness (AOR: 6.38, 95%CI:3.13-13.00), intestinal parasitic infection (AOR:2.41, 95%CI:1.08-5.81), no history of contraceptive usage (AOR:5.02 95%CI:2.21-11.47), being in third trimesters (AOR:11.37, 95%CI:4.56-24.82), history of excess menstrual bleeding (AOR:9.82, 95%CI:3.27-21.35) and low body mass index (AOR:9.44, 95%CI:7.79-22.18) were identified as independent predictors of anemia among pregnant women. Anemia prevalence was found out to be moderate public health importance. Identified risk factors should be considered for prevention and control of anemia among pregnant women.

  20. Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region.

  1. Report examines links among women's equality, smaller families, healthier children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This article reports on a new study by Nancy Riley about the relationship between gender equality and fertility and mortality declines in developing countries. Findings indicate that mortality and fertility has declined in countries without gender equality. Fertility and child mortality decline is related to women's educational status and employment. Riley argues that women's power to make decisions about health care, contraception, and the timing and number of children, if affected by education and paid employment, is more likely to lower mortality and fertility. Women's power may decline in countries where women's education and employment are advanced, but their role in society remains that of mothers. All developing countries showed a relationship between the amount of education and family size and child health. Fertility tends to be lowest among highly educated women. However, women's education has a stronger effect on child health and mortality. Maternal education also affects child nutritional status. Women's education offers women the option of job opportunities and new values or ideas. Women's employment may result in increased resources and status or in poverty and heavy physical labor. Societal views of women's work may reflect an increased self-worth for working women or lower status or the failure of a husband to adequately provide for family welfare. The key to the impact of women's employment is whether work becomes a way to achieve greater power for women in decision making about child welfare and family planning. Employment outside the home educates. In most countries, women who worked for cash had fewer children, but differences in fertility between working and nonworking women range from small to large. Higher income for Nigerian women means more children. Women's work also has inconsistent effects on child health.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression among women attending primary health care centers in Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamala A. Bawahab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To measure the prevalence of antenatal depression among pregnant women attending the primary health care (PHC antenatal care clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to determine associated factors. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study design, 320 pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics in the Ministry of Health PHC Centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1st 2017 and February 15th 2017 were interviewed. A self-administered questionnaire used for data collection asked about socio-demographic variables and included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results: The most common contributor was the harming herself (mean±SD, 2.7±0.60. Factors significantly associated with depression among participants were the number of daughters, previous diagnosis of depression, and financial problems. Conclusions: The prevalence of antepartum depression among pregnant women in Jeddah is 57.5%, and the greatest contributor is the thought of harming herself.

  3. Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    Full Text Available Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia.Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population.Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed

  4. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  5. High HIV prevalence among a high-risk subgroup of women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shruti H; Gupta, Amita; Sahay, Seema; Godbole, Sheela V; Joshi, Smita N; Reynolds, Steven J; Celentano, David D; Risbud, Arun; Mehendale, Sanjay M; Bollinger, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    To investigate changes over a decade in prevalence and correlates of HIV among high-risk women attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Pune, India, who deny a history of commercial sex work (CSW). Cross-sectional. From 1993 to 2002, 2376 women attending 3 STI clinics in Pune were offered HIV screening. Women who denied CSW were included (n = 1020). Of 1020 women, 21% were HIV infected. The annual HIV prevalence increased from 14% in 1993 to 29% in 2001-2002 (P women were older, more often employed, less likely to be currently married, and more likely to report condom use. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with HIV were calendar period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9 for 1997-1999 vs. 1993-1996; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0; AOR, 2.3 for 2000-2002 vs. 1993-1996; 95% CI, 1.5-3.6), lack of formal education (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9), having been widowed (AOR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.6-6.1), current employment (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6), and genital ulcer disease on examination (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.7). Women attending STI clinics in India who deny a history of CSW represent a small, hidden subgroup, likely put at risk for HIV because of high-risk behavior of their male partners, generally their husbands. Educational and awareness efforts that have targeted other subgroups in India (men and CSWs) should also focus on these hard-to-reach women. Risk reduction in this subgroup of Indian women would also be expected to reduce perinatal infections in India.

  6. Do Highly Educated Women Choose Smaller Families?

    OpenAIRE

    Hazan, Moshe; Zoabi, Hosny

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that in developed countries income and fertility are negatively correlated. We present new evidence that between 2001 and 2009 the cross-sectional relationship between fertility and women's education in the U.S. is U-shaped. At the same time, average hours worked increase monotonically with women's education. This pattern is true for all women and mothers to newborns regardless of marital status. In this paper, we advance the marketization hypothesis for explainin...

  7. Domestic Workers and Career Women: The Dilemma of Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic Workers and Career Women: The Dilemma of Family Stability. ... Sociological research on paid domestic work has increased substantially in ... This paper sets out therefore to answer the following questions: who benefits in the long ...

  8. Family Planning Needs of Women Experiencing Severe Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Morbidity in Accra, Ghana: Another Missed Opportunity? ... was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use .... Of the 19 women who wanted more children, more than half ...

  9. Family Policy, Women's Access to Paid Work and Decommodification

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Alexander Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I present a new analytical approach to the study of women's employment. Using data on 18 OECD countries from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP), I model cross-national variation in "the gap" between women's orientations toward work and family and their employment trajectories over the life course. The existence of a gap at the individual level indicates that a woman followed an employment trajectory that is inconsistent with her work-family orientations--for e...

  10. Economic Hardship and Depression Among Women in Latino Farmworker Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulgar, Camila A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia; Ip, Edward H; Arcury, Thomas A; Quandt, Sara A

    2016-06-01

    Farmworker family members risk poor mental health due to stressors including poverty, relocation, and documentation status. This paper explores the relationship between farm-work related stressors and depressive symptoms in women of Latino farmworker families. 248 mothers of young children completed fixed-response interviews in Spanish. Measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory, and USDA Household Food Security Survey Module. Bivariate analyses indicated greater depressive symptoms with more economic hardship, more farm work-related stressors, greater age, and being unmarried. In multivariable logistic regression, economic hardship remained the only factor associated with depressive symptoms. Greater economic hardship, but not general farm work-related stress, is a main factor associated with depression in women of Latino farmworker families. Maternal depression can have consequences for both mothers and families. Mental health services for women in farmworker families should be targeted to those with the greatest economic challenges.

  11. Prevalence of Malaria and Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending a traditional birth center as well as the effect of herbal remedies, gravidity, age, educational background and malaria prevention methods on their prevalence.Methods: Blood specimens were collected from 119 pregnant women attending a Traditional Birth Home in Benin City, Nigeria. Malaria parasitemia was diagnosed by microscopy while anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11 g/dL.Results: The prevalence of malaria infection was (OR=4.35 95% CI=1.213, 15.600; p=0.016 higher among primigravidae (92.1%. Pregnant women (38.5% with tertiary level of education had significantly lower prevalence of malaria infection (p=0.002. Malaria significantly affected the prevalence of anemia (p<0.05. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies (OR=2.973; 95% CI=1.206, 7.330; p=0.017. The prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia were not affected by malaria prevention methods used by the participants.Conclusion: The overall prevalence of malaria infection and anemia observed in this study were 78.9% and 46.2%, respectively. Higher prevalence of malaria infection was associated with primigravidae and lower prevalence with tertiary education of subjects. Anemia was associated with consumption of herbal remedies. There is urgent need to control the prevalence of malaria and anemia among pregnant women attending traditional birth homes.

  12. ITN utilization among pregnant women attending ANC in Etsako West Lga, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagbatsoma, V A; Aigbe, E E

    2010-06-01

    To determine the factors affecting utilization of ITN by pregnant women in Etsako West LGA, Edo State. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 385 respondents were selected from all ANC facilities in the LGA following a verbally obtained consent. Tool for data collection was a semi-structured, researcher administered questionnaire. The respondents' knowledge of cause of malaria was good, as 269 (69%) had good knowledge but only 9 (2.3%) knew its effects on the foetus. Meanwhile, ownership of ITN and its use were very low, 36 (9.3%) and 31 (8.0) respectively. The main factor affecting the use of the commodity in the LGA was unavailability of ITNs. Other factors included belief of the women on the effectiveness of the commodity, level of education, marital status and family sizes ofrespondents. Use of Insecticide treated bed net has been hampered by unavailability of the commodity. It is therefore recommended that efforts should be made to make the commodity available to reduce morbidity and mortality among this vulnerable group.

  13. Family Planning Needs of Women Experiencing Severe Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with severe maternal morbidity represent an important group to target for increasing contraceptive uptake. Our objective was to explore the future fertility intentions, use of family planning including methods and reasons for not wanting to use contraception among a group of women who had traumatic delivery ...

  14. Indigenous Women College Students' Perspectives on College, Work, and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Jennie L.; Adolpho, Quintina Bearchief; Jackson, Aaron P.; Alexitch, Louise R.

    2014-01-01

    Native American and First Nations (herein collectively referred to as Indigenous) women college students are faced with the challenge of balancing their cultural imperatives and the demands of the dominant Western culture in family, school, and work/employment roles. In order to explore these women's experiences and perspectives, this study…

  15. Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family…

  16. Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. Methods Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population. Results Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of

  17. An interview-based study of non-attendance at screening for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marie; Lindholt, Jes; Søgaard, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    and mortality. Whether non-attendees need targeted information to participate in screening is unknown. Thus, it is important to explore the reasons for non-attendance, particularly as non-attendees' perspectives have not been fully explored. DESIGN: AN INTERVIEW STUDY: METHODS: The data were obtained through...... semi-structured interviews with 10 women sampled from a population who declined to participate in a women's screening program for CVD and DM. Additionally, reflective notes on the interview context were documented. The data were collected in 2013. Kvale and Brinkmann's method for data analysis......, whether non-attendance is determined by an informed decision is questionable. Negative experiences with the healthcare system led to hesitation toward screening in general. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study is relevant to healthcare workers as well as decision makers from a screening...

  18. Seroprevalence and determinants of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Christiana; Makasa, Mpundu; Sitali, Lungowe; Michelo, Charles

    2017-01-05

    Toxoplasmosis is a neglected zoonotic disease which is prevalent among pregnant women especially in Africa. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and determinants of the disease among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH). A cross-sectional study was employed where 411 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at UTH were interviewed using closed ended questionnaires. Their blood was also tested for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Combo Rapid test cassettes by CTK Biotech, Inc, USA. The overall seroprevalence of the infection (IgG) was 5.87%. There was no seropositive IgM result. Contact with cats showed 7.81 times the risk of contracting the infection in the pregnant women and being a farmer/being involved in construction work showed 15.5 times likelihood of contracting the infection. Socio-economic status of the pregnant women also presented an inverse relationship (showed association) with the infection graphically. However, though there were indications of association between contact with cats, employment type as well as socioeconomic status of the pregnant women with the infection, there was not enough evidence to suggest these factors as significant determining factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in our study population. There is a low prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Screening for the infection among pregnant women can be done once or twice during pregnancy to help protect both mother and child from the disease. Health promotion among women of child bearing age on the subject is of immense importance in order to help curb the situation. Further studies especially that of case-control and cohort studies should be carried out in the country in order to better ascertain the extent of the condition nationwide.

  19. An approach to family planning for Indochinese refugee women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, N J

    1982-08-01

    Family planning services were introduced in Vietnam by the Americans about 20 years ago, but on a limited basis. Many of the Vietnamese refugee women have had no contact with such services. Abortion was illegal until 1975 in South Vietnam, but since the takeover, abortion clinics have been available as part of the public hospital system. Family planning was available in some of the refugee camps. Most of the Vietnam refugees fled their country by boat. Before their acceptance by Australia, the Vietnamese refugees have health checks by the Australian Commonwealth Health Department in the country of transit. Shortly after their arrival in Australia, health screening is done by the State Health Department. The majority of refugees are accommodated in migrant hostels for the 1st 3-12 months. Family planning is incorporated into Eastbridge Hostel's orientation program. During participation in some family planning discussion groups with the Indochinese refugees, it was observed that the women were particularly shy and hesitant to talk about sexual concerns in a large group or in mixed company. As personal matters are dealt with in the family, it is preferable to have a female as a discussion leader and interpreter. Visual aids such as a display of contraceptive devices, a model showing female anatomy and a family planning film for non-English speaking migrants are particularly useful. As a female doctor using a female interpreter the aim was to provide an accessible service for Indochinese women with family planning inquiries or gynecological problems. It is important that the interpreter is present in the consulting room. Nonverbal cues are most important and particular attention should be paid to establishing eye contact with the patient. Simple miming techniques or the use of diagrams may be helpful in reinforcing the work of the interpreter. When listening to the patient, it is useful to look and listen for nonverbal cues from them. Between February 1980 and May 1981

  20. Reproductive health and family planning needs among HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnquist, Clea C; Rahangdale, Lisa; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2013-03-01

    Review key topics and recent literature regarding reproductive health and family planning needs for HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Electronic searches performed in PubMed, JSTOR, and Web of Science; identified articles reviewed for inclusion. Most HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa bear children, and access to antiretroviral therapy may increase childbearing desires and/or fertility, resulting in greater need for contraception. Most contraceptive options can be safely and effectively used by HIV-infected women. Unmet need for contraception is high in this population, with 66- 92% of women reporting not wanting another child (now or ever), but only 20-43% using contraception. During pregnancy and delivery, HIV-infected women need access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services, a skilled birth attendant, and quality post-partum care to prevent HIV infection in the infant and maximize maternal health. Providers may lack resources as well as appropriate training and support to provide such services to women with HIV. Innovations in biomedical and behavioral interventions may improve reproductive healthcare for HIV-infected women, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, models of integrating HIV and PMTCT services with family planning and reproductive health services will be important to improve reproductive outcomes. HIV-infected women in Sub-Saharan Africa have myriad needs related to reproductive health, including access to high-quality family planning information and options, high-quality pregnancy care, and trained providers. Integrated services that help prevent unintended pregnancy and optimize maternal and infant health before, during and after pregnancy will both maximize limited resources as well as provide improved reproductive outcomes.

  1. Kinvolved: Utilizing Technology to Communicate, Evaluate, and Advocate for Improved Attendance and Family and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Miriam; Meis, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The American K-12 grade education system is experiencing a truancy crisis. Nationally, 15%, or 7.5 million students, miss an entire month of school annually [1], with that rate frequently doubling or even tripling among students from underserved communities [2]. Research has identified attendance as one of three primary indicators of high school…

  2. Seroprevalence of venereal disease among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Onitsha, Anambra State, Southeast, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbamara, S U; Obiechina, N J A

    2011-01-01

    Venereal Syphilis if not properly and timely treated has been noted to have devastating effects on the fetus and baby. Of all the sexually transmitted infections, however, venereal syphilis is one of the most commonly screened among antenatal women. This screening is usually limited to the tertiary institutions thereby leaving the women who attend private hospitals to a disadvantage. This current research is to determine the seroprevalence of venereal disease among women attending ANC in an Onitsha specialist private hospital and to ascertain the acceptability, and the feasibility of conducting the screening in a private setup. This cross sectional prospective study was conducted among women, who were on their first ANC visit at Grace Specialist Hospital, Nkpor, Southeast Nigeria. They were offered VDRL test by ELISA method and TPHA confirmation test to those who were seropositive to VDRL test. Two thousand nine hundred and ninety six women attended antenatal care during the study period but 1393 women took part in this study giving an uptake rate of 46.5%. The seroprevalence rate to venereal syphilis was 0.6%. Three out of the 8 seropositive results were confirmed with TPHA test. This gives a TPHA/VDRL ratio of 0.43. The highest range of occurrence was 25 29years. There was neither a significant association between age distribution and VDRL screening result (chi2 = 1.13; df =5; p = 0.951) nor between parity distribution and VDRL screening result (chi2 = 6.2; df = 6; p = 0.4007). Although the seroprevalence of venereal syphilis is low but routine universal screening of Venereal syphilis is possible in private hospitals and its establishment should be encouraged.

  3. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  4. Reasons for non-attendance to cervical screening and preferences for HPV self-sampling in Dutch women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosgraaf, Remko P; Ketelaars, Pleun J W; Verhoef, Viola M J; Massuger, Leon F A G; Meijer, Chris J L M; Melchers, Willem J G; Bekkers, Ruud L M

    2014-07-01

    High attendance rates in cervical screening are essential for effective cancer prevention. Offering HPV self-sampling to non-responders increases participation rates. The objectives of this study were to determine why non-responders do not attend regular screening, and why they do or do not participate when offered a self-sampling device. A questionnaire study was conducted in the Netherlands from October 2011 to December 2012. A total of 35,477 non-responders were invited to participate in an HPV self-sampling study; 5347 women did opt out. Finally, 30,130 women received a questionnaire and self-sampling device. The analysis was based on 9484 returned questionnaires (31.5%) with a self-sample specimen, and 682 (2.3%) without. Among women who returned both, the main reason for non-attendance to cervical screening was that they forgot to schedule an appointment (3068; 32.3%). The most important reason to use the self-sampling device was the opportunity to take a sample in their own time-setting (4763; 50.2%). A total of 30.9% of the women who did not use the self-sampling device preferred after all to have a cervical smear taken instead. Organisational barriers are the main reason for non-attendance in regular cervical screening. Important reasons for non-responders to the regular screening to use a self-sampling device are convenience and self-control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  6. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Teaching Hospital in 2014, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Getaneh, Zegeye

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a cesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labor or in the puerperium. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was used to assess the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among pregnant women attending antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital from January to April 2015. A total of 217 pregnant women were included in the study and a structured pretested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, nutritional factors, obstetrics and gynecological factors, history and clinical condition. Blood samples were collected for platelet count and other platelet parameters, which were determined by using SysmexKX 21 automation. The data were entered to Epi info version 6 software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Bivariable and multivariable statistical analyses were used to evaluate the effect of independent variable over the dependent variable. A p -value of women receiving antenatal care service at Gondar University Hospital participated in the study. Thrombocytopenia among 19 pregnant women showed a prevalence of 8.8%. The mean ± standard deviation platelet count was 238.85×10 9 /L (±74.57). Thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with patients who lived rurally (crude odds ratio =4.3, 95% confidence interval 1.48-12.76). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 8.8% predominantly with mild type of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia was higher among pregnant women who lived rurally. Therefore, health care providers should screen routinely for thrombocytopenia to avoid excessive bleeding during pregnancy, especially in women who live

  7. Why do women not return family history forms when referred to breast cancer genetics services? A mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Kirstie A; Steel, Michael; Goudie, David; McLeish, Lorna; Dunlop, Jackie; Myring, Jessica; Sullivan, Frank; Berg, Jonathan; Humphris, Gerry; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-10-01

    Personal and family data forms, completed by women referred to breast cancer genetics clinics, are valuable tools for verification and extension of family history, crucial steps in accurate risk evaluation. A significant minority of women do not complete and return these forms, despite reminders, even when completion is a pre-requisite for a clinic appointment. To facilitate access of women at increased familial risk of breast cancer to screening and counselling services by investigating reasons for non-return of the forms. Based on a single regional 'breast cancer family' service in the UK, Analysis of quantitative data comparing women who did not return forms (n = 55) with those who had done so (n = 59), together with qualitative evaluation of potential barriers to form-completion through semi-structured telephone interviews with a random subset of 'non-returners' (n = 23). Non-returners have higher proportions of the very young (below the age at which surveillance could be offered) and of women from lower social deprivation categories. Interviews revealed that the majority of non-returners are anxious, rather than unconcerned about their breast cancer risk and circumstances and attitudes contributed to non-compliance. Twenty-one participants confirmed that they would welcome an appointment at a 'breast cancer family' clinic, but nine did not attend for the appointment. They were significantly younger than those who attend, but were not at lower familial risk. Many women who fail to complete and return a family history form would benefit from risk assessment and genetic counselling. Several steps are suggested that might help them access the relevant services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The experience of family carers attending a joint reminiscence group with people with dementia: A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melunsky, Nina; Crellin, Nadia; Dudzinski, Emma; Orrell, Martin; Wenborn, Jennifer; Poland, Fiona; Woods, Bob; Charlesworth, Georgina

    2015-11-01

    Reminiscence therapy has the potential to improve quality of life for people with dementia. In recent years reminiscence groups have extended to include family members, but carers' experience of attending joint sessions is undocumented. This qualitative study explored the experience of 18 family carers attending 'Remembering Yesterday Caring Today' groups. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing carer support; shared experience; expectations (met and unmet), carer perspectives of the person with dementia's experience; and learning and comparing. Family carers' experiences varied, with some experiencing the intervention as entirely positive whereas others had more mixed feelings. Negative aspects included the lack of respite from their relative, the lack of emphasis on their own needs, and experiencing additional stress and guilt through not being able to implement newly acquired skills. These findings may explain the failure of a recent trial of joint reminiscence groups to replicate previous findings of positive benefit. More targeted research within subgroups of carers is required to justify the continued use of joint reminiscence groups in dementia care. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Attending to the Role of Race/Ethnicity in Family Violence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential…

  10. Anxiety and depression symptoms among women attending group-based patient education courses for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listøl, Wenche; Høberg-Vetti, Hildegunn; Eide, Geir Egil; Bjorvatn, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Women carrying BRCA -mutations are facing significant challenges, including decision making regarding surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. They often report that they are left alone with these important decisions. In order to enhance the genetic counselling session we organized a group-based patient education (GPE) course for women with BRCA -mutations. The study aims were to characterize women attending a group-based patient education (GPE) course for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, consider the usefulness of the course, evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression among the participants, and finally investigate whether their levels of anxiety and depression changed from before to after the course session. A prospective study was conducted. Two weeks before (T1) and 2 weeks after (T2) attending the GPE-course the participants received questionnaires by mail. We collected information on demographic- and medical variables, anxiety and depression using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), self-efficacy using The Bergen Genetic Counseling Self-Efficacy scale (BGCSES) and coping style using the Threatening Medical Situations Inventory (TMSI). A total of N  = 100 (77% response rate) women participated at baseline and 75 (58% response rate) also completed post-course assessment. The mean level of anxiety symptoms was elevated among participants but decreased significantly during follow-up. Lower anxiety symptom levels were associated with "longer time since disclosure of gene test result", "higher levels of self-efficacy" and having experienced "loss of a close relative due to breast or ovarian cancer". Lower depression symptom levels were associated with "higher levels of education" and "loss of a close relative due to breast or ovarian cancer". The women in this study seemed to benefit from the GPE course. Women newly diagnosed with a BRCA mutation who reported lower levels of self-efficacy and lower levels of education were more vulnerable. These

  11. Prevalence, reasons and predictors for home births among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Birnin Kudu, North-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashimi, Adewale Olufemi; Amole, Taiwo Gboluwaga

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence, reasons and predictors for home birth in a rural community. Descriptive cross sectional study which utilised a pretested interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire to assess the place of delivery in their last childbirth among 410 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Birnin Kudu, Nigeria. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relative effect of determinants. Of the 410 women, 248 (60.5%) delivered at home in their last childbirth. Self reported reasons: Home birth was opted for because of: lack of transportation 113 (45.6%), onset of labour was at night 104 (41.9 %), preferred birthing position 72 (29.0%), tradition 60 (24.2%), fear of surgery 42 (16.9%) and poor attitude of health workers 32 (12.9%). The odds of giving birth at home was 3.88 times higher in women with informal education (adjusted OR 3.88; 95% CI: 2.51, 6.00) and the odds of giving birth at home was 0.27 for women with less than 5 deliveries compared with women with 5 or more deliveries (adjusted OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.49) after controlling for confounders. The prevalence of home birth is high in Birnin Kudu and according to our respondents the main reasons for this practice are onset of labour late at night with lack of transportation and a limited choice of birthing positions. Provision of training and retraining of skilled birth attendants to assist women birthing in squatting positions would encourage women to deliver in the hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Attending to the role of race/ethnicity in family violence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A

    2007-08-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential role of race/ethnicity in family violence, and similarities and differences occurring across and within groups categorized based on race/ethnicity, are essential if adequate interventions are to be developed and utilized. This article provides suggestions on conducting better studies on family violence in the United States, particularly with respect to issues of race/ethnicity. The authors begin by considering conceptions and definitions of race/ethnicity and providing a broad definition of family violence. They then suggest issues for consideration at each stage of the research process, from reviewing previous research, to making methodological decisions, selecting samples, choosing measures, and analyzing and interpreting findings.

  13. Factors associated with nonuse of condoms in heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, V; Maayan, S

    1998-01-01

    To examine gender differences in HIV-related knowledge, perceived vulnerability, beliefs in self-control, type of sexual partnership, and their associations with nonuse of condoms. Heterosexual men and women who voluntarily attended an HIV testing clinic in Israel were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Scales of HIV knowledge and control and a single item for vulnerability were used. Type of sexual relationship (monogamous vs. nonmonogramous) and condom use in vaginal sex (never vs. ever) referred to the previous 6 months. Response rate was 84%; 154 men and 109 women participated. Beliefs in self-control did not form a reliable scale and single items were used. No statistically significant gender differences were found in knowledge, vulnerability, or beliefs in self-control. Levels of correct HIV-related knowledge were high, but so were some misconceptions. The vast majority (87%) perceived themselves as vulnerable to HIV infection. The beliefs in self-control were moderate in some items, and low in others. In logistic regression models, different factors were significantly associated with nonuse of condoms in the two genders: the belief that their lifestyle protected them against HIV infection (OR = 2.72, CI = 1.06-7.03) among men, and being monogamous (OR = 3.72, CI = 1.28-10.8) among women. Heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic need counseling to further lower misconceptions about HIV transmission and additional gender-specific counseling to address HIV-related beliefs.

  14. Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petal Petersen Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug (AOD use among pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa, despite the very high levels of AOD use in this part of the country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1% were intentionally subsampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Urinalyses showed that 8.8% (95% CI: 6.7–10.9 of the subsample tested positive for at least one illicit drug. This is higher than the self-reported prevalence (3.6%. In addition, 19.6% (95% CI: 16.3–22.8 of the sub-sample tested positive for alcohol which is lower than the self-reported prevalence (36.9%. There are high levels of substance use among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics. There is a need for routine screening for AOD use and appropriate responses depending on the women’s level of risk.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus: The prevalence, associated factors and foeto-maternal outcome of women attending antenatal care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azahadi Bin Omar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, its associated risk factors, foeto-maternal outcomes and prevalence of postnatal diabetes mellitus (DM. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using retrospective data from existing antenatal records of new antenatal women who registered at 72 public health clinics in Selangor in January 2014. Results: A total of 745 antenatal records were reviewed. The prevalence of GDM women was 27.9% (n = 184. GDM risks were higher in women aged 35 years old and above and in those with maternal obesity. GDM women had a higher risk of having a non-spontaneous vaginal delivery compared to non-GDM women. The prevalence of postnatal DM among GDM mother was 12.1%. Working GDM mothers were at higher risk of developing postnatal DM. Conclusion: The prevalence of GDM among newly registered women attending antenatal public health care in Selangor was higher than previous studies. Health care personnel need to be vigilant in screening women with risk factors.

  16. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  17. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Gajananda P; Subedi, Narayan; Thapa, Janak; Choulagai, Bishnu; Maskey, Mahesh K; Onta, Sharad R

    2014-03-19

    Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. The intervention package is designed to increase the utilization of skilled

  18. Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with negative health consequences for women and their pregnancies. While social support has a protective effect against IPV and reduces health consequences of violence, its association with experiencing IPV during...... pregnancy remain less explored. In our study we aimed to determine the effect of social support on IPV during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi, Tanzania Methods: The study was part of a prospective cohort study that assessed the impact of violence on reproductive health of 1......,116 participants. Pregnant women were enrolled below 24 weeks of gestation and followed until delivery. The experiences of social support and IPV during pregnancy were assessed at the 34th week of gestation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between social support and IPV...

  19. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  20. China's women leaders promote quality and equity in family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S

    1995-08-01

    In China, key policy-makers at the highest levels of government recognize that the success of the family planning (FP) program depends upon improving the status of Chinese women. The highest ranking female government official, Peng Peiyun, a State Councilor and the Minister of the State Family Planning (FP) Commission, has initiated a new policy of improving the quality of service in the FP program. She recognizes that women who are gainfully employed and control their income are less likely to desire large families. One aspect of the effort to improve quality involves training FP personnel in interpersonal communication and counseling skills. The results of a pilot training program show that clients are pleased with the new approach and that use of FP services has increased. The FP Commission is also experimenting with programs which integrate all the needs of women and their families (FP, credit availability, old age support) in rural areas. Traditionally, sons provided for their elderly parents, so families with only one daughter are concerned about old age provision. Thus, national efforts are underway to develop social security systems. In the meantime, women at all levels, from grassroots FP acceptors to FP staff members and researchers are the major contributors to the innovations which will allow China to control its population growth.

  1. The magnitude and correlates of Parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirambo, Mariam M; Maliki, Fatma; Majigo, Mtebe; Mushi, Martha F; Moremi, Nyambura; Seni, Jeremiah; Matovelo, Dismas; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-06-07

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection has been associated with congenital infection which may result into a number of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. The epidemiology and the magnitude of B19 infections among pregnant women have been poorly studied in developing countries. This study was done to establish preliminary information about the magnitude of B19 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and June 2015 among 258 pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics representing rural and urban areas in the city of Mwanza. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured data collection tool. Specific B19 IgM and IgG antibodies were determined using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (DRG Instruments GmbH, Germany). Data were analyzed using STATA version 11 software. The median age of study participants was 21 IQR (19-25) years. Of 253 pregnant women; 116(44.96%), 109(42.25%) and 33(12.79%) were in the first, second and third trimester respectively. The majority 168(66.4%) of women were from urban areas. Of 253 pregnant women, the overall prevalence of IgM was 83(32.8%) while that of IgG was 142(55.0%) among 258 women tested. A total of 50(19.4%) women were positive for both IgG and IgM indicating true IgM positive. History of baby with low birth weight (OR: 10, 95% CI: 1.82-58.05, P = 0.01) was independent predictor of B19 IgG seropositivity and being at the third trimester was protective (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.16-0.92, P = 0.03). The IgG titers were found to decrease significantly as gestational age increases (Spearman's rho = -0.2939, p = 0.0004) CONCLUSION: More than a half of pregnant women in Mwanza city are B19 IgG sero-positive with about one third of these being B19 IgM seropositive. Further studies to determine the impact of B19 infections among pregnant women and their newborns are recommended in developing countries.

  2. Psychosocial Characteristics and Obstetric Health of Women Attending a Specialist Substance Use Antenatal Clinic in a Large Metropolitan Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Burns

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper reports the findings comparing the obstetrical health, antenatal care, and psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women with a known history of substance dependence (n=41 and a comparison group of pregnant women attending a general antenatal clinic (n=47. Method. Face-to-face interviews were used to assess obstetrical health, antenatal care, physical and mental functioning, substance use, and exposure to violence. Results. The substance-dependent group had more difficulty accessing antenatal care and reported more obstetrical health complications during pregnancy. Women in the substance-dependent group were more likely to report not wanting to become pregnant and were less likely to report using birth control at the time of conception. Conclusions. The profile of pregnant women (in specialised antenatal care for substance dependence is one of severe disadvantage and poor health. The challenge is to develop and resource innovative and effective multisectoral systems to educate women and provide effective care for both women and infants.

  3. Factors influencing caries status and treatment needs among pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Udaipur city, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Tibdewal, Harish; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries along with the treatment needs; to determine the factors that influence dental caries status among pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Study sample comprised of 206 pregnant women attending a district maternity hospital in Udaipur, India. Clinical data were collected on dental caries by DMFT and treatment needs as described in World Health Organization Dentition status and Treatment needs. The overall caries prevalence was 87%. Mean caries experience differed significantly among women in various trimesters, it was found to be 3.59 and 3.00 in 1st and 2nd trimester subjects respectively while it was greatest (4.13) among those in 3rd trimester. One surface filling was the most predominant treatment need. Age and occupation of husband explained a variance of 6.8% and 4.2% for decayed and filled components respectively while the only predictor for missing teeth and DMFT that explained a variance of 9.6% and 5.7% respectively was trimester of pregnancy. Dental caries experience and the need for one surface restoration increased with age. Trimester of pregnancy was a significant predictor for missing teeth and DMFT, while decayed teeth and filled teeth were influenced by age and socio-economic level respectively. Key words:Dental caries, treatment needs, pregnant, age, trimester.

  4. ‘It was daunting’: Experience of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer attending for breast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathers, Sandra A.; McKenzie, Graham A.; Robertson, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A quarter of cancer cases worldwide are attributed to breast cancer. Imaging plays an important role in diagnosis and care. Increasing value is placed on patient experience to inform service delivery. The main aim was to explore the experiences of women attending for diagnostic tests prior to and after diagnosis in order to inform practice. Methods: A convenience sample (n = 16) was recruited throughout the North-east of Scotland. A qualitative, exploratory and longitudinal study design was employed using semi-structured interviews. Twenty five interviews took place, with seven participants taking part in a single interview, a further seven and one participants taking part in two and three interviews respectively. Interviews were recorded, transcripts produced and analysed following the thematic approach. Results: Twelve participants attended imaging after discovering a breast lump and four via breast screening. Participants demonstrated differing attitudes to printed information material, and this changed over time. Imaging was ‘something to just get on and have done’ and almost without exception mammography was described as painful. The descriptions of invasive breast imaging provide a hitherto unknown insight into these procedures. Skill and attitude of staff was described as essential to the quality of the experience. This longitudinal study enabled women returning for follow-up procedures to identify their issues. Conclusion: This study provided a unique insight of the experiences of women when attending breast imaging. By listening to their narrative we can learn how services may be improved, and include this perspective to develop a quality patient-centred imaging service

  5. The Effect of Family Characteristics on Higher Education Attendance in India: A Multivariate Logit Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Shaswati

    2015-01-01

    Family characteristics in terms of parental education and income are an important influence on individual's participation in higher education. In India it could be found that categorically those who are out of the higher education system belong to marginalized groups due to their economic class, caste, gender, religion etc. despite massive…

  6. Women's preference for traditional birth attendants and modern health care practitioners in Akpabuyo community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpabio, Idongesit I; Edet, Olaide B; Etifit, Rita E; Robinson-Bassey, Grace C

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of women who patronized traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or modern health care practitioners (MHCPs) was compared, including reasons for their choices. A comparative design was adopted to study 300 respondents selected through a multistage systematic random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was a validated 21-item structured questionnaire. We observed that 75 (25%) patronized and 80 (27%) preferred TBAs, and 206 (69%) patronized and 220 (75%) preferred MHCPs, while 19 (6%) patronized both. The view that TBAs prayed before conducting deliveries was supported by a majority 75 (94%) of the respondents who preferred them. Factors associated with preference for TBAs should be addressed.

  7. Family Conflicts and Violence against Women - An International Comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rendlová, Eliška

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2002), s. 6-8 ISSN 1213-9920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : public opinion * family conflicts * violence against women Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  8. Family Planning for women unable to tolerate oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N

    1974-04-08

    Should women with a family history of diabetes or myocardial infarcation, or women with abnormal blood glucose or cholesterol levels receive oral contraceptives? There is clear evidence that oral contraceptives can alter both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in certain women. The lipid alteration is mainly an elevation of the circulating triglyceride levels, and only rarely is cholesterol content altered. It is also clear from extensive research during the past ten years that women who already have subclinical abnormalities, either in their triglyceride levels (family hyperlipoproteinemia) or glucose tolerance, are at great risk for the development of clinical disease while using oral contraceptives. Accordingly, all pharmaceutical firms are required by the Food and Drug Administration to instruct physicians about these problems through the package inserts and other means. Specifically, the physician should be alerted by the patient's history, and then he should use the laboratory to confirm any suspicion of abnormalities of carbohydrate or lipid metabolism. If there is any abnormal blood glucose or triglyceride value, the oral contraceptives should not be prescribed. There are other forms of contraception available for child spacing. Mechanical contraceptives will not aggravate a metabolic disorder. A useful substitute then would be an intrauterine device plus vaginal foam. When the woman has completed her family, she should be all means be offered surgical sterilization as a permanent family planning technique.

  9. Knowledge and Perception about Family Planning Among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... The study adopted a qualitative and quantitative approach which included a survey of 136 randomly ... of awareness were many, very few women had adequate knowledge about family planning methods.

  10. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-03-17

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norhayati Moktar; Nor Liyana Ismail; Phoy Cheng Chun; Mohamad Asyrab Sapie; Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar; Yusof Suboh; Noraina Abdul Rahim; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond's medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator. Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays (76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese (15.1%), Indians (2.2%) and other ethnic groups (5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight (99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6%had less than 6 children. More than half (75.5%) of the women's last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge. Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  12. [Anorgasmy prevalence in women attended at Familiar Medicine Unit no. 1 in Obregon, Sonora, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda Sánchez, Oscar; Flores García, Eloísa; López del Castillo Sánchez, David; Cortés Gil, Humberto

    2005-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of anorgasmy in women. An observational, descriptive and transversal study was done from August 2002 to January 2003 surveying women with sexual activity in a clinic of the Mexican Institute of Social Security in Obregon, Sonora. The questionnaire was validated by the UNAM. The analyzed variables were: age, scholar degree, the age in which women started sexual activity, number of children, marital status, the number of sexual partners, pleasure to sex for the women, satisfaction and feeling like doing sex, who decides and begins to do sex, frequency of sexual intercourse, knowledge about orgasm and one's own experience, as well as psychosomatic symptoms. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi square test and Likert's scale. Seventy-three women were surveyed, with ages between 16 and 46 years. Anorgasmy frequency was of 6.8%; 53.4% of the women had secondary education and 37% superior education. Time of active sexual life varied between 1 and 30 years; the knowledge about orgasm was of 74%. The orgasmic dysfunction is lower in this region than that reported in the bibliography, this could be due to the greater scholar degree of women, social and cultural issues, and the women's independence. Nevertheless, the health team must be qualified to detect and treat it, in order to avoid complications.

  13. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis by PCR in Women Attending Health Screening in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Yong-Suk; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50.

  14. Managing Mental Health Problems Among Immigrant Women Attending Primary Health Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straiton, Melanie L; Powell, Kathryn; Reneflot, Anne; Diaz, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in Norway explore treatment options in primary care for immigrant women with mental health problems compared with nonimmigrant women. Three national registers were linked together for 2008. Immigrant women from Sweden, Poland, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and Russia were selected for analysis and compared with Norwegian women. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether treatment type varied by country of origin. Rates of sickness leave and psychiatric referrals were similar across all groups. Conversational therapy and use of antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower among Filipina, Thai, Pakistani, and Russian women than among Norwegians. Using the broad term "immigrants" masks important differences in treatment and health service use. By closely examining mental health treatment differences by country of origin, gaps in service provision and treatment uptake may be identified and addressed with more success.

  15. Gynecological complaints and their associated factors among women in a family health-care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus de Paula von Glehn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the most common gynecological complaints and possible associated factors among women of reproductive age attended at a family health-care clinic. Methodology: A transversal study conducted with a sample of an outpatient population consisting of women of reproductive age. Pregnant women and minors were excluded. The final sample consisted of women between 18 and 49 years of age. The participants answered a questionnaire in which the complaints of the last 4 weeks were registered. They were examined, had the vaginal pH assessed, and secretion was tested using a 10% potassium hydroxide solution to verify the presence of amine odor (whiff test. Results: Most participants were black or of mixed races. Considering the frequency of complaints, there were no significant differences between white and nonwhite women. There was an association between vaginal pH and discharge complaints as well as unpleasant odor, positive test of amines, smoking, and performing vaginal douches. Conclusions: Vaginal complaints were common among participants; the practice of vaginal douches was also frequent and was associated with higher pH values. The use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with lower pH values. There was no significant association between condom use and gynecological complaints, vaginal pH, or the whiff test.

  16. Sexual Function in Breastfeeding Women in Family Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Malakoti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods:This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center. The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The participants’ sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire. Results:Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance’s components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion:According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers.

  17. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P

    2016-05-01

    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  18. Shiftworking families: parents' working schedule and sleep patterns of adolescents attending school in two shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Radoševic-Vidacek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore whether parents' engagement in shift work affects the sleep habits of their adolescent children who attend school in two shifts. METHODS: The data were drawn from an extensive survey of sleep and daytime functioning of adolescents attending school one week in the morning and the other in the afternoon. The participants were 1,386 elementary and high school students (11-18 years old whose parents were both employed. The data were analyzed using MANOVA, with parents' work schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school as between-subject factors. RESULTS: Parents' working schedule significantly affected the sleep patterns of high school adolescents. When attending school in the morning, adolescents whose parents were both day workers woke up somewhat later than adolescents with one shiftworking parent. In addition, they slept longer than adolescents whose parents were both shift workers. On weekends, adolescents whose parents both worked during the day went to bed earlier than adolescents whose parents were both shiftworkers. They also had smaller bedtime delay on weekends with respect to both morning and afternoon shifts than adolescents for whom one or both parents worked shifts. A significant interaction between parents' working schedule, adolescents' gender and type of school was found for sleep extension on weekends after afternoon shift school. CONCLUSIONS: Parental involvement in shift work has negative effects on the sleep of high school adolescents. It contributes to earlier wake-up time and shorter sleep in a week when adolescents attend school in the morning, as well as to greater bedtime irregularity.OBJETIVO: Investigar se a ocupação de pais com o trabalho em turnos interfere nos hábitos de sono dos filhos adolescentes que freqüentam a escola em dois períodos distintos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados em uma extensa pesquisa sobre sono e atividades diurnas de adolescentes que freqüentavam a escola no

  19. Relying on Visiting Foreign Doctors for Fistula Repair: The Profile of Women Attending Fistula Repair Surgery in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.

  20. Trends of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection in women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal, 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, K; Sow, P S; Badiane, N M Dia; Gottlieb, G S; N’Doye, I; Toure, M; Kiviat, N B; Hawes, S E

    2013-01-01

    Summary We assessed trends in the relative prevalences of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection in 10,321 women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal between 1990 and 2009. The relative prevalence of HIV-1 (defined as the proportion of seropositive subjects having HIV-1) rose sharply from 38% in 1990 until 1993 (P Senegal. From 1993 to 2009, the relative prevalence of HIV-1 increased at a slower rate, while the relative prevalences of HIV-2 and dual infection decreased. These results confirm trends in HIV prevalence observed in other West African populations and provide a critical update on HIV transmission risk among women in Senegal. PMID:23104745

  1. Family physician-patient relationship and frequent attendance of primary and specialist health care: Results from a German population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Andreas; Schneider, Antonius; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between the quality of the family physician-patient relationship and frequent attendance of primary and specialist health care. Cross-sectional survey of a representative German population sample (N=2.266). Family physician-patient relationship was assessed with the Patient Doctor Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9). Determinants of frequent attendance were analyzed using logistic regression. Frequent attendance of family physicians was associated with lower income (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.02-2.00), not being in paid work (OR 1.58, CI 1.08-2.30), psychological distress (OR 1.14, CI 1.07-1.22), somatic symptoms (OR 1.07, CI 1.04-1.11), and physical comorbidity (OR 1.54, CI 1.36-1.74) in the multivariate analysis. Frequent attendance of specialists was related to psychological distress (OR 1.12, CI 1.04-1.20), somatic symptoms (OR 1.08, CI 1.04-1.11), and physical comorbidity (OR 1.69, CI 1.48-1.93) in the multivariate analysis. Quality of the relationship was associated with frequent attendance only in the univariate analyses. A stronger relationship with the family physician was not associated with reduced contact with specialists. The quality of the family physician-patient relationship is not independently associated with frequent attendance. Family physicians should be aware that need factors, i.e. symptom burden and physical comorbidities, are main drivers of frequent attendance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of vct uptake among pregnant women attending two ANC clinics in Addis Ababa City: unmatched case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maedot, Paulos; Haile, Amaha; Lulseged, Sileshi; Belachew, Ayele

    2007-10-01

    With HAART PMTCT interventions can reduce the risk of MTCT below 2%. However, low uptake of VCT is challenging effectiveness of PMTCT programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to identify factors that determine VCT uptake among pregnant women attending ANC services. A case-control study was conducted from August 30, 2005 - November 30, 2005 among pregnant women attending ANC PMTCT services at Teklehaimanot Health Center and Gandhi memorial Hospital in Addis Ababa City. Cases were pregnant mothers who accepted VCT (n=202) and controls were pregnant mothers who refused VCT (n=200). Data was collected by counselor nurses working at the respective services Factors that determine VCT acceptance were women's perceived ability to cope with a positive result (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 3.5-8.5, MHOR = 6.3, 95% CI 3.9-10.2); perceived favorable reaction of husband's after sharing positive test result (OR = 2.7 95% CI 1.4-5.1, MHOR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.7); perceived positive community response (OR = 2.2 95% CI 1.1-4.2, MHOR = 2.6 95% CI 1.3-5.2); perceived ability to get continuous medical care if found out to be positive (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5, MHOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.5). Women's perceived ability to cope with a positive result, accesses to medical care, fear of husband's negative reaction and the stigma and discrimination following a positive test result were key determinants of uptake of VCT. Therefore, increasing uptake of VCT/PMTCT services needs policy makers and service providers' effort to promote couple counseling, intensifying the fight against stigma and discrimination and ensuring continuous HIV/AIDS related medical care.

  3. Sexual violence associated with poor mental health in women attending Australian general practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Maxwell, Sarah; Valpied, Jodie; Novy, Kitty; Quake, Rebecca; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Sexual violence (SV) against adult women is prevalent and associated with a range of mental health issues. General practitioners could potentially have a role in responding, however, there is little information to help guide them. Data around prevalence of all forms of adult SV (not just rape) is inconsistent, particularly in clinical samples, and the links between other forms of SV and mental health issues are not well supported. This study aimed to address these gaps in the knowledge base. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Australian general practice clinics. Two hundred and thirty adult women completed an anonymous iPad survey while waiting to see the doctor. More than half the sample had experienced at least one incident of adult SV. Most commonly, women reported public harassment or flashing, unwanted groping and being coerced into sex. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to experience anxiety than women who had not, even after controlling for other factors. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to feel down, depressed or hopeless than women who had not; however, this association disappeared after controlling for childhood sexual abuse. The findings support the association between SV and poor mental health, even when 'lesser' incidents have occurred. Implications for public health: General practitioners should consider an experience of SV as a possible factor in otherwise unexplained anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive women attending antenatal clinics in north-central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamat A Isiaka-Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are prevalent during pregnancy and may have adverse sequalae in both mother and fetus. Interactions between these infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV synergize and may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and reverse the gains of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonococcal infection, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis in HIV pregnant women and compare with HIV negative controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted during the period from April to December 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and three Primary Health Centers in Ilorin. A total of 160 HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited, along with the same number of HIV negative matched controls. A structured proforma was used to collect information from patients, vaginal examination was performed and samples were taken from the endocervix and the posterior vaginal fornix with swab sticks. Results: STIs were recovered from 142 women, giving overall prevalence of 44.4%. HIV infected women had a higher prevalence (60% compared to uninfected (28.8%. The most prevalent STI was vaginal candidiasis (29.1%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (9.7%, and trichomoniasis (5.6%. The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis was higher among HIV positive pregnant women compared to HIV negative controls (P < 0.05. No woman had syphilis or gonorrhea. Conclusion: The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis was higher in HIV infected pregnant women compared to uninfected. Routine screening of HIV infected pregnant women for these organisms is advocated.

  5. Complications of childbirth and maternal deaths in Kinshasa hospitals: testimonies from women and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourbin Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Kinshasa is high despite near universal availability of antenatal care and hospital delivery. Possible explanations are poor-quality care and by delays in the uptake of care. There is, however, little information on the circumstances surrounding maternal deaths. This study describes and compares the circumstances of survivors and non survivors of severe obstetric complications. Method Semi structured interviews with 208 women who survived their obstetric complication and with the families of 110 women who died were conducted at home by three experienced nurses under the supervision of EK. All the cases were identified from twelve referral hospitals in Kinshasa after admission for a serious acute obstetric complication. Transcriptions of interviews were analysed with N-Vivo 2.0 and some categories were exported to SPSS 14.0 for further quantitative analysis. Results Testimonies showed that despite attendance at antenatal care, some women were not aware of or minimized danger signs and did not seek appropriate care. Cost was a problem; 5 deceased and 4 surviving women tried to avoid an expensive caesarean section by delivering in a health centre, although they knew the risk. The majority of surviving mothers (for whom the length of stay was known had the caesarean section on the day of admission while only about a third of those who died did so. Ten women died before the required caesarean section or blood transfusion could take place because they did not bring the money in time. Negligence and lack of staff competence contributed to the poor quality of care. Interviews revealed that patients and their families were aware of the problem, but often powerless to do anything about it. Conclusion Our findings suggest that women with serious obstetric complications have a greater chance of survival in Kinshasa if they have cash, go directly to a functioning referral hospital and have some leverage when dealing

  6. Low back pain in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic: The Aminu Kano teaching hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Mustapha Ibrahim; Abubakar, Muhammad Kabir; Muhammad, Shamsuddeen; Rabiu, Ayyuba; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The profound physiologic effects of pregnancy affect the musculoskeletal system. Pregnant women are at increased risks of low back/pelvic girdle pains. To determine the incidence of low back/pelvic girdle pains among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May 1 to June 30, 2016, among consenting pregnant women at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Ethical approval was obtained from the Hospital Ethics Committee. Information was obtained in a questionnaire on consecutive pregnant women. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2012). Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 309 pregnant women were recruited from May 1 to June 30, 2016. The mean age ± standard deviation was 28.4 ± 5.86 years. The incidence of low back pains (LBPs) and pelvic girdle pains among the pregnant women was 106 (34.3%) and 178 (57.6%), respectively. The pain was severe among 26 (9.2%) pregnant women, which warranted analgesic usage. Pain radiation was reported in> 50% of cases. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence in 36 (12.6%) cases. Low back/pelvic girdle pain was not associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.390). The incidence of LBPs and pelvic girdle pains was high and found to be 34.3% and 57.6%, respectively. Analgesics were used especially among those with severe pains. There was an incidental finding of urinary incontinence among pregnant women with complaints of low back/pelvic girdle pains. There was no statistically significant association between LBPs and maternal BMI.

  7. Women in the family business: the case of Asian businesswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of studying Asian businesswomen in Spain. It begins by noting how businesswomen have been viewed from various analytical perspectives, and concludes that such profiles do not help us to analyse the most common type of Asian businesswomen that we have encountered in both statistical data and in fieldwork, given that the most common type of Asian businesswoman forms part of the family business. A new bibliographic review this time in the area of family businesses reveals that in recent times, the academic view has tended to view the family as a basic entity of study; a comprehensive perspective which, when applied to our specific field, enables us to reconsider the role and contribution of women in family businesses.

  8. Stillbirth history and Toxoplasma gondii infection in women attending public health centers in a northern Mexican City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C.; Pacheco-Vega, S. J.; Salcedo-Jaquez, M.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Rábago-Sánchez, E.; Centeno-Tinoco, M. M.; Flores-Garcia, I. D.; Ramos-Nevarez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Guido-Arreola, C. A.; Beristain-García, I.; Liesenfeld, O.; Berumen-Segovia, L. O.; Saenz-Soto, L.; Sifuentes-Álvarez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Through a cross-sectional study design, 150 women attending public health centers with a history of stillbirths were examined for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the women with stillbirth history. Of the 150 women (mean age: 32.09 ± 9.16 years) studied, 14 (9.3%) had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and six (42.9%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high frequency (4–7 days a week) of eating meat (OR = 5.52; 95% CI: 1.48–20.59; P = 0.01), history of lymphadenopathy (OR = 4.52; 95% CI: 1.14–17.82; P = 0.03), and history of surgery (OR = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.04–72.15; P = 0.04). This is the first study on the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in women with a history of stillbirths in Mexico. The association of T. gondii exposure with a history of surgery warrants for further research. Risk factors for T. gondii infection found in the present survey may help to design optimal educational programs to avoid T. gondii infection. PMID:26185685

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norhayati Moktar; Nor Liyana Ismail; Phoy Cheng Chun; Mohamad Asyrab Sapie; Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar; Yusof Suboh; Noraina Abdul Rahim; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond’s medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator.Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays(76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese(15.1%), Indians(2.2%)and other ethnic groups(5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight(99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6% had less than 6 children. More than half(75.5%) of the women’s last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge.Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  10. An action research project aimed at raising social consciousness amongst women attending transactional analysis group psychotherapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria Pancinha Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on awareness of material by Gramsci (1978, 1982 on hegemony, Freire (1979a, 1979b on cooperative contact, and Steiner (1975 on radical psychiatry, action research methodology was used by the researcher, who was also a psychotherapist, with 12 women attending two ongoing weekly psychotherapy groups in Brazil in order to raise their social consciousness of culturally-based oppression of women, particularly relating to work; to apply life script analysis as a therapeutic intervention within the groups; and to facilitate recognition by the women of the benefits of cooperative contact when seeking to liberate themselves from oppression.  Individual structured interviews were conducted and the data from these was discussed within the groups, leading to the development of a model containing 6 levels of consciousness of oppression.  Examples of oppression identified by the women are provided, with only 17% relating directly to sexual discrim-ination at work.  Although the research was conducted many years ago (1987-1989, it is shown that problems still exist and the research method-ology could usefully be applied elsewhere.

  11. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C.; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive people’s clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Results Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). Conclusion HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings

  12. Clinic Attendance for Antiretroviral Pills Pick-Up among HIV-Positive People in Nepal: Roles of Perceived Family Support and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Rakesh; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Ghimire, Mamata; Shibanuma, Akira; Pant, Madhab Raj; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    HIV-positive people's clinic attendance for medication pick-up is critical for successful HIV treatment. However, limited evidence exists on it especially in low-income settings such as Nepal. Moreover, the role of family support in clinic attendance remains under-explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the association between perceived family support and regular clinic attendance and to assess factors associated with regular clinic attendance for antiretroviral pills pick-up among HIV-positive individuals in Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 HIV-positive people in three districts of Nepal. Clinic attendance was assessed retrospectively for the period of 12 months. To assess the factors associated, an interview survey was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire from July to August, 2015. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the factors associated with regular clinic attendance. Of 423 HIV-positive people, only 32.6% attended the clinics regularly. They were more likely to attend them regularly when they received high family support (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 2.29, 6.92), participated in support programs (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.82), and had knowledge on the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (AOR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.15, 5.99). In contrast, they were less likely to attend them regularly when they commuted more than 60 minutes to the clinics (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.93), when they self-rated their health status as being very good (AOR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.44), good (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.46), and fair (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.70). HIV-positive individuals are more likely to attend the clinics regularly when they receive high family support, know the benefits of antiretroviral therapy, and participate in support programs. To improve clinic attendance, family support should be incorporated with HIV care programs in resource limited settings. Service providers should also consider

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis Among Jordanian Postmenopausal Women Attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Hyassat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among Jordanian postmenopausal women attending the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Genetics (NCDEG, and to determine the potential associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted at (NCDEG in Amman, Jordan. A total of 1079 Jordanian postmenopausal women aged between 45 and 84 years were included in this study that was conducted during the period between April 2013 and December 2014. All patients underwent bone mineral density measurement through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan. DEXA scan was interpreted in terms of T score as per World Health Organization guidelines. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was 37.5% and 44.6%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of osteoporosis was observed at the lumbar spine (32.4% followed by the left femoral neck (14.4%, while the maximum prevalence of osteopenia was observed at the left femoral neck (56.1% followed by the lumbar spine (41.3%. Patients with longer menopausal duration, normal or overweight body mass index, high parity, physical inactivity, positive family history of osteoporosis, inadequate sun exposure, high daily caffeine intake, low daily calcium intake, and delay in the age of menarche were all positively associated with osteoporosis. On the other hand, women with type 2 diabetes mellitus had lower risk of osteoporosis. There is a high prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia among Jordanian postmenopausal women. Necessary steps are needed for more public education and a wider dissemination of information about osteoporosis and its prevention.

  14. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Zemenu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Adera, Addis

    2014-11-20

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.

  15. Predictors of Alcohol Use during Pregnancy among Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in the Cape Metropole, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen-Williams, Petal; Mathews, Catherine; Jordaan, Esmé; Parry, Charles D H

    2017-12-08

    Little is known about the nature and extent of substance use among pregnant women in Cape Town (South Africa) despite the very high levels of substance use and related consequences such as FASD in this part of the country. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of alcohol use among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used. In total, 5231 pregnant women were screened to assess self-reported prevalence estimates. Of these, 684 (13.1%) were intentionally sub-sampled and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a urine sample for biological screening. Univariate and multivariate statistical procedures were used to determine factors predictive of alcohol use. Findings highlight various demographic, social and partner substance use predictors for both self-reported and biologically verified alcohol use in two different models. Being Coloured, having a marital status other than being married, experiencing violence or aggression in the past 12 months compared to more than 12 months ago, having a partner who drinks, and partner drug use are all independently associated with higher odds of self-reported alcohol use. In contrast, only partner tobacco use is independently associated with higher odds of biologically verified alcohol use. Knowing the risk factors for alcohol use in pregnancy is important so that intervention efforts can accurately target those women in need of services. Intervention programs addressing risk factors of high-risk pregnant women are needed.

  16. Patriarchy, family structure and the exploitation of women's labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Ciscel, D H

    1988-09-01

    The authors present a case for including the patriarchal model into the analysis of female labor force participation in the United States. They argue that only if it is assumed that the division of labor and distribution of goods and services are structured to benefit the male head of the family can various trends be explained, including the low relative income of women compared to men, the increase in female labor force participation without a corresponding increase in household work by men, and the increasing number of divorces initiated by women despite the fact that divorce increases female poverty.

  17. [Immunization delay determinants: a study in a place attended by Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertuliano, Gisele Cristina; Stein, Airton Tetelbom

    2011-02-01

    It is relevant to understand every aspect, regarding to strategies that will determine immunization coverage. Thus the main objective in this research is to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms as well as low immunization uptake, identifying the caretakers' profile, considering his/her level of education, social-demographic character, marital status and also knowledge about immunization in which a Beck Inventory questionnaire was applied to the children's caretakers. Children's age ranged from 0 to 5 years and the number of subjects was 339 enrolled in a group of Family Health Strategy at the city of Cachoeirinha, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The depression symptoms prevalence was 38.6%. The association between depression symptoms and the low immunization uptake was not statistical significant (OR=1.0, CI 95%, 0.62-1.73). The low immunization uptake rate was 23.3%. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms between mothers and the high percentage of immunization delay means the need of social help and the search of better effectivity of primary attention in health.

  18. The Role Of Women Farmer Group In Increasing Family Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maudia Camalin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The cross sector inequality puts farmers in Sumedang on the lowest level of welfare. Agricultural institutions, specifically the Women Farmer Group is formed to increase the level of farmer’s family welfare through women as the booster. The aim of starting KWT Mekar Arum is to relieve poverty which is the main social problem in Margaluyu Village, Tanjungsari Sub-district,  Sumedang Regency. This research is intended to describe its role on increasing the level of the member’s family welfare. It is a qualitative designed research with a case study method. The research result shows that the group has a social role for its members. Facilitation in production input, capital, and marketing are carried out by the group in working its role on developing member’s businesses. By joining the group, increase in welfare occurs in terms of income, health, and education of the KWT Mekar Arum.

  19. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  20. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  1. [Accidents and violence among women attended in Sentinel Emergency Services--Brazil, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Celeste de Souza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Godinho, Tatau; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Silva, Rurany Ester

    2012-09-01

    Accidents from external causes affect the human population in different ways. This article seeks to analyze emergency care for women who are victims of accidents and violence. Data from the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents were analyzed. This study was carried out in 74 emergency units of 23 state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and included 6,965 women aged from 20-59 years. The age groups of 20-39 and 40-59 years were compared for the occurrence of accidents and violence. Accidents were more frequent among young black women (20-39 years) with more than nine years of schooling. The occurrence of violence was also prevalent in young black women but with less schooling. Falls were the most frequent accidents (38.6%), followed by traffic accidents. The occurrence of violence was more frequent in the home (p <0.000) and the mention of alcohol abuse among victims of violence was predominant. The most frequent type of violence was aggression (84.6%), in which the aggressor was male (79.1%) and identified as an intimate partner (44.1%). It is increasingly important that services are able to provide comprehensive and humanized care to the victims of this important public health problem.

  2. Declining HIV prevalence among women attending antenatal care in Pune, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, Vinay; Joshi, Smita; Gupte, Nikhil; Parchure, Ritu; Darak, Shrinivas; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani

    A declining prevalence of HIV among young women has been reported by the public sector implementing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, sentinel surveillance sites and research institutions ill India. However, there are no reports evaluating such trends from the private

  3. Mammographic Screening of Women Attending a Reference Service Center in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro Lopes, Tiara Cristina; Franca Gravena, Angela Andreia; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Dell Agnolo, Catia Millene; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with performance of annual mammography by women above 40 years of age. This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at an oncology reference service in Southern Brazil from October 2013 to October 2014 with 525 women aged 40 years or older. The prevalence of annual mammography was 54.1%; annual mammographic screening was performed for women without private medical insurance, who were under hormone replacement therapy and who had used contraception in the past. An association was found between non-performance of breast clinical and self-examination and non-performance of mammographic screening. Use of mammography for breast cancer screening in the public health care setting proved to be accessible; nevertheless, the proportion of screened women was low, and they exhibited poor adherence to the basic measures of care recommended for breast assessment. Thus, control of breast cancer requires implementing actions targeting the population most vulnerable to non-adherence to screening in addition to continuously monitoring and assessing that population to reduce the prevalence of this disease.

  4. Labor force participation of women in the EU - What role do family policies play?

    OpenAIRE

    Gehringer, Agnieszka; Klasen, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    We empirically study the role of different family policies in determining women´s labor market behavior in the countries of the European Union between 1997 and 2008. Women tend to assume more family duties than men and, consequently, often participate less in the labor market. At the same time, family policies are to provide support to families while also helping women to reconcile family duties with labor market participation. Their impact, however, is not clear, especially when it comes to ...

  5. Childbearing and Work-Family Balance among Contemporary Russian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Temkina

    2010-01-01

    In depth interview data gathered during the last decade is used to analyze how the two main gender contracts of the professional women and the working mother relate to family planning, child birth, pregnancies, and mothering. Results indicate that while Russian women experience increasing pressure of the double burden and few signs of increasing gender equality in domestic life, the stable identity of Russian mothering contributes to the birth of at least one child. Childbearing does not depend directly on gender roles and division of labor in households. The decision to have a child and care for small children continues to be womens responsibility even as fertility patterns have modernized and gender equality in couple relations is slightly increasing. However, the type of gender contract influences the process of negotiation concerning reproductive matters and the timing of childbirth.

  6. Poor social support as a risk factor for antenatal depressive symptoms among women attending public antennal clinics in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Mohd, Rokiah

    2017-11-02

    Depression, a type of mental disorder which is portrayed by marked alterations in mood, is associated with distress and/or impaired functioning. Poor social support is an important risk factor for depression in pregnancy. An extensive literature search failed to show any published study conducted in Malaysia on antenatal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor social support on it. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. This cross sectional study was conducted among 3000 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Penang, Malaysia. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for antenatal depressive symptoms and the Oslo-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3) was used to measure social support. Odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio were used to quantify the risk of antenatal depressive symptoms due to poor social support. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20%. Using OSS-3 scale to gauge social support, most of the participants had moderate support (61.3%) followed by poor support (22%) and strong support (16.7%). Social support was found to be significantly associated with depressive symptoms in this study (OR 2.2, aOR 2.1, AR 45%). Considering that an expecting mother's psychological factors are important in the wellbeing of the mother and child, antenatal depression must be quickly identified. Screening pregnant women for social support can help identify women with higher risk of depression.

  7. Knowledge about osteoporosis in women of child bearing age (15-49 years) attending fauji foundation hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazir, A.; Ali, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge on symptoms, risk factors, preventive measures and treatment options for regarding osteoporosis in healthy women of child bearing age (15-49 years) accompanying patients, in Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH) Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in FFH Rawalpindi from February 2015 to October 2015. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a validated questionnaire i.e. OKAT (Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool) from 385 women attending OPDs of Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi, for a period of Feb-August 2015. The data was analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Mean knowledge scores were calculated and compared with socio demographic variables. Results: Total knowledge score mean was 8 (total max score achieved 14). Mean scores were found for knowledge regarding symptoms 0.85 (total score 2), and treatment options were 0.82 (total score 2) for the disease. Comparison of knowledge scores between respondents of different age, residential status (p<=0.009), and educational status (p<=0.056) was found statistically significant. Conclusion: Women lacked knowledge regarding osteoporosis, especially older uneducated ones, belonging to lower socioeconomic class residing in villages. Community based educational interventional programs targeting this population can help reduce the knowledge gap and contribute towards disease prevention. (author)

  8. Social impact and healthcare- seeking behavior for urinary incontinence among perimenopausal women attending gynae out patient department in BSMMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmida Zabin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence (UI is a highly prevalent and burdensome condition among women.However,fewer than half of women with symptoms consult with a physician about incontinence, and determinant of treatment seeking are not well understood.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, awareness and determinants of urinary incontinence (UI among women attending GOPD in BSMMU and the sociodemographic factors involved in their health care-seeking behaviour.Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Gynaeout patient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University with a sample of 800 women aged 45 yrs and above.Results: A total of 1000 women were recruited for the study by purposive sampling,among them 800 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire. Of these, 165 (20.6% were found to have UL Overall, the reason for not seeking medical attention was mainly embarrassment (40.6% at having to speak with doctor. Of the total study sample, 566 subjects (70.6% believed that UI was abnormal and worth reporting to a doctor. Coping mechanisms among incontinent women included frequent washing (58.3% and wearing a protective perineal pad (42.4%, changing underwear frequently (41.3%, decreasing fluid intake (19.8% and stopping all work (4.9%. Sufferers were most troubled by their inability to pray (64% maintain marital relationship (47%, limitation of their social activities (20%, difficulty in doing housework (14% and inconven­ience during shopping (13%. Most (56% found it most embarrassing to discuss UI with their husbands. The majority of women (51.9% believed child birth to be the major cause ofUI, followed by ageing (49.5%, menopause (34.2% and paralysis (25.3%. Most of the subjects (62.3% believe that UI can cause infection, some (20.5% believe that it can cause skin allergy and very few think that it can cause cancer or other disorders.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that although UI is

  9. Family planning and development helping women world-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1989-04-01

    This article discusses the need for family planning (FP) as part of the development process, applauds its successes and rallies continued momentum of the FP movement. 500,000 women die each year from pregnancy- or labor-related conditions, and 10s of millions of women suffer pregnancy-related illnesses and impairments that undermine their social and economic productivity. Moreover, the 4 major factors that lead to high-risk pregnancies, namely, becoming pregnant before the age of 20, after the age of 35, after 4 or more pregnancies, and 2 years after an earlier pregnancy, all reveal the need for FP. These tragedies could be avoided by assuring better nutrition, primary health care for all, good antenatal attention and proper facilities and help in childbirth, access to good obstetric care in emergency situations, and universally available FP services. FP organizations must empower women with the knowledge of FP and the means to put it into practice. Developing countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Mexico, in addition to affluent industrialized countries have made strides in FP with the help of such organizations as the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). IPPF has helped to motivate large numbers of men and women to determine their ideal family size. It has provided the means for them to reach such goals and has ensured that acceptance of FP has been on a voluntary basis. IPPF has also advised and cajoled governments into becoming involved in FP. In the future, national strategies must produce the building blocks for better policies to help women become more responsible for their lives. The education of women will be vital to achieving this objective as well as other aspects of development.

  10. Depression evaluation in an attendance group for high-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Said Daher Baptista; Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the variation of depression symptomatology in an informative high-risk post-partum group of pregnant (GAGER). Six high-risk pregnant women, from a University Hospital participated in this research, and they were evaluated four times: first, before forming the group; second, after two participations in this group; third, 24 to 36 hours after partum; and, four weeks post-partum. The instruments used were a Psychological Clinic Interview and, the Edinburgh Po...

  11. HIV-Risk Behaviors and Social Support Among Men and Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.

  12. Evaluating Midwives Communication Skills from the Perspective of Parturient Women Attending to Hospitals for Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sadat Katebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Communication is a fundamental human need. Medical students and healthcare professionals must be attuned to the needs of patients using effective communication skills. With regards to medical training, currently the focus is on theoretical matters and communication skills are taken for granted. This problem has caused miscommunication with patients referred to teaching hospitals. We conducted this study to assess communication skills of midwives from the perspective of parturient women. Methods: In this descriptive study, we evaluated 50 midwives working in maternity wards of Ghaem, Imam Reza, Omolbanin, and Hasheminejad hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. Three parturient women were selected per one midwife in a maternity ward. The parturient women participating in this study were in labor, delivery, admission or postpartum stages and completed the Interpersonal Communication Skills inventory by interview. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were performed, using SPSS 16. Results: The mean scores of communication behaviors of midwives with parturient in delivery, admission, and postpartum stages were 92.61±10.81, 93.31±10.59, and 94.19±8.26, respectively. Between the previous delivery of parturient, with communication behavior of midwives in the stage of admiss­ion or post-partum (P=0.015 and satisfaction of pregnancy with communication behavior of midwife in labor stage (P

  13. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanta, Wondimagegn; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-07-26

    In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2-3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

  14. Text messages to increase attendance to follow-up cervical cancer screening appointments among HPV-positive Tanzanian women (Connected2Care)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Ditte S; Andersen, Marianne S; Mwaiselage, Julius D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major health concern in Tanzania, caused by poor attendance for cervical cancer screening and follow-up of women at risk. Mobile telephone health interventions are proven effective tools to improve health behaviour in African countries. So far, no knowledge exists...... on how such interventions may perform in relation to cervical cancer screening in low-income settings. This study aims to assess the degree to which a Short Message Service (SMS) intervention can increase attendance at appointments among women who have tested positive for High-Risk (HR) Human Papiloma...... (standard care). In a period of 10 months, the intervention group will receive 15 one-directional health educative text messages and SMS-reminders for their appointment. The total sample size will be 700 with 350 women in each study arm. Primary outcome is attendance rate for follow-up. Secondary objectives...

  15. The Prevalence of Trichomoniasis in High-Risk Behavior Women Attending the Clinics of Tehran Province Penitentiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrintaj Valadkhani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a worldwide sexually transmitteddisease (STD, and is associated with important publichealth problems, including enhancement of HIV transmission.The prevalence of the parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, dependson host factors such as age, sexual activity, number ofsexual partners and sexual behavior. The aim of the study wasto evaluate the prevalence of trichomoniasis in high-risk behaviorwomen, such as drug addicts and those who had multiplesexual partners, attending Gynecology Clinics in penitentiariesof Tehran province to help gynecologists with the diagnosisand treatment of the disease.Methods: Samples of posterior vaginal fornix discharges andurines of 450 women attending Gynecology Clinics of three prisonsin Tehran province were collected. All samples were examinedby direct smear and cultured in TYI-S-33 culture media.Results: 10.2% of subjects were positive for trichomoniasis.82.7% of infected patients were symptomatic individuals whocomplained of vaginal discharge and itching and/or burningsensation. Most of the infected women in the high risk behaviorgroup were drug users (54.3%. Physical examinationshowed that 50% of T. vaginalis positive subjects had a normalappearance of vagina and cervix. The peak prevalence (32.8%of the disease occurred in the age range of 31-40 years.Conclusion: T. vaginalis infection is commonly associatedwith other STDs, and is a marker of high-risk sexual behavior.Due to the side effects of the drugs used to treat the infection,it is suggested that the treatment be performed after definitediagnosis using a diagnostic method with a higher sensitivity.

  16. Utilization of contraception among sexually active HIV positive women attending art clinic in University of Gondar Hospital: a hospital based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worke, Mulugeta Dile; Bezabih, Lealem Meseret; Woldetasdik, Mulat Adefris

    2016-10-21

    Contraception helps to prevent unplanned pregnancies among human immune virus positive women. The contraceptive utilization status and associated factors were not well addressed in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to assess utilization of contraceptives and associated factors among human immune virus positive reproductive age group women appearing at anti-retroviral therapy clinic at the University of Gondar Hospital, North West Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 397 systematically selected HIV positive reproductive age women who visited ART unit of the University of Gondar teaching referral hospital from January 8-20, 2014. The data were collected using pre tested and structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. The data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5, and cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive summary of the data and logistic regression were used to identify possible predictors using odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval and P-value of 0.05. The study revealed that the overall utilization of any type of contraception was 50 %. Of them, 4.1 % got contraception from anti-retroviral therapy unit. Fear of side effects was the most common (42 %) reason for not using contraception. Women who attended secondary education, married and who had 4-6 children were more likely to use contraception than their counterparts were; (AOR: 5.63; 95 % CI: 1.74-18.21), (AOR: 8.07; 95 % CI: 3.10-20.99) and (AOR: 3.61; 95 % CI: 1.16-11.26) respectively. However, Women between 35-49 years, had no intention to have another child and discordant couples were 83 %, 76 % and 65 % less likely to use contraception respectively than their counterparts. The results of this study revealed that the utilization of contraception was low. Women between 35-49 years, those who had no intention to have another child and whose partner was HIV sero-negative and fear of side effect of the contraception

  17. High-grade cervical lesions among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil: associated factors and comparison among screening methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide T Boldrini

    Full Text Available Although screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women in most countries, the incidence of cervical cancer is greater in developing countries. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil and evaluate the correlation of histology with cytology, colposcopy and the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV tests.A cross-sectional study of women attending a colposcopy clinic was carried out. The patients were interviewed to collect demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. Specimens were collected for cervical cytology, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV testing using the Hybrid Capture (HC and PCR tests. Colposcopy was performed for all patients and biopsy for histology when cell abnormalities or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were present.A total of 291 women participated in the study. The median age was 38 years (DIQ: 30-48 years. The prevalence of histologically confirmed high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 18.2% (95%, CI: 13.8%-22.6%, with 48 (16.5% cases of CIN-2/CIN-3 and 5 (1.7% cases of invasive carcinoma. In the final logistic regression model, for ages between 30 and 49 years old [OR = 4.4 (95%: 1.01-19.04, history of smoking [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.14-5.18], practice of anal intercourse [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.10-5.03] and having positive HC test for HR-HPV [OR = 11.23 (95%, CI: 4 0.79-26, 36] remained independently associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer. A total of 64.7% of the cases CIN-3\\Ca in situ were related to HPV-16. Non-oncogenic HPV were only found in CIN-1 biopsy results. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of cytology was 31.8%, the specificity 95.5%; the sensitivity of colposcopy for high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 51.0%, specificity was 91.4% and the concordance with HPV testing was high.The results confirm an association of HR-HPV with precursor lesions for cervical cancer

  18. Human papilloma virus testing knowledge and attitudes among women attending colposcopy clinic with ASCUS/LGSIL pap smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T; Hicks, W; Menard, C; Boyd, D; Hewson, T; Hopkins, L; Kee Fung, M Fung

    2004-09-01

    To study women's knowledge regarding the role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and their attitudes toward the integration of HPV testing as part of routine follow-up of atypical squamous cell of uncertain significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASCUS/LGSIL) abnormalities. Over a 12-month period, all women attending the University of Ottawa colposcopy clinic for evaluation and follow-up of ASCUS/LGSIL Pap smears were recruited. Demographic data included age, nature of the Pap smear abnormality, gravidity, parity, occupation and education level, smoking history, previous history of abnormal smears, colposcopic examination and treatment, and current method of contraception. The women were asked to rate their level of concern over their Pap smear abnormality, from 0 (not concerned) to 10 (very concerned). Women's knowledge regarding the role of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the rationale behind the use of HPV testing was assessed by the clinic nurse as being minimal, moderate, or good, as defined by pre-specified criteria. Upon explanation by the nurses of the results of the recent ALTS (ASCUS/LGSIL Triage Study) trial, the women were asked to state whether they preferred to continue with regular colposcopic surveillance every 6 months, or to use the results of the HPV test, if negative, to reduce the number of colposcopy examinations to one annually. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used to identify significant demographic factors associated with the women's preference for incorporation of HPV testing in their follow-up. All P values less than.10 were considered to be statistically significant, due to the exploratory nature of the study. Of the 100 women who participated in the study, 42% presented with ASCUS. The mean age (+/- SD) of the women was 33.63 +/- 11.25 years (range, 18-75 years); 66% were office workers with at least a community college degree, 86% reported

  19. Pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among men and women attending an outpatient mental health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between types of pathological narcissism and somatic symptoms among psychiatric outpatients. Patients (N = 95) completed measures of somatic symptoms, narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability, and psychiatric symptoms. Relationships among variables were analysed using t-tests and correlations, controlling for psychiatric distress. Somatic symptoms were positively associated with two types of narcissistic dysfunction. Among women there was a positive association between somatic symptoms and narcissistic vulnerability, but not grandiosity. Among men, somatic symptoms were positively associated with narcissistic grandiosity, but not vulnerability. The connection between narcissistic pathology and somatic symptom severity appears to differ based on gender. Further research is needed to confirm and extend this preliminary finding.

  20. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Rajkumari; Humera Qudsia Fatima Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence o...

  1. Surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    Full Text Available The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR in a cohort of young (<25 yrs HAART-naïve HIV pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. Whole blood was collected in EDTA for CD4 counts, viral load, serological estimation of duration of infection using the BED Calypte assay and genotyping for drug resistance. Four hundred and seventy-one women, mean age 21 years; SD: 2.1 were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007. Their median CD4 count was 371cells/µL; IQR: 255-511 cells/µL. Two hundred and thirty-six samples were genotyped for drug resistance. Based on the BED assay, 27% were recently infected (RI whilst 73% had long-term infection (LTI. Median CD4 count was higher (p<0.05 in RI than in women with LTI. Only 2 women had drug resistance mutations; protease I85V and reverse transcriptase Y181C. Prevalence of PDR in Chitungwiza, 4 years after commencement of the national ART program remained below WHO threshold limit (5%. Frequency of recent infection BED testing is consistent with high HIV acquisition during pregnancy. With the scale-up of long-term ART programs, maintenance of proper prescribing practices, continuous monitoring of patients and reinforcement of adherence may prevent the acquisition and transmission of PDR.

  2. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated risk factors among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajkumari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is the commonest bacterial infec-tion which requires medical treatment in pregnancy. Untreated ASB in 25-30% of can cases lead to pyelonephritis which may lead to increased risk of abortions, intrauterine fetal deaths, prematurity and low birth weight. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Gandhi Hospital over a period of ten months with 125 asymptomatic pregnant women in the age group of 15-35 years. The objectives of the study were to determine prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, to identify its risk factors and to compare the screening methods. Of the 125 pregnant women, significant bacteriuria was seen in 21 (16%. The prevalence of bacteriuria showed a rise with increasing maternal age and increasing gestational period. Anemics and hypertensives were at greater risk. The most common isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus (28% each. Culture proved to be the gold standard for diagnosis. Catalase and Nitrate reduction tests were used as screening methods with a sensitivity of 90.48% and 71.43% respectively. Multiple drug resistance was observed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is therefore recommended throughout pregnancy to avoid adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

  3. Text messages to increase attendance to follow-up cervical cancer screening appointments among HPV-positive Tanzanian women (Connected2Care)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Ditte S; Andersen, Marianne S; Mwaiselage, Julius D

    2017-01-01

    group (standard care). In a period of 10 months, the intervention group will receive 15 one-directional health educative text messages and SMS reminders for their appointment. The total sample size will be 700 with 350 women in each study arm. Primary outcome is attendance rate for follow-up. Secondary...... on how such interventions may perform in relation to cervical cancer screening in low-income settings. This study aims to assess the degree to which a Short Message Service (SMS) intervention can increase attendance at appointments among women who have tested positive for high-risk (HR) Human...

  4. Factors influencing the intention of women in rural Ghana to adopt postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, Sebastian; Baiden, Frank; Quansah-Asare, Gloria; Graham-Hayfron, Yvonne; Bonsu, Derek; Phillips, James; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi

    2013-07-22

    Uptake of postpartum family planning (PPFP) remains low in sub-Saharan Africa and very little is known about how pregnant women arrive at their decisions to adopt PPFP. This information is needed to guide the development of interventions to promote PPFP. We conducted a survey among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a rural district in Ghana. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis to explore how knowledge of various family planning (FP) methods, past experience with their use and the acceptability of PPFP to male partners and close relations influenced the intention of pregnant women to adopt PPFP. We interviewed 1914 pregnant women in four health facilities. About 84% considered PPFP acceptable, and 70% intended to adopt a method. The most preferred methods were injectables (31.5%), exclusive breastfeeding (16.7%), and oral contraceptive pills (14.8%). Women whose first choice of PPFP method were injectables were more likely to be women who had had past experience with its use (O.R = 2.07, 95% C.I. 1.50-2.87). Acceptability of PPFP by the pregnant woman (O.R. = 3.21, 1.64-6.26), perception of partner acceptability (O.R. = 3.20, 1.94-5.48), having had prior experience with the use of injectables (O.R. = 3.72, 2.61-5.30) were the strongest predictors of the intention to adopt PPFP. Conversely women who knew about the diaphragm (O.R. = 0.59, 0.38-0.93) and those who had past experience with IUD use (O.R. = 0.13, 0.05-0.38) were less likely to want to adopt PPFP. Acceptability of PPFP to the pregnant woman, male partner approval, and past experience with the use of injectables are important factors in the PPFP decisions of women in this population. Antenatal and early postnatal care need to be adapted to take these factors into consideration.

  5. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children HIV prevalence. There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44). Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  6. The effect of movement intervention for women attending courses in weight reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Sofková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accelerated pace of life and consumerism leads to an increase in obesity. The key element in programs to reduce overweight and obesity is regular physical activity (PA by means of a healthy lifestyle. Walking, which can be simply assessed by pedometers is appropriate PA that is accessible to everyone, regardless of age and gender. Objective: The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of courses in weight reduction to the selected body composition (BC parameters in the obese and overweight women of various age and PA level. Methods: 124 women with existing sendenary lifestyles participated in the study, they were differentiated by age (< 40 years: aged 31.3 ± 5.4 years, body weight of 88.2 ± 18.5 kg, body height of 166.5 ± 9.5 cm and ≥ 40 years: aged 51.6 ± 7.5 years, body weight of 88.9 ± 13.3 kg, body height of 163.8 ± 8.2 cm. We divided the monitored sample into sub-groups according to the level of their PA. To determine the average daily number of footsteps during the PA the Yamax pedometer was used. InBody 720 device using the Direct Multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method (DSM-BIA Method was used to measure and analyse the BC. Results: Based on monitoring of PA and BC health risk indicators the effect of the exercise program, which included cognitive behavioural therapy, showed a decline in body mass index (BMI and body fat expressed in percentages (PBF and in the decrease of the visceral fat area (VFA. The amount of fat-free mass (FFM remained the same. Preceding the therapy the BMI average was within the obesity group (BMI > 30 kg/m2. Following the three month therapy we observed in women with a higher level of PA a shift to the overweight group. Therapy contributed to a reduction in PBF from 2.4% to 3.9% even though the women's groups were still classified as obese (> 35%. During the repeated measurements significant changes (p < .05 occurred only in

  7. A cross sectional study on the motivators for Asian women to attend opportunistic mammography screening in a private hospital in Malaysia: the MyMammo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norhashimah; Ho, Weang Kee; Mariapun, Shivaani; Teo, Soo Hwang

    2015-06-12

    To date, because of limited budgets and lower incidence of breast cancer, the majority of Asian countries do not have population-based screening programmes, but instead offer opportunistic screening. However, there have been few studies which have assessed the motivators for women attending such programmes and the appropriateness of the programmes in terms of targeting women at risk. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of 1,619 women aged 40 to 74 years attending a subsidized opportunistic screening mammogram from October 2011 to October 2013 at a private hospital in Malaysia. Breast cancer risk was estimated using the Gail Model and two-step cluster analysis was used to examine the motivators of attending screening. Although Malaysia comprises 54.5% Malay, 24.5% Chinese and 7.3% Indian, the majority of women in the MyMammo Study were Chinese (70.1%) and 99.2% had a motivators. Of those with only secondary school education, their main motivators were doctors. Taken together, our results suggest the women attending opportunistic mammography screening in Asia are at low risk of breast cancer and this poses challenges to cost-effective and equitable strategies for cancer control. We propose that to improve uptake of screening mammography, awareness programmes should target both doctors and members of the public.

  8. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  9. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  10. Going nuclear? Family structure and young women's health in India, 1992-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2013-06-01

    Scholars traditionally argued that industrialization, urbanization, and educational expansion lead to a decline in extended families and complementary rise in nuclear families. Some have suggested that such transitions are good for young married women because living in nuclear families benefits their health. However, extended families may also present advantages for young women's health that outweigh any disadvantages. Using the Indian National Family Health Survey, this article examines whether young married women living in nuclear families have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. It also examines whether young married women's living arrangements are changing over time and, if so, how such changes will affect their health. Results show that young married women living in nuclear families do not have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. Of eight health outcomes examined, only five differ significantly by family structure. Further, of the five outcomes that differ, four are patrilocal extended-family advantages and only one is a nuclear-family advantage. From 1992 to 2006, the percentage of young married women residing in nuclear families increased, although the majority remained in patrilocal extended families. This trend toward nuclear families will not benefit young women's health.

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥10 4 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of our screening tests had a sensitivity and

  12. Parvovirus B19 antibodies and correlates of infection in pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Emiasegen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated with spontaneous abortion, hydrops foetalis, intrauterine foetal death, erythema infectiosum (5th disease, aplastic crisis and acute symmetric polyarthropathy. However, data concerning Nigerian patients with B19 infection have not been published yet. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of B19 IgG and IgM antibodies, including correlates of infection, among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Nigeria. Subsequent to clearance from an ethical committee, blood samples were collected between August-November 2008 from 273 pregnant women between the ages of 15-40 years who have given their informed consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Recombinant IgG and IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits (Demeditec Diagnostics, Germany were used for the assays. Out of the 273 participants, 111 (40.7% had either IgG or IgM antibodies. Out of these, 75 (27.5% had IgG antibodies whereas 36 (13.2% had IgM antibodies, and those aged 36-40 years had the highest prevalence of IgG antibodies. Significant determinants of infection (p < 0.05 included the receipt of a blood transfusion, occupation and the presence of a large number of children in the household. Our findings have important implications for transfusion and foeto-maternal health policy in Nigeria. Routine screening for B19 IgM antibodies and accompanying clinical management of positive cases should be made mandatory for all Nigerian blood donors and women of childbearing age.

  13. Cervicitis aetiology and case definition: a study in Australian women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Garden, Frances L; Rawlinson, William D; Naing, Zin W; Cumming, Robert G; Konecny, Pam

    2016-05-01

    Studies examining cervicitis aetiology and prevalence lack comparability due to varying criteria for cervicitis. We aimed to outline cervicitis associations and suggest a best case definition. A cross-sectional study of 558 women at three sexually transmitted infection clinics in Sydney, Australia, 2006-2010, examined pathogen and behavioural associations of cervicitis using three cervicitis definitions: 'microscopy' (>30 pmnl/hpf (polymorphonuclear leucocytes per high-powered field on cervical Gram stain)), 'cervical discharge' (yellow and/or mucopurulent cervical discharge) or 'micro+cervical discharge' (combined 'microscopy' and 'cervical discharge'). Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) had the strongest associations with cervicitis definitions 'micro+cervical discharge': CT adjusted prevalence ratio (APR)=2.13 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.30) p=0.0006, MG APR=2.21 (1.33 to 3.69) p=0.002, TV APR=2.37 (1.44 to 3.90) p=0.0007 NG PR=4.42 (3.79 to 5.15) pdefinitions with best clinical utility and pathogen prediction were 'cervical discharge' and 'micro+cervical discharge'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Human papillomavirus infection of the cervix uteri in women attending a Health Examination Center of the French social security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beby-Defaux, A; Bourgoin, A; Ragot, S; Battandier, D; Lemasson, J M; Renaud, O; Bouguermouh, S; Vienne Md, Maladie de la; Agius, G

    2004-06-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central causal factor in cervical cancer, understanding the epidemiology of this infection constitutes an important step towards development of strategies for prevention. Six hundred and fifty seven cervical samples were tested for HPV using PCR with consensus primers (MY09/MY11), by genotyping (restriction and sequencing analyses) and by cervical cytology, from women who attended a Health Examination Center of the French social security. Women with no cervical smear as well as women with cytological abnormalities within the last 3 years were recruited. HPV DNA was detected in 7.3% of the women (5.3% for high-risk, 2.4% for low-risk, and 0.5% for unknown risk types) including 6 (0.9%) mixed infections. Fifteen different genotypes were detected, of which genotypes 16 (22.2%), 58 (13.0%), 18 (11.1%), 30 (9.2%), and 33 (9.2%) were the most prevalent. In age group 17-25 years, we found the highest frequencies for both any (22.1%) and high-risk (14.7%) HPV, and prevalences gradually decreased with age. 5.2% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 0.3% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 1.2% of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were found. The frequencies of high risk and all HPV types were significantly higher in squamous intraepithelial lesions than in those with normal and reactive/reparative changes (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of high-risk HPV in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion group (28.6%) was significantly higher than in the normal and reactive/reparative changes groups (3.4%) (P < 0.0001). HPV detection was associated with younger age, single marital and non-pregnant status (P < 0.0001), premenopausal status (P = 0.0004), and contraception (P = 0.0008). Marital status (OR 4.5; 95% CI = 2.3-9.0) and tobacco consumption (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.7) were predictive independent factors of HPV infection. The French system

  15. Non-fistulous urinary leakage among women attending a Nigerian family planning clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ijaiya, Munir’deen; Raji ,; Aboyeji,; Adesina,; Adebara,; Ezeoke,

    2011-01-01

    Munir'deen A Ijaiya1, Hadijat O Raji1, Abiodun P Aboyeji1, Kike T Adesina1, Idowu O Adebara2, Grace G Ezeoke11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, NigeriaAbstract: Urinary leakage is an important gynecological challenge, which has a substantial impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of non-fistul...

  16. The role of the family in HIV status disclosure amongst women in Vietnam: Familial dependence and independence

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, D.; White, J.; Hipwell, M.; Nguyen, T.; Pharris, A.

    2017-01-01

    Insights into disclosure by PLWHA can inform strategies for treatment and support, yet Vietnamese women's self-disclosure patterns are poorly understood. We conducted interviews with 12 HIV-positive women, identifying three principal factors influencing disclosure to family members: patrilocal residence, desire to protect own family, and the need for financial support. Women's decision-making about disclosure was significantly affected by dependence on or independence of parents-in-law and th...

  17. Home birth without skilled attendants despite millennium villages project intervention in Ghana: insight from a survey of women's perceptions of skilled obstetric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakua, Emmanuel Kweku; Sevugu, Justice Thomas; Dzomeku, Veronica Millicent; Otupiri, Easmon; Lipkovich, Heather R; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2015-10-07

    Skilled birth attendance from a trained health professional during labour and delivery can prevent up to 75% of maternal deaths. However, in low- and middle-income rural communities, lack of basic medical infrastructure and limited number of skilled birth attendants are significant barriers to timely obstetric care. Through analysis of self-reported data, this study aimed to assess the effect of an intervention addressing barriers in access to skilled obstetric care and identified factors associated with the use of unskilled birth attendants during delivery in a rural district of Ghana. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June to August 2012 in the Amansie West District of Ghana among women of reproductive age. Multi-stage, random, and population proportional techniques were used to sample 50 communities and 400 women for data collection. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with place of delivery. A total of 391 mothers had attended an antenatal care clinic at least once for their most recent birth; 42.3% of them had unskilled deliveries. Reasons reported for the use of unskilled birth attendants during delivery were: insults from health workers (23.5%), unavailability of transport (21.9%), and confidence in traditional birth attendants (17.9%); only 7.4% reported to have had sudden labour. Other factors associated with the use of unskilled birth attendants during delivery included: lack of partner involvement aOR = 0.03 (95% CI; 0.01, 0.06), lack of birth preparedness aOR = 0.05 (95% CI; 0.02, 0.13) and lack of knowledge of the benefits of skilled delivery aOR = 0.37 (95% CI; 0.11, 1.20). This study demonstrated the importance of provider-client relationship and cultural sensitivity in the efforts to improve skilled obstetric care uptake among rural women in Ghana.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enato, E. F. O.; Mens, P. F.; Okhamafe, A. O.; Okpere, E. E.; Pogoson, E.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY: This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and

  19. The attendance of women in mammographic early detection programme and the results of the observation of the breast glands condition. 1. The attendance of higher schools female employees in mammography examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romejko, M.; Kleszczewska, J.; Liszek, A.; Tarlowska, L.; Wronkowski, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this work is to assess the attendance in the early detection (mammography) in female employees of Warsaw-based higher schools aged 40-69. During the 4.5 year period (1985-1989) 1325 female employees of higher schools (23.5% of the schools' total employment) turned up to the Female Cancer Prevention Center of The Higher Schools' Medical Center (ZOZ) in Warsaw. Observation of this group continued until June 30, 1992. Majority of the women (56.5%) showed up only once, 21.7% came twice, and 21.8% at least three times. Out of the 1021 women (77% of all the examined female employees) who showed no symptoms in the first test, only 37% came again for the second checkup. Out of the 305 women who had changes detected in their X-ray images, 66% turned up for the second test. 23 women (1.7%) had suspicious mammography results or typical cancer symptoms in the first test. The present work shows that the reason of the insufficient attendance of higher schools' female employees in early detection programs need to be investigated and that a more efficient early detection system must be developed. (author)

  20. Is There a Time for Everything? Attitudes Related to Women's Sequencing of Career and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined business students' (n=203) attitudes relating to sequencing of career and family events for women. Results indicated gender, attitudes regarding women's timing of career and children, and women's ability to balance work and family demands were significantly related. There was a relationship between attitudes toward timing of marriage and…

  1. [A Structural Equation Model on Family Strength of Married Working Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Seon; Han, Kuem Sun

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of predictive factors related to family strength and develop a structural equation model that explains family strength among married working women. A hypothesized model was developed based on literature reviews and predictors of family strength by Yoo. This constructed model was built of an eight pathway form. Two exogenous variables included in this model were ego-resilience and family support. Three endogenous variables included in this model were functional couple communication, family stress and family strength. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from 319 married working women who were 30~40 of age and lived in cities of Chungnam province in Korea. Data were analyzed with PASW/WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Family support had a positive direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Family stress had a negative direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Functional couple communication had a positive direct and total effect on family strength. These predictive variables of family strength explained 61.8% of model. The results of the study show a structural equation model for family strength of married working women and that predicting factors for family strength are family support, family stress, and functional couple communication. To improve family strength of married working women, the results of this study suggest nursing access and mediative programs to improve family support and functional couple communication, and reduce family stress.

  2. Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women's use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L

    2015-11-04

    Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side

  3. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  4. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable.

  5. Digital divide: variation in internet and cellular phone use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Lipika; Hutton, Heidi E; Erbelding, Emily J; Brandon, Elizabeth S; Finkelstein, Joseph; Chander, Geetanjali

    2010-01-01

    We sought to describe: (1) the prevalence of internet, cellular phone, and text message use among women attending an urban sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic, (2) the acceptability of health advice by each mode of information and communication technology (ICT), and (3) demographic characteristics associated with ICT use. This study is a cross-sectional survey of 200 English-speaking women presenting to a Baltimore City STI clinic with STI complaints. Participants completed a self-administered survey querying ICT use and demographic characteristics. Three separate questions asked about interest in receiving health advice delivered by the three modalities: internet, cellular phone, and text message. We performed logistic regression to examine how demographic factors (age, race, and education) are associated with likelihood of using each modality. The median age of respondents was 27 years; 87% were African American, and 71% had a high school diploma. The rate of any internet use was 80%; 31% reported daily use; 16% reported weekly use; and 32% reported less frequent use. Almost all respondents (93%) reported cellular phone use, and 79% used text messaging. Acceptability of health advice by each of the three modalities was about 60%. In multivariate analysis, higher education and younger age were associated with internet use, text messaging, and cellular phone use. Overall rate of internet use was high, but there was an educational disparity in internet use. Cellular phone use was almost universal in this sample. All three modalities were equally acceptable forms of health communication. Describing baseline ICT access and the acceptability of health advice via ICT, as we have done, is one step toward determining the feasibility of ICT-delivered health interventions in urban populations.

  6. Factors influencing family planning practice among reproductive age married women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Myo Min; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Nanthamongkokchai, Sutham

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors that influence the family planning practice among married, reproductive age women in Hlaing Township, Myanmar. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 284 married, reproductive age women using stratified random sampling. The data were collected through questionnaire interviews during February and March 2012 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. The proportion of families practicing family planning was 74.7%, contraceptive injection being the most commonly used method. The factors influencing family planning practice were attitude towards family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The women with a positive attitude toward family planning practiced family planning 3.7 times more than women who had a negative attitude. If family planning services were available for 24 hours, then women would practice 3.4 times more than if they were not available for 24 hours. When women got fair to good support from health workers, they practiced 15.0 times more on family planning and 4.3 times more who got fair to good support from partners and friends than women who got low support. The factors influencing family planning practice of married, reproductive age women were attitude toward family planning, 24-hour availability of family planning services, health worker support, and partner and friends support. The findings suggest that empowerment of health workers, training of volunteers, pharmacists and contraceptive drug providers, encouraging inter-spousal communication, and peer support, as well as an integrated approach to primary health care in order to target different populations to change women's attitudes on family planning, could increase family planning practice among Myanmar women.

  7. Immigrant women in Australia: resources, family and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M D

    1984-01-01

    Using the 1% public use sample of individual records from the 1981 census and adopting direct standardization for age and sex regression techniques, this paper describes differences among native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking countries, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean region and the Third World, in areas of labor participation, unemployment, occupational status, entrepreneurship, and income. While Eastern European women are the most likely to be in the labor force, are the most likely to be unemployed and are the highest paid, Mediterranean women are the least likely to be in the labor force, have fairly low unemployment rates and occupy the lowest status positions and receive the lowest wages. Native born Australians and immigrants from English-speaking and Third World countries and Northwestern Europe are intermediate between these 2 extremes on most dimensions. Some of the differences are not large. In particular, labor force participation only ranges from 49% to 59% and self employment from 9% to 14%. The most apparent differences in work patterns of the various groups of immigrants stem from differences in their own resources and constranits, or from different modes of adaptation to the Australian society, rather than from differential treatment in the labor market. Although family roles affect aspects of work differently, in general, marriage reduces labor force participation by more than 10% among all groups, except for East Europeans and the Mediterraneans, among whom it has no effect. While East European women hold on to their jobs as a potential source of livelihood in the event of divorce which is common among this group, the Mediterraneans view jobs as a means of achieving a measure of economic security. The effect of length of stay in Australia on labor market participation is somewhat larger for women from non-English speaking countries, whose adaptation process includes a slow improvement in language

  8. HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Stigma as a Multidimensional Barrier to Uptake Among Women Who Attend Planned Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Dovidio, John F; Tekeste, Mehrit; Taggart, Tamara; Galvao, Rachel W; Safon, Cara B; Willie, Tiara C; Caldwell, Abigail; Kaplan, Clair; Kershaw, Trace S

    2018-05-22

    PrEP uptake has lagged among US women. PrEP stigma is a recognized barrier to uptake among MSM but remains largely unexplored among women. This study examined the pervasiveness of PrEP stigma among US women and its implications for uptake. Setting/Methods: In a 2017 online survey of Planned Parenthood patients drawn from the three cities with the highest numbers of new HIV infections in Connecticut, 597 heterosexually-active, HIV-negative, PrEP-inexperienced women reported background characteristics, two dimensions of anticipated PrEP stigma (PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others), and three indicators of potential PrEP uptake (interest in learning more about PrEP, intention to use PrEP, and comfort discussing PrEP with a provider). Participants commonly perceived PrEP-user stereotypes, with many believing that others would regard them as promiscuous (37%), HIV-positive (32%), bad (14%), or gay (11%) if they used PrEP. Thirty percent would feel ashamed to disclose PrEP use. Many participants expected disapproval by family (36%), sex partners (34%), and friends (25%). In adjusted analyses, perception of PrEP-user stereotypes was uniquely associated with lower comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Expected PrEP disapproval by others was uniquely associated with less PrEP interest, less intention to use PrEP, and less comfort discussing PrEP with a provider. Exploratory moderation analyses suggested intention to use PrEP was greatest when participants anticipated low levels of both PrEP-user stereotypes and PrEP disapproval by others. Findings highlight the need for positive messaging targeting potential PrEP users and their social networks to increase PrEP acceptance and uptake.

  9. Self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental attendance and attitudes to dentistry during pregnancy in a sample of immigrant women in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullah, Esther; Turok, Yaroslava; Nauta, Maud; Yoong, Wai

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. Peridontal disease is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits, frequency of visits to a dentist and factors associated with dental attendance among pregnant women at a North London Hospital, the majority of whom are immigrants. A questionnaire designed by the authors was completed by postnatal women within 3 days of delivery. Data collected included past dental attendance, reasons for attendance and information about age, parity and socio-economic group. In total, 206 women completed the questionnaires within 3 days of delivery; 74.2% of the mothers were not born in the UK and 38.3% were Black African. The mean age of was 28.19 +/- 6.07 years. The majority reported good oral hygiene habits such as brushing their teeth twice a day (73.7%) and using mouthwash (51%). However, their dental attendance was poor and the average time since their last visit to a dentist was 1.8 +/- 1.61 years. Over a third of the women questioned did not know about the availability of free dental care during pregnancy and for 12 months after; 33% visited a dentist in pregnancy and half of them needed and received treatment; 15% of mothers had more than one pregnancy and yet were still unaware of free dental care provided during pregnancy and 12 months after birth. Only 36% of questioned women regularly visited a dentist. Pregnancy did little to change their attitudes to dental care. There appears no difference in attitudes to dental care between immigrant and British born pregnant women. Efforts to improve the uptake of dental care should be directed towards immigrant groups in order to promote better maternal health. Further research is

  10. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  11. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerkinn, Bjørg; Lindbaek, Morten; Skogmo, Idar; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2010-07-20

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC) in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III), Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, (3) executive function, (4) visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5) general intellectual ability No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester) had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4). Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy) had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1). All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1) learning and memory, (2) visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3) executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation. Children raised by former substance abusing

  12. Breast Cancer and Mammography Screening: Knowledge, Beliefs and Predictors for Asian Immigrant Women Attending a Specialized Clinic in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippman, Catriona; Moshrefzadeh, Arezu; Lohn, Zoe; Hodgson, Zoë G; Dewar, Kathryn; Lam, Melanie; Albert, Arianne Y K; Kwong, Juliet

    2016-12-01

    Screening mammography (MMG) reduces breast cancer mortality; however, Asian immigrant women underutilize MMG. The Asian Women's Health Clinic (AWHC) was established to promote women's cancer screening amongst this population. This study evaluated the rate, and predictors, of MMG amongst women attending the AWHC. Women (N = 98) attending the AWHC completed a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression evaluated rate and predictors of MMG. Most participants (87 %, n = 85) reported having had a mammogram. Significant MMG predictors were: lower perceived MMG barriers [lifetime: OR (CI) 1.19 (1.01-1.49); past 2 years: OR (CI) 1.11 (1.01-1.25)], and knowing someone with breast cancer [past year: OR (CI) 3.42 (1.25-9.85); past 2 years: OR (CI) 4.91 (1.32-2.13)]. Even amongst women using preventive medicine, 13 % report never having had a mammogram. More research is needed into innovative interventions, e.g. the AWHC, and breast cancer-related outcomes amongst Asian immigrant women.

  13. Unintended pregnancy and use of emergency contraception among a large cohort of women attending for antenatal care or abortion in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakha, Fatim; Glasier, Anna

    2006-11-18

    Unintended pregnancy is common. Although many unintended pregnancies end in induced abortion, up to a third of those proceeding to birth might be unplanned. Some of these pregnancies could be prevented by emergency contraception. We have sought to establish how many pregnancies ending in either childbirth or abortion are unintended, and what proportion of women use emergency contraception to try to prevent pregnancy. 2908 women who attended an Edinburgh hospital for antenatal care and 907 attending for abortion fully completed a self-administered questionnaire including a validated measure of pregnancy intention and questions about emergency contraceptive use. 814 (89.7%) of 907 pregnancies among women requesting abortion were unintended compared with only 250 (8.6%) among 2908 women who planned to continue pregnancy. However, only 1909 (65.6%) of continuing pregnancies were intended. The rest of the women were ambivalent about pregnancy intention. In women who continued with their pregnancies intendedness was related to age, with unintended pregnancy most probable in young women (pconceiving, and is thus unlikely to reduce unintended pregnancy rates. Rather, we need to find ways to improve the use of regular contraception.

  14. Urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in patients attending the family practice physicians office: a pan-Slovenian cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor But

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Both, UI and OAB represent a significant problem among patients attending the family practice physician office. It seems that the knowledge of both dysfunctions is satisfactory among physicians. The majority of patients would tell their doctors about UI and OAB and would also receive appropriate instructions regarding the bladder training and PFMT, both methods being very important for the prevention and treatment of these dysfunctions.

  15. Pregnancy in women suffering from familial hypercholesterolemia: a harmful period for both mother and newborn?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avis, Hans J.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Kastelein, John J. P.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review aims to highlight the consequences for mother and child of profound hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy of women with familial hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings Familial hypercholesterolemia is increasingly diagnosed in younger patients due to the existence

  16. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipkus, Issac

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...

  17. Work-family conflict, work- and family-role salience, and women's well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2004-08-01

    The author considered both the direct effect and the moderator effect of role salience in the stress-strain relationship. In contrast to previous studies that have examined the effects of salience on well-being within specific social roles, the present study focused on the work-family interface. From a sample of 147 employed English women with children, the present results of the regression analyses showed that both effects are possible, depending on the outcome measures used. The author observed a direct effect of role salience in the prediction of job satisfaction; work salience was positively related to job satisfaction, over and above the main-effect terms of work-interfering-with-family (WIF) conflict and family-interfering-with-work (FIW) conflict. In contrast, the author found a moderator effect of role salience and conflict for symptoms of psychological distress. However, contrary to predictions, the author found that work salience exacerbated the negative impact of WIF conflict, rather than FIW conflict, on well-being. The author discussed these results in relation to the literature on work-family conflict, role salience, and the issue of stress-strain specificity.

  18. Intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ante-natal care (ANC) in East Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna

    2017-09-05

    Ethiopia is a developing country where intestinal helminthic infections are major public health problems. The burden of intestinal parasites, particularly the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), is often very high in school children and pregnant women. Anemia, associated with STH, is a major factor in women's health, especially during pregnancy; it is an important contributor to maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ANC in East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five health centers of East Wollega Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia between November 2015 and January 2016. The health centers were selected randomly and study participants were enrolled consecutively with proportions from all the health centers. Stool and blood specimens were processed using standard operating procedures in accordance with structured questionnaires. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between predictors and outcome variables. P values less than 0.05 were taken as significant levels. Results were presented in tables and figures. A total of 372 pregnant women were enrolled in this study with a median age of 25 years (range 17-40 years). The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was 24.7% (92/372) with the predominance of Hookworm (15.1%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.5%). Illiteracy [AOR, 95% CI 2.21 (1.3, 4.8), P = 0.042], absence of latrine [AOR, 95% CI 4.62 (1.7, 8.3), P = 0.013] and regular consumption of raw and/or unwashed fruit [AOR, 95% CI 3.30 (1.2, 6.3), P = 0.011] were significant predictors of intestinal helminthic infection. The overall prevalence of anemia was 17.5% (65/372) where mild anemia accounts for 80% of the total anemia. Anemia was significantly associated with the first trimester of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.82 (1.3, 6.2), P = 0.009], previous malaria infection [AOR, 95% CI 2.32 (1

  19. Is that your pager or mine: a survey of women academic family physicians in dual physician families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Sarina; Kolan, Anne; Dottl, Susan L

    2007-08-01

    This study explored the unique challenges and strategies of women in academic family medicine who are in dual physician families. An e-mail survey was sent to all female physician members of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) who were listed in the on-line database. The survey collected demographic information, details of job descriptions and family life, and included 3 open-ended questions about the experiences of dual physician families. Over 1200 surveys were sent to women physicians in academic family medicine. One hundred fifty-nine surveys were returned. Half of all women worked full time compared to 87% of their partners. Most women reported benefits of having a physician partner including support and having an understanding person at home, though scheduling conflicts and childcare responsibilities contributed to the need for job compromises. Women prioritized finding work-life balance and having supportive partners and mentors as most important to their success as academic family physicians. Dual physician relationships involve rewards and conflicts. More research should explore the competing demands of family life with success in academic medicine.

  20. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625

  1. Values expressed through intergenerational family food and nutrition management systems among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M

    2006-01-01

    This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enato, E F O; Mens, P F; Okhamafe, A O; Okpere, E E; Pogoson, E; Schallig, H D F H

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and estimated 25% by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of education of the study participants was relatively high, antimalarial control measures during pregnancy were found to be poorly utilised by the women and malaria care-seeking was often delayed. A minority of the interviewed pregnant women said they had received sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) during current pregnancy. Moreover, the use of inferior antimalaria treatment (e.g. chloroquine) was frequent. The majority of the pregnant women, mainly primigravidae, were anaemic. Efforts to improve antimalaria healthcare must be intensified, targeting pregnant women, particularly the primigravidae and secundigravidae and the healthcare providers.

  3. Patient perception of cervical screening among women living with human immuno-deficiency virus infection attending an antiretroviral therapy clinic in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, R M; Rebe, K; Burch, V C

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to ascertain the perception of cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women attending an ART clinic in urban South Africa. It is a prospective cross-sectional study of 100 randomly selected patients using semi-structured interviews. Answers to fixed-response questions were recorded for statistical analysis and themes were identified from responses to open-ended questions. The study found that 59% of women surveyed reported ever having had a Papanicolau (Pap) smear and that 41% of these women had never been notified of the result. Many women surveyed lacked understanding of cervical screening; 78% had never heard of cervical cancer and around 40% had no correct knowledge about Pap smears. The findings suggest that cervical screening practices among HIV-positive women living in urban South Africa do not comply with the recommendations that are based on evidence of increased risk for this population. Systematic cervical screening programmes should be offered to HIV-positive women attending ART clinics in South Africa.

  4. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  5. Association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome in couples residing in Isfahan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Talebian, Ferdos; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the important factors in the prediction of family planning outcome is paying attention to women's role in decision making concerning fertility and household affairs. With the improvement of women's status and autonomy, their control over fertility is expected to increase. The present study aimed to investigate the association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome of the couples residing in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study. Two hundred and seventy women of childbearing age, eligible for family planning and residing in Isfahan, were selected through random cluster sampling and they filled a researcher-made questionnaire. Women's autonomy was measured with the questions on their decision-making autonomy concerning household affairs and physical mobility autonomy. The association between women's autonomy and family planning outcome was analyzed through statistical methods. Results: The results showed that the mean of women's decision-making, physical mobility, and general autonomy was 50. Women's autonomy had a direct significant association with the type of contraception method (P = 0.01) and the length of usage of their present contraception method (P = 0.04) as well as where they received family planning services (P = 0.02). Conclusions: Analysis of data revealed women with higher autonomy used a more efficient contraception method and continued their contraception method for a longer time, which leads to improvement of couples’ family planning outcome. Therefore, family planning services should be planned and provided with women's autonomy under consideration. PMID:25400671

  6. Reasons for non-attendance to cervical screening and preferences for HPV self-sampling in Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosgraaf, R.P.; Ketelaars, P.J.W.; Verhoef, V.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Meijer, C.J.W.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: High attendance rates in cervical screening are essential for effective cancer prevention. Offering HPV self-sampling to non-responders increases participation rates. The objectives of this study were to determine why non-responders do not attend regular screening, and why they do or do

  7. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Dibley, Michael J; Heywood, Peter

    2010-08-11

    Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of delivery care services should be considered in these West Java

  8. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. Results The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. Conclusions A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and

  9. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAZAMI, Sanaz; MOZAFARI, Mosayeb; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; AKMAL, Syaqirah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30–39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups. PMID:26423332

  10. Work-family conflict and sleep disturbance: the Malaysian working women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Mozafari, Mosayeb; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Akmal, Syaqirah

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts (strain and time-based work interference into family and family interference into work) on sleep disturbance in Malaysian working women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 Malaysian married working women. Multiple-stage simple random sampling method was used to recruit women from public service departments of Malaysia. Self-administrated questionnaires were used to measure the study variables and data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. We found that high level of the four dimensions of work-family conflicts significantly increase sleep disturbance. Our analyses also revealed an age-dependent effect of the work-family conflict on sleep disturbance. Women in their 20 to 30 yr old suffer from sleep disturbance due to high level of time-based and strain-based work-interference into family. However, the quality of sleep among women aged 30-39 were affected by strain-based family-interference into work. Finally, women older than 40 yr had significantly disturbed sleep due to strain-based work-interference into family as well as time-based family interference into work. Our findings showed that sleep quality of working women might be disturbed by experiencing high level of work-family conflict. However, the effects of inter-role conflicts on sleep varied among different age groups.

  11. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  12. Determinants of repeated abortion among women of reproductive age attending health facilities in Northern Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Alemayehu

    2017-02-01

    -party about terminating the pregnancy (AOR = 2.1, CI: 1.2,3.83 were independent predictors of repeat abortion. Conclusion This study identified several factors correlated with women having repeat abortions. It may be helpful for the Government of Ethiopia to encourage women to delay sexual debut and decrease their number of sexual partners, including by promoting discussion within families about sexuality, to decrease the occurrence of repeated abortion.

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of the Relationship between Ethnicity, Body Mass Index, and the Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes in Women Attending an Australian Antenatal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McDonald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in a multiethnic population, assess the association between country of birth (COB and GDM, and assess whether the association varies by body mass index (BMI. Methods. A retrospective study of 5260 pregnant women attending Sunshine Hospital, Australia, between 1st July 2012 and 30th June 2013. We fitted logistic regression models to assess the association between COB and GDM. An interaction between BMI and COB was assessed by likelihood ratio test. Results. In the 4610 included in our analysis, most common were women born in Australia or New Zealand (ANZ, 1932, 41.9% and in Southeast Asia (922, 20%. GDM was diagnosed in 606 (13.2% women. After adjusting for confounders, women from East Asia were most likely to develop GDM (37, 24.0% and 5-fold more likely than women from ANZ (OR = 4.77, 95% CI: 3.12, 7.31, p<0.001. Women from other Asian countries had a 3-fold increased risk of GDM compared to women from ANZ. There was no evidence of an interaction by BMI (p=0.24.  Conclusions. Women born in Asia have higher risk of GDM compared to women born in ANZ. These data provide support for including COB in GDM management policies.

  14. Factors affecting attendance to cervical cancer screening among women in the Paracentral Region of El Salvador: a nested study within the CAPE HPV screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Karla M; Gage, Julia C; Rosenbaum, Alan J; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Miranda, Esmeralda; Villalta, Sofia; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam L

    2015-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly occurring cancer among women and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, with more than 85 % of these cases occurring in developing countries. These global disparities reflect the differences in cervical cancer screening rates between high-income and medium- and low-income countries. At 19 %, El Salvador has the lowest reported screening coverage of all Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting public sector HPV DNA-based cervical cancer screening participation in El Salvador. This study was nested within a public sector screening program where health promoters used door-to-door outreach to recruit women aged 30-49 years to attend educational sessions about HPV screening. A subgroup of these participants was chosen randomly and questioned about demographic factors, healthcare utilization, previous cervical cancer screening, and HPV knowledge. Women then scheduled screening appointments at their public health clinics. Screening participants were adherent if they attended their scheduled appointment or rescheduled and were screened within 6 months. The association between non-adherence and demographic variables, medical history, history of cancer, sexual history, birth control methods, and screening barriers was assessed using Chi-square tests of significance and logistic regression. All women (n = 409) enrolled in the study scheduled HPV screening appointments, and 88 % attended. Non-adherence was associated with a higher number of lifetime partners and being under-screened-defined as not having participated in cervical cancer screening within the previous 3 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively); 22.8 % of participants in this study were under-screened. Adherence to cervical cancer screening after educational sessions was higher than expected, in part due to interactions with the community-based health promoters as well as the educational session

  15. Sero-prevalence for Hepatitis B virus among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Juba Teaching Hospital, Republic of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbak, Anthony Laku Stephen; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Omolo, Jared; Idris, Hakim; Usman, Abdulmumini; Mbabazi, William Baguma

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide and in Africa. This would be the first ever documented study on epidemiology of Hepatitis B infections in the newly formed Republic of South Sudan. This study was designed to estimate the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst pregnant women attending antenatal services in Juba. A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic services in Juba Teaching Hospital, in the period between December 2012 and March 2013. Any pregnant woman, attending antenatal care services at Juba Teaching Hospital, was included if she was a resident of Juba County for at least 1 year before pregnancy. A Hepatitis B case was defined as any women participating in the study and was found to be positive for HbsAg and confirmed by ELISA. This study documented that the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending ANC in Juba was 11% (31 out of the 280 samples). Other samples tested were indeterminate (36%), naturally immune (27.1%), susceptible (23%) and the remaining 1.8% was immune due to vaccination. Significant risk factors for Hepatitis B infection were loss of partner (OR 4.4 and CI of 1.4-13.9) and history of Jaundice (OR 1.7 and CI of 1.2-2.1). These study findings show that only 29% of infants in Juba county are born to immune mothers (naturally or vaccine induced). The remaining 70% of babies would be at risk of infection, if a birth dose of Hepatitis B is not provided. We therefore recommended introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine birth dose into routine infants' vaccination series to eliminate this risk.

  16. The centrality of women in moral teachings in Yoruba family system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, relating with elders and people of same age group, humility, diligence, truthful and accommodating. Culturally among the Yoruba people, Women within the family settings are socialized differently from Men. Women are socialized to be relationship oriented in marriages, families, communities, provision of love ...

  17. Depression and quality of life for women in single-parent and nuclear families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero Hernández, René; Estrada Aranda, Benito; González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa

    2009-05-01

    This is a cross-sectional study which objectives are 1) to determine the predictors for perceived quality of life and 2) to analyze the differences between women from single-parent families and bi-parent families, about their quality of life, depression and familiar income. We worked with a non-probabilistic sample of 140 women from Monterrey, N.L, Mexico, 107 are from bi-parent families and 33 from single parent families. Some of the results show that women from single-parent families have lower quality of life (Z = -2.224, p = .026), lower income (Z = -2.727, p = .006) and greater depression (Z = -6.143, p = .001) than women from bi-parental families. The perceived quality of life's predictors, using a multiple regression model (n = 140) were depression, income and number of children, those variables explaining 25.4% of variance.

  18. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending Care and Treatment Centre in a tertiary hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandya, Belinda S; Pembe, Andrea B; Mwakyoma, Henry A

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and Treatment Centre (CTC) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 316 women aged 18-70 years had a Pap smear taken for cytology, followed by spraying onto the cervix with 4% acetic acid and then inspecting it. Cytology was considered negative when there was no Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) lesion reported from the Pap smear taken, and positive if CIN lesion 1, 2 or 3 was reported. Detection of a well-defined, opaque acetowhite lesion close to the squamocolumnar junction or close to the external cervical os constituted a positive VIA. Out of 316 women, 132 women had acetowhite lesions on VIA, making the proportion of abnormal cervical lesions to be 42.4%. One hundred and one out of 312 women (32.4%) had CIN lesions detected on Pap smear. The proportion of agreement between these two tests was 0.3. The proportion of agreement was moderate in women with advanced WHO HIV clinical stage of the disease and in women not on ART (Anti Retroviral Therapy). Women with CD-4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 had more abnormal cervical lesions. There is considerable proportion of HIV positive women with premalignant lesions of the cervix. Considering the proportion of HIV women with abnormal lesions and the difficulty in logistics of doing Pap smear in low resource settings, these results supports the recommendation to introduce screening of premalignant lesions of the cervix using VIA to all HIV infected women.

  19. The role of the family in HIV status disclosure among women in Vietnam: Familial dependence and independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, H T; White, J L; Hipwell, M; Nguyen, C T K; Pharris, A

    2018-04-01

    Insights into disclosure by people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) can inform strategies for treatment and support, yet Vietnamese women's self-disclosure patterns are poorly understood. We conducted interviews with 12 HIV-positive women, identifying three principal factors influencing disclosure to family members: patrilocal residence, desire to protect own family, and the need for financial support. Women's decision-making about disclosure was significantly affected by dependence on or independence of parents-in-law and their own parents. We believe that our findings reveal the complex interplay of stigma and disclosure within Vietnamese families, highlighting the need for specific social measures that promote self-disclosure combined with family support for female PLWHA.

  20. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  1. An empirical analysis of the impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Dianne H.B.; Memili, Esra; Kaciak, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that women entrepreneurs add exponential growth to the economic well-being of countries. The impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs’ is examined including major challenges (i.e. personal problems and recognition of poor managerial skills and knowledge) and advantages (i.e. perceptions of helpfulness of education and work experience). Our findings show that family moral support can have both positive and negative impact on Turkish women entrepreneur...

  2. The Work and Family Responsibilities of Black Women Single Parents. Working Paper No. 148.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malson, Michelene R.; Woody, Bette

    One aspect of the general rise in the number of single parent households is the high proportion of them that are headed by black women. Black families headed by women tend to be larger and are more likely to be impoverished. Contrary to popular belief, many black single mothers considered poor are employed women, not recipients of welfare. An…

  3. Family Closeness and Domestic Abuse Among Caribbean and South American Women in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank R.; Duan, Rui; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of family member closeness as a protective factor against domestic abuse. We explore the link between long-lasting relations within the family and intra-familial violence perpetrated against women in Latino households in South Florida. We use data from an Inter-generational Transmission of Drug Use between Latina Mothers and Daughters (ITDMD) study. The study includes data on family relations and domestic abuse. We estimate a series of multivariate regressions to obtain the probability of abuse against women, the types of abuse inflicted and the relationship with the abusers. Our results indicate that among abused women, the effects of long-lasting relations within the family differ depending on the type of relationship between the abuser and the victim and the degree of closeness the victim feels towards other family members. Given these findings, there is a need to further study family relations and abuse in Latino households. PMID:29033494

  4. Understanding the Strategic Decisions Women Make in Farming Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin

    2010-01-01

    Decision-systems theory (DST) was developed from in-depth interviews with farming families and provides an interpretation of the processes farming families use in making strategic decisions in regard to the family members, the farm and the businesses the farming family run. Understanding the nature and justifications used for different decisions…

  5. Gendered Investments in Career and Family: Validating a Measure of Motherhood Schemas among Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    One persistent trend characterizing many work-family arrangements is the tendency for women to invest more heavily in the family sphere compared to men and to compromise career pursuits for their children or partner. Discovering which factors perpetuate these gender-stratified investments in work and family is necessary because, along with…

  6. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  7. A Family Life-Cycle Approach to the Socioeconomic Attainment of Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined married women's (N=453) social and economic labor market attainments from a family life-cycle perspective using a longitudinal study. Findings suggest that the effects of early family experiences on attainment are larger and more permanent than those of later family experiences and actually increase over time. (Author/JAC)

  8. Adding School to Work-Family Balance: The Role of Support for Portuguese Working Mothers Attending a Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cláudia; Matias, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the work, family, and study experiences of Portuguese professional women in two different career stages: early career and mid-career. Using semi-structured interviews with a sample of 22 working mothers enrolled in a master's degree, this study explores their experiences of combining the roles of mother, worker and…

  9. A pilot Diabetic Support Service based on family practice attenders: comparison with diabetic clinics in east London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, B J; Claff, H R; Edmonson, M; Evans, S; Harris, B T; Hull, S A; Jones, E J; Mellins, D H; Safir, J G; Taylor, B

    1987-01-01

    A pilot Diabetic Support Service (DSS) based on a computer register was devised for diabetic patients identified within three group practices in an inner city district of London. Of 159 eligible diabetics, 142 were followed over 2 years. Glycosylated haemoglobin (GHb) monitoring and adequacy of clinic reviews were audited. Care achieved by the DSS was compared with conventional Diabetic Clinic (DC) management of a sample of 200 diabetics from the same district. Serial GHb measurements were made on 66.2% of DSS and 44.5% of DC patients: GHb fell significantly only in DSS patients (13.1% to 11.4%). Proportional falls in GHb were comparable in each DSS treatment group (diet alone, oral hypoglycaemic agents, and insulin) and for hospital attenders and non-attenders equally. The planned clinical reviews were achieved in 40.1% of DSS patients entered (29% GP only, 54% of clinic attenders) and in 15% of DC patients (plus 75% fundal and blood pressure examination). The study led to provision of a formal diabetic clinic annual review system, diabetic mini-clinics in two of the three group practices, and the appointment of two Diabetic Liaison Sisters. With administrative simplification the system is to be made available to all diabetics in the District through their GPs during 1986-8.

  10. 'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context.

  11. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2006-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  12. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2007-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological, and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...

  13. Emotional, Biological, and Cognitive Impact of a Brief Expressive Writing Intervention for African American Women at Familial Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana

    2005-01-01

    ...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. To date, little research has been done on women of African descent with family histories of breast cancer, despite the fact that they may be at particularly high risk for chronic distress due...

  14. Prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Uganda: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald

    2016-04-11

    Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p prevalence of mild anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk factor for anaemia

  15. Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Women (VAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi Alimohammad; Javadi Maryam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the women, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 100 women of married of city of Ilam in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the women , the CTS scaled has been used .violence against the women be measured in four dimension ( emotional violence, psycho violence, physical violence, neglect violenc...

  16. Utilization of Family Planning Services among Women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    contraceptive use was higher among urban women,. 196(35.2%) ... among Women of Reproductive Age in Urban and Rural. Communities of ...... Reference Bureau, Washington D.C, USA,. 2006; UNDP. ... Vol 1; Main Report, March 1984. 24.

  17. Prevalence and public-health significance of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, C J; Duhlinska, D D; Igbinedion, E B

    2007-09-01

    HIV infection and anaemia are major public-health problems in Africa and are important factors associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in southeastern Nigeria. To achieve this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during July 2005-June 2006 using standard techniques. Of 815 pregnant women studied, 31 (3.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-5.1) were HIV-positive. Maternal age and gestational age were not associated with HIV infection (p > 0.05). The prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb prevalence of anaemia was observed among individuals in their second pregnancy trimester (p anaemia are preventable, antenatal care services could serve as a pivotal entry point for simultaneous delivery of interventions for the prevention and control of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnant women.

  18. Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Lien, Mei-Huei; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in immigrant women. A total of 239 immigrant women were selected from four administrative regions in Central Taiwan. Questionnaires concerning perceived discrimination, family functioning (including family cohesion and family adaptability), depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics were completed by either women themselves (N = 120) or their husbands (N = 119). The moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression symptoms was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that a higher level of perceived discrimination among immigrant women is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Family functioning serves as a moderator between the relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, but the moderating effect of family adaptability was evident only in data reported by immigrant women. The results indicate that perceived discrimination has negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family functioning for depression. Findings suggest that providers should consider addressing immigrant women's mental health needs through declining their psychosocial distress at multiple ecological levels.

  19. The Relationship between Life Skills and Family Performance in Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Komasi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Among ingredients of success of family and decreasing mental and social damages are be some skills in the family. This study was aimed The Relationship between life skills (self awareness, interpersonal relationships, and decision making and, family performance in addicted women of Kermanshah city. Methods: The research design of current study was correlation method. Research population was all addicted women who were referred to Methadone therapy centers of Kermanshah city in summer of 1390. First 15 centers selected randomly and among 82 referred women 22 women discarded because of illiteracy, old age, or lack of cooperating. Thus, Sample of this study was 60 women. Bloom family performance and Ghiasi’s life skills questionnaires were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed there is significant correlation between family performance and decision making skill in addicted women, but there is not significant correlation between family performance and self awareness and interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: Existing some of special skills in family such as decision making skill can be impressing on the level of family performance and incidence of social damages such as addiction.

  20. The Roles of Women in Family Businesses: Challenges and Opportunities : A research study on Bangladesh and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md.Sayedur; Ullah, Kaleem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Roles of women in family businesses and the challenges and opportuni- ties they face in relations to these roles in the family businesses will be explored in this re- search. Although women are accepted very important players, yet the roles of women are not frequently well-defined. The thesis will explore roles of women who play an important role in family firms and challenges and opportunities they have within the Family Business- es in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Purpose: The...

  1. The Views of Student-Teachers Attending a Turkish University on Discrimination Related to the Education of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight how Turkish students perceive important issues such as discrimination against women, violence that surfaced as a result of discrimination, alienation, inequality between men and women and isolation of women from work life. A total of 50 students participated in the study. Individual interviews were conducted.…

  2. Travelling Careers: Overseas Migration Patterns in the Professional Lives of Women Attending Girton and Newnham before 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce; Jacobs, Andrea; Kisby, Fiona; Loader, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the migration patterns of women who studied at Girton and Newnham prior to 1939 through whom dissemination of knowledge and values flowed from Cambridge overseas. It also considers organisations that fostered women's mobility in empire, particularly the Colonial Intelligence League for Educated Women and the International…

  3. Regarding men as superior to women: impacts of Confucianism on family norms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z

    1994-12-01

    Confucianism in China instills the concept of male superiority over women. Although the laws in the New China establish women's rights, the practices and norms of society still engender male dominance. Chinese family norms promote the unity of the family, while placing women in a subservient and uneducated position. The traditional culture requires obedience to a father and then to a husband and sons. The traditional family proscribes women's role as housekeeper, and the value of this activity is considered lower than male work outside the household. Family norms also place the power of family decisions with husbands. Men maintain contact politically and socially at village meetings and negotiate use of resources and production. As women take on greater productive roles and earn income, their involvement in decision making increases. Female power within the family has increased also due to increased women's education. Son preference is perpetuated in rural areas inland as a means of providing a strong labor supply and in coastal areas as a means of carrying on the family name. The traditional preference is for a son and a daughter; those with 2 daughters remain feeling inferior. Sons are considered important for elderly care. Confucianism contributes to high fertility, short birth intervals, and an imbalanced sex ratio. The imbalanced sex ratio in rural areas is perpetuated also due to economic concerns and the lack of social services for the elderly. The Chinese family planning program has been effective in reducing high fertility and in changing traditional family norms and customs. Government efforts most recently have focused on changing the desire for more children and son preference. The expectation is that modernization will bring with it empowerment of women and a balance between men and women in both family and society.

  4. Screening women for family violence in the maternal child healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, M E

    2000-03-01

    In the United States, a woman is battered in her home every 9 seconds, and up to 4,000 women are beaten to death every year, making family violence one of the most common crimes in the United States today. Family violence has been identified as a national health concern; however, long-standing societal belief, myths regarding family violence, and the lack of training for healthcare professionals have created barriers to identifying and caring for these women. There is no single profile of the victim or perpetrator of family violence. All women should be asked about family violence in a safe, nonthreatening manner at all healthcare visits, including when bringing children for pediatric visits. Family violence begins slowly and increases with time. Goals for caring for the battered woman include decreasing her isolation, increasing her safety, accurate documentation, and appropriate referrals.

  5. The Hidden Work of Women in Small Family Firms in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodríguez-Modroño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have historically played an important hidden role in family firms, and a great deal of research is now shedding light on this role. In spite of the more formal nature of female work at the present day, still a considerable volume of women’s contributions in family firms is unregistered and unpaid, even in developed regions. A questionnaire was administered to 396 women working in small and medium-sized family firms located in Andalucia, a southern European region, characterized by familialism and an important informal economy. Our results confirm the persistence of subordinate forms of unpaid family collaboration due to the neutrality assigned to female contributions under the traditional gendered division of work. But also this study shows how some of the women voluntarily embrace subordinate roles as a temporary way to gain professional experience, useful for their future work inside or outside the family firm.

  6. Prevalence of a positive family history of type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R

    1999-12-01

    The known association between insulin resistance and polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) has been studied by determination of the prevalence of a positive family history of diabetes in a consecutive series of oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovaries and eumenorrheic women with normal ovaries who served as controls. A significantly greater proportion of the families of the patients with PCOD had at least one member affected by type 2 diabetes (39.1% of the PCOD group and 7.6% of the controls; p PCOD had an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes within their families. Paternal and maternal family members affected were in similar proportions, there being no evidence of preferential transmission through the female line in this study. The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the families of women with polycystic ovaries is further evidence for the association between PCOD and insulin resistance, and provides a possible explanation for the familial nature of the ovarian disorder.

  7. Differential relationship between depression severity and patients' perceived family functioning in women versus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Rossi, Rita; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Miller, Ivan W

    2011-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depression and family functioning are related and that women and men may differ in how they respond to and cope with depression. Significantly less attention has been paid to whether sex moderates the relationship between family functioning and depression. In the current study, the relationship between depression severity and perceived family functioning, both generally and in specific areas, was examined in women and men (N = 117) hospitalized with major depression. The level of depression severity was not significantly different in men and in women. Correlations between depression severity and most domains of family functioning were significant and positive for men only. Furthermore, sex statistically moderated the associations between depression severity and family functioning in the areas of problem solving, communication, affective responsiveness, and behavior control. The implications for the assessment and treatment of family dysfunction in severely depressed patients are discussed.

  8. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the desired attitudinal and behavioral changes towards family planning is yet to be ... from selected rural areas in Ibadan towards family planning using the Health ... The study revealed that the socio-economic status of mothers significantly ...

  9. Factors associated with work-family conflict stress among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.

  10. Interventions to Increase Male Attendance and Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections at Publicly-Funded Family Planning Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, David; Warner, Lee; Salomon, Sarah; Johnson, David M

    2017-07-01

    We assessed the impact of staff, clinic, and community interventions on male and female family planning client visit volume and sexually transmitted infection testing at a multisite community-based health care agency. Staff training, clinic environmental changes, in-reach/outreach, and efficiency assessments were implemented in two Family Health Center (San Diego, CA) family planning clinics during 2010-2012; five Family Health Center family planning programs were identified as comparison clinics. Client visit records were compared between preintervention (2007-2009) and postintervention (2010-2012) for both sets of clinics. Of 7,826 male client visits during the time before intervention, most were for clients who were aged male visits (4,004 to 8,385; Δ = +109%); for comparison clinics, male visits increased modestly (3,822 to 4,500; Δ = +18%). The proportion of male clinic visits where chlamydia testing was performed increased in intervention clinics (35% to 42%; p males yielded similar findings for male client volume and chlamydia testing. The number of female visits declined nearly 40% in both comparison (21,800 to 13,202; -39%) and intervention clinics (30,830 to 19,971; -35%) between preintervention and postintervention periods. Multilevel interventions designed to increase male client volume and sexually transmitted infection testing services in family planning clinics succeeded without affecting female client volume or services. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics associated with intervention and follow-up attendance in a secondhand smoke exposure study for families of NICU infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Thomas F; Green, Charles; Evans, Patricia W; Stotts, Angela L

    2015-07-01

    The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is an ideal setting to intervene with an under served population on secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe). Unfortunately, attrition may compromise outcomes. Baseline characteristics associated with intervention and follow-up attendance were investigated in mothers who participated in a novel SHSe prevention study designed for households with a smoker and a NICU-admitted infant. Intervention participants received two motivational, NICU-based counseling sessions; usual care participants received pamphlets. Home-based follow-up assessments occurred at 1, 3 and 6 months. Sociodemographic, smoking history, and psychosocial factors were analyzed. Mothers from households with greater numbers of cigarettes smoked and fewer children had higher odds of both intervention and follow-up attendance. Maternal smoking abstinence (lifetime), more adults in the home and higher perceived interpersonal support were also associated with higher odds of follow-up visit completion. Innovative strategies are needed to engage mothers in secondhand smoke interventions, especially mothers who smoke, have lower levels of social support and have greater childcare responsibilities.

  12. The prevalence of genital Candida species among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health center in North-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a common genital tract infection that affects the quality of life in many women. It is more prevalent in pregnancy and may lead to complications. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of VVC among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in North-West Nigeria and to emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment. Subjects and Methods: This is a 2-month cross-sectional study performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in association with the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto in North-Western Nigeria. It involved pregnant women at various periods of gestation presenting with vaginitis and selected by simple random sampling. A pair of high vaginal swabs was collected aseptically from the study subjects which was used for Gram's staining and inoculation into Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA. The samples were then cultured according to standard procedures on sterile SDA. Infection with Candida species was diagnosed by microscopy of a saline wet mount, Gram-stained smear and colony growth on SDA. Results: Of the 288 pregnant women sampled, 175 were positive for candidiasis giving a prevalence rate of 60.8%. The ages of the women ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean of 26.8 (standard deviation ± 4.93. Pregnant women aged 26–30 years recorded the highest prevalence of 37.1% (65/175. The multigravidae were more affected 41.7% (120/288 than the primigravidae 19.1% (55/288. VVC showed a progressive increase with trimester of pregnancy. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated in 73.7% of the women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of VVC among pregnant women in our institution. There is need to educate the women on genital hygiene and practice of regular screening for candidiasis in our antenatal program.

  13. Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Women Attending the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinics of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Kehinde S; Sunmonu, Oyebola; Osanyin, Gbemisola E; Oluwole, Ayodeji A

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the knowledge and acceptability of HPV vaccine among women attending the gynaecology clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 148 consecutively selected women attending the gynaecology clinic of LUTH. Relevant information was obtained from these women using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data was analysed and then presented by simple descriptive statistics using tables and charts. Chi-square statistics were used to test the association between the sociodemographical variables and acceptance of HPV vaccination. All significance values were reported at P < 0.05. The mean age of the respondents was 35.7 ± 9.7 years. The study showed that 36.5% of the respondents had heard about HPV infection while only 18.9% had knowledge about the existence of HPV vaccines. Overall, 81.8% of the respondents accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls with the level of education of the mothers being the major determinant of their acceptability ( P = 0.013). Awareness of HPV infections and existence of HPV vaccines is low. However, the acceptance of HPV vaccines is generally high. Efforts should be made to increase the awareness about cervical cancer, its aetiologies, and prevention via HPV vaccination.

  14. Perceptions of antenatal care services by pregnant women attending government health centres in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edie, Gregory Edie Halle Ekane; Obinchemti, Thomas Egbe; Tamufor, Emmanuel Njuma; Njie, Martin Mafany; Njamen, Theophile Nana; Achidi, Eric Akum

    2015-01-01

    User'sperception of quality of ANC services crucially impacts continuity of use of these services and hence pregnancy outcome. However in our community, ANC user's perceptions of quality are not known. An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected government health centres in the Buea Health District. We recruited 385 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel and exported toEpi-Info (Version 3.5.1) for analysis. Geographical accessibility and perceived quality of care were the predominant reasons for choosing or changing a site for ANC. One third of respondents (30.1%) attended a health centre out of their catchment health area with Buea Town health centre receiving the highest proportion of women out of the health area (56.8% of attendees). Knowledge about antenatal care varied and majority of respondents (96.4%) were satisfied with the antenatal services received. However, there were elements of dissatisfaction with health centre services, poor sitting facilities, amenities, few health education talks and poor nursing skills. High educational level (high school and university) (X(2) = 8.714; p = 0.01) and first time pregnancy(X(2)= 4.217; p= 0.04) were significantly associated with poor satisfaction. Policy makers should implement changes in the health care delivery system taking into account the users' preferences, more so in the light of increasing female education in Cameroon.

  15. Family planning advice and postpartum contraceptive use among low-income women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah L

    2007-03-01

    In Mexico, family planning advice has been incorporated into the clinical guidelines for prenatal care. However, the relationship between women's receipt of family planning advice during prenatal care and subsequent contraceptive use has not been evaluated. Data were collected in 2003 and 2004 in 17 Mexican states from 2,238 urban low-income women postpartum. Participating women reported on prenatal services received and contraceptive use. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models evaluated whether receiving family planning advice during prenatal care predicted current contraceptive use, after quality of care in the community, service utilization, delivery characteristics, household socioeconomic characteristics, and maternal and infant characteristics were controlled for. Overall, 47% of women used a modern contraceptive method. Women who received family planning advice during prenatal care were more likely to use a contraceptive than were those who did not receive such advice (odds ratio, 2.2). Women who received family planning advice had a higher probability of using condoms (relative risk ratio, 2.3) and IUDs (5.2), and of undergoing sterilization (1.4), than of using no method. Integrating family planning advice into prenatal care may be an important strategy for reaching women when their demand for contraception is high.

  16. Women and children last: the poverty and marginalization of one-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, H P

    1990-01-01

    The spatial distribution and socioeconomic status of one-parent families in Great Britain and Australia are described, and reasons for the increase in this type of family are analyzed. The author finds that "one-parent families, largely composed of women and children, constitute one of the most rapidly-growing family types. Evidence from Britain and Australia reveals their extreme marginalization in the labour market, and their concentration into public housing. These problems are related to patriarchal structures within society, particularly the expectations of traditional gender roles and the segregation of women's job opportunities." excerpt

  17. Maternity care and maternal serum screening. Do male and female family physicians care for women differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Carroll, J C; Ryan, G; Reid, A J; Permaul-Woods, J A; Arbitman, S; Domb, S B; Fallis, B; Kilthei, J

    1997-06-01

    To examine whether male and female family physicians practise maternity care differently, particularly regarding the maternal serum screening (MSS) program. Mailed survey fielded between October 1994 and March 1995. Ontario family practices. Random sample of 2000 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who care for pregnant women. More than 90% of eligible physicians responded. Attitudes toward, knowledge about, and behaviour toward MSS. Women physicians were more likely than men to practise part time, in groups, and in larger communities. Men physicians were more likely to perform deliveries; women were more likely to do shared care. Despite a shorter work week, on average, female physicians cared for more pregnant women than male physicians did. Among those providing intrapartum care, women performed more deliveries, on average, than men. Women physicians were more likely than men to offer MSS to all pregnant patients. Although average time spent discussing MSS before the test was similar, women physicians had better knowledge of when best to do the test and its true-positive rate. All differences reported were statistically significant (P women, women physicians cared for more pregnant women than men did. Both spent similar time discussing MSS with their patients before offering screening, but more women physicians offered MSS to all their patients and were more knowledgeable about MSS than men physicians.

  18. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One

  19. [Iron status and serum retinol levels among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Aline Brandão; Giachini, Rubia Mara; Lauda, Laíz Guedes; Grillo, Luciane Peter

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to determine prevalence of iron and vitamin A deficiencies among children and adolescents attended by a Family Health Strategy team in Itajaí, Santa Catarina State, and to assess relations between iron status and serum retinol. A nutritional census of the families was carried out. Socioeconomic and demographic data were collected. Hemoglobin concentration, hematocrite, serum iron and retinal were determined. Thirty-one out of the 156 enrolled families participated in the study. Only 39.1% of the children and 62.0% of the adolescents had their blood samples collected. Mean per capita income was 1.68+/-1.00 minimum wages. None of the parents was illiterate and most families (80.6%) owned their homes. All homes had public sewage and water supply, and 87.1% were made of brickwork. Iron deficiency was diagnosed in 16.7% of the children and 19.3% of the adolescents. Only one child had vitamin A deficiency. Significant correlations were found between serum iron and retinol among children, and among adolescents between serum retinol and hemoglobin concentration and hematocrite. We found mild prevalences of iron and vitamin A deficiencies, possibly due to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

  20. Domestic violence against women during pregnancy: the case of Palestinian refugees attending an antenatal clinic in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoury, N; Khawaja, M; Mahfoud, Z; Afifi, R A; Madi, H

    2009-03-01

    To determine the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant Palestinian refugee women residing in Lebanon and currently using the United Nation Relief and Work Agency's (UNRWA) primary healthcare services. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a polyclinic of primary healthcare of the UNRWA in South Lebanon during the years 2005-2006. The sample was 351 pregnant women who were 15-42 years of age and not accompanied by their husbands or relatives. All women were invited by the midwife to participate in the study during their visit to the clinic for their first checkup or during a follow-up visit. The Abuse Assessment Screen instrument was used to screen for past and recent history of physical and emotional abuse among the participants. Domestic violence was significantly associated with education, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy. The odds of abuse for women with an elementary or lower education were 6.86 (95% CI 1.2-38.1) and for women with an intermediate or secondary education 6.84 (95% CI 1.4-33.3) compared with women with a university education. The odds of abuse during pregnancy for women whose husbands did not desire their pregnancy were 3.80 (95% CI 1.5-9.7) compared with other women. Domestic violence against women in Lebanon was associated with educational level, gestational age, fear of husband or someone else in the house, and unintended pregnancy.

  1. Physical activity and psychological well-being in obese pregnant and postpartum women attending a weight-gain restriction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinic. a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...

  3. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  4. Family adaptability and cohesion in families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn

    2015-06-01

    South Korea's low birth rate, aging society, and female migration to urban areas due to industrialization have caused an accelerated inflow of Asian female immigrants into Korea to marry Korean men, especially in rural areas. This study was performed to determine how family function of multicultural families changes over time and what factors affect the changes in family function of multicultural families. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a 1st wave study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale III (FACES III) scores were measured. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the 1st wave study results. The mean family adaptability score was 24.6 in the 1st wave study and 26.1 at the 3-year follow-up. The average family cohesion score was 31.0 in the 1st wave study and 36.7 at the 3-year follow-up. There was a statistically significant increase in family cohesion after 3 years (P adaptability did not change over time; however, conversely, family cohesion increased. The age difference between husband and wife and the subjective SES had a positive association with the changes in family cohesion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The usefulness of traditional birth attendants to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings: the case of Mfuwe, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M; Pavlova, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Although there is increased attention on the role of trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal care, most of the research has mainly focused on providing evidence of the relevance of trained TBAs to women in general without a specific focus on women who are HIV positive, despite them being most vulnerable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap by assessing the relevance of trained TBAs to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings by using Zambia as a case study. Our data collection consisted of two focus group discussions, one involving HIV-positive women utilizing trained TBAs and the other with women not utilizing TBAs. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with trained TBAs and health workers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. In general, women living with HIV positively characterized the services of TBAs. In the face of an inefficient health system, trained TBAs were seen to be useful in providing efficient, cheap and quality care, counseling, and referral and logistical support, including treatment adherence support. In Zambia, trained TBAs and professional care are not mutually exclusive but complementary. There is no doubt that HIV-positive women need professionals to handle complications and offer antiretroviral treatment to ensure prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). However, additional "soft" services offered by trained TBAs are equally important in the promotion of maternal health care among HIV-positive women. Thus, it seems there is more to gain by systematically allowing trained TBAs to work alongside professionals in a well-coordinated and complementary manner.

  6. Utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services by pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic at a regional referral hospital in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina-Gathigi, L; Omolo, J; Wanzala, P; Lindan, C; Makokha, A

    2013-09-01

    To determine utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation services among pregnant women in Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted at Nyeri Hospital, a regional referral hospital in central Kenya. Women attending the antenatal clinic were selected through systematic sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on utilization of folic acid and iron supplementation services. Women who ingested folic acid or iron supplements for >4 days in a week were considered "highly compliant". The health worker in-charge of the antenatal clinic was interviewed about the frequency of supplement stock-outs during the past year. Haemoglobin concentration was measured directly from one drop of capillary blood and measured using portable HEMOCUE B-Hb photometer. Of the 381 women interviewed, only 23.6 % obtained antenatal care in the first trimester; 69.3 and 51.2 % received folic acid and iron supplements, respectively. However, only half (45-58 %) received any information about supplementation. Most women were initiated on folic acid (80.7 %) or iron (67.7 %) after 12 and 16 weeks of gestation, respectively, well after the recommended time period. However, more than 80 % of those who received folic acid and iron were highly compliant. Stock-outs were common at the facility. Of 361 women tested for Hb level, the prevalence of anaemia (Hb levels importance of supplements to pregnant women. Women who come late to antenatal clinic miss opportunities to start supplementation early in pregnancy. Problems with supply chain management exacerbate the problem.

  7. Teaching and Learning Color Consciousness in Black Families: Exploring Family Processes and Women's Experiences with Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, JeffriAnne; Cain, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Family is regarded as a powerful force in the lives of Black Americans. Often-times, families function as an agent of socialization that counters racism. At the same time, however, Black families can perpetuate skin tone consciousness and bias, or "colorism." Although there is an extensive body of revisionist literature on Black families and a…

  8. Incidence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in women visiting Family Health Centers

    OpenAIRE

    K?l??, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to determine the incidence and the risk factors of the urinary incontinence in women visiting the Health Family Center. Methods 430 women, who visited three Family Health Centers in the city center of Erzurum for any reason between 25 November and 20 January 2016, were included in this study without any sampling. The data were collected by using the face-to-face interview method. Percentage distribution, Chi square test, and logistic regression analys...

  9. Negotiating Middle-class Respectable Femininity: Bangladeshi Women and their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nazia

    2017-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explains how affluent urban and new middle-class women in Bangladesh reconstruct the notion of respectable femininity within the family. The normative conception of middle-class women’s respectability is measured against women prioritizing family above work by performing their domestic, care, and socializing roles and by maintaining moral propriety. Using Bourdieu’s theory of capitals and Lamont’s formulation of boundary work, I demonstrate that by reinsta...

  10. Lifetime Exposure to Family Violence: Implications for the Health Status of Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088

  11. The Association Between Family Flexibility, Food Preoccupation and Body Image Among Crystal Abuser Women

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive stimulant which has destructive effects. There is also evidence that methamphetamine use in some females, partly is due to their desire to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between family flexibility, food preoccupation and body image among crystal abuser women. Objectives This study tried to evaluate whether food preoccupation, body image and family flexibility affect on crystal abuse in women. Patien...

  12. Family business women in media discourse : the business role and the mother role

    OpenAIRE

    Bjursell, Cecilia; Bäckvall, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Writings in the media have the potential to influence our standpoint and, thereby, our actions. In this paper, the authors analyze how women in family business are represented in media to understand the frames set by this discourse in terms of women owning and leading family businesses. The aim of the paper is to explore how the counterposed roles of business person and mother are presented in media and what implications this might have for role enactment. Design/methodology/approac...

  13. Acceptance of HIV testing among women attending antenatal care in south-western Uganda: risk factors and reasons for test refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, V; Mellhammar, L; Bajunirwe, F; Björkman, P

    2008-07-01

    A problem commonly encountered in programs for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is low rates of HIV test acceptance among pregnant women. In this study, we examined risk factors and reasons for HIV test refusal among 432 women attending three antenatal care clinics offering PMTCT in urban and semi-urban parts of the Mbarara district, Uganda. Structured interviews were performed following pre-test counselling. Three-hundred-eighty women were included in the study, 323 (85%) of whom accepted HIV testing. In multivariate analysis, testing site (Site A: OR = 1.0; Site B: OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 1.12-8.46; Site C: OR = 5.93; 95%CI: 2.94-11.98), age between 30 and 34 years (refusal. Testing sites operating for longer durations had higher rates of acceptance. The most common reasons claimed for test refusal were: lack of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected women (88%; n=57), a need to discuss with partner before decision (82%; n=57) and fear of partner's reaction (54%; n=57). Comparison with previous periods showed that the acceptance rate increased with the duration of the program. Our study identified risk factors for HIV test refusal among pregnant women in Uganda and common reasons for not accepting testing. These findings may suggest modifications and improvements in the performance of HIV testing in this and similar populations.

  14. Childbearing and family planning choices of women living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on ART in the urban health centres within Lusaka. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six HIV-positive women receiving care in the zoned health centres were randomly sampled and 12 health care workers who were ...

  15. Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Pregnant Women with Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methos: Glucose, insulin and lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoproteins) were measured at 26 to 32 weeks of pregnancy in fasting blood samples obtained from 75 pregnant non diabetic women (Twenty five with a history of first degree relative with DM and fifty women without ...

  16. A model of work-family conflict and well-being among Malaysian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Sanaz; Akmal, Syaqirah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    Work and family are the two most important domains in a person's life. Lack of balance between work and family can lead to adverse consequences such as psychological distress; however, the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress might be mediated by job and family dissatisfaction. This study examines a model of the four dimensions of work-family conflict and their consequences on psychological distress. In particular, we test whether job and family satisfaction mediate the effect of the four dimensions of work-family conflict on psychological distress. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 567 Malaysian women who are working in the public services. Structural Equation Modeling confirmed the mediating role of family satisfaction in the effect of strain-based work interference into family and time-based family interference into work on psychological distress. In addition, our results revealed a significant path that links job to family satisfaction. Moreover, time-based work interference into family and strain-based family interference into work significantly and negatively affect job satisfaction, which in turn influence family satisfaction and eventually affect psychological distress. The results of our study show that organizations need to develop and adapt family friendly policies to mitigate level of employees' work-family conflict.

  17. Where There Are (Few) Skilled Birth Attendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Rowen, Tami; Bell, Suzanne; Walsh, Julia; Potts, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce maternal mortality in developing countries have focused primarily on two long-term aims: training and deploying skilled birth attendants and upgrading emergency obstetric care facilities. Given the future population-level benefits, strengthening of health systems makes excellent strategic sense but it does not address the immediate safe-delivery needs of the estimated 45 million women who are likely to deliver at home, without a skilled birth attendant. There are currently 28 countries from four major regions in which fewer than half of all births are attended by skilled birth attendants. Sixty-nine percent of maternal deaths in these four regions can be attributed to these 28 countries, despite the fact that these countries only constitute 34% of the total population in these regions. Trends documenting the change in the proportion of births accompanied by a skilled attendant in these 28 countries over the last 15-20 years offer no indication that adequate change is imminent. To rapidly reduce maternal mortality in regions where births in the home without skilled birth attendants are common, governments and community-based organizations could implement a cost-effective, complementary strategy involving health workers who are likely to be present when births in the home take place. Training community-based birth attendants in primary and secondary prevention technologies (e.g. misoprostol, family planning, measurement of blood loss, and postpartum care) will increase the chance that women in the lowest economic quintiles will also benefit from global safe motherhood efforts. PMID:21608417

  18. Family planning services for incarcerated women: models for filling an unmet need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin, Carolyn; Baird, Sara; Clarke, Jennifer; Feldman, Elizabeth

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Incarcerated women around the globe are predominantly of reproductive age. Most of these women have been pregnant before, and many want to be sexually active and avoid pregnancy upon release. Yet few of these women are on a regular method of contraception. Providing contraceptive services for women in custody benefits individual and public health goals of reducing unintended pregnancy. This policy briefing reviews evidence for an unmet need for family planning in the correctional setting, and policy implications for expanding services. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach The authors describe four model programs in the USA with established contraceptive services on site, highlighting practical steps other facilities can implement. Findings Correctional facilities health administrators, providers, advocates, and legislators should advance policies which should counsel women on family planning and should make a range of contraceptive methods available before release, while remaining sensitive to the potential pressure these women may feel to use birth control in this unique environment. Practical implications Family planning services for incarcerated women benefits individuals, facilities, and the community. Social implications Policies which enable correctional facilities to provide comprehensive family planning to incarcerated women - including reproductive life goals counseling and contraceptive method provision - promote equity in access to critical reproductive health services and also provide broad scale population level benefits in preventing unintended pregnancy or enabling counseling for healthy pregnancies for a group of women who often have limited access to such services. Originality/value This policy briefing highlights an area of health care in prisons and jails which gets little attention in research and in policy circles: family planning services for incarcerated women. In addition to reviewing the importance of

  19. Longitudinal cohort study of depression, post-traumatic stress, and alcohol use in South African women who attend alcohol serving venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2014-08-06

    In South Africa, alcohol use poses a public health burden. Hazardous alcohol use often co-occurs with psychological distress (e.g., depression and post-traumatic stress). However, the majority of the research establishing the relationship between alcohol use and psychological distress has been cross-sectional, so the nature of co-occurring changes in psychological distress and alcohol use over time is not well characterized. The objective of this study is to examine the longitudinal relationship between psychological distress and alcohol use among South African women who attend alcohol serving venues. Four waves of data were collected over the course of a year from 560 women in a Cape Town township who attended drinking venues. At each assessment wave, participants reported depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. Multilevel growth models were used to: 1) assess the patterns of alcohol use; 2) examine how depressive symptoms uniquely, post-traumatic stress symptoms uniquely, and depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms together were associated with alcohol use; and 3) characterize the within person and between person associations of depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms with alcohol use. Women reported high levels of alcohol use throughout the study period, which declined slightly over time. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were highly correlated with depressive symptoms. Modeled separately, both within person and between person depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms were uniquely associated with alcohol use. When modeled together, significant between person effects indicated that women who typically have more post-traumatic stress symptoms, when controlling for depressive symptoms, are at risk for increased alcohol use; however, women with more depressive symptoms, controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, do not have differential risk for alcohol use. Significant within person effects indicated an

  20. Self-medication among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Makongoro health centre in Mwanza, Tanzania: a challenge to health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwa, Karol J; Njalika, Agnes; Ruganuza, Deodatus; Katabalo, Deogratias; Kamugisha, Erasmus

    2018-01-08

    Self-medication is a universal challenge that requires attention because of the potential threat not only to the pregnant women but also to unborn child. Data on self-medication practice and predictors among pregnant women is lacking in Tanzania. Information on the effects of this practice to the pregnant woman and the foetus globally is also scanty. This was a cross sectional study which was conducted using face to face interview with 372 pregnant women at Makongoro health centre. Semi-structured questionnaires were used. Data were analysed using STATA 13 (Statistical Corporation, College Station, Texas, US). A total of 372 pregnant women participated in the study. The prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women was 172 (46.24%). There was a significant statistical association between self-medication and occupation (P value =0.01), gestation age (P self-medication (P = 0.809, P = 0.243 and P = 0.922) respectively. When bivariate logistic regression was performed, occupation and education were the only determining factors for self-medication. Pregnant women who were unemployed, doing business and house wife were most likely to practice self-medication than employed pregnant women (P = 0.03; OR = 2.33; 95% CI, 1.06-5.31, P = 0.01; OR = 2.31; CI 1.21-4.41, P = self-medication than pregnant women with college or university education (P leading illness/symptoms which led to self-medication among pregnant women attending clinic were malaria 56 (32.56%, morning sickness 44 (25.55%) and headache 33(19.19%). Drugs commonly used in self-medication among pregnant women were ant malarial 42 (24.42%), antiemetics 59 (34.30%) and analgesics 33 (19.19%). Prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women is high in Tanzania. This is a threat to the safety of the developing foetus and the pregnant woman. Therefore there is a need of interventions to minimize the practice among pregnant women.

  1. Rethinking Family Patriarchy and Women's Positions in Presocialist China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiping

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the patrilineal family system in presocialist China, this study explores the intersection between generation and gender dimensions of family patriarchy in influencing marital power relations. Data come from the life stories of 80 elderly married individuals, collected during the 2000-2001 period in the city of Beijing. Patterns of male…

  2. Family Violence against Women: How Does Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. With the recognition of family violence by the United Nations as a human rights abuse in the 1990s, the issue of family violence has achieved a much greater profile in terms of law and policy development in many countries. However, unfortunately, in Ethiopia so far no serious steps have been taken in this direction.

  3. The impact of family planning on women's lives: expanding the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, P R; Hardee, K; Bailey, P; Williamson, N

    1994-01-01

    Women's reproductive health, quality of life, human rights, and status in society have become the focus for international development and public health programs in the 1990s. This reflects a growing awareness that population programs and policies have often failed to take women's needs into account and excluded women from programmatic decision making. Needed is a new research agenda aimed at documenting the impact of family planning programs on women beyond their physical health. Salient research questions include the influence of gender relations on women's ability to select and use family planning methods, men's views of women's contraceptive use, the circumstances under which contraceptive use contributes to a sense of self-worth and autonomy, and the extent to which family planning adoption enables women to achieve long-term goals. This research agenda will require an interdisciplinary approach that draws from sociology, social psychology, economics, and the health sciences. The incorporation of qualitative methods into research designs is recommended to clarify the nuances of women's experiences. Culture-specific measures to constructs such as self-esteem, autonomy, and satisfaction must be developed. Most important is creation of a dialogue between researchers and actual and potential users of family planning aimed at defining and examining central issues.

  4. Gender, Family Negotiations and Academic Success of Young Moroccan Women in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, Marta Bertran; Ponferrada-Arteaga, Maribel; Rovira, Jordi Pàmies

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the lives of pioneering young women from Morocco, the first to enjoy educational and social success in Catalonia, by analyzing the family negotiations entered into during this process. The study is based on the life stories of these young Moroccan women and on ideas that emerge from discussion groups involving the women…

  5. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  6. Women Leaders in High-Poverty Community Schools: Work-Related Stress and Family Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Jennifer E.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…

  7. Seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infections among pregnant women who attend the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endris, Mengistu; Deressa, Tekalign; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Moges, Feleke

    2015-03-03

    Syphilis and HIV infections in pregnancy result in a number of adverse outcomes including neonatal death and vertical transmission. Ethiopia is a country where these infections are highly prevalent. However, data on co-morbidities of syphilis and HIV among pregnant women in Gondar are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of these infections and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at the University of Gondar teaching hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to June 2011. Structured interviews were used to collect socio-demographic and obstetric data. Sera against syphilis were screened by rapid plasma reagin test; and confirmed by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay. HIV infection was detected by rapid HIV test kits following the national algorithms for HIV testing. Data were summarized by descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of 385 pregnant women, reactive syphilis was noted in 11/385 (2.9%) and seroprevalence of HIV was 43/385 (11.2%). The prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection was 2/385(0.5%). High rate of syphilis was observed among the women with above 30 years of age (OR 3.69, 95% CI 0.83 - 16.82). Women with a history of miscarriage and stillbirth were more likely to be infected by syphilis (OR 2.22, 95% CI 0.54-9.60) and (OR 3.24, 95% CI 0.00-17.54), respectively. Our data indicated that syphilis and HIV infections are still important public health concerns among pregnant women in the Gondar area. Hence, we recommend strenuous screening of all pregnant women for these infections during antenatal care. Further, strengthening health education on the mode of transmission and prevention of HIV and syphilis is essential for effective control of these infections.

  8. Corporal mass index and body image perception by women attending at health and physical activity office of “Raúl Sánchez” polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianelys Ledesma-Beades

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corporal image is the mental representation of the body that each individual builds. The dissatisfaction with the image and the corporal mass is closely associated to the self-esteem of the women. According to researches there are many concerned and insecure women in relation to their own shapes with a high index of corporal dissatisfaction, constituting a world problem. A high index of women goes to the physical activity and health consultation that Raúl Sánchez policlinic of Pinar del Río; offers many of them, for their dissent with the corporal weight. For this reason, we decide to carry out a research with the objective of determining the existent relationship between the CMI and the perception of the corporal image in women that attend to this consultation during the year 2014. It is a descriptive transverse study with a sample of 102 women older than 15 years old. They were carried out measured (weigh corporal and stature and a questionnaire was made to establish the grade of corporal dissatisfaction. It was used the questionnaire proposed by Stunkard, constituted by ten silhouettes for the feminine gender, numbered and ordained for the selection of one of them, that according to her perception and pleasure, it corresponded to her current corporal image and to how they wanted to be. The obtained data were tabulated and represented by means of charts. It was concluded that a high percent of these women is perceived incorrectly: 0,98% is undernourished and 62,8%, fatter; that the women with values of real CMI corresponding with normal weight and overweight are fatter than they really are, while the obese ones are perceived thinner; they consider that the pregnancies have been the main cause of the changes in the corporal weight and their grade of corporal dissatisfaction is based on 70,6% by their appearance before the society.

  9. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  10. Learning to Lead in Higher Education: Insights into the Family Backgrounds of Women University Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Susan R.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the lived experiences of women university presidents related to becoming leaders or learning to lead. This manuscript highlights the research focused on the immediate family backgrounds and influences on these presidents. The research question was as follows: With regard to their family backgrounds and…

  11. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  12. Reintegration of Women Post Obstetric Fistula Repair: Experience of Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Kimberly; Richter, Solina; Vallianatos, Helen; Thornton, Lois

    2017-01-01

    In northern Ghana, families traditionally function as the main provider of care. The role of family, however, is becoming increasingly challenged with the social shifts in Ghanaian culture moving from extended kinship to nuclear households. This has implications for the care of women post obstetric fistula (OF) repair and their family members who assist them to integrate back into their lives prior to developing the condition. This research is part of a larger critical ethnographic study which explores a culture of reintegration. For this article, we draw attention to the findings related to the experience of family caregivers who care for women post OF repair in northern Ghana. It is suggested that although family caregivers are pleased to have their family member return home, there are many unanticipated physical, emotional, and economic challenges. Findings lead to recommendations for enhancing the reintegration process and the need for adequate caregiving support.

  13. Reintegration of Women Post Obstetric Fistula Repair: Experience of Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Jarvis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In northern Ghana, families traditionally function as the main provider of care. The role of family, however, is becoming increasingly challenged with the social shifts in Ghanaian culture moving from extended kinship to nuclear households. This has implications for the care of women post obstetric fistula (OF repair and their family members who assist them to integrate back into their lives prior to developing the condition. This research is part of a larger critical ethnographic study which explores a culture of reintegration. For this article, we draw attention to the findings related to the experience of family caregivers who care for women post OF repair in northern Ghana. It is suggested that although family caregivers are pleased to have their family member return home, there are many unanticipated physical, emotional, and economic challenges. Findings lead to recommendations for enhancing the reintegration process and the need for adequate caregiving support.

  14. The impact of genetic counselling on risk perception and mental health in women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M; Lloyd, S; Davidson, J; Meyer, L; Eeles, R; Ebbs, S; Murday, V

    1999-02-01

    The present study investigated: (1) perception of genetic risk and, (2) the psychological effects of genetic counselling in women with a family history of breast cancer. Using a prospective design, with assessment pre- and post-genetic counselling at clinics and by postal follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months, attenders at four South London genetic clinics were assessed. Participants included 282 women with a family history of breast cancer. Outcome was measured in terms of mental health, cancer-specific distress and risk perception. High levels of cancer-specific distress were found pre-genetic counselling, with 28% of participants reporting that they worried about breast cancer 'frequently or constantly' and 18% that worry about breast cancer was 'a severe or definite problem'. Following genetic counselling, levels of cancer-specific distress were unchanged. General mental health remained unchanged over time (33% psychiatric cases detected pre-genetic counselling, 27% at 12 months after genetic counselling). Prior to their genetics consultation, participants showed poor knowledge of their lifetime risk of breast cancer since there was no association between their perceived lifetime risk (when they were asked to express this as a 1 in x odds ratio) and their actual risk, when the latter was calculated by the geneticist at the clinic using the CASH model. In contrast, women were more accurate about their risk of breast cancer pre-genetic counselling when this was assessed in broad categorical terms (i.e. very much lower/very much higher than the average woman) with a significant association between this rating and the subsequently calculated CASH risk figure (P = 0.001). Genetic counselling produced a modest shift in the accuracy of perceived lifetime risk, expressed as an odds ratio, which was maintained at 12 months' follow-up. A significant minority failed to benefit from genetic counselling; 77 women continued to over-estimate their risk and maintain high levels of

  15. Attendance at Religious Services, Prayer, Religious Coping, and Religious/Spiritual Identity as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Yu, Jeffrey; Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren; Argentieri, M Austin; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Shields, Alexandra E

    2017-04-01

    Previous longitudinal studies have consistently shown an association between attendance at religious services and lower all-cause mortality, but the literature on associations between other measures of religion and spirituality (R/S) and mortality is limited. We followed 36,613 respondents from the Black Women's Health Study from 2005 through December 31, 2013 to assess the associations between R/S and incident all-cause mortality using proportional hazards models. After control for numerous demographic and health covariates, together with other R/S variables, attending religious services several times per week was associated with a substantially lower mortality rate ratio (mortality rate ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.51, 0.80) relative to never attending services. Engaging in prayer several times per day was not associated with mortality after control for demographic and health covariates, but the association trended towards a higher mortality rate ratio when control was made for other R/S variables (for >2 times/day vs. weekly or less, mortality rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.67; P-trend < 0.01). Religious coping and self-identification as a very religious/spiritual person were associated with lower mortality when adjustment was made only for age, but the association was attenuated when control was made for demographic and health covariates and was almost entirely eliminated when control was made for other R/S variables. The results indicate that service attendance was the strongest R/S predictor of mortality in this cohort. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Factors associated with intimate partner physical violence among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study, July 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrezgi, Berhane Hailu; Badi, Marta Berta; Cherkose, Endashaw Admassu; Weldehaweria, Negassie Berhe

    2017-06-24

    Intimate partner physical violence is a common global phenomenon. About 30.00% and 38.83% of women in the world and in sub-Saharan Africa experienced physical violence by their partner respectively in 2013. Though intimate partner violence has serious adverse health consequences, there is limited information about partner violence during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalnce of physical intimate partner violence during pregnancy and associated factors among women attending antenatal care in Shire Endaselassie town, Tigray, northen Ethiopia METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 3 to July 6, 2015. Four hundred and twenty-two pregnant women attending three public health facilities were included using systematic sampling technique. In addition, twenty-two purposely selected key informants were interviewed. The data collectors and supervisors were trained on all data collection processes. Data were entered to Epi-Info version 7.1.2.00 and exported to SPSS version 20.00. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with intimate partner physical violence. Statistical significance was declared at p violence in pregnancy was 20.6% (CI = 16.70, 24.90). Age at first marriage greater than or equal to 17 years (AOR = 4.42, CI = 2.07, 9.42), women with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08), rural dwellers (AOR = 2.63 CI = 1.24, 5.58), intimate partners with no formal education (AOR = 2.78 CI = 1.10, 7.08) and intimate partner alcohol consumption (AOR = 3.8 CI = 1.85, 7.82) were factors associated with intimate partner physical violence towards pregnant women. Nearly one fifth of women surveyed experienced intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy. Early marriage, rural dwelling, intimate partner alcohol consumption, and educational status were associated with intimate partner physical violence during pregnancy. Urgent attention to women

  17. Delivering at home or in a health facility? health-seeking behaviour of women and the role of traditional birth attendants in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Mwaipopo, Rosemarie

    2013-02-28

    Traditional birth attendants retain an important role in reproductive and maternal health in Tanzania. The Tanzanian Government promotes TBAs in order to provide maternal and neonatal health counselling and initiating timely referral, however, their role officially does not include delivery attendance. Yet, experience illustrates that most TBAs still often handle complicated deliveries. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to describe (1) women's health-seeking behaviour and experiences regarding their use of antenatal (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC); (2) their rationale behind the choice of place and delivery; and to learn (3) about the use of traditional practices and resources applied by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and how they can be linked to the bio-medical health system. Qualitative and quantitative interviews were conducted with over 270 individuals in Masasi District, Mtwara Region and Ilala Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results from the urban site show that significant achievements have been made in terms of promoting pregnancy- and delivery-related services through skilled health workers. Pregnant women have a high level of awareness and clearly prefer to deliver at a health facility. The scenario is different in the rural site (Masasi District), where an adequately trained health workforce and well-equipped health facilities are not yet a reality, resulting in home deliveries with the assistance of either a TBA or a relative. Instead of focusing on the traditional sector, it is argued that more attention should be paid towards (1) improving access to as well as strengthening the health system to guarantee delivery by skilled health personnel; and (2) bridging the gaps between communities and the formal health sector through community-based counselling and health education, which is provided by well-trained and supervised village health workers who inform villagers about promotive and preventive health services, including

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhayati Moktar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  19. Reintegration of Women Post Obstetric Fistula Repair: Experience of Family Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Jarvis; Solina Richter; Helen Vallianatos; Lois Thornton

    2017-01-01

    In northern Ghana, families traditionally function as the main provider of care. The role of family, however, is becoming increasingly challenged with the social shifts in Ghanaian culture moving from extended kinship to nuclear households. This has implications for the care of women post obstetric fistula (OF) repair and their family members who assist them to integrate back into their lives prior to developing the condition. This research is part of a larger critical ethnographic study whic...

  20. Effects of Female Genital Schistosomiasis in Reproductive Tract of Women Attending Kwale Hospital in Kwale County, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jane M. N. Gitau; Ng'ethe Muhoho; Ephantus Kabiru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Female genital Schistosomiasis (FGS) caused by Schistosoma haematobium is a significant public health problem among women living in endemic areas. An estimated 45 million women in sub-Saharan Africa are infected. Chronic infection is associated with bleeding disturbances, abdominal-pelvic pain, painful sexual intercourse, uterine fibroids, spontaneous abortion, cervical cancer and increased risk for transmission of HIV. Aim: To determine the infection rate, distribution patter...

  1. An empirical analysis of the impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne H.B. Welsh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that women entrepreneurs add exponential growth to the economic well-being of countries. The impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs’ is examined including major challenges (i.e. personal problems and recognition of poor managerial skills and knowledge and advantages (i.e. perceptions of helpfulness of education and work experience. Our findings show that family moral support can have both positive and negative impact on Turkish women entrepreneurs. Implications and future research are discussed.

  2. Determinants of domestic violence among women attending an human immunodeficiency virus voluntary counseling and testing center in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Krupp, Karl; George, Ruja; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2007-05-01

    Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV) among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%), psychological abuse (69%) and sexual abuse (1%). Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%), husband's alcohol use (29%) and woman's HIV status (18%). Older women (P around the world. The findings highlight the need for additional training among health care providers in VCT centers in screening for DV, detection of signs of physical abuse and provisions and referrals for women suffering from domestic partner violence.

  3. Family law reform to change women's realities across 11 countries ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... ... to reform discriminatory family laws in 11 countries (Brazil, Egypt, India, Iran, ... These laws determine a woman's right to marry, travel, hold a job, ... by WLP through advocacy, trainings, and public awareness campaigns.

  4. Women's attitudes towards receiving family planning services from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kenya ranks among the countries in Africa with high fertility rates. In order ... fertility rates, there is need to increase uptake of family planning services particularly by use of ... cluding distribution of pills as well as injectable contra-.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-09-30

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women. Stool samples were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ether sedimentation, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. An overall prevalence of 31.5 % intestinal parasite infections was recorded. Eight different species of intestinal parasites were found: two protozoan and six helminth species. The highest prevalence was due to Giardia lamblia (13.3 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.8 %), hookworm (5.5 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.9 %), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6 %), Taenia spp. (0.8 %), and Hymenolepis nana (0.3 %). A relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was observed among pregnant women. Routine stool examination and provision of health education are required for early medical intervention that would affect the pregnant mothers and their foetuses.

  6. High mobile phone ownership, but low internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R.; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H.; Pettifor, Audrey E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n=50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month–6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month–13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. PMID:25586808

  7. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  9. Violence Against Women in The Family (A Case Study in Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سمیه محمداوغلي

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to investigate the prevalence and types of violence against women in the family and social factors affecting domestic violence. The study has been conducted with survey on 384 married women in Ardabil who have been in marital bond for at least one year. Given the social and economic heterogeneity of Ardabil city, a multistage sampling technique was used. It was revealed that obedience of wife about her role in the family, assumed male dominant role in the family and separation of male and female gender roles in the family have direct and significant impacts on violence and family living, religiosity of women and education of women and men have a significant impact on violence against women. Based on the results, the independent variables in the multiple regression explain %45/6 of the dependent variable. Socially accepted gender roles (considered obedient wife, assumed the role of male dominance and separation of gender roles have the highest impact on violence against women in the society.

  10. Women and Work-Family Interface: Indian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Vinita Chandra

    2010-01-01

    The social division of labour set the role of primary breadearnerfor the man while ascribed the role of home-manager andcaregiver to the woman. This arrangement has been questioned for having given rise to gender inequality and having generated gender role stereotypes for man and woman. The traditionally organized workplace is also predicated on the assumption that families with male bread winners and nonworking housewives constitute the predominant family form. This is no more true since the...

  11. Rural Women Family Physicians: Strategies for Successful Work-Life Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie; Hustedde, Carol; Bjorkman, Sarah; Prasad, Rupa; Sola, Orlando; Wendling, Andrea; Bjorkman, Kurt; Paladine, Heather

    2016-05-01

    Women family physicians experience challenges in maintaining work-life balance while practicing in rural communities. We sought to better understand the personal and professional strategies that enable women in rural family medicine to balance work and personal demands and achieve long-term career satisfaction. Women family physicians practicing in rural communities in the United States were interviewed using a semistructured format. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using an immersion and crystallization approach, followed by detailed coding of emergent themes. The 25 participants described a set of strategies that facilitated successful work-life balance. First, they used reduced or flexible work hours to help achieve balance with personal roles. Second, many had supportive relationships with spouses and partners, parents, or other members of the community, which facilitated their ability to be readily available to their patients. Third, participants maintained clear boundaries around their work lives, which helped them to have adequate time for parenting, recreation, and rest. Women family physicians can build successful careers in rural communities, but supportive employers, relationships, and patient approaches provide a foundation for this success. Educators, employers, communities, and policymakers can adapt their practices to help women family physicians thrive in rural communities. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  12. The Influence of Parental Health Literacy Status on Reach, Attendance, Retention, and Outcomes in a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program, Virginia, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie M; Hill, Jennie; You, Wen; Brock, Donna; Frisard, Madlyn; Alexander, Ramine; Silva, Fabiana; Price, Bryan; Marshall, Ruby; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2017-09-28

    Few interventions have evaluated the influence of parent health literacy (HL) status on weight-related child outcomes. This study explores how parent HL affects the reach, attendance, and retention of and outcomes in a 3-month multicomponent family-based program to treat childhood obesity (iChoose). This pre-post, quasiexperimental trial occurred in the Dan River Region, a federally designated medically underserved area. iChoose research protocol and intervention strategies were designed using an HL universal precautions approach. We used validated measures, standardized data collection techniques, and generalized linear mixed-effect parametric models to determine the moderation effect of parent HL on outcomes. No significant difference in HL scores were found between parents who enrolled their child in the study and those who did not. Of 94 enrolled parents, 34% were low HL, 49% had an annual household income of less than $25,000, and 39% had a high school education or less. Of 101 enrolled children, 60% were black, and the mean age was 9.8 (standard deviation, 1.3) years. Children of parents with both low and high HL attended and were retained at similar rates. Likewise, parent HL status did not significantly influence improvements in effectiveness outcomes (eg, child body mass index [BMI] z scores, parent BMI, diet and physical activity behaviors, quality of life), with the exception of child video game/computer screen time; low HL decreased and high HL increased screen time (coefficient = 0.52, standard error, 0.11, P parents, children of parents with low HL engaged in and benefited from a family-based childhood obesity treatment program similar to children of parents with high HL.

  13. Work–family balance of Indian women software professionals: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimara Valk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant changes witnessed in the labour markets in India has been the entry of women IT professionals in the rapidly growing software services sector. As the women take on the role of working professional in addition to their traditional role of the homemaker, they are under great pressure to balance their work and personal lives. This study attempts to understand how work and family related factors influence the work–family balance of Indian women IT professionals. The study is based on an exploratory qualitative study of 13 women IT professionals in the software sector in Bangalore, India. The narratives reveal six major themes: familial influences on life choices; multi-role responsibilities and attempts to negotiate them; self and professional identity; work–life challenges and coping strategies; organisational policies and practices; and social support.

  14. Role of Individual, Family, and Peers in Sexual Initiation Among Late Adolescents Attending Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Samad, Shazimah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Ismail, Maslinor

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with sexual initiation among the late adolescents in 6 institutions of higher learning in Malaysia. A total of 1572 students completed self-administered questionnaires between April and September 2013. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified by gender were employed to identify the correlates of sexual initiation. The analyses were further adjusted by sampling weights. The overall prevalence of sexual initiation was 9.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.3-11.6), 18.1% (95% CI = 15.1-21.5) among males, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.9-5.9) among females. The risk factors identified in this study supported the influence of the individual, family, and peer factors in the social-ecological model on adolescents' behaviors. The findings suggest the need for risk-reduction strategies aimed at the individual, family, and peer levels as well as the importance of gender-specific focus in assuring better outcomes. © 2016 APJPH.

  15. Salience and conflict of work and family roles among employed men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Irena; Gregov, Ljiljana; Šimunić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the salience of work and family roles and to study the connection between role salience and the interference of different types of roles among working men and women. Self-assessment measurement scales were applied. The research involved 206 participants; 103 employed married couples from different regions of Croatia. The results show that roles closely connected to family are considered the most salient. However, men are mostly dedicated behaviourally to the role of a worker. Women dedicate more time and energy to the roles of a spouse, a parent, and a family member whereas men are more oriented towards the leisurite role. The highest level of conflict was perceived when it comes to work disturbing leisure. Gender differences appeared only for work-to-marriage conflict, with men reporting higher conflict than women. The research found proof of only some low correlations between the salience of different types of roles and work-family conflict.

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward cervical cancer among women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department: A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, G; Suchitra, M Jyothi; Sunanda, G; Ramaiah, J Dasaratha; Kumar, B Pradeep; Veerabhadrappa, K V

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer-related deaths among women in India are often due to late diagnosis of disease. Knowledge about disease and early screening is the most effective measure for cervical cancer prevention. Lack of awareness, negative attitude, and poor practice about cervical cancer and screening are the major causes to increase the incidence of disease. The study is designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward cervical cancer, screening, and prevention. A cross-sectional, hospital-based survey was conducted in women attending Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a secondary care referral hospital. A total of 403 subjects were enrolled and subjected for interview using prevalidated KAP questionnaire on cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the sociodemographic characteristics and KAP levels. Association of sociodemographic variables with KAP levels is determined using Chi-square test. Most of (301; 74.6%) the respondents had heard about cervical cancer and majority of them are heard from media (168; 41.6%) and friends (83; 20.5%). Most women knew symptoms (259; 64.2%), risk factors (253; 62.7%), screening methods (310; 76.9%), and preventive measures (249; 61.7%) for cervical cancer. More than half of the women (252; 62.5%) having positive attitude toward screening. More than three-fourth of women (349; 86.6%) are not having practice toward cervical cancer screening. Sociodemographic characteristics are strongly associated with KAP levels. Although women are having good knowledge, positive attitude toward cervical cancer screening and prevention still there is a gap to transform it into practice. There is a need for more educational programs to connect identified knowledge slits and uplift of regular practice of cervical cancer screening.

  17. Family beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine for Hong Kong women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peggy Burrows

    2003-01-01

    To explore beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine related to the breast cancer experience of Hong Kong Chinese women and their families. Interpretive phenomenology. Hong Kong, China. A purposive sample of 20 Hong Kong Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer at various stages of the illness trajectory and at least one other family member. A semistructured, three-hour interview was translated, transcribed, and back-translated. Many women and their family members believed that diet was responsible for their cancer and recurrence. They integrated their cultural beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine to manage illness symptoms and prevent recurrence. Families were anxious and confused about conflicting messages from various sources about dietary practices to promote their health and prevent recurrence. Food and diet alternatives should be discussed with the understanding that beliefs about diet and traditional Chinese medicine are embedded in culture and that many Chinese women and their families seek a combination of Eastern Chinese medicine and Western medicine strategies to manage the illness trajectory. Many Chinese families have different beliefs about food and diet and the role that food plays in managing the cancer experience. Often, Chinese people will not seek clarification if they do not understand information. If information does not fit with their predominant belief systems, families may not implement it, nor will they discuss a situation if they think the conversation will result in a relationship of conflict with healthcare providers.

  18. Utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in health facilities of Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esu E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ekpereonne Esu,1,2 Emmanuel Effa,1,2 Ekong Udoh,1,2 Olabisi Oduwole,1,2 Friday Odey,1,2 Moriam Chibuzor,1 Angela Oyo-Ita,1,2 Martin Meremikwu1,2 1Calabar Institute of Tropical Diseases Research and Prevention, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria Objective: This study assessed the utilization of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy against the national treatment policy among women attending health care facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: A clinical audit was carried out between January 2012 and March 2012 using case records of pregnant women who received antenatal care in health facilities in the state. Facilities were selected by simple random sampling. Information on the frequency of antenatal clinic (ANC visits by the women, as well as parity, age, and adherence to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp doses was obtained using an audit checklist. Results: A total of 322 pregnant women were assessed across 36 health care facilities. In addition, 246 (76% of them attended the ANC in public health facilities. Age, parity, and gestational age at booking were recorded in more than 95% of the cases evaluated. The audit showed that 13.7% of the women did not utilize IPTp, 53.1% had one dose of IPTp (IPTp1, 24.2% had two doses of IPTp (IPTp2, while 3.1% had three doses of IPTp (IPTp3. The overall utilization of two doses or more of IPTp (IPTp2+ was 30.7%. Conclusion: There was good documentation of the basic obstetric information of pregnant women in the health care facilities examined in this study, but the overall utilization of IPTp was very low. Efforts at ensuring early ANC booking and regular visits may be a potential means of increasing IPTp utilization in health care facilities in the state. Keywords: intermittent preventive treatment, malaria, pregnancy, clinical

  19. The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and work outcomes for older working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Judith R; Whelan-Berry, Karen S; Hamilton, Elizabeth A

    2007-10-01

    This article examines the relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and four work outcomes for 489 working women over the age of 50. Survey results from two U.S. health care organizations and one U.S. financial services organization indicate that older working women experience differing amounts of work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, work-to-family enhancement, and family-to-work enhancement. Hypotheses relating organizational work-family culture to work-family conflict and enhancement were partially supported, and hypotheses relating conflict and enhancement to four work outcomes were partially supported. Work-to-family conflict and work-to-family enhancement partially mediate the relationship between organizational work-family culture and selected work outcomes. Implications for theory and practice, limitations of this study, and directions for future research are also presented.

  20. Women receiving news of a family BRCA1/2 mutation: messages of fear and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotser, Cheryl B; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2010-12-01

    Communication of genetic test results to healthy at-risk family members is complicated considering family dynamics and the complexity of cancer genetics. The purpose of this study was to understand the experience of family communication of BRCA1/2 results from the perspective of young and middle-aged women receiving the news. THEORETICAL RATIONALE: Individuals are self-interpretive beings influenced by family culture, history, and communication patterns. Humans express meaning through language and stories. Heideggerian hermeneutics guided in-depth interviews and team interpretation of data. Using purposive and network sampling, 19 women 18 to 50 years of age who received news of a family BRCA1/2 mutation from a biologic relative were recruited from support groups and two health facilities in upstate New York. Five themes emerged: (a) situating the story, (b) receiving the message from family, (c) responding to receipt of the message, (d) impacting family communication, and (e) advice for communicating risk. Two constitutive patterns were identified: (a) communicating risk as a message of fear and empowerment and (b) integrating the message by taking one step at a time. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) have an important role in provision of anticipatory guidance for communication of genetic test results, including the potential behavioral and emotional responses to family risk communication. Future research is indicated to understand the role of HCPs in family risk communication. Presentation of comprehensive and balanced information and the use of patient-centered communication is essential. HCPs need to view women as whole rather than as a person at risk. Continued support is needed for women who subsequently test positive or negative for the family BRCA1/2 mutation from HCPs and others, often outside the family network. © 2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Evaluating the pin money hypothesis: the relationship between women's labour market activity, family income and poverty in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, S; Machin, S; Waldfogel, J

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper we evaluate the hypothesis that the over-representation of women amongst the low paid is of little importance because women's earnings account for only a small proportion of total family income. Data from the [United Kingdom] General Household Survey (GHS), together with attitudinal evidence from three cross-sectional data sources, indicate that women's earnings are in fact an important and growing component of family income. The majority of the growth in the share of women's earnings occurs as a result of changing family labour structures; women's earnings are playing an increasingly important role in keeping their families out of poverty." excerpt

  2. Family involvement for breast cancer decision making among Chinese-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuyu Katie C; Knobf, M Tish

    2016-12-01

    To describe family involvement in decision making for primary treatment in Chinese-American women with early-stage breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected in 2003 from semi-structured questions in interviews with a sample of Chinese-American (ChA) women with breast cancer, who were recruited from the metropolitan New York area. Responses to the questions were written in Chinese immediately during the interview and read back to the subject for accuracy and validation. Content analysis was used to inductively code and analyze the data to generate themes. The participants consisted of 123 ChA women with early stage breast cancer with a mean age of 48.7 years (±9.3) and who had lived in the United States a median of 13.6 years. Support and Caring was the major theme that described family involvement in the breast cancer decision-making process. Gathering Information, Being There, Navigating the Health Care System, Maintaining Family Life and Making the Decision described the aspects of family support in the process. The majority of women described the treatment decision making as a collaborative supportive process with the family, but limited English fluency, strong opinions, lack of a shared perspective, distant living proximity and competing work responsibilities of family members were stressful for the women and perceived as non-supportive. Family involvement in health care decision making is culturally embedded in Asian populations. Culturally sensitive patient and family consultation strategies are needed to assist informed treatment decision making in Chinese-American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  4. African American Transgender Women's Individual, Family, and Organizational Relationships: Implications for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B; Whitaker-Brown, Charlene D

    2017-06-01

    Guided by the relational cultural theory, we conducted a qualitative study to examine the relationship experiences of African American transgender women living in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 15 transgender women participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, guided by an investigator-developed interview guide, were used to explore the personal experiences of transgender women on individual, family, and organizational levels. The findings provide a scheme for understanding the process through which transgender women's relationships hinder or enhance their ability to connect with individuals, family, and organizations. Nurses can use these findings to better understand the connectedness that occurs or does not occur in transgender women's relationships and provide culturally competent care to empower them to become resilient.

  5. Do ambivalent women have an unmet need for family planning? A longitudinal study from Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa H; Tavrow, Paula; Adinata, N Ardika

    2011-01-01

    Fertility intentions often can predict contraceptive demand and fertility outcomes. Little is known about women reporting ambivalent fertility intentions, who are usually classified as having an unmet need for contraception. This study's objectives were to determine 1) which fertility intention group ambivalent women more closely resemble and 2) whether ambivalent women seem to have an unmet contraceptive need. We analyzed longitudinal data from 1,018 married Balinese women aged 15 to 45, of whom 33% desired more children, 52% wanted no more, and 14% were ambivalent. Ambivalent women were compared with those with definitive intentions using bivariate analyses. Regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of birth avoidance. Although ambivalent women were significantly older, and had less education and more children than women who wanted more children, ambivalent women were more similar in their contraceptive use to those who wanted more children than those who wanted no more. However, in terms of birth outcomes, ambivalent women resembled more the women who intended to avoid childbearing: After 4 years, 33% of ambivalent women had another birth compared with 29% of women who wanted no more and 57% of women who desired more children. Contraceptive use at baseline did not predict ambivalent women's fertility outcomes, unlike the other groups. Despite their relatively low rates of contraceptive use at baseline, ambivalent women generally avoided giving birth during the study period. This suggests that ambivalent women may not have a high unmet need for family planning. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Between the Business and the Family: Women, Credit and Society in Barranquilla (Colombia, 1849-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomàs Caballero TruyoL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the participation of Barranquilla's women in social and economic context of local society, during the course of the second half of the nineteenth century. In addition, describes how a group of women despite the civil and moral constraints of the time contributed to the livelihood of their families. For this, a statistical series was made with notarial sources for show that women participated in the credit market as lenders and borrowers. Finally, it concludes that women received smaller and expensive loans than men by be perceived as a financial risk because their earnings generally came from domestic work.

  7. “An Effect That is Deeper Than Beating” Family Violence in Jordanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Diane S; Paldi, Yael; Egbarya, Samah Salaime; Clark, Cari Jo

    2012-01-01

    This study informs healthcare approaches to gender-based family violence through focus groups with Jordanian women. The authors conducted a thematic qualitative analysis of 12 focus groups among 70 married, divorced, or widowed women about their experiences and beliefs regarding family violence. Five themes relevant to healthcare providers were identified. Three of the themes addressed participant-perceived causes of gender-based family violence: 1) unmet gender role expectations, 2) stigma and social norms, and 3) extended family roles. The fourth theme reflects effects on victims. The fifth theme reflects protective qualities and help seeking behaviors. The themes identified in the analysis reveal multiple ways that gender-based family violence can contribute to health problems and that it can be kept secret by Jordanian women as patients. Potential clues are described for the violence which may not be typically explored in a medical encounter. Additional ways that Jordanian families may seek help from other family or clergy instead of police and family violence agencies are described. Implications of these results for healthcare providers who care both for Jordanians and Arab immigrants in Western cultures are discussed. PMID:22329396

  8. Comorbidities Among Women With Vulvovaginal Complaints in Family Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, P.M.; Kaptheijns, A.; Laan, E; Boven, K. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is estimated to be approximately 15%. The etiology of PVD is not yet clear. Recent studies approach PVD as a chronic multifactorial sexual pain disorder. PVD is associated with pain syndromes, genital

  9. Comorbidities Among Women With Vulvovaginal Complaints in Family Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, Peter; Kaptheijns, Anne; Laan, Ellen; van Boven, Kees; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background: The lifetime prevalence of women suffering from provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is estimated to be approximately 15%. The etiology of PVD is not yet clear. Recent studies approach PVD as a chronic multifactorial sexual pain disorder. PVD is associated with pain syndromes, genital

  10. Differences in family norms for men and women across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, A.J.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined double standards regarding divorce among parents with young children and regarding having children within nonmarital cohabitation across Europe. Whether people disapprove more of men or of women engaging in these behaviors is not a priori clear. The authors formulated arguments

  11. 18. Childbearing and Family Planning Choices of Women Living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on. ART in the urban health ... sampled using a review register as a sampling frame. Health care workers were .... level of 0.05, the p value was 0.000 and we were able to reject the null ...

  12. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  13. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women attending a hospital in the Moungo district, Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van dan Meeberg, P. C.; Kooiman, R. C.; Buisman, N. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Bannenberg, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey conducted from January to May 1986 among 650 pregnant women from mixed rural/urban origin in the Moungo district, Cameroon, revealed a very low prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). One subject appeared to be infected with HIV 2. This is

  14. Components of family history associated with women's disease perceptions for cancer: a report from the Family Healthware™ Impact Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Wendy S; O'neill, Suzanne M; Rothrock, Nan; Starzyk, Erin J; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Acheson, Louise S; Wang, Catharine; Gramling, Robert; Galliher, James M; Ruffin, Mack T

    2011-01-01

    To determine the specific components of family history and personal characteristics related to disease perceptions about breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. Baseline, cross-sectional data on 2,505 healthy women aged 35-65 years enrolled from 41 primary care practices in the cluster-randomized Family Healthware™ Impact Trial, assessed for detailed family history and perceived risk, perceived severity, worry, and perceived control over getting six common diseases including breast, colon, and ovarian cancers. Participants provided family history information on 41,841 total relatives. We found evidence of underreporting of paternal family history and lower perceived breast cancer risk with cancer in the paternal versus maternal lineage. We observed cancer-specific perceived risks and worry for individual family history elements and also found novel "spillover" effects where a family history of one cancer was associated with altered disease perceptions of another. Having a mother with early-onset breast or ovarian cancer was strongly associated with perceived risk of breast cancer. Age, parenthood, and affected lineage were associated with disease perceptions and ran counter to empiric risks. Understanding patients' formulation of risk for multiple diseases is important for public health initiatives that seek to inform risk appraisal, influence disease perceptions, or match preventive interventions to existing risk perceptions.

  15. Correlates of abortions and condom use among high risk women attending an std clinic in st Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skochilov Roman V

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women in Russia rely on abortion as a primary birth control method. Although refusal to use contraceptives, including condoms, may undermine public health efforts to decrease HIV sexual risk behaviors, few studies have investigated the risk factors associated with abortion among women at high risk for HIV. This study sought to identify the correlates of abortions and of lack of condom use among high risk STD clinic patients in St Petersburg Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected between 2009 and 2010 from women who had casual or multiple sexual partners in the previous three months was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the independent correlates of abortion(s and no condom use in the prior three months. Independent variables included socio-demographics, at risk drinking per alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT-C criteria, having sex after drinking alcohol, having a sexual partner who injects illicit drugs, and parity. Results Of 87 participants, 45% had an abortion in their lifetime and 26% did not use condoms in the prior three months. Abortion was independently associated with low income (OR, 3.33, 95%CI, 1.13-9.78 and at risk drinking (OR, 3.52, 95%CI, 1.24-10.05. Lack of condom use was independently associated with being more likely to have sex after drinking (OR, 3.37, 95%CI, 1.10-10.28 and parity (OR, 3.69, 95%CI, 1.25-10.89. Conclusions Programs to increase contraceptive use including condom use among women at high risk for STD/HIV in Russia are needed. Programs to reduce sexual HIV risk and abortion rates must address alcohol misuse and target women with limited income.

  16. Family planning providers' role in offering PrEP to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Dominika; Weber, Shannon; Carlson, Kimberly; Witt, Jacki

    2018-03-09

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a radically different HIV prevention option for women. Not only is PrEP the first discrete, woman-controlled method that is taken in advance of exposure, but it is both safe and highly effective, offering over 90% protection if taken daily. While multiple modalities of PrEP are in development ranging from vaginal rings to injectables and implants, only PrEP with oral tenofovir/emtricitabine is currently FDA-approved. Family planning clinics provide key access points for many women to learn about and obtain PrEP. By incorporating PrEP services into family planning care, family planning providers have the opportunity to meet women's expectations, ensure women are aware of and offered comprehensive HIV prevention options, and reverse emerging disparities in PrEP access. Despite real and perceived barriers to integrating PrEP into family planning care, providing PrEP services, ranging from education to onsite provision, is not only possible but an important component of providing high-quality sexual and reproductive healthcare to women. Lessons learned from early adopters will help guide those in family planning settings initiating or enhancing PrEP services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Associations of women's position in the household and food insecurity with family planning use in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Raj, Anita; Prata, Ndola; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-01-01

    Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods. This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal. Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460), we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws) are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use. This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.

  18. Women doctors in Norway: the challenging balance between career and family life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerberg, Elisabeth

    2003-10-01

    In most Western countries, women doctors are still underrepresented in the higher positions in the medical hierarchy and in the most prestigious specialities. A crucial question is whether family responsibilities affect female and male career differently. The article examines how Norwegian physicians balance their work and family responsibilities and demonstrates differences in the way doctors combine work and family obligations, between women and compared with men. Among women doctors, the probability of becoming a specialist decreased with an increasing number of children. Moreover, postponing the birth of the first child increased the probability of completing hospital specialities. Although more women than men work part-time, this was the case only for a small proportion of women doctors. Transition from full-time to part-time work is primarily an accommodating strategy to family responsibilities, however strongly influenced by variations in the opportunity structure of different specialities. The findings further demonstrate that being married to another doctor had a positive impact on the career, especially for women doctors.

  19. Parental coping, depressive symptoms, and children's asthma control and school attendance in low-income, racially, and ethnically diverse urban families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Erin M; Kumar, Harsha; Alba-Suarez, Juliana; Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Low-income urban children of color are at elevated risk for poor asthma control. This cross-sectional study examined associations among parents' coping (primary control, secondary control, and disengagement), parental depressive symptoms, and children's asthma outcomes (asthma control and school attendance) in a predominantly low-income, racially/ethnically diverse sample of families. Parents (N = 78; 90% female) of children (33% female; 46% Black; 38% Latino) aged 5-17 years (M = 9.5 years) reported on their own coping and depressive symptoms, their child's asthma control, and full and partial days of school missed due to asthma. Parents' secondary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to accommodate/adapt to asthma-related stressors) was negatively correlated, and disengagement coping (i.e. coping efforts to avoid/detach from stressors) was positively correlated, with their depressive symptoms. Secondary control coping was also correlated with fewer partial days of school missed. Primary control coping (i.e., coping efforts to change stressors) was not associated with depressive symptoms or asthma outcomes. Parents' depressive symptoms were also positively correlated with poorer asthma control and partial days of school missed. Regression models showed direct and indirect effects of secondary control and disengagement coping on asthma outcomes via depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors. Parents' secondary control and disengagement coping are related to children's asthma outcomes. Secondary control coping may support parents' mental health and children's asthma control in low-income urban families.

  20. Women's Rights in Matrimonial Jurisprudence under Islamic Family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marriage is a very pervasive social institution. Yet, as with other aspects of social life, there is great variation in family and marriage patterns across diverse cultures and religions. What counts as marriage, its connection with kindred issues, whom and how many one is permitted to marry, how spouses are elected, the ...

  1. Family Formation and Men's and Women's Attainment of Workplace Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygren, Magnus; Gahler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Using Swedish panel data, we assess whether the gender gap in supervisory authority has changed during the period 1968-2000, and investigate to what extent the gap can be attributed to gender-specific consequences of family formation. The results indicate that the gap has narrowed modestly during the period, and that the life-event of parenthood…

  2. Conflict between the work and family domains and exhaustion among vocationally active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Catarina; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Lindeberg, Sara I; Choi, BongKyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2010-04-01

    Exhaustion is consistently found to be more prevalent in women than in men. Women suffer from job strain more often, which may constitute a partial explanation for this phenomenon, but experienced shortcomings in combining work and family demands may also contribute to ill health. The aim of this study was to investigate, and analyse by gender, how work-related and family-related factors, as well as the interface between them, i.e. work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC), are related to exhaustion. The study was cross-sectional with self-administered questionnaires assessing exposures and outcome with previously well-validated instruments. The participants were 2726 men and 2735 women, aged 45-64, vocationally active, and residing in Malmö, Sweden. Sixteen percent of the women and 8% of the men considered themselves exhausted. WFC, FWC, job strain, and low job support were all strongly correlated to exhaustion in both genders. In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for other work and family risk factors, WFC and FWC remained statistically significant risk factors for exhaustion in both men and women. Job strain, low job support, and having a somatic disorder were also independently associated with exhaustion. While WFC was more prevalent among men, it was more strongly associated with exhaustion in women than in men. In women, WFC and FWC contributed to a larger part of the explanatory power of the model, which amounted to 22% of the variance in women and 14% in men. The results imply that the concept of 'work stress' should be regarded in a wider context in order to understand gender related issues of exhaustion among vocationally active individuals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcomes associated with planned home and planned hospital births in low-risk women attended by midwives in Ontario, Canada, 2003-2006: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Eileen K; Reitsma, Angela H; Kaufman, Karyn

    2009-09-01

    Midwives in Ontario, Canada, provide care in the home and hospital and are required to submit data for all births to the Ontario Ministry of Health database. The purpose of this study was to compare maternal and perinatal/neonatal mortality and morbidity and intrapartum intervention rates for women attended by Ontario midwives who planned a home birth compared with similar low-risk women who planned a hospital birth between 2003 and 2006. The database provided outcomes for all women planning a home birth at the onset of labor (n = 6,692) and for a cohort, stratified by parity, of similar low-risk women planning a hospital birth. The rate of perinatal and neonatal mortality was very low (1/1,000) for both groups, and no difference was shown between groups in perinatal and neonatal mortality or serious morbidity (2.4% vs 2.8%; relative risk [RR], 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.84 [0.68-1.03]). No maternal deaths were reported. All measures of serious maternal morbidity were lower in the planned home birth group as were rates for all interventions including cesarean section (5.2% vs 8.1%; RR [95% CI]: 0.64 [0.56, 0.73]). Nulliparas were less likely to deliver at home, and had higher rates of ambulance transport from home to hospital than multiparas planning home birth and had rates of intervention and outcomes similar to, or lower than, nulliparas planning hospital births. Midwives who were integrated into the health care system with good access to emergency services, consultation, and transfer of care provided care resulting in favorable outcomes for women planning both home or hospital births.

  4. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ureaplasma-positive healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in a community hospital in Sapporo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Megumi; Matsuo, Junji; Abe, Kiyotaka; Minami, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-02

    Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the genital tract, have also now been recognized as contributors to urogenital infection. However, whether the presence of either U. parvum or U. urealyticum is related to that of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract remains unknown. We therefore attempted to estimate by PCR the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum in endocervical samples obtained from healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in Sapporo, Japan. The samples were taken from 303 apparently healthy women, and the extracted DNAs (n = 280) were used for PCR detection targeting C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by Fisher's exact test. PCR detection revealed that the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum was 14.3% (40/280), 41.7% (117/280) and 8.9% (25/280), respectively. C. trachomatis ompA genotype D was most frequently identified. Surprisingly, either C. trachomatis or Ureaplasma spp. was detected in almost half of the healthy women. Mixed infection of C. trachomatis with either U. parvum or U. urealyticum was also observed in 9.2% (26/280) of the women. There was a significant association between C. trachomatis and either U. parvum (p = 0.023) or Ureaplasma total (p = 0.013), but not U. urealyticum (p = 0.275). This study demonstrated that the presence of Ureaplasma had a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women, suggesting that mixed infection is an important factor in bacterial pathogenesis in the genital tract.

  5. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Azezo Health Center Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseret Alem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries; approximately 1.3 billion individuals suffer from it. Pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups to anemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center, Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Azezo Health Center from February to May 2011. Red blood cell morphology, Hgb level determination and intestinal parasites were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. The data entered and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. P34, rural residence, history of malaria attack, hookworm infection and absence of iron supplements are significantly associated with increased risk of anemia. The most prevalent intestinal parasite among pregnant women was hookworm 18 (4.7%. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of anemia was low when compared with the previous studies carried out in different countries including Ethiopia. More should be done in respect to the importance of regular visit to maternal care centres and health education promotion programs to succeed more. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 137-144

  6. Malaria prevention practices and delivery outcome: a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending a tertiary hospital in northeastern Nigeria.

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    Muhammad, Hamzat U; Giwa, Fatima J; Olayinka, Adebola T; Balogun, Shakir M; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-06-18

    Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in Nigeria. It causes maternal anaemia and adversely affects birth outcome leading to low birth weight, abortions and still births. Nigeria has made great strides in addressing the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy. However, recent demographic survey shows wide disparities in malaria control activities across the geopolitical zones. This situation has been compounded by the political unrest and population displacement especially in the Northeastern zone leaving a significant proportion of pregnant women at risk of diseases, including malaria. The use of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and the risk of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies were assessed among parturient women in an insurgent area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 184 parturient women at Federal Medical Centre, Nguru in Yobe state, between July and November 2014. Information on demographics, antenatal care and prevention practices was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Maternal peripheral and the cord blood samples were screened for malaria parasitaemia by microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood films. The presence of anaemia was also determined by microhaemocrit method using the peripheral blood samples. Data was analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies was 40.0, 41.0 and 37.0 %, respectively, and mothers aged younger than 25 years were mostly affected. Eighty (43.0 %) of the women received up to two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy and most, 63 (83.0 %) of those tested malaria positive received less than these. Presence of malaria infection at antenatal clinic enrollment (OR: 6.6; 95 % CI: 3.4-13.0), non-adherence to direct observation therapy for administration of IPTp-SP (OR: 4.6; 95 % CI: 2.2-9.5) and receiving

  7. Family stories and the use of heuristics: women from suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families.

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    Kenen, Regina; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Eeles, Rosalind

    2003-11-01

    The practice of medicine will increasingly be medicine of the family rather than the traditional physician/patient dyad, especially where a genetic condition is involved. This study explores how clients from suspected hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families seeking cancer genetics risk counselling are influenced by family stories and the use of heuristics (inferential shortcuts used to make sense of complicated information) in interpreting and applying genetic information they receive, and suggests ways in which genetic counsellors can integrate family context into their traditional counselling practices. We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study at a major clinical and research cancer centre in the United Kingdom from January to June 2000 which was reviewed by the hospital clinical research and ethics committees. Twenty-one semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted using a purposive sample of women coming to the cancer genetics clinic for the first time, supplemented by five months of clinical observation at weekly clinics. In addition to many family stories based on the number and outcomes of the cancers in their families, we noted: (1) fragments of stories, (2) secret stories, (3) emerging explanations and (4) misconceptions, We did not find widespread intergenerational family myths, The women used three main heuristics in interpreting their breast/ ovarian cancer risk: (1) representativeness, (2) availability and (3) illusion of control, as well as what Kahneman refers to as the Peak and End rule. Recent psychological research indicates that illusions of control may have positive affects on both physical and mental health. This may pose a future ethical issue for genetic counsellors in determining how to balance the benefit of positive illusions with the delivery of statistical probabilities of risk.

  8. Common causes of vaginal infections and antibiotic susceptibility of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age attending at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

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    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-05-13

    Bacterial vaginosis, candidal, trichomonal and Gonococcal vaginal infections are a major health problems associated with gynecologic complications and increase in replication, shedding and transmission of HIV and other STIs in women of reproductive age. The study aimed at determining the prevalence of common vaginal infections and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of aerobic bacterial isolates in women of reproductive age, attending Felegehiwot referral Hospital. A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted from May to November, 2013. Simple random sampling technique was used. Demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire. Clinical data were collected by physicians. Two vaginal swab specimens were collected from each participant. Wet mount and Gram staining were carried out to identify motile T.vaginalis, budding yeast and clue cells. All vaginal specimens were cultured for aerobic bacterial isolates using standard microbiology methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed using disc diffusion technique as per the standard by Kirby-Bauer method. The results were analyzed using descriptive, chi-square and fisher's exact test as appropriate. A total of 409 women in reproductive age (15 - 49 years) participated in the study. The median age of the women was 28 years. Overall, 63 (15.4 %) of women had vaginal infections. The proportion of vaginal infection was higher in non-pregnant (17.3 %) than pregnant women (13.3 %) (P = 0.002). The most common identified vaginal infections were candidiasis (8.3 %) and bacterial vaginosis (2.8 %) followed by trichomoniasis (2.1 %). The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae and group B Streptococcus colonization was 4 (1 %) and 6 (1.2 %), respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was higher in non-pregnant (5.6 %) than pregnant women (0.5 %) (P = 0.002). Religion, age, living in rural area and having lower abdominal pain were significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis and

  9. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya.

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    Colombini, Manuela; James, Courtney; Ndwiga, Charity; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    For many women living with HIV (WLWH), the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especiall