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Sample records for wires superlattices quantum

  1. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi...... orders of magnitude, and suggesting the possibility of building graphene electronic circuits based on the unique properties of chiral massless Dirac fermions in graphene.......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  2. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  3. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  4. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  5. Feshbach shape resonance for high Tc pairing in superlattices of quantum stripes and quantum wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bianconi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The Feshbach shape resonances in the interband pairing in superconducting superlattices of quantum wells or quantum stripes is shown to provide the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity. This mechanism provides the Tc amplification driven by the architecture of material: superlattices of quantum wells (intercalated graphite or diborides and superlattices of quantum stripes (doped high Tc cuprate perovskites where the chemical potential is tuned to a Van Hove-Lifshitz singularity (vHs in the electronic energy spectrum of the superlattice associated with the change of the Fermi surface dimensionality in one of the subbands.

  6. Simple theoretical analysis of the photoemission from quantum confined effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis De

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The photoemission from quantum wires and dots of effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials was investigated on the basis of newly formulated electron energy spectra, in the presence of external light waves, which controls the transport properties of ultra-small electronic devices under intense radiation. The effect of magnetic quantization on the photoemission from the aforementioned superlattices, together with quantum well superlattices under magnetic quantization, has also been investigated in this regard. It appears, taking HgTe/Hg1−xCdxTe and InxGa1−xAs/InP effective mass superlattices, that the photoemission from these quantized structures is enhanced with increasing photon energy in quantized steps and shows oscillatory dependences with the increasing carrier concentration. In addition, the photoemission decreases with increasing light intensity and wavelength as well as with increasing thickness exhibiting oscillatory spikes. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the carrier energy spectra. The content of this paper finds six different applications in the fields of low dimensional systems in general.

  7. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  8. Hot electrons in superlattices: quantum transport versus Boltzmann equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, S.

    1999-01-01

    A self-consistent solution of the transport equation is presented for semiconductor superlattices within different approaches: (i) a full quantum transport model based on nonequilibrium Green functions, (ii) the semiclassical Boltzmann equation for electrons in a miniband, and (iii) Boltzmann...... equation for electrons in Wannier-Stark states. We find good quantitative agreement of the approximations (ii) and (iii) with (i) in their respective ranges of validity. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  10. Quantum dynamical phenomena of independent electrons in semiconductor superlattices subject to a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices

  11. High resolution STEM of quantum dots and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the application of high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and quantum wires (QWRs). Different imaging and analytical techniques in STEM are introduced and key examples of their application to QDs and QWRs...

  12. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  13. Control of Electronic Structures and Phonon Dynamics in Quantum Dot Superlattices by Manipulation of Interior Nanospace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Ya; Kim, DaeGwi; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim

    2016-07-20

    Quantum dot (QD) superlattices, periodically ordered array structures of QDs, are expected to provide novel photo-optical functions due to their resonant couplings between adjacent QDs. Here, we computationally demonstrated that electronic structures and phonon dynamics of a QD superlattice can be effectively and selectively controlled by manipulating its interior nanospace, where quantum resonance between neighboring QDs appears, rather than by changing component QD size, shape, compositions, etc. A simple H-passivated Si QD was examined to constitute one-, two-, and three-dimensional QD superlattices, and thermally fluctuating band energies and phonon modes were simulated by finite-temperature ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The QD superlattice exhibited a decrease in the band gap energy enhanced by thermal modulations and also exhibited selective extraction of charge carriers out of the component QD, indicating its advantage as a promising platform for implementation in solar cells. Our dynamical phonon analyses based on the ab initio MD simulations revealed that THz-frequency phonon modes were created by an inter-QD crystalline lattice formed in the QD superlattice, which can contribute to low energy thermoelectric conversion and will be useful for direct observation of the dimension-dependent superlattice. Further, we found that crystalline and ligand-originated phonon modes inside each component QD can be independently controlled by asymmetry of the superlattice and by restriction of the interior nanospace, respectively. Taking into account the thermal effects at the finite temperature, we proposed guiding principles for designing efficient and space-saving QD superlattices to develop functional photovoltaic and thermoelectric devices.

  14. Near-field optical spectroscopy of single quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Gershoni, D.; Grober, R. D.; Pfeiffer, L.; West, K.; Chand, N.

    1996-02-01

    Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy is used for spectroscopic studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. A direct experimental comparison between a two dimensional system and a single genuinely one dimensional quantum wire system, inaccessible to conventional far field optical spectroscopy, is enabled by the enhanced spatial resolution. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of 3 absorption enhancement for these wires compared to the wells is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  15. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  16. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  17. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  18. Quantum photonics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Cadeddu, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter’s properties with the highest sensitivity. Weperform...

  19. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Cadeddu, Davide; Teissier, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We present an exploration of the spectroscopy of a single quantum dot in a photonic wire. The device presents a high photon extraction efficiency, and strong hybrid coupling to mechanical modes. We use resonance fluorescence to probe the emitter's properties with the highest sensitivity, allowing...

  20. High-temperature quantum oscillations caused by recurring Bloch states in graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, R.; Chen, X.; Auton, G. H.; Mishchenko, A.; Bandurin, D. A.; Morozov, S. V.; Cao, Y.; Khestanova, E.; Ben Shalom, M.; Kretinin, A. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Eaves, L.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Ponomarenko, L. A.; Fal'ko, V. I.; Geim, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Cyclotron motion of charge carriers in metals and semiconductors leads to Landau quantization and magneto-oscillatory behavior in their properties. Cryogenic temperatures are usually required to observe these oscillations. We show that graphene superlattices support a different type of quantum oscillation that does not rely on Landau quantization. The oscillations are extremely robust and persist well above room temperature in magnetic fields of only a few tesla. We attribute this phenomenon to repetitive changes in the electronic structure of superlattices such that charge carriers experience effectively no magnetic field at simple fractions of the flux quantum per superlattice unit cell. Our work hints at unexplored physics in Hofstadter butterfly systems at high temperatures.

  1. Resonance Transmission in Graphene-Nanoribbon-Based Quantum Dot and Superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Wang, Bao-Lin; Sun, Hou-Qian; Ding, Jian-Wen

    2010-10-01

    By using a decomposition elimination method for Green's function, the transport properties of Graphenenanoribbon-based quantum dot (QD) and/or QD superlattice are studied. It is shown that relatively small changes of both QD size and magnetic field intensity can induce strong variations in the electron transmission across the structure. For a QD device, electrons can be either totally reflected or totally transmitted through the QD region at some energies, and the quasibound peaks have been observed to have a small shift due to quasibound state energy varying. In the case of QD superlattice, the electrons within the miniband energy region can transmit through a device, similar to a QD device. Therefore, the transmission spectrum can be tailored to match with requirement by modulating the size of quantum dot and the number P of superlattice.

  2. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit π/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10 -3 to 10 -4 in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  3. Chemically Triggered Formation of Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Quantum Dot Superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walravens, Willem; De Roo, Jonathan; Drijvers, Emile; Ten Brinck, Stephanie; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe; Infante, Ivan; Hens, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional superlattices of epitaxially connected quantum dots enable size-quantization effects to be combined with high charge carrier mobilities, an essential prerequisite for highly performing QD devices based on charge transport. Here, we demonstrate that surface active additives known to

  4. Near-field optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, D.; Harris, T. D.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss low temperature near-field scanning optical spectroscopical studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. We use the enhanced spatial resolution of near-field microscopy, to spectroscopically investigate these single wires, which are inaccessible to conventional far-field optical spectroscopy. We thus performed a direct experimental comparison between a two-dimensional quantum system and a single genuine one-dimensional quantum system. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of three enhancement in the optical absorption of a wire, in comparison with that of a similar well, is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  5. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  6. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  7. Formation of superlattice with aligned plane orientation of colloidal PbS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Kohki; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Suetsugu, Fumimasa

    2018-04-01

    We investigated a method of forming a perfect quantum dot (QD) superlattice, in which each QD has the same plane orientation, by depositing colloidal PbS QDs with clear facets in solution. QD facets were controlled by adjusting the synthesis temperature. X-ray evaluation showed that the crystal orientations of the film with QDs having clear facets were aligned. The slow deposition promoted this crystal alignment. The red shift of photoluminescence wavelength caused by the film formation was larger with QDs having facets than with spherical QDs, suggesting that the connection of the wave function between QDs was better so that the quantum size effect was further reduced.

  8. Man-made superlattice and quantum wells: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, Raphael

    2014-07-01

    The story leading to the successful introduction of the GaAs/GaAlAs man-made superlattice is probably not known to most. Before I joined IBM and started working under Leo Esaki, I was working and teaching in Texas after I left Bell Labs. My boss, the head of Physics Research at Southwest Research Institute, Frank Witmore, showed me a new book: The Dynamics of Conduction Electrons by A.B. Pippard, Blackie & Son Limited, 1964. He discussed what happens to metals if the mean free path is sufficiently long. For example, electrons move toward the Brillouin zone boundary under the application of an electric field, and are reflected resulting in oscillations.

  9. InGaNAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells and superlattices solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courel Piedrahita, Maykel; Rimada Herrera, Julio Cesar; Hernandez Garcia, Luis

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical study of the GaAs/InGaNAs solar cells based on a multi-quantum wells (MQWSC) and superlattices (SLSC) configuration is presented for the first time. The conversion efficiency as a function of wells width and depth is modeled. The photon absorption increases with the well levels incorporation and therefore the photocurrent as well. It is shown that the MQWSC efficiency overcomes the solar cells without wells about 25%. A study of the SLSC viability is also presented. The conditions for resonant tunneling are established by the matrix transfer method for a superlattice with variable quantum wells width. The effective density of states and the absorption coefficients for SL structure are calculated in order to determinate the JV characteristic. The influence of the superlattice or cluster width in the cell efficiency is researched showing a better performance when width and the number of cluster are increased. The SLSC efficiency is compared with the optimum efficiency obtained for the MQWSC showing that it is reached an amazing increment of 27%. (author)

  10. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  11. Coherent light from E-field induced quantum coupling of exciton states in superlattice-like quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Østergaard, John Erland; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. We focus on the ability to control the electronic coupling in coupled quantum wells with external E-fields leading to a strong modification of the coherent light emission, in particular at a bias where a superlattice-like miniband is formed. More specifically, we...... investigate a MBE-grown GaAs sample with a sequence of 15 single quantum wells having a successive increase of 1 monolayer in width ranging from 62 A to 102 A and with AlGaAs barriers of 17 Å....

  12. Quantum size effects and transport phenomena in PbSe quantum wells and PbSe/EuS superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E. I.; Nashchekina, O. N.; Ol' khovskaya, S. I.; Sipatov, A. Yu. [National technical university Kharkov polytechnic institute, 21 Frunze St., Kharkov, 61002 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M. S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-12-04

    It is established that the room-temperature dependences of transport properties on the total thickness of PbSe layers d in PbSe/EuS superlattices exhibit an oscillatory behavior. It is shown that the oscillation period Δd practically coincides with the period of the thickness oscillations observed earlier in single PbSe/EuS quantum well. The non-monotonic character of these dependences is attributed to quantum size effects. The theoretically estimated and experimentally determined Δd values are in good agreement.

  13. Luttinger liquid behavior of weakly disordered quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palevski, A.; Levy, E.; Karpovski, M.; Tsukernik, A.; Dwir, B.; Kapon, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The talk will be devoted to the electronic transport in quantum nano wires. The temperature dependence of the conductance in long V-groove quantum wires fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures is consistent with recent theories given within the framework of the Luttinger liquid model, in the limit of weakly disordered wires. We show that for the relatively small amount of disorder in our quantum wires, the value of the interaction parameter g is g=0.66, which is the expected value for GaAs. However, samples with a higher level of disorder show conductance with stronger temperature dependence, which exceeds the range of validity of a perturbation theory. Trying to fit such data with perturbation-theory models leads inevitably to wrong (lower) values of g

  14. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  15. Modeling of the Interminiband Absorption Coefficient in InGaN Quantum Dot Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Giannoccaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model to estimate minibands and theinterminiband absorption coefficient for a wurtzite (WZ indium gallium nitride (InGaN self-assembled quantum dot superlattice (QDSL is developed. It considers a simplified cuboid shape for quantum dots (QDs. The semi-analytical investigation starts from evaluation through the three-dimensional (3D finite element method (FEM simulations of crystal mechanical deformation derived from heterostructure lattice mismatch under spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects. From these results, mean values in QDs and barrier regions of charge carriers’ electric potentials and effective masses for the conduction band (CB and three valence sub-bands for each direction are evaluated. For the minibands’ investigation, the single-particle time-independent Schrödinger equation in effective mass approximation is decoupled in three directions and resolved using the one-dimensional (1D Kronig–Penney model. The built-in electric field is also considered along the polar axis direction, obtaining Wannier–Stark ladders. Then, theinterminiband absorption coefficient in thermal equilibrium for transverse electric (TE and magnetic (TM incident light polarization is calculated using Fermi’s golden rule implementation based on a numerical integration into the first Brillouin zone. For more detailed results, an absorption coefficient component related to superlattice free excitons is also introduced. Finally, some simulation results, observations and comments are given.

  16. Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K

    2011-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [1-bar 10] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications. (paper)

  17. Si-doped GaN/AlN quantum dot superlattices for optoelectronics at telecommunication wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, F.; Monroy, E. [Equipe Mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Tchernycheva, M.; Nevou, L.; Doyennette, L.; Julien, F.H. [Action OptoGaN, Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Universite Paris-Sud, UMR 8622 CNRS, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Dang, Le Si [Equipe Mixte CEA-CNRS-UJF Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique (CNRS UMR 5588), Universite Joseph Fourier, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Remmele, T.; Albrecht, M. [Institut fuer Kristallzuechtung, Max-Born-Strasse 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shibata, T.; Tanaka, M. [NGK Insulators, LTD 2-54 Sudacho, Mizuhoku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-05-15

    We report on the controlled growth of Si doped GaN/AlN quantum dot (QD) superlattices, in order to tailor their intersubband absorption within the 1.3-1.5 {mu}m telecommunication wavelengths. The QD size is tuned by modifying the amount of GaN in the QDs and the growth temperature. Silicon can be incorporated in the QDs to populate the first electronic level, without significant perturbation of the QD morphology. As a proof of the capability of these structures for infrared detection, a quantum-dot intersubband photodetector at 1.38 {mu}m with lateral carrier transport is demonstrated. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Correlated electron phenomena in ultra-low disorder quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, D.J.; Facer, G.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Kane, B.E.; Clark, R.G.; Lumpkin, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Quantum point contacts in the lowest disorder HEMTs display structure at 0.7 x 2e 2 /h, which cannot be interpreted within a single particle Landauer model. This structure has been attributed to a spontaneous spin polarisation at zero B field. We have developed novel GaAs/AlGaAs enhancement mode FETs, which avoid the random impurity potential present in conventional MODFET devices by using epitaxially grown gates to produce ultra-low-disorder QPCs and quantum wires using electron beam lithography. The ballistic mean free path within these devices exceeds 160 μm 2 . Quantum wires of 5 μm in length show up to 15 conductance plateaux, indicating that these may be the lowest-disorder quantum wires fabricated using conventional surface patterning techniques. These structures are ideal for the study of correlation effects in QPCs and quantum wires as a function of electron density. Our data provides strong evidence that correlation effects are enhanced as the length of the 1D region is increased and also that additional structure moves close to 0.5 x 2e 2 /h, the value expected for an ideal spin-split 1D level

  19. Biexciton binding energy in ZnSe quantum wells and quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans-Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    The biexciton binding energy E-XX is investigated in ZnSe/ZnMgSe quantum wells and quantum wires as a function of the lateral confinement by transient four-wave mixing. In the quantum wells one observes for decreasing well width a significant increase in the relative binding energy, saturating fo...

  20. The electronic states calculated using the sinusoidal potential for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakly, A.; Safta, N.; Mejri, H.; Lamine, A. Ben

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This paper is dedicated to structures based on Cd 1-x Zn x S. - Abstract: The present work reports on a theoretical investigation of superlattices based on Cd 1-x Zn x S quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. The system to model is assumed to be a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier at the boundary and is studied using a sinusoidal potential. The electronic states of both Γ 1 - (ground) and Γ 2 - (first excited) minibands have been computed as a function of inter-quantum dot separation and Zn composition. An analysis of the results shows that the widths of Γ 1 - and Γ 2 - minibands decrease as the superlattice period and Zn content increase separately. Moreover, the sinusoidal shape of the confining potential accounts for the coupling between quantum dots quantitatively less than the Kronig-Penney potential model.

  1. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.

  2. Gap asymptotics in a weakly bent leaky quantum wire

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Kondej, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 49 (2015), s. 495301 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : singular Schroedinger operators * delta interaction * leaky quantum wires * weak perturbation * asymptotic expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2015

  3. Energy levels in rectangular quantum well wires based on a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of a spatially dependent effective mass on the energy levels in a rectangular quantum wire with finite barrier potential is considered. The heterojunction is modelled by an error function rather than a step function to more accurately model the material transition region at the interface between the two ...

  4. Curved planar quantum wires with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dittrich, Jaroslav; Kříž, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, - (2002), s. 269-275 ISSN 0305-4470 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048101; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : quantum wires * laplace operation * Dirichlet boundary conditions * Neumann boundary conditions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.406, year: 2002

  5. Topological phases and transport properties of screened interacting quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hengyi, E-mail: hengyi.xu@njnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xiong, Ye [School of Physics and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Jun [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-10-14

    We study theoretically the effects of long-range and on-site Coulomb interactions on the topological phases and transport properties of spin–orbit-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires imposed on a s-wave superconductor. The distributions of the electrostatic potential and charge density are calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. Due to the finite width of the wires and charge repulsion, the potential and density distribute inhomogeneously in the transverse direction and tend to accumulate along the lateral edges where the hard-wall confinement is assumed. This result has profound effects on the topological phases and the differential conductance of the interacting quantum wires and their hybrid junctions with superconductors. Coulomb interactions renormalize the gate voltage and alter the topological phases strongly by enhancing the topological regimes and producing jagged boundaries. Moreover, the multicritical points connecting different topological phases are modified remarkably in striking contrast to the predictions of the two-band model. We further suggest the possible non-magnetic topological phase transitions manipulated externally with the aid of long-range interactions. Finally, the transport properties of normal–superconductor junctions are further examined, in particular, the impacts of Coulomb interactions on the zero-bias peaks related to the Majorana fermions and near zero-energy peaks. - Highlights: • A model of the screened Coulomb interactions in Majorana wires is proposed. • The interacting topological phase diagrams in multiband quantum wires are revealed. • The Majorana fermions in interacting multiband quantum wires are investigated.

  6. Raman study of InAs/InP quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2007-04-01

    We present a Raman study of the vibrational modes in InAs/InP (001) quantum wires. The energy of the observed phonon modes evidences the confinement properties of the wires, their strain anisotropy and the effect of atomic intermixing. Resonance effects in confined and interface phonons are discussed for excitation in the vicinity of the E1 critical point. The observed vibrations and their variation with sample characteristics are in agreement with the conclusions of previous structural and optical characterization performed in the same samples.

  7. Superfluidity of indirect excitons and biexcitons in coupled quantum wells and superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Lozovik, Yu E; Willander, M

    2002-01-01

    The collective properties of indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells (CQWs) are considered. The energy of the ground state of the exciton liquid as a function of the density of electrons e and holes h at different separations D between e and h layers is analysed. The quantum gas-liquid transition as D decreases is studied. The superfluidity appearance temperatures in the system (Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperatures) have been estimated at different separations D between e and h layers. For the anisotropic two-dimensional e-h system in CQWs the Mott metal-insulator quantum transition is considered. The instability of the ground state of the system of interacting two-dimensional indirect excitons in a slab of superlattice with alternating e and h layers is established. The stable system of indirect quasi-two-dimensional biexcitons, consisting of indirect excitons with opposite directed dipole moments, is considered. The radius and the binding energy of the indirect biexciton are calculated. The collec...

  8. Electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Holovatsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire and elliptic semiconductor nanotubes are investigated within the effective mass approximation. The solution of Schrodinger equation based on the Mathieu functions is obtained in elliptic coordinates. The dependencies of the electron size quantization spectrum on the size and shape of the core-shell nanowire and nanotube are calculated. It is shown that the ellipticity of a quantum wire leads to break of degeneration of quasiparticle energy spectrum. The dependences of the energy of odd and even electron states on the ratio between semiaxes are of a nonmonotonous character. The anticrosing effects are observed at the dependencies of electron energy spectrum on the transversal size of the core-shell nanowire.

  9. Quantum oscillations of conductivity in bismuth wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the resistance of bismuth nanowires with several diameters and different quality reveal oscillations on the dependence of resistance under uniaxial strain at T = 4.2 K. Amplitude of oscillations is significant (38 %) at helium temperature and becomes smearing at T = 77 K. Observed oscillations originate from quantum size effect. A simple evaluation of period of oscillations allows us to identify the groups of carriers involved in transport. Calculated periods of 42.2 and 25.9 nm satisfy approximately the ratio 2:1 for two experimentally observed sets of oscillations from light and heavy electrons.

  10. Reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in one-dimensional quantum-dot superlattices due to phonon filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, D. L.; Pokatilov, E. P.; Balandin, A. A.; Fomin, V. M.; Rastelli, A.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2011-10-01

    One dimensional quantum-dot superlattices (1D-QDSLs) consisting of acoustically mismatched materials are demonstrated theoretically to possess sub-1 W m-1 K-1 thermal conductivity in the 50-400 K range of temperatures. We consider coherent Si/Ge 1D-QDSLs, as well as model Si/plastic, Si/SiO2 and Si/SiC 1D-QDSLs. The phonon energy spectra and group velocities are obtained in the framework of the face-centered cubic cell model of lattice dynamics. On this basis, lattice thermal conductivity is calculated. A strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in 1D-QDSL structures in comparison with homogeneous rectangular Si nanowires is explained by the exclusion of phonon modes folded in superlattice segments from the heat flow and by the decelerating action of Ge, SiO2, or plastic materials. Thus, the 1D-QDSL structures act as effective phonon filters, eliminating a significant number of phonon modes from thermal transport. The obtained results imply a perspective of quantum-dot superlattices as thermoelectric materials and thermal insulators.

  11. Quantum efficiency investigations of type-II InAs/GaSb midwave infrared superlattice photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giard, E., E-mail: edouard.giard@onera.fr; Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Jaeck, J.; Viale, T.; Haïdar, R. [ONERA, DOTA, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud, UMR-CNRS 5214, Université Montpellier 2, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Steveler, E.; Bardou, N. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures (LPN-CNRS), Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Boulard, F. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 Avenue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-28

    We present in this paper a comparison between different type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice (T2SL) photodiodes and focal plane array (FPA) in the mid-wavelength infrared domain to understand which phenomenon drives the performances of the T2SL structure in terms of quantum efficiency (QE). Our measurements on test photodiodes suggest low minority carrier diffusion length in the “InAs-rich” design, which penalizes carriers' collection in this structure for low bias voltage and front side illumination. This analysis is completed by a comparison of the experimental data with a fully analytic model, which allows to infer a hole diffusion length shorter than 100 nm. In addition, measurements on a FPA with backside illumination are finally presented. Results show an average QE in the 3–4.7 μm window equal to 42% for U{sub bias} = −0.1 V, 77 K operating temperature and no anti-reflection coating. These measurements, completed by modulation transfer function and noise measurements, reveal that the InAs-rich design, despite a low hole diffusion length, is promising for high performance infrared imaging applications.

  12. Crystal-Phase Quantum Wires: One-Dimensional Heterostructures with Atomically Flat Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfdir, Pierre; Li, Hong; Marquardt, Oliver; Gao, Guanhui; Molas, Maciej R; Zettler, Johannes K; van Treeck, David; Flissikowski, Timur; Potemski, Marek; Draxl, Claudia; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Grahn, Holger T; Brandt, Oliver

    2018-01-10

    In semiconductor quantum-wire heterostructures, interface roughness leads to exciton localization and to a radiative decay rate much smaller than that expected for structures with flat interfaces. Here, we uncover the electronic and optical properties of the one-dimensional extended defects that form at the intersection between stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries in GaN nanowires. We show that they act as crystal-phase quantum wires, a novel one-dimensional quantum system with atomically flat interfaces. These quantum wires efficiently capture excitons whose radiative decay gives rise to an optical doublet at 3.36 eV at 4.2 K. The binding energy of excitons confined in crystal-phase quantum wires is measured to be more than twice larger than that of the bulk. As a result of their unprecedented interface quality, these crystal-phase quantum wires constitute a model system for the study of one-dimensional excitons.

  13. The electronic band parameters calculated by the Kronig-Penney method for Cd1-xZnxS quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakly, A.; Safta, N.; Mejri, H.; Lamine, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on a theoretical study of superlattices based on Cd 1-x Zn x S quantum dots embedded in an insulating material. We show, in particular, how this system can be assumed to a series of flattened cylindrical quantum dots with a finite barrier height at the boundary. In this paper, are also reviewed the approximations needed to calculate the band edges of the Cd 1-x Zn x S superlattices with use of the Kronig-Penney model. The electronic states and the electron effective masses of both Γ 1 - and Γ 2 -minibands have been computed as a function of zinc composition for different inter-quantum dot separations. As is found, the CdS system is appropriate to give rise a superlattice behavior for conduction electrons in a relatively large range of inter-sheet separations. An attempt to explain the electron band parameters calculated will be presented.

  14. Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Topological Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, Kun Woo

    2017-06-05

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model by inspecting the two-site entanglements in the ground state. It is shown that the topological phase transition of the SSH model is signified by a nonanalyticity of local entanglement, which becomes discontinuous for finite even system sizes, and that this nonanalyticity has a topological origin. Such a peculiar singularity has a universal nature in one-dimensional topological phase transitions of noninteracting fermions. We make this clearer by pointing out that an analogous quantity in the Kitaev chain exhibiting the identical nonanalyticity is the local electron density. As a byproduct, we show that there exists a different type of phase transition, whereby the pattern of the two-site entanglements undergoes a sudden change. This transition is characterised solely by quantum information theory and does not accompany the closure of the spectral gap. We analyse the scaling behaviours of the entanglement in the vicinities of the transition points.

  15. Interaction and Dephasing of Excitons in ZnSe Quantum Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    We study the coherent formation of biexcitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm by transient degenerate four-wave mixing. We observe an increase of the biexciton binding energy with decreasing wire width reaching 30% energy enhancement in the smallest wire structure...

  16. Band Structure and Quantum Confined Stark Effect in InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    N/GaN(0001) superlattices are investigated, and the variation of the band gap with the thicknesses of the well and the barrier is discussed. Superlattices of the form mInN/nGaN with n ≥ m are simulated using band structure calculations in the Local Density Approximation with a semiempirical correction...... for the gap error. The calculated band gap shows a strong decrease with the thickness (m) of the InN well. In superlattices containing a single layer of InN (m = 1) the band gap increases weakly with the GaN barrier thickness n, reaching a saturation value around 2 eV. In superlattices with n = m and n > 5...

  17. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371

  18. Quantum-confined photoluminescence from size-controlled boron doped nanocrystalline-Si:H/a-SiC{sub x}:H superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Jian, E-mail: elsevier_jianni@163.com; Zhang, JianJun; Liu, Qun; Zhang, XiaoDan; Zhao, Ying

    2014-12-31

    Boron doped nanocrystalline-Si:H/a-SiC{sub x}:H (nc-Si:H/a-SiC{sub x}:H) quantum dot superlattice has been prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 150 °C. This method for fabricating superlattice allows controlling both the size and density of Si quantum dots in potential well and the characteristics of potential barrier without subsequent annealing treatment. Cross-section high resolution transmission electron microscopy investigations confirm the periodic multi-layer structure of silicon quantum dots (∼ 2 nm diameter) separated by a-SiC{sub x}:H matrix (2–3 nm thickness) with sharp interface. With strong blue photoluminescence and high perpendicular conductivity, boron doped nc-Si:H/a-SiC{sub x}:H quantum dot superlattice shows great advantages in obtaining applicable blue light emission. - Highlights: • Boron-doped nanocrystalline-Si:H/a-SiC{sub x}:H superlattice was fabricated by PECVD. • Sharp well/barrier interface and relatively high density of Si QDs achieved simultaneously. • Room temperature blue photoluminescence is imputable of the quantum confinement effects.

  19. Dimensionality effects on the conductance of semiconductor quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, Luis C.O.; Damiao, Alvaro Jose; Andrada e Silva, E.A. de

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 'Spintronics' is a new kind of electronics based on the spin instead of charge of electrons [1]. It opens the possibility for faster devices and reduction of power consuming. This new field of research has received great attention from scientists in recent years [2]. Within the Kane model, spin-orbit interaction couples the three spatial coordinates dynamics for electrons in semiconductor heterostructures [3]. As a consequence, the control of spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures requires a three-dimensional description of the system. Strictly two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) descriptions are known in literature [4], but no attention has been devoted to the transition between them. In this work, we address this question calculating the conductance of a quantum wire with infinite contacts in a strictly 2D, quasi-2D and strictly 3D models. This study allows to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to the conductance in absence of spin-orbit interaction. We consider ballistic quantum regime, the same material for contacts and wire and we employ Landauer-Buttiker formula, 'mode matching' technique [4] and envelope function formalism. Our results reproduce the typical conductance oscillations and the well known mode degeneracy for 3D systems [4]. We prove that the critical parameters controlling the amplitude of these oscillations are the ratios between the wire and contacts transversal lengths, while the wire longitudinal length determines the position and shape of the peaks. This work is supported by FAPESP and CNPq. [1] Min Ouyang and David D. Awschalom, Science 301, 1074 (2003); Shuichi Murakami, Naoto Nagaosa, and Shou-Cheng Zhang, Science 301, 1348 (2003) [2] Proceedings of the 2002 PASPS, Wuerzburg, Germany, Journal of Superconductivity, Special Issue, April 2003[3] E. A. de Andrada e Silva, G. C. La Rocca and F. Bassani, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8523 (1994) [4] George Kirczenow, Phys. Rev. B 39, 10452 (1989); Karl

  20. Conductance of a quantum dot in the Kondo regime connected to dirty wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camjayi, Alberto; Arrachea, Liliana

    2012-12-01

    We study the transport behavior induced by a small bias voltage through a quantum dot connected to one-channel disordered wires by means of a quantum Monte Carlo method. We model the quantum dot by the Hubbard-Anderson impurity and the wires by the one-dimensional Anderson model with diagonal disorder within a length. We present a complete description of the probability distribution function of the conductance within the Kondo regime.

  1. Self-organised fractional quantisation in a hole quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Y.; Holmes, S. N.; Myronov, M.; Kumar, S.; Pepper, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated hole transport in quantum wires formed by electrostatic confinement in strained germanium two-dimensional layers. The ballistic conductance characteristics show the regular staircase of quantum levels with plateaux at n2e 2/h, where n is an integer, e is the fundamental unit of charge and h is Planck’s constant. However as the carrier concentration is reduced, the quantised levels show a behaviour that is indicative of the formation of a zig-zag structure and new quantised plateaux appear at low temperatures. In units of 2e 2/h the new quantised levels correspond to values of n  =  1/4 reducing to 1/8 in the presence of a strong parallel magnetic field which lifts the spin degeneracy but does not quantise the wavefunction. A further plateau is observed corresponding to n  =  1/32 which does not change in the presence of a parallel magnetic field. These values indicate that the system is behaving as if charge was fractionalised with values e/2 and e/4, possible mechanisms are discussed.

  2. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  3. InP/InAlAs/InGaAs-quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappelt, M.; Tuerck, V.; Grundmann, M.; Bimberg, D. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Cerva, H. [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Single InGaAs quantum wires and stacked InGaAs quantum wires with InAlAs barriers have been fabricated on v-grooved InP substrates by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The authors have found growth conditions where the InAlAs barrier exhibits a resharpening effect, similar to that of AlgaAs utilized for growth on GaAs substrates. The existence of structural and electronic quantum wires in the bottom of the grooves is proven.

  4. Simulational studies of epitaxial semiconductor superlattices: Quantum dynamical phenomena in ac and dc electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Joseph [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Using high-accuracy numerical methods the author investigates the dynamics of independent electrons in both ideal and realistic superlattices subject to arbitrary ac and/or dc electric fields. For a variety of superlattice potentials, optically excited initial wave packets, and combinations of ac and dc electric fields, he numerically solves the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the case of ideal periodic superlattice potentials, he investigates a long list of dynamical phenomena involving multiple miniband transitions and time-dependent electric fields. These include acceleration effects associated with interminiband transitions in strong fields, Zener resonances between minibands, dynamic localization with ac fields, increased single-miniband transport with an auxiliary resonant ac field, and enhanced or suppressed interminiband probability exchange using an auxiliary ac field. For all of the cases studied, the resulting time-dependent wave function is analyzed by projecting the data onto convenient orthonormal bases. This allows a detailed comparison with approximately analytic treatments. In an effort to explain the rapid decay of experimentally measured Bloch oscillation (BO) signals the author incorporates a one-dimensional representation of interface roughness (IR) into their superlattice potential. He shows that as a result of IR, the electron dynamics can be characterized in terms of many discrete, incommensurate frequencies near the Block frequency. Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 have been removed from this report and will be processed separately.

  5. Influence of magnetic moment formation on the conductance of coupled quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puller, V I; Mourokh, L G; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model for the resonant interaction between a pair of coupled quantum wires, under conditions where self-consistent effects lead to the formation of a local magnetic moment in one of the wires. Our analysis is motivated by the experimental results of Morimoto et al (2003 Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 3952), who showed that the conductance of one of the quantum wires exhibits a resonant peak at low temperatures, whenever the other wire is swept into the regime where local-moment formation is expected. In order to account for these observations, we develop a theoretical model for the inter-wire interaction that calculated the transmission properties of one (the fixed) wire when the device potential is modified by the presence of an extra scattering term, arising from the presence of the local moment in the swept wire. To determine the transmission coefficients in this system, we derive equations describing the dynamics of electrons in the swept and fixed wires of the coupled-wire geometry. Our analysis clearly shows that the observation of a resonant peak in the conductance of the fixed wire is correlated to the appearance of additional structure (near 0.75 x 2e 2 /h or 0.25 x 2e 2 /h) in the conductance of the swept wire, in agreement with the experimental results of Morimoto et al

  6. Ultra-Low Power Optical Transistor Using a Single Quantum Dot Embedded in a Photonic Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.A.; Grange, T.; Malik, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons.......Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons....

  7. Raman scattering of InAs/AlAs quantum dot superlattices grown on (001) and (311)B GaAs surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milekhin, Alexander; Yeryukov, Nikolay; Toropov, Alexander; Dmitriev, Dmitry; Sheremet, Evgeniya; Zahn, Dietrich Rt

    2012-08-23

    We present a comparative analysis of Raman scattering by acoustic and optical phonons in InAs/AlAs quantum dot superlattices grown on (001) and (311)B GaAs surfaces. Doublets of folded longitudinal acoustic phonons up to the fifth order were observed in the Raman spectra of (001)- and (311)B-oriented quantum dot superlattices measured in polarized scattering geometries. The energy positions of the folded acoustic phonons are well described by the elastic continuum model. Besides the acoustic phonons, the spectra display features related to confined transverse and longitudinal optical as well as interface phonons in quantum dots and spacer layers. Their frequency positions are discussed in terms of phonon confinement, elastic stress, and atomic intermixing.

  8. High quantum efficiency N-structure type-II superlattice mid-wavelength infrared detector with resonant cavity enhanced design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoyue; Xu, Yun; Li, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Bai, Lin; Yu, Hailong; Fu, Dong; Zhu, Haijun; Song, Guofeng

    2017-05-01

    We propose a resonant cavity enhanced (RCE) N-structure type-II superlattice (T2SL) mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) photodetector which can be used for the detection of methane gas at 3.3 μm. The theoretical analysis of quantum efficiency (QE) shows that the peak QE can be enhanced from 0.45 to 0.80 at 3.3 μm after 12 period AlAs0.09Sb0.91/GaSb DBR is introduced to the N-structure T2SL detector and QE exhibits the narrow bandwidth characteristic near the target wavelength. By analyzing the refractive indices of different materials and the reflectance of different DBRs, we also discuss how to determine the component materials of quarter-wavelength DBR reflectors.

  9. STM tunneling through a quantum wire with a side-attached impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapinski, T.; Krawiec, M.; Jalochowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The STM tunneling through a quantum wire (QW) with a side-attached impurity (atom, island) is investigated using a tight-binding model and the non-equilibrium Keldysh Green function method. The impurity can be coupled to one or more QW atoms. The presence of the impurity strongly modifies the local density of states of the wire atoms, thus influences the STM tunneling through all the wire atoms. The transport properties of the impurity itself are also investigated mainly as a function of the wire length and the way it is coupled to the wire. It is shown that the properties of the impurity itself and the way it is coupled to the wire strongly influence the STM tunneling, the density of states and differential conductance

  10. Research on GaSb/AlSb Multi-Quantum Well Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Weissbuch. R. C. Miller, and R. Dingle . Appl. Phys. Lett. just as well have set Po 0. 35. 673 11979). 961 AppI. Phys. Lett., Vol. 38, No. 12, 15 June 1981 Herbert Kroemer I FILMED 8-85 DTIC ...Superlattices Final Report on ONR Contract N00014-76-C-1044 by Herbert Kroemer Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering 00 University of California, Santa...NUMBER(&) Herbert Kroemer N00014-76-C-1044 9 . PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASKC AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS

  11. Magnetic quantum ratchet effect in (Cd,Mn)Te- and CdTe-based quantum well structures with a lateral asymmetric superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, P.; Budkin, G. V.; Unverzagt, J.; Hubmann, S.; Pfaller, A.; Bel'kov, V. V.; Golub, L. E.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Adamus, Z.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Popov, V. V.; Fateev, D. V.; Kozlov, D. A.; Weiss, D.; Ganichev, S. D.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the observation of magnetic quantum ratchet effect in (Cd,Mn)Te- and CdTe-based quantum well structures with an asymmetric lateral dual grating gate superlattice subjected to an external magnetic field applied normal to the quantum well plane. A dc electric current excited by cw terahertz laser radiation shows 1 /B oscillations with an amplitude much larger as compared to the photocurrent at zero magnetic field. We show that the photocurrent is caused by the combined action of a spatially periodic in-plane potential and the spatially modulated radiation due to the near-field effects of light diffraction. Magnitude and direction of the photocurrent are determined by the degree of the lateral asymmetry controlled by the variation of voltages applied to the individual gates. The observed magneto-oscillations with enhanced photocurrent amplitude result from Landau quantization and, for (Cd,Mn)Te at low temperatures, from the exchange enhanced Zeeman splitting in diluted magnetic heterostructures. Theoretical analysis, considering the magnetic quantum ratchet effect in the framework of semiclassical approach, describes quite well the experimental results.

  12. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donchev, V; Ivanov, T S; Borisov, K; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Fuster, D; Shtinkov, N; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  13. Surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, V.; Ivanov, T. S.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borisov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-02-01

    The optical properties of InAs/InP multi-layer quantum wire (QWR) structures of various spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Combined with empirical tight binding calculations, the spectra have revealed transitions assigned to QWR families with heights equal to integer number of 5, 6 and 7 monolayers. From the comparison of the experimental and theoretical results the atomic concentration of phosphorus in the wires has been estimated.

  14. Physical and electrical characteristics of Si/SiC quantum dot superlattice solar cells with passivation layer of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chia; Li, Yiming; Samukawa, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3-QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al2O3, the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc) of 4.77 mA cm-2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm-2, which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD’s geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

  15. Transport phenomena in quantum wells and wires in presence of disorder and interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vettchinkina, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Present-day electronics employ circuits of smaller and smaller dimensions, and today the length scales are so small that the laws of physics which rule micro-cosmos, quantum mechanics, become directly important. This thesis reports on theoretical work on electron transport in different nanostructures. We have studied semiconductor quantum wells, layered materials where each layer can be only a few atomic layers thick, and transport in thin atomic wires. The layered materials have been stud...

  16. Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, S. [University of Minho, Portugal; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A [ORNL; Ramos, M. M.D. [University of Minho, Portugal; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Portugal; Molina, S. I. [Universidad de Cadiz, Spain; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Buljan, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; Barradas, N. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), Lisbon, Portugal; Chahboun, A. [FST Tanger, Morocco; Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

  17. Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Buljan, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Chahboun, A. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics and Physics Department, Braga 4710-057 (Portugal); Physics Department, FST Tanger, Tanger BP 416 (Morocco); Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone Trieste, SS 14 km163, 5, Basovizza 34012 (Italy); Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico e Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear-, EN10, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal)

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO{sub 2})/SiO{sub 2} multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO{sub 2}) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

  18. Tuning the properties of Ge-quantum dots superlattices in amorphous silica matrix through deposition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, S. R. C.; Ramos, M. M. D.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Buljan, M.; Chahboun, A.; Roldan, M. A.; Molina, S. I.; Bernstorff, S.; Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J.; Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the structural properties of Ge quantum dot lattices in amorphous silica matrix, prepared by low-temperature magnetron sputtering deposition of (Ge+SiO 2 )/SiO 2 multilayers. The dependence of quantum dot shape, size, separation, and arrangement type on the Ge-rich (Ge + SiO 2 ) layer thickness is studied. We show that the quantum dots are elongated along the growth direction, perpendicular to the multilayer surface. The size of the quantum dots and their separation along the growth direction can be tuned by changing the Ge-rich layer thickness. The average value of the quantum dots size along the lateral (in-plane) direction along with their lateral separation is not affected by the thickness of the Ge-rich layer. However, the thickness of the Ge-rich layer significantly affects the quantum dot ordering. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the multilayer average atomic composition and also the quantum dot crystalline quality on the deposition parameters.

  19. Transient four-wave mixing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Gislason, Hannes; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons and biexcitons and the exciton dephasing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires is investigated by transient four-wave mixing. The T-shaped structure is fabricated by cleaved-edge overgrowth, and its geometry is engineered to optimize the one-dimensional confinement...

  20. Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das

    1996-01-01

    We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac...

  1. Four-terminal resistance in a clean interacting quantum wire with invasive contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aita, H., E-mail: lili@df.uba.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas-UNLP, CC 67, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); IFLP-CONICET (Argentina); Arrachea, L. [Departamento de Fisica and IFIBA, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pebellon I, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Naon, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas-UNLP, CC 67, La Plata 1900 (Argentina); IFLP-CONICET (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the behavior of the four-terminal resistance R{sub 4pt} in an interacting quantum wire described by a Luttinger liquid with an applied bias voltage V and coupled to two voltage probes. We extend previous results, obtained for very weakly coupled contacts, to the case in which the effects of the probes become non-trivially correlated.

  2. Four-terminal resistance in a clean interacting quantum wire with invasive contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, H.; Arrachea, L.; Naón, C.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of the four-terminal resistance R4pt in an interacting quantum wire described by a Luttinger liquid with an applied bias voltage V and coupled to two voltage probes. We extend previous results, obtained for very weakly coupled contacts, to the case in which the effects of the probes become non-trivially correlated.

  3. Spin-Filtering Transport in Double Parallel Quantum Wires on a Graphene Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fu-Bin; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Fu-Ti; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Cai, Ling-Cang

    2015-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin filtering transport of double parallel quantum wires (QWs) side-coupled to a graphene sheet and sandwiched between two ferromagnetic (FM) leads. The dependences of the wire-graphene coupling strength, wire-wire coupling strength, as well as the spin polarization of the ferromagnetic leads are studied. It is found that the wire-graphene coupling strength tends to reduce the current and the wire-wire coupling strength can first reinforce and then decrease the current. The spin polarization strength has an enhanced (identical) effect on the current under the parallel (anti-parallel) alignment of the FM leads, which gives rise to an obvious spin-filter and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) effect. Our results suggest that such a theoretical model can stimulate some experimental investigations about the spin-filter devices. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11174214, 11204192, the NSAF Joint Fund Jointly set up by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics under Grant Nos. U1230201 and U1430117

  4. Bound Electron States in Skew-symmetric Quantum Wire Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    in transistors , solar cells , LEDs, and diode lasers. They have also investigated quantum dots as agents for medical imaging and as possible qubits in...be possible. Quantum dots may be able to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of today’s typical silicon photovoltaic cells . According to an...multiplication or multiple exciton generation (MEG). This compares favorably to today’s photovoltaic cells which can only manage one exciton per high

  5. Temperature dependence of quantum-wire intermediate-band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarollahi, Mirsaeid; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Mortazavi, Mansour; Salamo, Gregory J.; Ware, Morgan

    2017-02-01

    This work investigates the performance of an intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) structure based on InGaAs/GaAs lateral quantum wires under elevated temperature. Un-optimized structures using the same quantum wire based IB material have demonstrated an increase in solar conversion efficiency in comparison with reference GaAs P-I-N diode devices. In order to further understand the physics behind this increase, an optimized structure was developed and characterized. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of doped and Un-doped samples have been measured using these optimized designs. We present here the results of varying both applied bias and temperature on the EQE of these IBSC devices to highlight the advantages of such a structure.

  6. Possibility of the effect of absolute negative conductivity in quantum superlattice exposed to the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, S. V.; Kukhar', E. I.

    2015-07-01

    Current density in superlattice placed in quantizing electric field and in high-frequency field of electromagnetic wave was calculated. The calculations were performed by taking into account an inelastic scattering of charge carriers by phonons. Possibility of the effect of absolute negative conductivity, i.e. the effect of appearance of electric current flowing in opposite direction than that of vector of quantizing electric field intensity, was shown. Such effect in graphene superlattices was discussed.

  7. Growth of Quantum Wires on Step-Bunched Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feng

    2005-02-01

    This proposal initiates a combined theoretical and experimental multidisciplinary research effort to explore a novel approach for growing metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched semiconductor and dielectric substrates, and to lay the groundwork for understanding the growth mechanisms and the electronic, electrical, and magnetic properties of metallic and magnetic nanowires. The research will focus on four topics: (1) fundamental studies of step bunching and self-organization in a strained thin film for creating step-bunched substrates. (2) Interaction between metal adatoms (Al,Cu, and Ni) and semiconductor (Si and SiGe) and dielectric (CaF2) surface steps. (3) growth and characterization of metallic and magnetic nanowires on step-bunched templates. (4) fabrication of superlattices of nanowires by growing multilayer films. We propose to attack these problems at both a microscopic and macroscopic level, using state-of-the-art theoretical and experimental techniques. Multiscale (electronic-atomic-continuum) theories will be applied to investigate growth mechanisms of nanowires: mesoscopic modeling and simulation of step flow growth of strained thin films, in particular, step bunching and self-organization will be carried out within the framework of continuum linear elastic theory; atomistic calculation of interaction between metal adatoms and semiconductor and dielectric surface steps will be done by large-scale computations using first-principles total-energy methods. In parallel, thin films and nanowires will be grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and the resultant structure and morphology will be characterized at the atomic level up to micrometer range, using a combination of different surface/interface probes, including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, atomic resolution), atomic force microscopy (AFM, nanometer resolution), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM, micrometer resolution), reflectance high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x

  8. InGaAs/InP quantum wires grown on silicon with adjustable emission wavelength at telecom bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Li, Qiang; Ng, Kai Wei; Zhu, Si; Lau, Kei May

    2018-03-08

    We report the growth of vertically stacked InGaAs/InP quantum wires on (001) Si substrates with adjustable room-temperature emission at telecom bands. Based on a self-limiting growth mode in selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, crescent-shaped InGaAs quantum wires with variable dimensions are embedded within InP nano-ridges. With extensive transmission electron microscopy studies, the growth transition and morphology change from quantum wires to ridge quantum wells have been revealed. As a result, we are able to decouple the quantum wires from ridge quantum wells and manipulate their dimensions by scaling the growth time. With minimized lateral dimension and their unique positioning, the InGaAs/InP quantum wires are more immune to dislocations and more efficient in radiative processes, as evidenced by their excellent optical quality at telecom-bands. These promising results thus highlight the potential of combining low-dimensional quantum wire structures with the aspect ratio trapping process for integrating III-V nano-light emitters on mainstream (001) Si substrates. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, M. M.; Nevedomskii, V. N.; Zolotareva, R. V.; Vasil' ev, A. P.; Ustinov, V. M. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 26 Polytechnicheskaya ul., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-21

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been applied to study the carrier emission from states of a 10-layer system of tunnel-coupled vertically correlated quantum dots (VCQDs) in p-n InAs/GaAs heterostructures with different widths of GaAs spacers under varied reverse bias (U{sub r}) and filling voltage pulse U{sub f}.

  10. Inelastic Quantum Transport in Superlattices: Success and Failure of the Boltzmann Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Rott, Stephan

    1999-01-01

    the whole held range from linear response to negative differential conductivity. The quantum results are compared with the respective results obtained from a Monte Carlo solution of the Boltzmann equation. Our analysis thus sets the limits of validity for the semiclassical theory in a nonlinear transport...

  11. Theoretical luminescence spectra in p-type quantum wells and superlattices based on InGaAsN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Thiago Freire de; Rodrigues, Sara Cristina Pinto [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Silva Junior, Eronides Felisberto da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Sipahi, Guilherme Matos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Scolfaro, Luisa Maria Ribeiro [Texas State University, San Marcos, TX (United States), Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    Full text: In the past few years, the dilute nitride system, InGaAsN, is proposed as a good candidate for several device applications. InGaAsN is considered a promising material for laser devices working at 1:3 or 1:5{mu}m and high-efficiency multijunction solar cells. Incorporation of In and N into GaAs result in a strong redshift of the emission wavelength. Besides, the strain can be minimized since the opposite effect of In and N on the lattice constant enables lattice matching of InGaAsN on GaAs. However, despite their great potential for applications, the understanding of their physical properties is rather incomplete. In particular, the dominant mechanisms of light emission in these alloys and their dependence on the nitrogen composition are not well established. Such information is crucial not only for a better understanding of the optical properties of the nitrogen containing III-V alloys, but also for a better technological control of alloy formation and optimization light emission efficiency. Another point concerns to investigation in p-type doping in InGaAsN. This is of great importance since, for example, can improve the transport in HBT (Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors) devices. In this work we report on theoretical luminescence spectra calculations for p-doped GaAs/InGaAsN quantum wells and superlattices. The calculations are performed within the k-vector.p-vector method by solving the full 8 x 8 Kane Hamiltonian, generalized to treat different materials. Strain effects due the lattice mismatch between InGaAsN and GaAs are taken into account. By varying the acceptor concentration we analyze the effect of exchange-correlation, which plays an important role in profile potential and electronic transition. These results can explain several important aspects about optical properties in these systems. (author)

  12. Excitons, Biexcitons and Dephasing in GaAs T-shaped quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Gislason, Hannes; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2000-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons and biexcitons and the exciton dephasing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires is investigated by transient four-wave mixing. The T-shaped structure is fabricated by cleaved-edge overgrowth and its geometry is engineered to optimize the one-dimensional confinement...... structures due to the different confinement of electron and hole in the T-shaped wire. A dispersion of the homogeneous linewidth within the inhomogeneous broadening due to phonon-assisted relaxation is observed. An exciton acoustic-phonon scattering coefficient of 6.1 +-0.5 ìeV/K is found, which is larger...

  13. Calculating modes of quantum wire systems using a finite difference technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mardani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, the Schrodinger equation for a quantum wire is solved using a finite difference approach. A new aspect in this work is plotting wave function on cross section of rectangular cross-sectional wire in two dimensions, periodically. It is found that the correct eigen energies occur when wave functions have a complete symmetry. If the value of eigen energy has a small increase or decrease in neighborhood of the correct energy the symmetry will be destroyed and aperturbation value at the first of wave function will be observed. In addition, the demand on computer memory varies linearly with the size of the system under investigation.

  14. Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron interactions and invasiveness of the probes on the possible occurrence of negative resistance.

  15. Voltage profile and four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos; Salvay, Mariano

    2008-06-01

    We investigate the behavior of the four-terminal resistance R4pt in a quantum wire described by a Luttinger liquid in two relevant situations: (i) in the presence of a single impurity within the wire and (ii) under the effect of asymmetries introduced by disordered voltage probes. In the first case, interactions leave a signature in a power-law behavior of R4pt as a function of the voltage V and the temperature T . In the second case interactions tend to mask the effect of the asymmetries. In both scenarios the occurrence of negative values of R4pt is explained in simple terms.

  16. Energy levels in rectangular quantum well wires based on a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the previous work, the gradient of the effective mass was considered as a suitable Dirac delta function [11]. But in the real world, the effective mass cannot change abruptly across the heterojunction, because, the discontinuity of the square quantum well model implies an infinite internal electric field at the heterojunctions,.

  17. Engineering and manipulating topological qubits in 1D quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotetes, Panagiotis; Schön, Gerd; Shnirman, Alexander

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the Josephson effect in TNT and NTN junctions, consisting of topological (T) and normal (N) phases of semiconductor-superconductor 1D heterostructures in the presence of a Zeeman field. A key feature of our setup is that, in addition to the variation of the phase of the superconducting order parameter, we allow the orientation of the magnetic field to change along the junction. We find a novel magnetic contribution to the Majorana Josephson coupling that permits the Josephson current to be tuned by changing the orientation of the magnetic field along the junction. We also predict that a spin current can be generated by a finite superconducting phase difference, rendering these materials potential candidates for spintronic applications. Finally, this new type of coupling not only constitutes a unique fingerprint for the existence of Majorana bound states but also provides an alternative pathway for manipulating and braiding topological qubits in networks of wires.

  18. Persistent Spin Current in a Hard-Wall Confining Quantum Wire with Weak Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xi; Zhou Guanghui

    2009-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin current in a quantum wire with weak Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling connected to two normal conductors. Both the quantum wire and conductors are described by a hard-wall confining potential. Using the electron wave-functions in the quantum wire and a new definition of spin current, we have calculated the elements of linear spin current density j s,xi T and j s,yi T (i = x, y, z). We find that the elements j T s,xx and j T s,yy have a antisymmetrical relation and the element j T s,yz has the same amount level as j s,xx T and j s,yy T . We also find a net linear spin current density, which has peaks at the center of quantum wire. The net linear spin current can induce a linear electric field, which may imply a way of spin current detection.

  19. Efficient two-step photocarrier generation in bias-controlled InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice intermediate-band solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, T; Asahi, S; Kaizu, T; Harada, Y; Tamaki, R; Okada, Y; Kita, T

    2017-07-19

    We studied the effects of the internal electric field on two-step photocarrier generation in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) intermediate-band solar cells (IBSCs). The external quantum efficiency of QDSL-IBSCs was measured as a function of the internal electric field intensity, and compared with theoretical calculations accounting for interband and intersubband photoexcitations. The extra photocurrent caused by the two-step photoexcitation was maximal for a reversely biased electric field, while the current generated by the interband photoexcitation increased monotonically with increasing electric field intensity. The internal electric field in solar cells separated photogenerated electrons and holes in the superlattice (SL) miniband that played the role of an intermediate band, and the electron lifetime was extended to the microsecond scale, which improved the intersubband transition strength, therefore increasing the two-step photocurrent. There was a trade-off relation between the carrier separation enhancing the two-step photoexcitation and the electric-field-induced carrier escape from QDSLs. These results validate that long-lifetime electrons are key to maximising the two-step photocarrier generation in QDSL-IBSCs.

  20. Quantum computational webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Eisert, J.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the notion of quantum computational webs: These are quantum states universal for measurement-based computation, which can be built up from a collection of simple primitives. The primitive elements--reminiscent of building blocks in a construction kit--are (i) one-dimensional states (computational quantum wires) with the power to process one logical qubit and (ii) suitable couplings, which connect the wires to a computationally universal web. All elements are preparable by nearest-neighbor interactions in a single pass, of the kind accessible in a number of physical architectures. We provide a complete classification of qubit wires, a physically well-motivated class of universal resources that can be fully understood. Finally, we sketch possible realizations in superlattices and explore the power of coupling mechanisms based on Ising or exchange interactions.

  1. Nuclear Quantum Effects in H(+) and OH(-) Diffusion along Confined Water Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E

    2016-08-04

    The diffusion of protons and hydroxide ions along water wires provides an efficient mechanism for charge transport that is exploited by biological membrane channels and shows promise for technological applications such as fuel cells. However, what is lacking for a better control and design of these systems is a thorough theoretical understanding of the diffusion process at the atomic scale. Here we focus on two aspects of this process that are often disregarded because of their high computational cost: the use of first-principles potential energy surfaces and the treatment of the nuclei as quantum particles. We consider proton and hydroxide ions in finite water wires using density functional theory augmented with an apolar cylindrical confining potential. We employ machine learning techniques to identify the charged species, thus obtaining an agnostic definition that takes explicitly into account the delocalization of the charge in the Grotthus-like mechanism. We include nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) through the thermostated ring polymer molecular dynamics method and model finite system size effects by considering Langevin dynamics on the potential of mean force of the charged species, allowing us to extract the same "universal" diffusion coefficient from simulations with different wire sizes. In the classical case, diffusion coefficients depend significantly on the potential energy surface, in particular on how dispersion forces modulate water-water distances. NQEs, however, make the diffusion less sensitive to the underlying potential and geometry of the wire.

  2. Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneau, D; Engin, E; O'Brien, J L; Thompson, M G; Ohira, K; Suzuki, N; Yoshida, H; Iizuka, N; Ezaki, M; Natarajan, C M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Dorenbos, S N; Zwiller, V

    2012-01-01

    Integrated quantum photonic waveguide circuits are a promising approach to realizing future photonic quantum technologies. Here, we present an integrated photonic quantum technology platform utilizing the silicon-on-insulator material system, where quantum interference and the manipulation of quantum states of light are demonstrated in components orders of magnitude smaller than previous implementations. Two-photon quantum interference is presented in a multi-mode interference coupler, and the manipulation of entanglement is demonstrated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, opening the way to an all-silicon photonic quantum technology platform. (paper)

  3. Interaction effects in a microscopic quantum wire model with strong spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G. W.; Ganahl, M.; Schuricht, D.; Evertz, H. G.; Andergassen, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effect of strong interactions on the spectral properties of quantum wires with strong Rashba spin-orbit (SO) interaction in a magnetic field, using a combination of matrix product state and bosonization techniques. Quantum wires with strong Rashba SO interaction and magnetic field exhibit a partial gap in one-half of the conducting modes. Such systems have attracted wide-spread experimental and theoretical attention due to their unusual physical properties, among which are spin-dependent transport, or a topological superconducting phase when under the proximity effect of an s-wave superconductor. As a microscopic model for the quantum wire we study an extended Hubbard model with SO interaction and Zeeman field. We obtain spin resolved spectral densities from the real-time evolution of excitations, and calculate the phase diagram. We find that interactions increase the pseudo gap at k = 0 and thus also enhance the Majorana-supporting phase and stabilize the helical spin order. Furthermore, we calculate the optical conductivity and compare it with the low energy spiral Luttinger liquid result, obtained from field theoretical calculations. With interactions, the optical conductivity is dominated by an excotic excitation of a bound soliton-antisoliton pair known as a breather state. We visualize the oscillating motion of the breather state, which could provide the route to their experimental detection in e.g. cold atom experiments.

  4. Structure, strain, and composition profiling of InAs/GaAs(211)B quantum dot superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florini, N.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P.; Kioseoglou, J.; Kehagias, Th., E-mail: kehagias@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54624 Thessaloniki (Greece); Germanis, S.; Pelekanos, N. T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Microelectronics Research Group, IESL-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Katsidis, C. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Hatzopoulos, Z. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 70013 Heraklion (Greece)

    2016-01-21

    The morphology, nanostructure, and strain properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(211)B, uncapped or buried, are explored by transmission electron microscopy and related quantitative techniques. Besides the built-in piezoelectric field, other differences of (211) growth compared to (100)-oriented growth are discussed in terms of the (211) surface non-singularity, leading to anisotropic shape of the QDs and local chemical inhomogeneity of the wetting layer. The shape of the uncapped QDs was precisely defined as truncated pyramidal, elongated along the 〈111〉 direction, and bounded by the (110), (100), and (213) facets. Local strain measurements showed that large surface QDs were almost unstrained due to plastic relaxation, exhibiting small residual elastic strain at the interface that gradually diminished toward their apex. Conversely, buried QDs were pseudomorphically grown on GaAs. By postulating a plane stress state, we have established a systematic increase of the local strain from the base toward the apex region of the QDs. Using Vegard's law, their chemical composition profiles were calculated, revealing an indium content gradient along the growth direction and compositional variants among different QDs. Photoluminescence measurements showed variations in emission energy between the QDs and consistency with a graded In-content, which complied with the quantitative strain analysis.

  5. The fabrication and characterisation of quantum dots, wires and wire net works

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q

    1996-01-01

    luminescent materials probably involves pi bonded carbon. The size distributions of both kinds of the nanoclusters obtained by TEM suggest that a quantum-confined size effect can also apply to the blue PL. The strong blue emission is related with the crystallisation of the nanodots by annealing. The PL excitation dependence is explained by an increase in the conduction band density of states deep in the band, and the formation of a band tail. The work in this thesis includes two aspects as described below: 1. Freshly produced red, yellow and green emitting porous Si have been fabricated and studied by NEXAFS and EXAFS. The emission peaks are at 690, 580 and 520 nm, which almost covers the fall visible range that direct anodization can achieve. The correlation between the co-ordination numbers of the first, second and third Si neighbour shells from Fourier transform fitting of EXAFS and both emission peak energies and optical bandgaps estimated by PLE (photoluminescence excitation dependence) suggests that the...

  6. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horing, Norman J. M.

    2017-06-01

    This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  7. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  8. Binding energy of a hydrogenic impurity in a coaxial quantum wire with an insulator layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, H.; Bilekkaya, A.; Aktas, S.; Okan, S. E.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic properties of a coaxial cylindrical quantum well-barrier system constituted about an central insulating wire were determined under an external electric field. The model wire, inside to outside, was considered to be layered as AlAs / GaAs / Alx1 Ga1 -x1 As / GaAs / Alx2 Ga1 -x2 As. Within the framework of the effective mass-approximation, the binding energy of a hydrogenic impurity is calculated by using the combination of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and variational approaches. The binding energy exhibits sharp changes depending on the impurity position and the geometrical parameters of the structure such as the well widths of the GaAs wires and the height and thickness of the barrier constituted by Alx1 Ga1 -x1 As . The binding energy of the electron was found to be independent from the impurity position for the specific widths of the well wires. Also, the barrier properties appeared as very effective parameters in controlling the probability distribution of the electron.

  9. Morphological evolution of InAs/InP quantum wires through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, D L; Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I. M. y Q. I., Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Varela, M; Pennycook, S J [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Gonzalez, L; Gonzalez, Y [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Fuster, D, E-mail: david.sales@uca.es [UMDO - Unidad Asociada al CSIC-IMM, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 22085, 4607 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-13

    Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of {l_brace}114{r_brace} or {l_brace}118{r_brace}, ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {l_brace}114{r_brace} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed.

  10. Pressure dependence of photoluminescence of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Castillo, M.; Segura, A.; Sans, J.A.; Martinez-Pastor, J.; Fuster, D.; Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the electronic structure of self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWrs), grown under different conditions by molecular beam epitaxy on InP, by means of photoluminescence measurements under pressure. In samples with regularly distributed QWrs, room pressure photoluminescence spectra consist of a broad band centred at about 0.85 eV, which can be easily de-convoluted in a few Gaussian peaks. In samples with isolated QWrs, photoluminescence spectra exhibit up to four clearly resolved bands. Applying hydrostatic pressure, the whole emission band monotonously shifts towards higher photon energies with pressure coefficients ranging from 72 to 98 meV/GPa. In contrast to InAs quantum dots on GaAs, quantum wires photoluminescence is observed up to 10 GPa, indicating that InAs QWrs are metastable well above pressure at which bulk InAs undergoes a phase transition to the rock-salt phase (7 GPa). (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Pressure dependence of photoluminescence of InAs/InP self-assembled quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Castillo, M.; Segura, A.; Sans, J.A.; Martinez-Pastor, J. [ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Investigacio, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Fuster, D. [ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia, Ed. Investigacio, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Y.; Gonzalez, L. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-15

    This paper investigates the electronic structure of self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWrs), grown under different conditions by molecular beam epitaxy on InP, by means of photoluminescence measurements under pressure. In samples with regularly distributed QWrs, room pressure photoluminescence spectra consist of a broad band centred at about 0.85 eV, which can be easily de-convoluted in a few Gaussian peaks. In samples with isolated QWrs, photoluminescence spectra exhibit up to four clearly resolved bands. Applying hydrostatic pressure, the whole emission band monotonously shifts towards higher photon energies with pressure coefficients ranging from 72 to 98 meV/GPa. In contrast to InAs quantum dots on GaAs, quantum wires photoluminescence is observed up to 10 GPa, indicating that InAs QWrs are metastable well above pressure at which bulk InAs undergoes a phase transition to the rock-salt phase (7 GPa). (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Evidence for various higher-subband resonances and interferences in a GaAs/AlAs asymmetric quadruple-quantum-well superlattice analyzed from its photoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Keisuke; Hosoda, Makoto; Akahane, Kouichi; Ohtani, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present evidence for the resonances between higher subbands in an asymmetric quadruple-quantum-well (AQQW) superlattice (SL) by photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Since each QW in an AQQW is separated by thin barriers, subband interferences can easily arise. As a result, various PL branches caused by the subband resonances are observed, including PL emissions from the higher-energy Γ states, the X state in a barrier with longitudinal optical phonon replica, and long-range Γ-X transfer with Γ-X mixing. However, in conventional QW systems, the PL emissions from higher-energy subbands and their interference have not been clearly observed yet; in our system, the interferences between higher-energy subbands can be observed through PL emission, since we achieved effective electron injection into the higher subbands under very thin barriers. From these observations, we exposed the existence of such interferences and transport processes.

  13. Influence of AlGaN/GaN superlattice inserted structure on the performance of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-L.; Tsai, M.-C.; Gong, J.-R.; Liao, W.-T.; Lin, P.-Y.; Yen, K.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, H.-Y.; Hwang, S.-K.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to explore the effect of Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N/GaN short-period superlattice (SPSL)-inserted structures in the GaN under layer on the performance of In 0.2 Ga 0.8 N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs). The Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N/GaN SPSL-inserted LEDs were found to exhibit improved materials and device characteristics including decrements in ideality factor and reverse leakage current. The results of etch pit counts reveal that SPSL-induced threading dislocation density reduction in the SPSL-inserted In 0.2 Ga 0.8 N/GaN MQW LED structures enables the improved LED performance

  14. Simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems: application to atomic gold and silver wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.; Brandbyge, Mads

    2002-01-01

    . The potential drop profile and induced electronic current (and therefore the conductance) are obtained from first principles. The method takes into account the atomic structure of both the nanoscale structure and the semi-infinite electrodes through which the potential is applied. Non-equilibrium Green......'s function techniques are used to calculate the quantum conductance. Here we apply the method to the study of the electronic transport in wires of gold and silver with atomic thickness. We show the results of our calculations, and compare with some of the abundant experimental data on these systems....

  15. Novel phenomena in one-dimensional non-linear transport in long quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, T; Hemmi, M; Naito, R; Tsubaki, K; Park, J-S; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the non-linear transport properties of split-gate quantum wires of various channel lengths. In this report, we present results on a resonant enhancement of the non-linear conductance that is observed near pinch-off under a finite source-drain bias voltage. The resonant phenomenon exhibits a strong dependence on temperature and in-plane magnetic field. We discuss the possible relationship of this phenomenon to the spin-polarized manybody state that has recently been suggested to occur in quasi-one dimensional systems

  16. Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their

  17. Exploring semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus Rio San Pedro. 11510 Puerto Real (Cadiz) (Spain); Gonzalez, L; Ripalda, J M [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Varela, M; Pennycook, S J, E-mail: sergio.molina@uca.e [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We review in this communication our contribution to the structural characterisation of semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy, both in phase-contrast and Z-contrast modes. We show how these techniques contribute to predict the preferential sites of nucleation of these nanostructures, and also determine the compositional distribution in 1D and 0D nanostructures. The results presented here were produced in the framework of the European Network of Excellence entitled {sup S}elf-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics (SANDiE){sup .}

  18. Influence of an external voltage on the conductance through a quantum dot side-coupled to a short quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Xiong Shijie

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the influence of an external voltage V 0 on conductance G through a quantum dot (QD), which is side-coupled to a quantum wire of length L W , whose two ends are weakly connected to leads. In our calculation, the poor man's scaling law and slave-boson mean-field method are employed. With V 0 increased, a series of resonant regions is formed and G exhibits different properties in and out of these regions, which is the universal result of the finite-size effect on the Kondo correlation. In symmetric structures, the would-be resonant regions corresponding to odd wavefunctions are removed. If the symmetry is broken by changing the QD position, those regions will be recovered. In two asymmetric structures with their wire lengths being L W and L W +1, respectively, the two sets of resonant regions intersect with each other. These symmetry-related phenomena characterize side-coupled QD structures. With the barrier width increased, the number of resonant regions is increased, too

  19. Acoustic phonon transport and thermal conductance in a periodically modulated quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Liming; Wang Lingling; Huang Weiqing; Zou, B S; Chen Keqiu

    2007-01-01

    We investigate acoustic phonon transport and thermal conductance at low temperatures in a quantum wire with rectangle scatters periodically placed in the quantum channel. It is found that the transmission spectra of zero mode exhibits a series of resonant peaks-valleys structures, and the transport valley gradually develops into stop-frequency gap by increasing the number of the period. The number of resonant peaks or valleys between two nearest gaps is just twice as large as the number of the period. The result also indicates that the thermal conductance is sensitive to the number of the period and structural parameters, and the change is more pronounced in the structure with smaller number of period

  20. Non-abelian anyons and topological quantum information processing in 1D wire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Topological quantum computation provides an elegant solution to decoherence, circumventing this infamous problem at the hardware level. The most basic requirement in this approach is the ability to stabilize and manipulate particles exhibiting non-Abelian exchange statistics -- Majorana fermions being the simplest example. Curiously, Majorana fermions have been predicted to arise both in 2D systems, where non-Abelian statistics is well established, and in 1D, where exchange statistics of any type is ill-defined. An important question then arises: do Majorana fermions in 1D hold the same technological promise as their 2D counterparts? In this talk I will answer this question in the affirmative, describing how one can indeed manipulate and harness the non-Abelian statistics of Majoranas in a remarkably simple fashion using networks formed by quantum wires or topological insulator edges.

  1. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  2. Formation of quantum wires and dots on InP(001) by As/P exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haeyeon; Ballet, P.; Salamo, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the use of in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to study As/P exchange on InP(001) surfaces by molecular beam epitaxy. Results demonstrate that the exchange process can be controlled to selectively produce either quantum wires or quantum dots. 15 nm wide self-assembled nanowires are observed, and they are elongated along the dimer row direction of the InP(001)-2x4 surface with a length of over 1 μm and flat top 2x4 surfaces. In addition, when the nanowires are annealed with no arsenic overpressure, the surface reconstruction transforms from 2x4 to 4x2 and the nanowires transform into dots with a rectangular base and flat top. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  3. Absorption of electromagnetic radiation in a quantum wire with an anisotropic parabolic potential in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpunin, V. V., E-mail: karpuninvv@mail.ru [Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Margulis, V. A., E-mail: theorphysics@mrsu.ru [Mordovian State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    An analytical expression for the coefficient of absorption of electromagnetic radiation by electrons in a quantum wire in a magnetic field is derived. The case of a magnetic field transverse with respect to the wire axis is considered. The resonance character of absorption is shown, and the resonance frequencies as functions of the field are determined. The effect of the scattering of electrons at optical phonons is studied, and it is shown that scattering is responsible for additional resonance absorption peaks.

  4. Isolated self-assembled InAs/InP(001) quantum wires obtained by controlling the growth front evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, David; Alen, Benito; Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez, Yolanda; Martinez-Pastor, Juan; Gonzalez, Maria Ujue; GarcIa, Jorge M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we explore the first stages of quantum wire (QWR) formation studying the evolution of the growth front for InAs coverages below the critical thickness, θ c , determined by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Our results obtained by in situ measurement of the accumulated stress evolution during InAs growth on InP(001) show that the relaxation process starts at a certain InAs coverage θ R c . At this θ R , the spontaneous formation of isolated quantum wires takes place. For θ>θ R this ensemble of isolated nanostructures progressively evolves towards QWRs that cover the whole surface for θ θ c . These results allow for a better understanding of the self-assembling process of QWRs and enable the study of the individual properties of InAs/InP self-assembled single quantum wires

  5. Isolated self-assembled InAs/InP(001) quantum wires obtained by controlling the growth front evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, David [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Alen, Benito [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Pastor, Juan [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 2085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, Maria Ujue [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); GarcIa, Jorge M [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-01-24

    In this work we explore the first stages of quantum wire (QWR) formation studying the evolution of the growth front for InAs coverages below the critical thickness, {theta}{sub c}, determined by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Our results obtained by in situ measurement of the accumulated stress evolution during InAs growth on InP(001) show that the relaxation process starts at a certain InAs coverage {theta}{sub R}<{theta}{sub c}. At this {theta}{sub R}, the spontaneous formation of isolated quantum wires takes place. For {theta}>{theta}{sub R} this ensemble of isolated nanostructures progressively evolves towards QWRs that cover the whole surface for {theta} {theta}{sub c}. These results allow for a better understanding of the self-assembling process of QWRs and enable the study of the individual properties of InAs/InP self-assembled single quantum wires.

  6. Inelastic electron and Raman scattering from the collective excitations in quantum wires: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n-m-dimensional electron gas, with m ⩽ n and 1 ⩽ n, m ⩽ 3. This is the road to the (semiconducting quasi-n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG [or quantum wire(s for more practical purposes] led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. In the language of condensed matter physics, a critical scrutiny of Q-1DEG systems has provided us with a host of exotic (electronic, optical, and transport phenomena unseen in their higher- or lower-dimensional counterparts. This has motivated us to undertake a systematic investigation of the inelastic electron scattering (IES and the inelastic light scattering (ILS from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wires. We begin with the Kubo's correlation functions to derive the generalized dielectric function, the inverse dielectric function, and the Dyson equation for the dynamic screened potential in the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. These fundamental tools then lead us to develop methodically the theory of IES and ILS for the Q-1DEG systems. As an application of the general formal results, which know no bounds regarding the subband occupancy, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum [comprised of

  7. Inelastic electron and Raman scattering from the collective excitations in quantum wires: Zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Manvir S.

    2013-04-01

    The nanofabrication technology has taught us that an m-dimensional confining potential imposed upon an n-dimensional electron gas paves the way to a quasi-(n-m)-dimensional electron gas, with m ⩽ n and 1 ⩽ n, m ⩽ 3. This is the road to the (semiconducting) quasi-n dimensional electron gas systems we have been happily traversing on now for almost two decades. Achieving quasi-one dimensional electron gas (Q-1DEG) [or quantum wire(s) for more practical purposes] led us to some mixed moments in this journey: while the reduced phase space for the scattering led us believe in the route to the faster electron devices, the proximity to the 1D systems left us in the dilemma of describing it as a Fermi liquid or as a Luttinger liquid. No one had ever suspected the potential of the former, but it took quite a while for some to convince the others on the latter. A realistic Q-1DEG system at the low temperatures is best describable as a Fermi liquid rather than as a Luttinger liquid. In the language of condensed matter physics, a critical scrutiny of Q-1DEG systems has provided us with a host of exotic (electronic, optical, and transport) phenomena unseen in their higher- or lower-dimensional counterparts. This has motivated us to undertake a systematic investigation of the inelastic electron scattering (IES) and the inelastic light scattering (ILS) from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wires. We begin with the Kubo's correlation functions to derive the generalized dielectric function, the inverse dielectric function, and the Dyson equation for the dynamic screened potential in the framework of Bohm-Pines' random-phase approximation. These fundamental tools then lead us to develop methodically the theory of IES and ILS for the Q-1DEG systems. As an application of the general formal results, which know no bounds regarding the subband occupancy, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum [comprised of intrasubband and

  8. Spectroscopy of shallow InAs/InP quantum wire nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Yu I; Dorogan, V G; Noda, S; Salamo, G J; Bierwagen, O; Masselink, W T; Tarasov, G G; Zhuchenko, Z Ya; DeCuir Jr, E A; Manasreh, M O

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the optical properties of InAs/InP(001) quantum wires (QWrs) and their parent quantum well system formed by the deposition of 4 ML (monolayers) of InAs on InP is carried out by means of temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unusual two-branch switching of the excitonic PL band maxima is revealed in the temperature dependence for both wires and wells. This is interpreted in terms of the thermal activation of excitonic ground states of the confined nanostructures. Strong modification of the absorbance line shape leading to the appearance of flat spectral regions in the room temperature spectrum of a QWr sample is interpreted in terms of thermally induced change of the dimensionality: from 1D to anisotropic 2D. This change of dimensionality is detected also in the polarized absorbance measurements through the disappearance or significant reduction of the polarization anisotropy in the regions of the hh1-e1 (hh: heavy hole; e: electron) and lh1-e1 (lh: light hole) transitions in QWrs.

  9. Density of states fluctuations in a disordered quantum wire: a supersymmetric treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunder, J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: An interesting property of a quantum wire in the presence of disorder due to impurities is the distribution function of the density of states. This will determine the NMR line shape. The probability distribution function of the density of states and the participation ratio may be found from the moments of the density of states. Al'tshuler and Prigodin calculated the disorder average of the moments of the density of states: (p(E) k ), for a quantum wire. This requires calculation of the correlator (G j + G k - -j ), where G + (G - ) is the retarded (advanced) Green's function. Al'tshuler and Prigodin used the Berezinskii diagram technique which involves a very cumbersome summation of the perturbation theory series over the random impurity potential. We instead take a much more elegant approach based on supersymmetry. Both the participation ratio and the distribution of the density of states may be found from the moments of the density of states. For temperatures much less than the disorder the distribution of the density of states is highly asymmetrical. This implies a highly asymmetric and broad NMR line shape

  10. Plasmon-excitonic polaritons in superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosobukin, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    A theory for propagation of polaritons in superlattices with resonant plasmon-exciton coupling is presented. A periodical superlattice consists of a finite number of cells with closely located a quantum well and a monolayer of metal nanoparticles. Under study is the spectrum of hybrid modes formed of the quasitwo- dimensional excitons of quantum wells and the dipole plasmons of metal particles. The problem of electrodynamics is solved by the method of Green's functions with taking account of the resonant polarization of quantum wells and nanoparticles in a self-consistent approximation. The effective polarizability of spheroidal particles occupying a square lattice is calculated with taking into consideration the local-field effect of dipole plasmons of the layer and their images caused by the excitonic polarization of nearest quantum well. Optical reflection spectra of superlattices with GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells and silver particles are numerically analyzed. Special attention is paid to the superradiant regime originated in the Bragg diffraction of polaritons in superlattice. Superradiance is investigated separately for plasmons and excitons, and then for hybrid plasmonexcitonic polaritons. It is demonstrated that the broad spectrum of reflectance associated with plasmons depends on the number of cells in superlattice, and it has a narrow spectral dip in the range of plasmon-excitonic Rabi splitting.

  11. GaAsSb/GaAsN short-period superlattices as a capping layer for improved InAs quantum dot-based optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utrilla, A. D.; Ulloa, J. M., E-mail: jmulloa@isom.upm.es; Guzman, A.; Hierro, A. [Institute for Systems based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology (ISOM) and Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Reyes, D. F.; González, D.; Ben, T. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e IM y QI, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Cádiz) (Spain)

    2014-07-28

    The application of a GaAsSb/GaAsN short-period superlattice capping layer (CL) on InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) is shown to be an option for providing improved luminescence properties to this system. Separating both GaAsSb and GaAsN ternaries during the growth in 2 monolayer-thick phases solves the GaAsSbN immiscibility-related problems. Strong fluctuations in the CL composition and strain field as well as in the QD size distribution are significantly reduced, and a more regular CL interface is also obtained. Room-temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) is obtained for overall N contents as high as 3%, yielding PL peak wavelengths beyond 1.4 μm in samples with a type-II band alignment. High external quantum efficiency electroluminescence and photocurrent from the QD ground state are also demonstrated at RT in a single QD-layer p-i-n device. Thus, it becomes possible to combine and transfer the complementary benefits of Sb- and N-containing GaAs alloys to InAs QD-based optoelectronics.

  12. Spin-orbit interaction induced anisotropic property in interacting quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the ground state and transport property of electrons in interacting quantum wires (QWs oriented along different crystallographic directions in (001 and (110 planes in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI and Dresselhaus SOI (DSOI. The electron ground state can cross over different phases, e.g., spin density wave, charge density wave, singlet superconductivity, and metamagnetism, by changing the strengths of the SOIs and the crystallographic orientation of the QW. The interplay between the SOIs and Coulomb interaction leads to the anisotropic dc transport property of QW which provides us a possible way to detect the strengths of the RSOI and DSOI. PACS numbers: 73.63.Nm, 71.10.Pm, 73.23.-b, 71.70.Ej

  13. Interacting quantum wires: A possible explanation for the 0.7 anomalous conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, M.; Schmeltzer, D.; Kuklov, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate an effective one-dimensional conducting channel considering both the contact umklapp and the Coulomb electron-electron interaction. We show that, at low electronic density, the proximity to the Wigner crystal reproduces the anomaly in conductance at 0.7G 0 . The crucial ingredient of our theory is the fact that the gate voltage acts as a bias controlling the intensity of the umklapp term. At large gate voltages, the umklapp vanishes and we obtain a conducting quantum wire with a perfect conductance. At low gate voltages, the Wigner crystal is pinned by the umklapp term, giving rise to an insulating behavior with vanishing conductance. This crossover pattern has a transition point which can be identified with the anomalous conductance around 0.7G 0 . This picture is obtained within the framework of a renormalization group calculation. The conductance static regime is achieved by taking first the limit of finite length and then the limit of zero frequency.

  14. Elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire of zincblende heterostructures with interface elasticity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Liu, Yifei

    2018-04-01

    This work formulates the solutions to the elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire (QWR) with interface elasticity effect. Closed-form solutions to the piezoelectric potential field of zincblende QWR/matrix heterostructures grown along [111] crystallographic orientation are found and numerical results of InAs/InP heterostructures are provided as an example. The piezoelectric potential in the matrix depends on the interface elasticity, the radius and stiffness of the QWR. Our results indicate that interface elasticity can significantly alter the elastic and piezoelectric fields near the interface. Additionally, when the elastic property of the QWR is considered to be anisotropic in contrary to the common isotropic assumption, piezoelectric potentials are found to be distinct near the interface, but the deviations are negligible at positions far away from the interface.

  15. Calculation of electrical transport properties and electron entanglement in inhomogeneous quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shokri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the spin-dependent transport properties and electron entanglement in a mesoscopic system, which consists of two semi-infinite leads (as source and drain separated by a typical quantum wire with a given potential. The properties studied include current-voltage characteristic, electrical conductivity, Fano factor and shot noise, and concurrence. The calculations are based on the transfer matrix method within the effective mass approximation. Using the Landauer formalism and transmission coefficient, the dependence of the considered quantities on type of potential well, length and width of potential well, energy of transmitted electron, temperature and the voltage have been theoretically studied. Also, the effect of the above-mentioned factors has been investigated in the nanostructure. The application of the present results may be useful in designing spintronice devices.

  16. On the acceptor-related photoluminescence spectra of GaAs quantum-wire microcrystals: A model calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.E.; Porras Montenegro, N.; Latge, A.

    1992-07-01

    The acceptor-related photoluminescence spectrum of a GaAs quantum-wire microcrystal is theoretically investigated via a model calculation within the effective-mass approximation, with the acceptor envelope wave functions and binding energies calculated through a variational procedure. Typical theoretical photoluminescence spectra show two peaks associated to transitions from the n = 1 conduction subband electron gas to acceptors at the on-center and on-edge positions in the wire in good agreement with the recent experimental results by Hirum et al. (Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 431 (1991)). (author). 14 refs, 3 figs

  17. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  18. Raman study of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wire stacks with varying spacer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2008-08-01

    Self-assembled InAs/InP (001) quantum wire stacks have been investigated by means of Raman scattering. The characteristics of the observed vibrational modes show clear evidence of confinement and atomic intermixing between As and P atoms from the wire and the spacer. The change in the intermixing with spacer layer thickness and growth temperature is investigated. Likewise, the effect of annealing on the exchange of As and P atoms is also studied. Resonance effects in confined and interface phonons are discussed for excitation in the vicinity of the InAs E1 critical point. Finally, the energy of the interface modes is related to the structural characteristics of the wires by comparing the experimental data with a lattice dynamic calculation based on the dielectric continuum model.

  19. Optical gain for the interband optical transition in InAsP/InP quantum well wire in the influence of laser field intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, S. [Dept.of Physics, GTN Arts College, Dindigul-624 005. India (India); Peter, A. John, E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [P.G & Research Dept.of Physics, Government Arts College, Melur-625 106. Madurai. India (India)

    2016-05-23

    Intense high frequency laser field induced electronic and optical properties of heavy hole exciton in the InAs{sub 0.8}P{sub 0.2}/InP quantum wire is studied taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. Laser field related exciton binding energies and the optical band gap in the InAs{sub 0.8}P{sub 0.2}/InP quantum well wire are investigated. The optical gain, for the interband optical transition, as a function of photon energy, in the InAs{sub 0.8}P{sub 0.2}/InP quantum wire, is obtained in the presence of intense laser field. The compact density matrix method is employed to obtain the optical gain. The obtained optical gain in group III-V narrow quantum wire can be applied for achieving the preferred telecommunication wavelength.

  20. Surface-related reduction of photoluminescence in GaAs quantum wires and its recovery by new passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozaki, Nanako; Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Etched GaAs quantum wires (QWRs) and selectively grown (SG) QWRs were fabricated, and dependence of their photoluminescence (PL) properties on QWR width (W) and QWR distance to surface (d) were investigated. PL intensity greatly reduced with reduction of W and d, due to non-radiative recombination through surface states. Surface passivation by growing a Si interface control layer (Si-ICL) on group III-terminated surfaces greatly improved PL properties

  1. Optically excited structural transition in atomic wires on surfaces at the quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigge, T.; Hafke, B.; Witte, T.; Krenzer, B.; Streubühr, C.; Samad Syed, A.; Mikšić Trontl, V.; Avigo, I.; Zhou, P.; Ligges, M.; von der Linde, D.; Bovensiepen, U.; Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Wippermann, S.; Lücke, A.; Sanna, S.; Gerstmann, U.; Schmidt, W. G.

    2017-03-01

    Transient control over the atomic potential-energy landscapes of solids could lead to new states of matter and to quantum control of nuclear motion on the timescale of lattice vibrations. Recently developed ultrafast time-resolved diffraction techniques combine ultrafast temporal manipulation with atomic-scale spatial resolution and femtosecond temporal resolution. These advances have enabled investigations of photo-induced structural changes in bulk solids that often occur on timescales as short as a few hundred femtoseconds. In contrast, experiments at surfaces and on single atomic layers such as graphene report timescales of structural changes that are orders of magnitude longer. This raises the question of whether the structural response of low-dimensional materials to femtosecond laser excitation is, in general, limited. Here we show that a photo-induced transition from the low- to high-symmetry state of a charge density wave in atomic indium (In) wires supported by a silicon (Si) surface takes place within 350 femtoseconds. The optical excitation breaks and creates In-In bonds, leading to the non-thermal excitation of soft phonon modes, and drives the structural transition in the limit of critically damped nuclear motion through coupling of these soft phonon modes to a manifold of surface and interface phonons that arise from the symmetry breaking at the silicon surface. This finding demonstrates that carefully tuned electronic excitations can create non-equilibrium potential energy surfaces that drive structural dynamics at interfaces in the quantum limit (that is, in a regime in which the nuclear motion is directed and deterministic). This technique could potentially be used to tune the dynamic response of a solid to optical excitation, and has widespread potential application, for example in ultrafast detectors.

  2. Multilayer self-organization of InGaAs quantum wires on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiming M.; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Xie, Yanze Z.; Schmidbauer, Martin; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth of multiple In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As layers on GaAs (311)A and GaAs (331)A has been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence. On GaAs (311)A, uniformly distributed In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As quantum wires (QWRs) with wider lateral separation were achieved, presenting a significant improvement in comparison with the result on single layer [H. Wen, Z.M. Wang, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 1756]. On GaAs (331)A, In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As QWRs were revealed to be much straighter than in the previous report on multilayer growth [Z. Gong, Z. Niu, Z. Fang, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1140]. These observations are discussed in terms of the strain-field interaction among multilayers, enhancement of surface mobility at high temperature, and surface stability of GaAs (311)A and (331)A surfaces.

  3. Current responsivity of semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatov, Anatoly A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1999-01-01

    The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed for curr......The current responsivity of a semiconductor superlattice THz-photon detector is calculated using an equivalent circuit model which takes into account the finite matching efficiency between a detector antenna and the superlattice in the presence of parasitic losses. Calculations performed...... of the responsivity (2–3 A/W in the 1–3 THz-frequency band) range up to several percents of the quantum efficiency e/[h-bar] omega of an ideal superconductor tunnel junction detector. Properly designed semiconductor superlattice detectors may thus demonstrate better room temperature THz-photon responsivity than...

  4. Effect of passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition and sputtering processes on Si quantum dot superlattice to generate high photocurrent for high-efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksudur Rahman, Mohammad; Higo, Akio; Sekhar, Halubai; Erman Syazwan, Mohd; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    The effect of passivation films on a Si quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) was investigated to generate high photocurrent in solar-cell applications. Three types of passivation films, sputter-grown amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), hydrogenated a-SiC (a-SiC:H), and atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide (ALD-Al2O3), were used to passivate the Si QDSLs containing a stack of four 4 nm Si nanodisks (NDs) and 2 nm silicon carbide (SiC) films fabricated by neutral beam etching (NBE). Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio typically present in quantum Si-NDs formed in the top-down NBE process, there is a tendency to form larger surface dangling bonds on untreated Si-ND surfaces as well as to have short distance (RMS) of 1.09 nm with respect to sputter-grown a-SiC (RMS: 1.75 nm) and a-SiC:H (RMS: 1.54 nm) films. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) revealed that ALD-Al2O3 passivation decreased the surface-leakage current as a result of proper passivation of side-wall surface defects in the QDSLs. The carrier transport characteristics were extracted from the QDSLs using the photovoltaic (PV) properties of p++/i/n+ solar cells, where the QDSLs consisted of different passivation layers acting as intermediate layers (i-layers) between the high-doping-density p++ Si (1 × 1020 cm-3) and n+ Si (1 × 1019 cm-3) substrates. High-doping-density p++ Si acted as a hole conductor instead of a photocarrier generator, hence, we could observe the PV properties of the i-layers. The highest short-circuit current density of 4.75 mA cm-2 was generated from the QDSL with the ALD-Al2O3-passivated surface, which is suitable for high-efficiency QD solar cells compared with a-SiC-passivated (0.04 mA cm-2) and a-SiC:H-passivated (0.37 mA cm-2) QDSL surfaces.

  5. Strain superlattices in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Kim, Youngseok; Lyding, Joseph; Gilbert, Matthew; Mason, Nadya

    Superlattices have been widely explored to tailor the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron systems. Previous approaches to create superlattices have been limited to periodic potential modulations, either in the form of electrostatic gating or moiré heterostructures. Here we present a new strategy to generate superlattices in 2D materials. We deposit these 2D membranes on a periodic array of dielectric nanospheres, and achieve superlattices with periodic strain modulations. We studied the electronic and magneto-transport properties of strained graphene superlattices, and observed salient features of Dirac point cloning and Hofstadter's butterfly. Furthermore, we were able to tune the transport properties by changing the magnitude of strain in the graphene superlattice. This new degree of freedom provides a novel platform both for fundamental studies of 2D electron correlations and for prospective applications in 2D electronic devices. Y.Z. and N.M. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation under Grant No. ENG-1434147.

  6. Mechanism of non-classical light emission from acoustically populated (311)A GaAs quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, S.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.

    2012-01-01

    We employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to control the transfer of photo-generated carriers between interconnected quantum wells and quantum wires (QWRs) grown on pre-patterned (311)A GaAs substrates. Optical studies, carried out under remote acoustic excitation of a single QWR, have shown sharp photoluminescence lines and antibunched photons with tunable emission energy. These features are attributed to recombination of acoustically transported carriers in potential inhomogeneities within the wire. The origin of the photon antibunching is discussed in terms of a ‘bottleneck’ in the number of carriers trapped in the QWR, which restricts the number of recombination events per SAW cycle. We propose a model for antibunching based on the trapping of carriers induced by the SAW piezoelectric field in states at the interface between the GaAs QWR and the AlGaAs barriers. Non-classical light is emitted during the subsequent release of the trapped carriers into the recombination centers within the wire. The spatial distribution of the emitting recombination centers is estimated using time-resolved measurements.

  7. Jaynes-Cummings photonic superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    A classical realization of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized cavity mode, is proposed based on light transport in engineered waveguide superlattices. The optical setting enables us to visualize in Fock space dynamical regimes not yet accessible in quantum systems, providing new physical insights into the deep strong coupling regime of the JC model. In particular, bouncing of photon number wave packets in Hilbert space and revivals of populations are explained as generalized Bloch oscillations in an inhomogeneous tight-binding lattice.

  8. Jaynes--Cummings photonic superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2011-09-01

    A classical realization of the Jaynes--Cummings (JC) model, describing the interaction of a two-level atom with a quantized cavity mode, is proposed based on light transport in engineered waveguide superlattices. The optical setting enables us to visualize in Fock space dynamical regimes not yet accessible in quantum systems, providing new physical insights into the deep strong coupling regime of the JC model. In particular, bouncing of photon number wave packets in Hilbert space and revivals of populations are explained as generalized Bloch oscillations in an inhomogeneous tight-binding lattice.

  9. Determination of the strain generated in InAs/InP quantum wires: prediction of nucleation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, S I; Ben, T; Sales, D L; Pizarro, J; Galindo, P L; Varela, M; Pennycook, S J; Fuster, D; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2006-01-01

    The compositional distribution in a self-assembled InAs(P) quantum wire grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an InP(001) substrate has been determined by electron energy loss spectrum imaging. We have determined the strain and stress fields generated in and around this wire capped with a 5 nm InP layer by finite element calculations using as input the compositional map experimentally obtained. Preferential sites for nucleation of wires grown on the surface of this InP capping layer are predicted, based on chemical potential minimization, from the determined strain and stress fields on this surface. The determined preferential sites for wire nucleation agree with their experimentally measured locations. The method used in this paper, which combines electron energy loss spectroscopy, high-resolution Z contrast imaging, and elastic theory finite element calculations, is believed to be a valuable technique of wide applicability for predicting the preferential nucleation sites of epitaxial self-assembled nano-objects

  10. Determination of the strain generated in InAs/InP quantum wires: prediction of nucleation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, S I [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus RIo San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, T [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus RIo San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Sales, D L [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e I.M. y Q.I., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus RIo San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Pizarro, J [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus RIo San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Galindo, P L [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Campus RIo San Pedro, s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Varela, M [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Pennycook, S J [Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fuster, D [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Y [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, L [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-11-28

    The compositional distribution in a self-assembled InAs(P) quantum wire grown by molecular beam epitaxy on an InP(001) substrate has been determined by electron energy loss spectrum imaging. We have determined the strain and stress fields generated in and around this wire capped with a 5 nm InP layer by finite element calculations using as input the compositional map experimentally obtained. Preferential sites for nucleation of wires grown on the surface of this InP capping layer are predicted, based on chemical potential minimization, from the determined strain and stress fields on this surface. The determined preferential sites for wire nucleation agree with their experimentally measured locations. The method used in this paper, which combines electron energy loss spectroscopy, high-resolution Z contrast imaging, and elastic theory finite element calculations, is believed to be a valuable technique of wide applicability for predicting the preferential nucleation sites of epitaxial self-assembled nano-objects.

  11. Superlattices: problems and new opportunities, nanosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superlattices were introduced 40 years ago as man-made solids to enrich the class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The field metamorphosed to quantum wells and quantum dots, with ever decreasing dimensions dictated by the technological advancements in nanometer regime. In recent years, the field has gone beyond semiconductors to metals and organic solids. Superlattice is simply a way of forming a uniform continuum for whatever purpose at hand. There are problems with doping, defect-induced random switching, and I/O involving quantum dots. However, new opportunities in component-based nanostructures may lead the field of endeavor to new heights. The all important translational symmetry of solids is relaxed and local symmetry is needed in nanosolids.

  12. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  13. Spin texturing in quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisi, B; Sakiroglu, S; Sokmen, İ

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of interplay of spin–orbit interaction and in-plane magnetic fields on the electronic structure and spin texturing of parabolically confined quantum wire. Numerical results reveal that the competing effects between Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions and the external magnetic field lead to a complicated energy spectrum. We find that the spin texturing owing to the coupling between subbands can be modified by the strength of spin–orbit couplings as well as the magnitude and the orientation angle of the external magnetic field. (paper)

  14. Zeeman effects on the tunneling spectra of a ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor in contact with a quantum wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza; Mehrabzad, Narges

    2016-07-01

    We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire-insulator-ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.

  15. Effect of scattering on zero-bias anomaly and conductance reduction in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. M.; Umansky, V.; Hsu, S. Y.

    2010-06-01

    We present a systematic study on the zero-bias conductance peak and its dependences on the carrier density and structural geometry in quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires (QWs). This zero-bias anomaly (ZBA) is suppressed by either decreasing the carrier density or increasing the QW length. The differential conductance at zero bias decreases with increasing temperature in accordance with a thermal-activation model up to a well-defined cut-off temperature. We demonstrate that the activation energy, cut-off temperature, and width of the ZBA are correlated, and suggest that these features are controlled by electron scattering in QWs.

  16. Synergy of atom-probe structural data and quantum-mechanical calculations in a theory-guided design of extreme-stiffness superlattices containing metastable phases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Friák, Martin; Tytko, D.; Holec, D.; Choi, P.P.; Eisenlohr, P.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2015), Art. n. 093004 ISSN 1367-2630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ab initio * composites * elasticity * nitrides * superlattices * Young's modulus Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.570, year: 2015

  17. Nonlinear absorption coefficient and optically detected electrophonon resonance in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires with different confined phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoa, Doan Quoc; Phuong, Le Thi Thu; Hoi, Bui Dinh

    2017-03-01

    A quantum kinetic equation for electrons interacting with confined phonons is used to investigate the nonlinear absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave by electrons in cylindrical GaAs/AlAs quantum wires. The analytic expression for absorption coefficient is calculated for three models of confined optical phonons: the dielectric continuum (DC), hydrodynamic continuum (HC), and Huang-Zhu (HZ) models. The absorption coefficient depends on the square of the electromagnetic wave amplitude. The electrophonon resonance and optically detected electrophonon resonance (ODEPR) are observed through the absorption spectrum. The full width at half maximum (the line-width) of the ODEPR peaks is obtained by a computational method. The line-width is found to increase with increasing temperature and decrease with increasing the quantum wire radius. In particular, numerical results show that the DC and HZ models lead to a similar behaviour of electron - confined phonon interaction whereas the HC model results in a quite different one, especially at small quantum wire radius. For large quantum wire radii, above mentioned phonon models have equivalent contributions to the ODEPR line-width.

  18. Majorana modes and Kondo effect in a quantum dot attached to a topological superconducting wire (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernek, Edson; Ruiz-Tijerina, David; da Silva, Luis D.; Egues, José Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Quantum dot attached to topological wires has become an interesting setup to study Majorana bound state in condensed matter[1]. One of the major advantage of using a quantum dot for this purpose is that it provides a suitable manner to study the interplay between Majorana bound states and the Kondo effect. Recently we have shown that a non-interacting quantum dot side-connected to a 1D topological superconductor and to metallic normal leads can sustain a Majorana mode even when the dot is empty. This is due to the Majorana bound state of the wire leaking into the quantum dot. Now we investigate the system for the case in which the quantum dot is interacting[3]. We explore the signatures of a Majorana zero-mode leaking into the quantum dot, using a recursive Green's function approach. We then study the Kondo regime using numerical renormalization group calculations. In this regime, we show that a "0.5" contribution to the conductance appears in system due to the presence of the Majorana mode, and that it persists for a wide range of the dot parameters. In the particle-hole symmetric point, in which the Kondo effect is more robust, the total conductance reaches 3e^2/2h, clearly indicating the coexistence of a Majorana mode and the Kondo resonance in the dot. However, the Kondo effect is suppressed by a gate voltage that detunes the dot from its particle-hole symmetric point as well as by a Zeeman field. The Majorana mode, on the other hand, is almost insensitive to both of them. We show that the zero-bias conductance as a function of the magnetic field follows a well-known universal curve. This can be observed experimentally, and we propose that this universality followed by a persistent conductance of 0.5,e^2/h are evidence for the presence of Majorana-Kondo physics. This work is supported by the Brazilians agencies FAPESP, CNPq and FAPEMIG. [1] A. Y. Kitaev, Ann.Phys. {bf 303}, 2 (2003). [2] E. Vernek, P.H. Penteado, A. C. Seridonio, J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. B {bf

  19. Band structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator quantum wire in the presence of a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2016-07-13

    By means of a numerical diagonalization approach, we calculate the electronic structure of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3DTI) quantum wire (QW) in the presence of a magnetic field. The QW can be viewed as a 3DTI film with lateral surfaces, when its rectangular cross section has a large aspect ratio. Our calculation indicates that nonchiral edge states emerge because of the confined states at the lateral surfaces. These states completely cover the valence band region among the Landau levels, which reasonably account for the absence of the [Formula: see text] quantum Hall effect in the relevant experimental works. In an ultrathin 3DTI film, inversion between the electron-type and hole-type bands occurs, which leads to the so-called pseudo-spin Hall effect. In a 3DTI QW with a square cross section, a tilting magnetic field can establish well-defined Landau levels in all four surfaces. In such a case, the quantum Hall edge states are localized at the square corners, characterized by the linearly crossing one-dimensional band profile. And they can be shifted between the adjacent corners by simply rotating the magnetic field.

  20. Coupling of single quantum emitters to plasmons propagating on mechanically etched wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Huck, Alexander; Lu, Ying-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the coupling of a single nitrogen vacancy center in a nanodiamond to propagating plasmonic modes of mechanically etched silver nanowires. The mechanical etch is performed on single crystalline silver nanoplates by the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever to produce wires...

  1. Electric and magnetic field modulated energy dispersion, conductivity and optical response in double quantum wire with spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Y.; Gisi, B.; Sakiroglu, S.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the influence of electric field on the electronic energy band structure, zero-temperature ballistic conductivity and optical properties of double quantum wire. System described by double-well anharmonic confinement potential is exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field and Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. Numerical results show up that the combined effects of internal and external agents cause the formation of crossing, anticrossing, camel-back/anomaly structures and the lateral, downward/upward shifts in the energy dispersion. The anomalies in the energy subbands give rise to the oscillation patterns in the ballistic conductance, and the energy shifts bring about the shift in the peak positions of optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes.

  2. Characterisation of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires by surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V; Angelova, T; Cros, A; Cantarero, A; Shtinkov, N; Borissov, K; Fuster, D; Gonzalez, Y; Gonzalez, L

    2010-01-01

    The optical properties of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires (QWRs) with two different spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, combined with empirical tight binding electronic structure calculations and structural data. The SPV and PL spectra reveal several features, which energy positions are in good agreement. They have been ascribed to excitonic transitions, which take place in the QWR families with heights differing by an integer number of monolayers. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we have estimated the QWR family heights and the average atomic concentration of phosphorus in the QWRs. From the simultaneous analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, based on our vector model for SPV signal representation, a deeper understanding of the SPV results and of the mechanisms of carrier separation in the sample is obtained.

  3. Characterisation of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires by surface photovoltage and photoluminescence spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ts; Donchev, V.; Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Borissov, K.; Fuster, D.; González, Y.; González, L.

    2010-11-01

    The optical properties of multi-layer InAs/InP quantum wires (QWRs) with two different spacer thicknesses have been investigated by means of room temperature surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, combined with empirical tight binding electronic structure calculations and structural data. The SPV and PL spectra reveal several features, which energy positions are in good agreement. They have been ascribed to excitonic transitions, which take place in the QWR families with heights differing by an integer number of monolayers. Comparing the experimental results with the theoretical ones, we have estimated the QWR family heights and the average atomic concentration of phosphorus in the QWRs. From the simultaneous analysis of the SPV amplitude and phase spectra, based on our vector model for SPV signal representation, a deeper understanding of the SPV results and of the mechanisms of carrier separation in the sample is obtained.

  4. Conductance Fluctuations in Disordered 2D Topological Insulator Wires: From Quantum Spin-Hall to Ordinary Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Kleftogiannis, Ioannis; Guo, Guang-Yu; Gopar, Víctor A.

    2018-03-01

    Impurities and defects are ubiquitous in topological insulators (TIs) and thus understanding the effects of disorder on electronic transport is important. We calculate the distribution of the random conductance fluctuations P(G) of disordered 2D TI wires modeled by the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) Hamiltonian with realistic parameters. As we show, the disorder drives the TIs into different regimes: metal (M), quantum spin-Hall insulator (QSHI), and ordinary insulator (OI). By varying the disorder strength and Fermi energy, we calculate analytically and numerically P(G) across the entire phase diagram. The conductance fluctuations follow the statistics of the unitary universality class β = 2. At strong disorder and high energy, however, the size of the fluctuations δG reaches the universal value of the orthogonal symmetry class (β = 1). At the QSHI-M and QSHI-OI crossovers, the interplay between edge and bulk states plays a key role in the statistical properties of the conductance.

  5. Absorption coefficients for interband optical transitions in a strained InAs1−xPx/InP quantum wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, S.; John Peter, A.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2014-01-01

    Excitons confined in an InAs 1−x P x /InP (x=0.2) quantum well wire are studied in the presence of magnetic field strength. Numerical calculations are carried out using variational approach within the single band effective mass approximation. The compressive strain contribution to the confinement potential is included throughout the calculations. The energy difference of the ground and the first excited state is investigated in the influence of magnetic field strength taking into account the geometrical confinement effect. The magnetic field induced optical band as a function of wire radius is investigated in the InAs 0.8 P 0.2 /InP quantum well wire. The valence-band anisotropy is included in our theoretical model by employing different hole masses in different spatial directions. The optical gain as a function of incident photon energy is computed in the presence of magnetic field strength. The corresponding 1.55 μm wavelength is achieved for 40 Å InAs 0.8 P 0.2 /InP quantum well wire. We hope that the results could be used for the potential applications in fiber optic communications. -- Highlights: • Magnetic field induced excitons confined in a InAs 1−x P x /InP (x=0.2) quantum well wire are studied. • The compressive strain is included throughout the calculations. • The energy difference of the ground and the first excited state is investigated in the presence of magnetic field strength. • The magnetic field induced optical band with the geometrical confinement is studied. • The optical gain with the photon energy is computed in the presence of magnetic field strength

  6. Magnetism in lanthanide superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron diffraction studies of heavy rare-earth superlattices have revealed the stabilization of novel magnetic phases chat are not present in bulk materials. The most striking result is the propagation of the magnetic ordering through nonmagnetic spacer materials. Here we describe some recent X......-ray magnetic resonant scattering studies of light rare-earth superlattices, which illuminate the mechanism of interlayer coupling, and provide access to different areas of Physics. such as the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism. Magnetic X-ray diffraction is found to be particularly well suited...... to the study of the modulated magnetic structures in superlattices, and provides unique information on the conduction-electron spin-density wave responsible for the propagation of magnetic order. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Stark effect in finite-barrier quantum wells, wires, and dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2017-01-01

    The properties of confined carriers in low-dimensional nanostructures can be controlled by external electric fields and an important manifestation is the Stark shift of quantized energy levels. Here, a unifying analytic theory for the Stark effect in arbitrary dimensional nanostructures is presented. The crucial role of finite potential barriers is stressed, in particular, for three-dimensional confinement. Applying the theory to CdSe quantum dots, finite barriers are shown to improve significantly the agreement with experiments. (paper)

  8. Magnetic rare earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in molecular beam epitaxy deposition techniques have recently made it possible to grow, an atomic plane at a time, single crystalline superlattices composed of alternating layers of a magnetic rare earth, such as Gd, Dy, Ho, or Er, and metallic Y, which has an identical chemical structure...

  9. Implementation of Basic and Universal Gates In a single Circuit Based On Quantum-dot Cellular Automata Using Multi-Layer Crossbar Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Dhrubajyoti; Saha, Apu Kr; Dutta, Paramartha; Nandi, Supratim

    2017-08-01

    Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is one of the most substitutes developing nanotechnologies for electronic circuits, as a result of lower force utilization, higher speed and smaller size in correlation with CMOS innovation. The essential devices, a Quantum-dot cell can be utilized to logic gates and wires. As it is the key building block on nanotechnology circuits. By applying simple gates, the hardware requirements for a QCA circuit can be decreased and circuits can be less complex as far as level, delay and cell check. This article exhibits an unobtrusive methodology for actualizing novel upgraded simple and universal gates, which can be connected to outline numerous variations of complex QCA circuits. Proposed gates are straightforward in structure and capable as far as implementing any digital circuits. The main aim is to build all basic and universal gates in a simple circuit with and without crossbar-wire. Simulation results and physical relations affirm its handiness in actualizing each advanced circuit.

  10. Effects of hydrogen irradiation on the optical and electronic properties of site-controlled InGaAsN V-groove quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felici, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy and Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Pettinari, G. [High Field Magnet Laboratory, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands and School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Polimeni, A.; Lavenuta, G.; Tartaglini, E.; De Luca, M.; Capizzi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Carron, R.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E. [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Notargiacomo, A. [CNR - Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Fekete, D. [Laboratory of Physics of Nanostructures, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland and Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Christianen, P. C. M.; Maan, J. C. [High Field Magnet Laboratory, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-12-04

    The properties of InGaAsN V-groove quantum wires (QWRs) –both untreated and irradiated with atomic hydrogen– are probed via micro-magneto-photoluminescence (PL) and polarization-dependent PL. As generally observed in dilute-nitride materials, H irradiation is found to fully passivate nitrogen, thus allowing us to accurately assess –and to precisely control– the effects of N incorporation in the QWRs.

  11. Materials science and technology strained-layer superlattices materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pearsall, Thomas P; Willardson, R K; Pearsall, Thomas P

    1990-01-01

    The following blurb to be used for the AP Report and ATI only as both volumes will not appear together there.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting material with applications in integrated electro-optics and electronics. Edited by a pioneer in the field, Thomas Pearsall, this volume offers a comprehensive discussion of strained-layer superlattices and focuses on fabrication technology and applications of the material. This volume combines with Volume 32, Strained-Layer Superlattices: Physics, in this series to cover a broad spectrum of topics, including molecular beam epitaxy, quantum wells and superlattices, strain-effects in semiconductors, optical and electrical properties of semiconductors, and semiconductor devices.****The following previously approved blurb is to be used in all other direct mail and advertising as both volumes will be promoted together.****Strained-layer superlattices have been developed as an important new form of semiconducting ...

  12. Improved Superlattices for Spin-Polarized Electron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamaev, Yu.A.; Gerchikov, L.G.; Yashin, Yu.P.; Kuz-michev, V.; Vasiliev, D.; /St. Petersburg Polytechnic Inst.; Maruymama, T.; Clendenin, J.E.; /SLAC; Ustinov, V.M.; Zhukov, A.E.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2006-12-08

    Photoemission of polarized electrons from heterostructures based on InAlGaAs/GaAs superlattices with minimum conduction-band offsets is investigated. The comparison of the excitation energy dependence of the photoemission polarization degree with the calculated spectra makes it possible to determine the polarization losses at different stages of the photoemission. A maximum polarization of P = 91% and a quantum efficiency of QE = 0.5% are close to the best results obtained for photocathodes that are based on strained semiconductor superlattices.

  13. Bound states in open-coupled asymmetrical waveguides and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Terrero-Escalante, César A; Rodriguez, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of bound states in asymmetric cross, T- and L-shaped configurations is considered. Because of the symmetries of the wavefunctions, the analysis can be reduced to the case of an electron localized at the intersection of two orthogonal crossed wires of different width. For different values of the ratio of the widths we prove the existence and non-existence of bound states in each symmetry class. Our arguments yield that for the even–even case the bound state of the cross configuration persists as one of the arms becomes infinitesimally narrow. In the case of odd–odd states, we find that the lowest mode is bounded when the width of the two arms is the same and stays bound up to a critical value of the ratio between the widths; in the case of the even–odd states we find that the lowest mode is unbound up to a critical value of the ratio of the widths. Numerical calculations are used to support those results and to determine precisely the critical values of the ratio of the widths. (paper)

  14. Conductance and spin polarization for a quantum wire with the competition of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xi; Chen Zeshun; Zhong Feng; Zhou Guanghui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin transport of a quantum wire (QW) with weak Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) nonadiabatically connected to two normal leads. Using scattering matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula within effective free-electron approximation, we have calculated spin-dependent conductances G ↑ and G ↓ , total conductance G and spin polarization P z for a hard-wall potential confined QW. It is demonstrated that, the SOCs induce the splitting of G ↑ and G ↓ and form spin polarization P z . Moreover, the conductances present quantized plateaus, the plateaus and P z show oscillation structures near the subband edges. Furthermore, with the increase of QW width a strong spin polarization (P z ∼1) gradually becomes weak, which can be used to realize a spin filter. When the two SOCs coexist, the total conductance presents an isotropy transport due to the Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians being fixed, and the alteration of two SOCs strength ratio changes the sign of spin polarization. This may provide a way of realizing the expression of unit information by tuning gate voltage.

  15. Role of Precursor-Conversion Chemistry in the Crystal-Phase Control of Catalytically Grown Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fudong; Buhro, William E

    2017-12-26

    Crystal-phase control is one of the most challenging problems in nanowire growth. We demonstrate that, in the solution-phase catalyzed growth of colloidal cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum wires (QWs), the crystal phase can be controlled by manipulating the reaction chemistry of the Cd precursors and tri-n-octylphosphine telluride (TOPTe) to favor the production of either a CdTe solute or Te, which consequently determines the composition and (liquid or solid) state of the Bi x Cd y Te z catalyst nanoparticles. Growth of single-phase (e.g., wurtzite) QWs is achieved only from solid catalysts (y ≪ z) that enable the solution-solid-solid growth of the QWs, whereas the liquid catalysts (y ≈ z) fulfill the solution-liquid-solid growth of the polytypic QWs. Factors that affect the precursor-conversion chemistry are systematically accounted for, which are correlated with a kinetic study of the composition and state of the catalyst nanoparticles to understand the mechanism. This work reveals the role of the precursor-reaction chemistry in the crystal-phase control of catalytically grown colloidal QWs, opening the possibility of growing phase-pure QWs of other compositions.

  16. Binding energy and optical properties of an off-center hydrogenic donor impurity in a spherical quantum dot placed at the center of a cylindrical nano-wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarpour, Gh.; Barati, M.; Zamani, A.; Niknam, E.

    2014-01-01

    The binding energy as well as the linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of an off-center hydrogenic donor impurity in an InAs spherical quantum dot placed at the center of a GaAs cylindrical nano-wire have been investigated. In this regard, the effective-mass approximation approach is considered and eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are calculated via the finite element method. The binding energy is plotted as a function of the dot size and impurity position along with optical properties as a function of photon energy. In this study two different directions have been considered for impurity position, along the nano-wire axis and perpendicular to it. It has been found that the binding energy, absorption coefficient and refractive index changes are impressively affected not only by the dot radius but also by the position of the impurity and its direction. Additionally, the optical saturation can be tuned by the direction of the impurity and incident optical intensity. -- Highlights: • We consider spherical quantum dot located at the center of a cylindrical nano-wire. • An off-center hydrogenic donor impurity is considered in the system. • Binding energy is affected by orientation of impurity and its distance from center. • Saturation depends on the orientation of impurity position. • By shifting impurity position, orientation and dot radius blue- and red-shifts appear

  17. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  18. Landau-level lifetimes in PbTe nipi superlattices, PbTe/PbEuTe and InAs/AlSb quantum wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, Cjgm; Murdin, B. N.; Ciesla, C. M.; Oswald, J.; Homer, A.; Springholz, G.; Bauer, G.; Stradling, R. A.; Kamal-Saadi, M.; Gornik, E.; Pidgeon, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    Landau-level lifetimes are determined from saturation cyclotron resonance (CR) in wide parabolic wells, quantum wells and bulk PbTe-Pb1-xEuxTe systems. These narrow gap structures exhibit strong band non-parabolicity necessary to terminate the normally equi-spaced Landau-level ladder. It was not

  19. Energy dispersion of the electrosubbands in parabolic confining quantum wires: interplay of Rashba, Dresselhaus, lateral spin-orbit interaction and the Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Zhao Wei; Liu Xueming

    2009-01-01

    We have made a thorough theoretical investigation of the interplay of spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) resulting from Rashba, Dresselhaus and the lateral parabolic confining potential on the energy dispersion relation of the spin subbands in a parabolic quantum wire. The influence of an applied external magnetic field is also discussed. We show the interplay of different types of SOI, as well as the Zeeman effect, leads to rather complex and intriguing electrosubbands for different spin branches. The effect of different coupling strengths and different magnetic field strengths is also investigated.

  20. Investigation of electrically active defects in InGaAs quantum wire intermediate-band solar cells using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique

    OpenAIRE

    Al Saqri, Noor alhuda; Felix, Jorlandio F.; Aziz, Mohsin; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Jameel, Dler Adil; Taylor, David; Henini, M.; Abd El-sadek, Mahmmoud S.; Furrow, Colin; Ware, Morgan E.; Benamara, Mourad; Mortazavi, Mansour; Salamo, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    InGaAs quantum wire (QWr) intermediate-band solar cell based nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electrical and interface properties of these solar cell devices, as determined by current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C-V) techniques, were found to change with temperature over a wide range of 20–340 K. The electron and hole traps present in these devices have been investigated using deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The DLTS results showed that the ...

  1. Quantum optics with quantum dots in photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices.......We will review recent studies performed on InAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs photonic wires, which highlight the strong interest of the photonic wire geometry for quantum optics experiments and quantum optoelectronic devices....

  2. Simulation of electron transport in GaAs/AlAs superlattices with a small number of periods for the THz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavelyev, D. G., E-mail: pavelev@rf.unn.ru, E-mail: obolensk@rf.unn.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Vasilev, A. P., E-mail: vasiljev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics, Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A., E-mail: kozlov@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Koschurinov, Yu. I.; Obolenskaya, E. S.; Obolensky, S. V. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M., E-mail: vmust@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The electron transport in superlattices based on GaAs/AlAs heterostructures with a small number of periods (6 periods) is calculated by the Monte Carlo method. These superlattices are used in terahertz diodes for the frequency stabilization of quantum cascade lasers in the range up to 4.7 THz. The band structure of superlattices with different numbers of AlAs monolayers is considered and their current–voltage characteristics are calculated. The calculated current–voltage characteristics are compared with the experimental data. The possibility of the efficient application of these superlattices in the THz frequency range is established both theoretically and experimentally.

  3. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  4. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels and conductance quantization in mesoscopic systems, we discuss some recent experimental puzzles in these systems, which include reduction of quantized conductances and an interesting odd–even effect in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. We then discuss ...

  5. Investigation of Superlattice Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research will remove the major obstacle to realizing the full potential of infrared (IR) photodetectors using strained-layer superlattice (SLS) absorbers....

  6. Different regimes of electronic coupling and their influence on exciton recombination in vertically stacked InAs/InP quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, David; Martinez-Pastor, Juan; Gonzalez, Luisa; Gonzalez, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    In the present work we study the influence of stacking self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWRs) on the emission wavelength and the excitonic recombination dynamics. The reduction in the InP spacer layer thickness, d(InP), produces both a size filtering effect towards large wire ensembles and an increase in the vertical coupling for electrons and holes along the stack direction. The different vertical coupling for electrons and holes induces a different behaviour in the exciton recombination dynamics, depending on the InP spacer layer thickness: weak electron coupling and negligible hole coupling for d(InP) > 10 nm, intermediate electron coupling and weak hole coupling for 5 nm ≤ d(InP) ≤ 10 nm and strong electron coupling and moderate hole coupling for d(InP) < 5 nm. Such exciton dynamics have been established by comparing the experimental time decay results with a multi-quantum well model accounting for the vertical carrier coupling

  7. Different regimes of electronic coupling and their influence on exciton recombination in vertically stacked InAs/InP quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, David [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Martinez-Pastor, Juan [Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, PO Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez, Luisa [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yolanda [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-07

    In the present work we study the influence of stacking self-assembled InAs quantum wires (QWRs) on the emission wavelength and the excitonic recombination dynamics. The reduction in the InP spacer layer thickness, d(InP), produces both a size filtering effect towards large wire ensembles and an increase in the vertical coupling for electrons and holes along the stack direction. The different vertical coupling for electrons and holes induces a different behaviour in the exciton recombination dynamics, depending on the InP spacer layer thickness: weak electron coupling and negligible hole coupling for d(InP) > 10 nm, intermediate electron coupling and weak hole coupling for 5 nm {<=} d(InP) {<=} 10 nm and strong electron coupling and moderate hole coupling for d(InP) < 5 nm. Such exciton dynamics have been established by comparing the experimental time decay results with a multi-quantum well model accounting for the vertical carrier coupling.

  8. Magnetic Rare-Earth Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Böni, P.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structures of several single‐crystal, magnetic rare‐earth superlattice systems grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy are reviewed. In particular, the results of recent neutron diffraction investigations of long‐range magnetic order in Gd‐Y, Dy‐Y, Gd‐Dy, and Ho‐Y periodic superlattices...... mechanisms recently proposed to account for the magnetic states of these novel materials. © 1988 American Institute of Physics...

  9. Monolayer atomic crystal molecular superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; He, Qiyuan; Halim, Udayabagya; Liu, Yuanyue; Zhu, Enbo; Lin, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Hai; Duan, Xidong; Feng, Ziying; Cheng, Rui; Weiss, Nathan O.; Ye, Guojun; Huang, Yun-Chiao; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Shakir, Imran; Liao, Lei; Chen, Xianhui; Goddard, William A., III; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2018-03-01

    Artificial superlattices, based on van der Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene or molybdenum disulfide, offer technological opportunities beyond the reach of existing materials. Typical strategies for creating such artificial superlattices rely on arduous layer-by-layer exfoliation and restacking, with limited yield and reproducibility. The bottom-up approach of using chemical-vapour deposition produces high-quality heterostructures but becomes increasingly difficult for high-order superlattices. The intercalation of selected two-dimensional atomic crystals with alkali metal ions offers an alternative way to superlattice structures, but these usually have poor stability and seriously altered electronic properties. Here we report an electrochemical molecular intercalation approach to a new class of stable superlattices in which monolayer atomic crystals alternate with molecular layers. Using black phosphorus as a model system, we show that intercalation with cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide produces monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattices in which the interlayer distance is more than double that in black phosphorus, effectively isolating the phosphorene monolayers. Electrical transport studies of transistors fabricated from the monolayer phosphorene molecular superlattice show an on/off current ratio exceeding 107, along with excellent mobility and superior stability. We further show that several different two-dimensional atomic crystals, such as molybdenum disulfide and tungsten diselenide, can be intercalated with quaternary ammonium molecules of varying sizes and symmetries to produce a broad class of superlattices with tailored molecular structures, interlayer distances, phase compositions, electronic and optical properties. These studies define a versatile material platform for fundamental studies and potential technological applications.

  10. Superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, James R

    2008-12-01

    During the past 15 years or so, nanowires (NWs) have emerged as a new and distinct class of materials. Their novel structural and physical properties separate them from wires that can be prepared using the standard methods for manufacturing electronics. NW-based applications that range from traditional electronic devices (logic and memory) to novel biomolecular and chemical sensors, thermoelectric materials, and optoelectronic devices, all have appeared during the past few years. From a fundamental perspective, NWs provide a route toward the investigation of new physics in confined dimensions. Perhaps the most familiar fabrication method is the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth technique, which produces semiconductor nanowires as bulk materials. However, other fabrication methods exist and have their own advantages. In this Account, I review a particular class of NWs produced by an alternative method called superlattice nanowire pattern transfer (SNAP). The SNAP method is distinct from other nanowire preparation methods in several ways. It can produce large NW arrays from virtually any thin-film material, including metals, insulators, and semiconductors. The dimensions of the NWs can be controlled with near-atomic precision, and NW widths and spacings can be as small as a few nanometers. In addition, SNAP is almost fully compatible with more traditional methods for manufacturing electronics. The motivation behind the development of SNAP was to have a general nanofabrication method for preparing electronics-grade circuitry, but one that would operate at macromolecular dimensions and with access to a broad materials set. Thus, electronics applications, including novel demultiplexing architectures; large-scale, ultrahigh-density memory circuits; and complementary symmetry nanowire logic circuits, have served as drivers for developing various aspects of the SNAP method. Some of that work is reviewed here. As the SNAP method has evolved into a robust nanofabrication

  11. Nanostructures: Physics and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ... atomic-scale probing techniques, Quantum wells and superlattices, Quantum wires and quantum dots, Tunneling phenomena, General properties of low dimensional structures, Spin related phenomena, Quantum...

  12. Nuclear Quantum Effects in H+ and OH- Diffusion Along Confined Water Wires from Ab Initio Path Integral Molecular Dyanmics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mariana; Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David

    Diffusion of H+ and OH- along water wires provides an efficient mechanism for charge transport that is exploited by biological systems and shows promise in technological applications. However, what is lacking for a better control and design of these systems is a thorough theoretical understanding of the diffusion process at the atomic scale. Here we consider H+ and OH- in finite water wires using density functional theory. We employ machine learning techniques to identify the charged species, thus obtaining an agnostic definition of the charge. We employ thermostated ring polymer molecular dynamics and extract a ``universal'' diffusion coefficient from simulations with different wire sizes by considering Langevin dynamics on the potential of mean force of the charged species. In the classical case, diffusion coefficients depend significantly on the potential energy surface, in particular on how dispersion forces modulate O-O distances. NQEs, however, make the diffusion less sensitive to the underlying potential and geometry of the wire, presumably making them more robust to environment fluctuations.

  13. Fabrications and Characterizations of ZnO/Zn1-xMgxO Nanorod Quantum Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yi, Gyu-Chul

    2007-01-01

    .... However, quantum confinement effects in nanowires/nanorod heterostructures have not been easily observed despite recent synthesis of compositionally modulated nanowire superlattices by the vapor...

  14. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  15. Manifestation of the Purcell effect in the conductivity of InAs/AlSb short-period superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, M. S., E-mail: kagan@cplire.ru; Altukhov, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation); Baranov, A. N. [Universite Montpellier 2, Institute d' Electronique du Sud (France); Il' inskaya, N. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Paprotskiy, S. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation); Teissier, R. [Universite Montpellier 2, Institute d' Electronique du Sud (France); Usikova, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Vertical transport in short-period InAs/AlSb superlattices with type-II heterojunctions is studied at room temperature. It is found that negative differential conductivity appears in the miniband-conduction mode upon the overlapping of quantum-confined states in a periodic system of quantum wells. In the nonresonant-tunneling mode, equidistant peaks appear on the current-voltage characteristic of these superlattices. These peaks are attributed to the influence of the optical cavity on optical electron transitions in quantum wells (Purcell effect)

  16. Anisotropic universal conductance fluctuations in disordered quantum wires with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction and an applied in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, Matthias; Adagideli, İnanç; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of narrow quantum wires realized in disordered two-dimensional electron gases in the presence of k-linear Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction, and an applied in-plane magnetic field. Building on previous work (Scheid et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 266401), we find that in addition to the conductance, the universal conductance fluctuations also feature anisotropy with respect to the magnetic field direction. This anisotropy can be explained solely from the symmetries exhibited by the Hamiltonian as well as the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interaction and thus can be utilized to detect this ratio from purely electrical measurements

  17. Mid-infrared emission in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire lasers and its indium composition dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridene, Said

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the emission wavelength has been extended out to 1.3, 1.5, and 2.2 μm for InxGa1-xAs/GaAs T-shaped quantum wire (TQWR) using multi-band k.p model and variational formalism. We have investigated the impact of the indium composition on the performance of a series of TQWR through a calculation of the optical gain and transition energies. It is found that the optical gain and the emission wavelength are more influenced taking into account the effect of the indium concentration and persisted up at room temperature (RT). The results could open the way to the development of laser communication systems operating at long wavelengths and fabricated from TQWRs structure.

  18. Topotactic interconversion of nanoparticle superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Robert J; Jones, Matthew R; Lee, Byeongdu; Auyeung, Evelyn; Mirkin, Chad A

    2013-09-13

    The directed assembly of nanoparticle building blocks is a promising method for generating sophisticated three-dimensional materials by design. In this work, we have used DNA linkers to synthesize nanoparticle superlattices that have greater complexity than simple binary systems using the process of topotactic intercalation-the insertion of a third nanoparticle component at predetermined sites within a preformed binary lattice. Five distinct crystals were synthesized with this methodology, three of which have no equivalent in atomic or molecular crystals, demonstrating a general approach for assembling highly ordered ternary nanoparticle superlattices whose structures can be predicted before their synthesis. Additionally, the intercalation process was demonstrated to be completely reversible; the inserted nanoparticles could be expelled into solution by raising the temperature, and the ternary superlattice could be recovered by cooling.

  19. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  20. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Dynamics of a plasma formed by exploding metal wires and insulator fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Ivanenkov, G. V.; Karpinski, L.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Stepniewski, W.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Jach, K.

    1994-02-01

    High-current nanosecond discharges through metal wires and insulator fibres were investigated in the NIKE-3 (100 kA, 50 ns) and BIN (250 kA, 100 ns) facilities. Glass fibres were used as an example in a study of the dependence of the discharge conditions on the linear density μ of the load. An increase in μ altered the nature of the discharge through the diode from a mismatched regime accompanied by generation of an electron beam (μ hot spots' (μ = 8-20 μg cm-1) and then to a regime of a luminous skin layer ( μ > 30 μg cm-1). A strong influence of the state of the surface on the nature of an explosion of a metal wire was observed. The experimental results obtained at the beginning of wire explosions were accounted for by a model of the metal—plasma transition. The plasma motion and the development of instabilities of a plasma filament during a discharge were investigated by optical methods. Some of the experiments indicated simultaneous development of helical and 'sausage' instabilities. A two-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model was employed in calculations dealing with the process of formation of a constriction (pinching) and the results were in good agreement with the observations.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Byoung Rho; Torii, Satoshi; Ota, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Maehashi, Kenzo; Nakashima, Hisao; Lee, Sang Yun

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In x Ga 1-x As layers with x≤ 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing InGaAs thickness. The degree of polarization for the InGaAs QWRs was about 0.29. The PL observation evidences the carrier confinement in the QWRs. These results indicate that locally thick InGaAs strained QWRs were successfully formed at the edge of AlGaAs giant steps

  2. Transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence characterization of InGaAs strained quantum wires on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, B R; Ota, T; Kobayashi, K; Maehashi, K; Nakashima, H; Lee, S Y

    1999-01-01

    We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) to study InGaAs/AlGaAs strained quantum wires (QWRs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs vicinal (110) substrates. The cross-sectional TEM image reveals that InGaAs QWRs structures are naturally formed on AlGaAs giant steps. In the plan-view TEM images, the fringe pattern in the giant-step region is observed for In sub x Ga sub 1 sub - sub x As layers with x<= 0.4 We measured the separation of the fringe in the plan-view TEM images and compared the result with the calculated fringe separation. From this result, we conclude that the fringes observed in the plan-view TEM images are moire fringes. PL spectra of the InGaAs QWRs samples reveal 80-meV shifts to lower energy with respect to the spectrum of a quantum well (QWL) grown on a (001) substrate under the same conditions. We also measured the polarization anisotropy of the PL spectra from the QWRs. The PL peak shifts systematically toward higher energy with decreasing...

  3. Phonon-induced optical superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M M; Hey, R; Santos, P V; Cantarero, A

    2005-04-01

    We demonstrate the formation of a dynamic optical superlattice through the modulation of a semiconductor microcavity by stimulated acoustic phonons. The high coherent phonon population produces a folded optical dispersion relation with well-defined energy gaps and renormalized energy levels, which are accessed using reflection and diffraction experiments.

  4. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  5. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  6. Impurity-related optical properties in rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wires: Hydrostatic pressure and electric field effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.W.; Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, S.Y. [Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Rodriguez, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2007-01-15

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the influence of an applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the shallow-impurity-related optical properties in a rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wire. The electric field is applied in the plane of the transverse section of the wire and different angular directions have been considered. The results presented are for the impurity binding energy, its corresponding density of impurity states, and impurity-related transition energy and polarizability. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. THz laser based on quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, K V [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-30

    The use of quasi-periodic AlGaAs superlattices as an active element of a quantum cascade laser of terahertz range is proposed and theoretically investigated. A multi-colour emission, having from three to six peaks of optical gain, is found in Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and figurate superlattices in electric fields of intensity F = 11 - 13 kV cm{sup -1} in the frequency range f = 2 - 4 THz. The peaks depend linearly on the electric field, retain the height of 20 cm{sup -1}, and strongly depend on the thickness of the AlGaAs-layers. (lasers)

  8. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  11. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  12. Zeeman effects on the tunneling spectra of a ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor in contact with a quantum wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza, E-mail: h_emamipour@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Ilam University, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabzad, Narges [Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We study tunneling conductance in a quantum wire–insulator–ferromagnetic d-wave superconductor junction. The results show that exchange field of superconductor has a strong impact on tunneling spectra depending on the junction parameters. We have found a gap like structure in the tunneling limit when we have an interface normal to the (100) axis of superconductor. In the case of (110) axis of superconductor, there is not any zero- bias conductance peaks in tunneling spectra. For a metallic junction the dips disappear.

  13. The mechanism of formation of the interlayer quantum wires in zinc-doped Bi2Te3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva A. P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires formation process on a (0001 surface of Bi2Te3 is studied. It has been established that on interlayer surface Te(1—Te(1 there is a process of migration of atoms, moving and coagulation of clusters on the basis of Zn atoms. As a result of diffusion-limited aggregation the structures with quantum dots are formed, from which nanowires are self-organized. Such superficial structures play regulating role in working out the topological insulators based on A2VB3VI and increase thermoelectric efficiency of a composite.

  14. Donor impurity binding energies of coaxial GaAs / Alx Ga1 - x As cylindrical quantum wires in a parallel applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshipa, M.; Winkoun, D. P.; Nijegorodov, N.; Masale, M.

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical investigations are carried out of binding energies of a donor charge assumed to be located exactly at the center of symmetry of two concentric cylindrical quantum wires. The intrinsic confinement potential in the region of the inner cylinder is modeled in any one of the three profiles: simple parabolic, shifted parabolic or the polynomial potential. The potential inside the shell is taken to be a potential step or potential barrier of a finite height. Additional confinement of the charge carriers is due to the vector potential of the axial applied magnetic field. It is found that the binding energies attain maxima in their variations with the radius of the inner cylinder irrespective of the particular intrinsic confinement of the inner cylinder. As the radius of the inner cylinder is increased further, the binding energies corresponding to either the parabolic or the polynomial potentials attain minima at some critical core-radius. Finally, as anticipated, the binding energies increase with the increase of the parallel applied magnetic field. This behaviour of the binding energies is irrespective of the particular electric potential of the nanostructure or its specific dimensions.

  15. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices. C L ROY. Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have ...

  20. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function as plas...

  1. CdSe quantum dot in vertical ZnSe nanowire and photonic wire for efficient single-photon emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremel, Thibault; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Cagnon, Laurent

    We’ve recently demonstrated that a CdSe quantum dot (QD) in a ZnSe nanowire (NW) can emit triggered single photons up to room temperature [1]. In this contribution, we present the possibilities of enhancing the photon emission and collection in such NW-QDs structures for a realistic application...... as a single photon source. We have grown vertically oriented ZnSe NWs (with typical diameter of 10 nm) by molecular beam epitaxy on a ZnSe(111)B buffer layer. The growth of a ZnMgSe passivating shell increases the (otherwise weak) ZnSe near-band-edge luminescence by two orders of magnitude. This has allowed...

  2. Demonstration of large format mid-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays based on superlattice and BIRD detector structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Ting, David Z.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-11-01

    We have demonstrated the use of bulk antimonide based materials and type-II antimonide based superlattices in the development of large area mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). Barrier infrared photodetectors (BIRDs) and superlattice-based infrared photodetectors are expected to outperform traditional III-V MWIR and LWIR imaging technologies and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiodes and bulk InAsSb structures on GaSb substrates. The coupled quantum well superlattice device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via quantum well sizes and interface composition, while the BIRD structure allows for device fabrication without additional passivation. As a demonstration of the large area imaging capabilities of this technology, we have fabricated mid-wavelength 1024 × 1024 pixels superlattice imaging FPAs and 640 × 512 MWIR arrays based on the BIRD concept. These initial FPA have produced excellent infrared imagery.

  3. Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling

  4. Electronic structure of silicon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Moriarty, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Utilizing a new complex-band-structure technique, the electronic structure of model Si-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/ and MOS superlattices has been obtained over a wide range of layer thickness d (11 less than or equal to d less than or equal to 110 A). For d greater than or equal to 44 A, it is found that these systems exhibit a direct fundamental band gap. Further calculations of band-edge effective masses and impurity scattering rates suggest the possibility of a band-structure-driven enhancement in electron mobility over bulk silicon

  5. Photoreflectance study of strained GaAsN/GaAs T-junction quantum wires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klangtakai, Pawinee; Sanorpim, Sakuntam; Onabe, Kentaro

    2011-12-01

    Strained GaAsN T-junction quantum wires (T-QWRs) with different N contents grown on GaAs by two steps metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in [001] and [110] directions, namely QW1 and QW2 respectively, have been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Two GaAsN T-QWRs with different N contents were formed by T-intersection of (i) a 6.4-nm-thick GaAs0.89N0.011 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2 and (ii) a 5.0-nm-thick GaAs0.985N0.015 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2. An evidence of a one-dimensional structure at T-intersection of the two QWs on the (001) and (110) surfaces was established by PR resonances associated with extended states in all the QW and T-QWR samples. It is found that larger lateral confinement energy than 100 meV in both of [001] and [110] directions were achieved for GaAsN T-QWRs. With increasing temperature, the transition energy of GaAsN T-QWRs decreases with a faster shrinking rate compared to that of bulk GaAs. Optical quality of GaAsN T-QWRs is found to be affected by the N-induced band edge fluctuation, which is the unique characteristic of dilute III-V-nitrides.

  6. Post deposition annealing temperature effect on silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride dielectric multilayer prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, A.K., E-mail: ashishpanchal@me.iitb.ac.i [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Solanki, C.S. [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-04-30

    The preparations of the 20-period of a Si quantum dot (QD)/SiN{sub x} multilayer in a hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) chamber is presented in this paper. The changes in the properties of Si-QDs after the post deposition annealing treatment are studied in detail. Alternate a-Si:H and SiN{sub x} layers are grown in a single SiN{sub x} deposition chamber by cracking SiH{sub 4}, and SiH{sub 4} + NH{sub 3}, respectively at 250 {sup o}C. The as-deposited samples are annealed in the temperature range of 800 {sup o}C to 950 {sup o}C to grow Si-QDs. All the samples are characterized by confocal micro Raman, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and photoluminescence (PL) to study the changes in the film structures after the annealing treatment. The micro Raman analysis of the samples shows the frequency line shifting from 482 cm{sup -1} to 500 cm{sup -1} indicating the Si transition from an amorphous to a crystalline phase. The TEM micrograph inspection indicates the formation of Si-QDs of size 3 to 5 nm and a density of 5 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. The high resolution TEM micrographs show an agglomeration of Si-QDs with an increase in the annealing temperature. The PL spectra show a peak shifting from 459 nm to 532 nm with increasing the annealing temperature of the film.

  7. Tunable superlattice amplifiers based on dynamics of miniband electrons in electric and magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hyart, T. (Timo)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The most important paradigms in quantum mechanics are probably a twolevel system, a harmonic oscillator and an ideal (infinite) periodic potential. The first two provide a starting point for understanding the phenomena in systems where the spectrum of energy levels is discrete, whereas the last one results in continuous energy bands. Here an attempt is made to study the dynamics of the electrons in a narrow miniband of a semiconductor superlattice under electric and magnetic field...

  8. Magnetic structure of holmium-yttrium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; Cowley, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of a series of holmium-yttrium superlattices and a 5000 angstrom film of holmium, all grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution x-ray diffraction with detailed modeling, we show...... that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity: the structural coherence length parallel to the growth direction is typically almost-equal-to 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined and extend over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were...... determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The moments on the Ho3+ ions in the superlattices form a basal-plane helix. From an analysis of the superlattice structure factors of the primary magnetic satellites, we are able to determine separately the contributions made by the holmium and yttrium...

  9. Electrical and optical properties of modulation-doped p-AlGaN/GaN superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Osinsky, A. V.; Norris, P. E.; Pearton, S. J.; Van Hove, J.; Wowchak, A.; Chow, P.

    2001-12-01

    Electrical and optical properties of modulation-doped p-AlGaN/GaN superlattices are compared to those of similarly doped p-GaN films. It is shown that modulation doping increases the sheet hole concentration by several times. In p-AlGaN/GaN superlattices grown on GaN underlayers, this increase is accompanied by a significant increase in hole mobility which results in a remarkable decrease in sheet resistivity of the structure compared to p-GaN films and this decrease in sheet resistivity should hold up to temperatures exceeding 350 °C. For superlattices prepared on AlGaN underlayers, the mobility decreases compared to p-GaN. In such superlattices, one also observes a strong redshift and a strong broadening of the band edge luminescence peak coming most probably from increased mosaicity and strain which would also explain the observed deterioration of mobility. The magnitude of the redshift in the position of the band edge luminescence band slightly increased upon application of reverse bias which is interpreted as a manifestation of quantum-confined Stark effect.

  10. Maximum Entropy Closure of Balance Equations for Miniband Semiconductor Superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis L. Bonilla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Charge transport in nanosized electronic systems is described by semiclassical or quantum kinetic equations that are often costly to solve numerically and difficult to reduce systematically to macroscopic balance equations for densities, currents, temperatures and other moments of macroscopic variables. The maximum entropy principle can be used to close the system of equations for the moments but its accuracy or range of validity are not always clear. In this paper, we compare numerical solutions of balance equations for nonlinear electron transport in semiconductor superlattices. The equations have been obtained from Boltzmann–Poisson kinetic equations very far from equilibrium for strong fields, either by the maximum entropy principle or by a systematic Chapman–Enskog perturbation procedure. Both approaches produce the same current-voltage characteristic curve for uniform fields. When the superlattices are DC voltage biased in a region where there are stable time periodic solutions corresponding to recycling and motion of electric field pulses, the differences between the numerical solutions produced by numerically solving both types of balance equations are smaller than the expansion parameter used in the perturbation procedure. These results and possible new research venues are discussed.

  11. Future device applications of low-dimensional carbon superlattice structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2005-03-01

    We observe superior transport properties in low-dimensional amorphous carbon (a-C) and superlattice structures fabricated by a number of different techniques. Low temperature conductivity of these materials is explained using argument based on the crossover of dimensionality of weak localization and electron-electron interactions along with a change of sign of the magneto-resistance. These trends are significantly different from many other well characterized ordered or oriented carbon structures, and, show direct evidence of high correlation length, mobility and an effect of the dimensionality in low-dimensional a-C films. We show routes to prepare bespoke features by tuning the phase relaxation time in order to make high-speed devices over large areas. The artificially grown multi-layer superlattice structures of diamond-like amorphous carbon films show high-frequency resonance and quantum conductance suggesting sufficiently high values of phase coherence length in the present disordered a-C system that could lead to fast switching multi-valued logic.

  12. Thermal conductivity of III-V semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, S., E-mail: song.mei@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: irena.knezevic@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-11-07

    This paper presents a semiclassical model for the anisotropic thermal transport in III-V semiconductor superlattices (SLs). An effective interface rms roughness is the only adjustable parameter. Thermal transport inside a layer is described by the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation and is affected by the relevant scattering mechanisms (three-phonon, mass-difference, and dopant and electron scattering of phonons), as well as by diffuse scattering from the interfaces captured via an effective interface scattering rate. The in-plane thermal conductivity is obtained from the layer conductivities connected in parallel. The cross-plane thermal conductivity is calculated from the layer thermal conductivities in series with one another and with thermal boundary resistances (TBRs) associated with each interface; the TBRs dominate cross-plane transport. The TBR of each interface is calculated from the transmission coefficient obtained by interpolating between the acoustic mismatch model (AMM) and the diffuse mismatch model (DMM), where the weight of the AMM transmission coefficient is the same wavelength-dependent specularity parameter related to the effective interface rms roughness that is commonly used to describe diffuse interface scattering. The model is applied to multiple III-arsenide superlattices, and the results are in very good agreement with experimental findings. The method is both simple and accurate, easy to implement, and applicable to complicated SL systems, such as the active regions of quantum cascade lasers. It is also valid for other SL material systems with high-quality interfaces and predominantly incoherent phonon transport.

  13. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  14. Atom Pairing in Optical Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangara, J; Cheng, Chingyun; Pegahan, S; Arakelyan, I; Thomas, J E

    2018-02-23

    We study the pairing of fermions in a one-dimensional lattice of tunable double-well potentials using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The spectra reveal the coexistence of two types of atom pairs with different symmetries. Our measurements are in excellent quantitative agreement with a theoretical model, obtained by extending the Green's function method of Orso et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 060402 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.060402] to a bichromatic 1D lattice with nonzero harmonic radial confinement. The predicted spectra comprise hundreds of discrete transitions, with symmetry-dependent initial state populations and transition strengths. Our work provides an understanding of the elementary pairing states in a superlattice, paving the way for new studies of strongly interacting many-body systems.

  15. Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling induced spin-polarization and resonance-split in n-well semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Chengzhi; Xue Rui; Nie, Y.-H.; Liang, J.-Q.

    2009-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we investigate the electron transmission over multiple-well semiconductor superlattices with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the potential-well regions. The superlattice structure enhances the effect of spin polarization in the transmission spectrum. The minibands of multiple-well superlattices for electrons with different spin can be completely separated at the low incident energy, leading to the 100% spin polarization in a broad energy windows, which may be an effective scheme for realizing spin filtering. Moreover, for the transmission over n-quantum-well, it is observed that the resonance peaks in the minibands split into n-folds or (n-1)-folds depending on the well-width and barrier-thickness, which is different from the case of tunneling through n-barrier structure

  16. Synthesis of In2S3 nanoplates and their self-assembly into superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Haizheng; Ye, Mingfu; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Yongfang

    2007-12-01

    Ultrathin nanoplates of beta-phase semiconductor In2S3 with the diameter of 50 - 80 nm and a thickness of 1.85 nm were synthesized via a simple hot injection solution method with Hexadecylamine (HDA) as ligand, and the nanoplates self-assembled into superlattices by face to face stacking during evaporation of the solvent. The nanoplates and the assembled superlattices were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, XPS etc. The TEM and XRD results display that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline, hexagonal shape, and uniform in thickness. A strong quantum confinement effect of the 2D nanoplates was observed from the UV-Vis and PL spectra for the first time in the In2S3 nanoplates. A possible mechanism of the synthesis and assembly was proposed.

  17. Raman Scattering and Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy Studies of InGaAs/GaAs Radial Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, T.; Cros, A.; Ivanov, Ts.; Donchev, V.; Cantarero, A.; Shtinkov, N.; Deneke, Ch.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2011-12-01

    In this work we get insight into the multilayer structure of rolled-up microtube radial superlattices (RSLs) by the study of the optical and folded acoustic phonon modes of individual microtubes. Raman results show shifts of the InGaAs and GaAs related longitudinal optical modes that can be related to the strain state of the tubes. The folding of the acoustic modes has been related with the periodicity of the artificial superlattice formed by the multiple turns of the heterostructures. Information on the electronic structure and optical transitions of RSLs has been obtained by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. Room temperature spectra reveal several electronic transitions with energies below 1.3 eV. These transitions have been identified as originating from defect levels at the interfaces, as well as from the RSLs and the In0.215Ga0.785As/GaAs quantum well in the unfolded regions of the sample.

  18. Transfer matrix theory of monolayer graphene/bilayer graphene heterostructure superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We have formulated a transfer matrix method to investigate electronic properties of graphene heterostructure consisting of monolayer graphene and bilayer counterpart. By evaluating transmission, conductance, and band dispersion, we show that, irrespective of the different carrier chiralities in monolayer graphene and bilayer graphene, superlattice consisting of biased bilayer graphene barrier and monolayer graphene well can mimic the electronic properties of conventional semiconductor superlattice, displaying the extended subbands in the quantum tunneling regime and producing anisotropic minigaps for the classically allowed transport. Due to the lateral confinement, the lowest mode has shifted away from the charge neutral point of monolayer graphene component, opening a sizeable gap in concerned structure. Following the gate-field and geometry modulation, all electronic states and gaps between them can be externally engineered in an electric-controllable strategy.

  19. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  20. Resonant x-ray scattering in perovskite manganite superlattice. Observation of 'orbital superlattice'

    CERN Document Server

    Kiyama, T; Ohsumi, H; Murakami, Y; Wakabayashi, Y; Izumi, M; Kawasaki, M; Tokura, Y

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of resonant X-ray scattering (RXS) measurement of superlattices which consist of La sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 5 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 5 MnO sub 3 and La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 0 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 0 MnO sub 3 multilayers. An interference technique made it possible to observe RXS reflections from ferro-type orbital ordering in the superlattices. RXS can reveal the local circumstances around specific atoms in materials regulated atomically. In this experiment, we observed that the superlattice is actually composed of two kinds of layers with different lattice distortion states, presenting 'orbital superlattices', in which layers with different orbital states are stacked alternately in an atomic scale. (author)

  1. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS)...

  2. High Quantum Efficiency Type II SLS FPAs for Space-Based Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposes to develop high quantum efficiency (QE) and low dark current infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained Layer Superlattice...

  3. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have analysed diverse features of transmission coefficient of SSL. The SSL we have considered is Ga0⋅7Al0⋅3As–GaAs which has been drawing considerable attention during ...

  4. Three-dimensional chiral photonic superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, M; Fischer, H; von Freymann, G; Wegener, M

    2010-01-15

    We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

  5. Type-II Superlattice Avalanche Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun

    Type-II superlattice avalanche photodiodes have shown advantages compared to conventional mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for infrared wavelength detection. However, surface or interface leakage current has been a major issue for superlattice avalanche photodiodes, especially in infrared wavelength region. First, passivation of the superlattice device with ammonium sulfide and thioacetamide was carried out, and its surface quality was studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study showed that both ammonium sulfide and thiacetamide passivation can actively remove the native oxide at the surface. Thiacetamide passivation combine more sulfur bonds with III-V elements than that of ammonium sulfide. Another X-ray photoelectron spectra of thiacetamide-treated atomic layer deposited zinc sulfide capped InAs/GaSb superlattice was performed to investigate the interface sulfur bond conditions. Sb--S and As--S bonds disappear while In-S bond gets enhanced, indicating that Indium Sulfide should be the major components at the interface after ZnS deposition. Second, the simulation of electrical characteristics for zinc sulfide, silicon nitride and silicon dioxide passivated superlattice devices was performed by SILVACO software to fit the experimental results and to discover the surface current mechanism. Different surface current mechanism strengths were found. Third, several novel dual-carrier avalanche photodiode structures were designed and simulated. The structures had alternate carrier multiplication regions, placed next to a wider electron multiplication region, creating dual-carrier multiplication feedback systems. Gain and excess noise factor of these structures were simulated and compared based on the dead space multiplication theory under uniform electric field. From the simulation, the applied bias can be greatly lowered or the thickness can be shrunk to achieve the same gain from the conventional device. The width of the thin region was the most

  6. Solvent-driven symmetry of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices-A computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2012-10-29

    The preference of experimentally realistic sized 4-nm facetted nanocrystals (NCs), emulating Pb chalcogenide quantum dots, to spontaneously choose a crystal habit for NC superlattices (Face Centered Cubic (FCC) vs. Body Centered Cubic (BCC)) is investigated using molecular simulation approaches. Molecular dynamics simulations, using united atom force fields, are conducted to simulate systems comprised of cube-octahedral-shaped NCs covered by alkyl ligands, in the absence and presence of experimentally used solvents, toluene and hexane. System sizes in the 400,000-500,000-atom scale followed for nanoseconds are required for this computationally intensive study. The key questions addressed here concern the thermodynamic stability of the superlattice and its preference of symmetry, as we vary the ligand length of the chains, from 9 to 24 CH2 groups, and the choice of solvent. We find that hexane and toluene are "good" solvents for the NCs, which penetrate the ligand corona all the way to the NC surfaces. We determine the free energy difference between FCC and BCC NC superlattice symmetries to determine the system\\'s preference for either geometry, as the ratio of the length of the ligand to the diameter of the NC is varied. We explain these preferences in terms of different mechanisms in play, whose relative strength determines the overall choice of geometry. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The cross-plane thermoelectric properties of p-Ge/Si0.5Ge0.5 superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferre Llin, L.; Samarelli, A.; Weaver, J. M. R.; Dobson, P. S.; Paul, D. J.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J.; Müller Gubler, E.

    2013-01-01

    The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivities of a range of p-type Ge/Si 0.5 Ge 0.5 superlattices designed for thermoelectric generation and grown by low energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition have been measured using a range of microfabricated test structures. For samples with barriers around 0.5 nm in thickness, the measured Seebeck coefficients were comparable to bulk p-SiGe at similar doping levels suggesting the holes see the material as a random bulk alloy rather than a superlattice. The Seebeck coefficients for Ge quantum wells of 2.85 ± 0.85 nm increased up to 533 ± 25 μV/K as the doping was reduced. The thermal conductivities are between 4.5 to 6.0 Wm −1 K −1 which are lower than comparably doped bulk Si 0.3 Ge 0.7 but higher than undoped Si/Ge superlattices. The highest measured figure of merit ZT was 0.080 ± 0.011 obtained for the widest quantum well studied. Analysis suggests that interface roughness is presently limiting the performance and a reduction in the strain between the quantum wells and barriers has the potential to improve the thermoelectric performance

  8. The solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Sergey V.; Kukhar', Egor I.

    2013-01-01

    d’Alembert equation written for the electromagnetic waves propagating in the graphene superlattice is analyzed. The possibility of the propagation of the solitary electromagnetic waves in the graphene superlattice is discussed. The amplitude and the width of the electromagnetic pulse are calculated. The drag current induced by such wave across the superlattice axis is investigated. The numerical estimate of the charge dragged by the solitary wave is made.

  9. Green’s function theory of ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic superlattices with damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, R.K.; Guo, F.F.; Zhang, Z.D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a quantum Green’s-function method to study the resonance absorption of magnetic materials. The relationship between the resonance magnon (spin wave) density and the resonance frequency of a superlattice consisting of two magnetic layers with damping and antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling is studied. The effects of temperature, interlayer coupling, anisotropy, external magnetic field and damping on the the resonance frequency and resonance magnon density are investigated. The resonance excitation probability for a magnon is proportional to the resonance magnon density. In the classic methods, the imaginary part of magnetic permeability represents the resonance absorption in magnetic materials. In the quantum approach, the resonance magnon density can be used to estimate the strength of the resonance absorption. In the present work, a quantum approach is developed to study resonance absorption of magnetic materials and the results show the method to obtain a magnetic multilayered materials with both high resonance frequency and high resonance absorption.

  10. Theoretical Analysis of Josephson Junction Systems and Superconducting Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edis, Taner

    Superconducting superlattices and Josephson junction networks provide a context for investigation of various problems related to superconductivity. Aspects of the layered nature of high-T_{c} materials, the statistical mechanics of Josephson junction systems, and the response of granular systems in the presence of a magnetic field are explored. Experiments on superlattices with a structure of alternating layers of superconducting { rm YBa_2Cu_3O}_{7-x } and insulating {rm PrBa _2Cu_3O}_{7-x} exhibit a suppression of the resistive transition temperature T_{c}, depending on layer thicknesses. This behavior can be explained by reduction of the bulk T_{c} through charge redistribution into insulating layers, and a further reduction through the Kosterlitz-Thouless nature of the transition, taking place in the effectively two-dimensional superconducting layers. The statistical mechanics of Josephson junction systems must account for their macroscopic quantum nature, and the "unusual constraints" arising from knowledge of superconducting wave function magnitudes in a steady state. Working with the maximum entropy formulation of statistical mechanics, the equivalence of state-probability level and density matrix quantum information entropy maximization is demonstrated; a state-level approach is then used to enforce the unusual constraint, providing an extension of the standard formalism. A novel physical result is predicted, where in equilibrium, the temperature dependence becomes modified from the usual 1/kT factor. Magnetically Modulated Resistance (MMR) techniques are effective in experimentally determining the quality of superconducting samples, in particular when weak links are present in granular materials. The weak link component of the MMR response can be explained using numerical studies of a disordered network of non-ideal Josephson junctions, where the non-linear oscillations in the macroscopic grain phases is simulated, in order to obtain the voltage across the

  11. Engineering the oxygen coordination in digital superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Seyoung; Andersen, Tassie K.; Hong, Hawoong; Rosenberg, Richard A.; Marks, Laurence D.; Fong, Dillon D.

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen sublattice in complex oxides is typically composed of corner-shared polyhedra, with transition metals at their centers. The electronic and chemical properties of the oxide depend on the type and geometric arrangement of these polyhedra, which can be controlled through epitaxial synthesis. Here, we use oxide molecular beam epitaxy to create SrCoOx:SrTiO3 superlattices with tunable oxygen coordination environments and sublattice geometries. Using synchrotron X-ray scattering in combination with soft X-ray spectroscopy, we find that the chemical state of Co can be varied with the polyhedral arrangement, with higher Co oxidation states increasing the valence band maximum. This work demonstrates a new strategy for engineering unique electronic structures in the transition metal oxides using short-period superlattices.

  12. Structural simulation of superlattices in lithium aluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Basurto S, R.

    1997-01-01

    Among the materials to be used on the tritium generator cover of the future fusion reactors the lithium aluminate (γ - LiAlO 2 ) is one of the more studied. In this work it is presented the superlattice structural simulation that presents to γ - LiAlO 2 as main phase and to α - LiAlO 2 as the secondary phase. The simulation is developed considering that as the two phases present different symmetry (γ - LiAlO 2 is tetrahedral and α - LiAlO 2 is hexahedral) it is had a superlattice LUCS type (Layered Ultrathin Coherent Structure) that is it presents an structure in coherent ultrathin layers since it is what implicates a lesser energy of formation. (Author)

  13. Quasicrystalline nanocrystal superlattice with partial matching rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingchen; Chen, Jun; Eric Irrgang, M.; Engel, Michael; Dong, Angang; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2017-02-01

    Expanding the library of self-assembled superstructures provides insight into the behaviour of atomic crystals and supports the development of materials with mesoscale order. Here we build on recent findings of soft matter quasicrystals and report a quasicrystalline binary nanocrystal superlattice that exhibits correlations in the form of partial matching rules reducing tiling disorder. We determine a three-dimensional structure model through electron tomography and direct imaging of surface topography. The 12-fold rotational symmetry of the quasicrystal is broken in sublayers, forming a random tiling of rectangles, large triangles and small triangles with 6-fold symmetry. We analyse the geometry of the experimental tiling and discuss factors relevant for the stabilization of the quasicrystal. Our joint experimental-computational study demonstrates the power of nanocrystal superlattice engineering and further narrows the gap between the richness of crystal structures found with atoms and in soft matter assemblies.

  14. Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Fatemi, Valla; Fang, Shiang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has been studied extensively for decades, but is still not well understood. This lack of theoretical understanding has motivated the development of experimental techniques for studying such behaviour, such as using ultracold atom lattices to simulate quantum materials. Here we report the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity—which cannot be explained by weak electron–phonon interactions—in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two sheets of graphene that are twisted relative to each other by a small angle. For twist angles of about 1.1°—the first ‘magic’ angle—the electronic band structure of this ‘twisted bilayer graphene’ exhibits flat bands near zero Fermi energy, resulting in correlated insulating states at half-filling. Upon electrostatic doping of the material away from these correlated insulating states, we observe tunable zero-resistance states with a critical temperature of up to 1.7 kelvin. The temperature–carrier-density phase diagram of twisted bilayer graphene is similar to that of copper oxides (or cuprates), and includes dome-shaped regions that correspond to superconductivity. Moreover, quantum oscillations in the longitudinal resistance of the material indicate the presence of small Fermi surfaces near the correlated insulating states, in analogy with underdoped cuprates. The relatively high superconducting critical temperature of twisted bilayer graphene, given such a small Fermi surface (which corresponds to a carrier density of about 1011 per square centimetre), puts it among the superconductors with the strongest pairing strength between electrons. Twisted bilayer graphene is a precisely tunable, purely carbon-based, two-dimensional superconductor. It is therefore an ideal material for investigations of strongly correlated phenomena, which could lead to insights into the physics of high

  15. Superlattices of platinum and palladium nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have used a nonionic inverse micelle synthesis technique to form nanoclusters of platinum and palladium. These nanoclusters can be rendered hydrophobic or hydrophilic by the appropriate choice of capping ligand. Unlike Au nanoclusters, Pt nanoclusters show great stability with thiol ligands in aqueous media. Alkane thiols, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C{sub 18} were used as hydrophobic ligands, and with some of these they were able to form 2-D and/or 3-D superlattices of Pt nanoclusters as small as 2.7 nm in diameter. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function of the particle centers, from which they can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases, but more slowly than one might expect, possibly indicating thiol chain interdigitation.

  16. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  17. Helimagnetic structures in epitaxial Nd/Y superlattices and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everitt, B.A.; Salamon, M.B.; Borchers, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The complex magnetic structure of Nd exhibits a new magnetic phase when grown epitaxially, either as a stabilized double hexagonal close-packed alloy, or as part of a Nd/Y superlattice. In the alloy and in those superlattices with small Nd/Y ratios, the incommensurate b axis modulated structure e...

  18. Superlattice configurations in linear chain hydrocarbon binary mixtures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of n-C28H58 hydrocarbon, through an angle mθ, where m = 1, 2, 3 … and angle θ has an average value of. 3.3°. Supporting literature ... Keywords. Long-chain alkanes; binary mixtures; superlattices; discrete orientational changes. 1. Introduction ... tem and a model of superlattice configuration was proposed4, in terms of ...

  19. MBE growth and characterisation of light rare-earth superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Bryn-Jacobsen, C.

    1996-01-01

    The molecular beam epitaxy growth techniques which have already successfully produced a range of heavy rare-earth superlattices have now been extended to produce superlattices of two light rare-earth elements, Nd/Pr, as well as superlattices and alloy films of a heavy/light system, Ho/Pr. High......-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis shows the Nd/Pr superlattices to be of high structural quality, while the Ho/Pr superlattices are significantly less so. In the Ho/Pr superlattices, Pr is found to retain its bulk dhcp crystal structure even in thin layers (down to 6 atomic planes thick) sandwiched between...... thick layers of hcp Ho. In addition, neutron diffraction studies of the He/Pr superlattices have shown that the helical Ho magnetic order is not coherent through the dhcp Pr layers, in contrast to previous hcp/hcp superlattices Ho/Y, Ho/Lu and Ho/Er. The series of Ho:Pr alloy films has shown structural...

  20. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  1. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  2. Investigation of switching region in superlattice phase change memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyanagi, T.; Takaura, N.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated superlattice phase change memories (PCMs) to clarify which regions were responsible for switching. We observed atomic structures in a superlattice PCM film with a stack of GeTe / Sb2Te3 layers using atomically resolved EDX maps, and we found an intermixed region with three atom species of the Ge, Sb and Te around the top GeTe layer under the top electrode. We also found that a device with a GeTe layer on an Sb2Te3 layer without superlattice structure had the same switching characteristics as a device with a superlattice PCM, that had the same top GeTe layer. We developed and fabricated a modified superlattice PCM that attained ultra low Reset / Set currents under 60 μ A .

  3. Structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during heat transfer in Si/Ge superlattices: A Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuwen; Yang, Mo

    2013-01-01

    The structural, dynamic, and vibrational properties during heat transfer process in Si/Ge superlattices are studied by analyzing the trajectories generated by the ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution functions and mean square displacements are calculated and further discussions are made to explain and probe the structural changes relating to the heat transfer phenomenon. Furthermore, the vibrational density of states of the two layers (Si/Ge) are computed and plotted to analyze the contributions of phonons with different frequencies to the heat conduction. Coherent heat conduction of the low frequency phonons is found and their contributions to facilitate heat transfer are confirmed. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation outputs in the work show reasonable thermophysical results of the thermal energy transport process and shed light on the potential applications of treating the heat transfer in the superlattices of semiconductor materials from a quantum mechanical molecular dynamics simulation perspective

  4. Electronic properties of quasi one-dimensional quantum wire models under equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis

  5. Stark effect of excitons in corrugated lateral surface superlattices: effect of centre-of-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Sun

    1998-11-01

    The quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) of excitons in GaAs/AlAs corrugated lateral surface superlattices (CLSSLs) is calculated. Blue and red shifts in the exciton energies are predicted for the heavy- and light-excitons in the CLSSLs, respectively, comparing with those in the unmodulated quantum well due to the different effective hole masses in the parallel direction. Sensitive dependence of the QCSE on the hole effective mass in the parallel direction is expected because of the ''centre-of-mass'' quantization (CMQ) induced by the periodic corrugated interfaces of the CLSSLs. The effect of the CMQ on the exciton mini-bands and the localization of the excitons in the CLSSLs is discussed. (author)

  6. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  7. Engineering the oxygen coordination in digital superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Seyoung [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Andersen, Tassie K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Hong, Hawoong [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Rosenberg, Richard A. [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Marks, Laurence D. [Department of Materials Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60202, USA; Fong, Dillon D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2017-12-01

    The oxygen sublattice in the complex oxides is typically composed of corner-shared polyhedra, with transition metals at their centers. The electronic and chemical properties of the oxide depend on the type and geometric arrangement of these polyhedra, which can be controlled through epitaxial synthesis. Here, we use oxide molecular beam epitaxy to create SrCoOx:SrTiO3 superlattices with tunable oxygen coordination environments and sublattice geometries. Using soft X-ray spectroscopy, we find that the chemical state of Co can be varied with the polyhedral arrangement, demonstrating a new strategy for achieving unique electronic properties in the transition metal oxides.

  8. Localised states in an asymmetric superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, H. K.; Loh, E.L.; Chua, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    We study a semiconductor model with an embedded well of variable width W between two different superlattice structures. Using envelope-function-approximation and solving recurrence relations we obtain an equation giving all the energies for a finite system. In the infinite limit, localised states exist only for W > W/subc1 or W < W/subc2. The localised state energies, as well as the two decay constants, are obtained. For a finite system with 7 wells, the seven energies are also shown as a function of the variable width W. (authors)

  9. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  10. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2011-11-14

    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  11. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  12. Magnetic profiles in ferromagnetic/superconducting superlattices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Santamaria, J.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Complutense de Madrid

    2007-02-28

    The interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity has been of longstanding fundamental research interest to scientists, as the competition between these generally mutually exclusive types of long-range order gives rise to a rich variety of physical phenomena. A method of studying these exciting effects is by investigating artificially layered systems, i.e. alternating deposition of superconducting and ferromagnetic thin films on a substrate, which enables a straight-forward combination of the two types of long-range order and allows the study of how they compete at the interface over nanometer length scales. While originally studies focused on low temperature superconductors interchanged with metallic ferromagnets, in recent years the scope has broadened to include superlattices of high T{sub c} superconductors and colossal magnetoresistance oxides. Creating films where both the superconducting as well as the ferromagnetic layers are complex oxide materials with similar crystal structures (Figure 1), allows the creation of epitaxial superlattices, with potentially atomically flat and ordered interfaces.

  13. Excitation on breather (bion) in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.

    1999-09-01

    Soliton breather excitation in superlattice has been studied in this paper. It is observed that under certain conditions, the vector potential equation for the electromagnetic wave propagating through the superlattice assumes the sine-Gordon(sG) equation. The solution of which does not give only a soliton but also a soliton breather. The binding energy of the breather is calculated to be E b = 16γ(1 - sin ν), γ = (1 - u 2 /v 0 2 ) -1/2 where u is the velocity of the breather and v 0 is the velocity of the electromagnetic wave in the absence of electrons. As can be seen, when ν → π/2 the binding energy tends to zero, hence, the breather disintegrates into a soliton and antisoliton. It was further observed that the binding energy decreases with an increase in Δ (the half miniband width) for a given value of d (SL period). Similarly it also decreases with increase in d for a given value of Δ. Comparing the breather's rest energy E b to that of soliton E s i.e E b = 2E s sin ν. We noted that the breather's rest energy is less than that required to excite a soliton. (author)

  14. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y H; Tsao, C W; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J

    2015-01-01

    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry–Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  16. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  17. Dimensional control of defect dynamics in perovskite oxide superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeson, Isaac; Zhang, Lipeng; Kent, P. R. C.; Cooper, Valentino R.; Xu, Haixuan

    2018-03-01

    Point defects play a critical role in the structural, physical, and interfacial properties of perovskite oxide superlattices. However, understanding of the fundamental properties of point defects in superlattices, especially their transport properties, is rather limited. Here, we report predictions of the stability and dynamics of oxygen vacancies in SrTi O3/PbTi O3 oxide superlattices using first-principles calculations in combination with the kinetic Monte Carlo method. By varying the stacking period, i.e., changing of n in n STO /n PTO , we discover a crossover from three-dimensional diffusion to primarily two-dimensional planar diffusion. Such planar diffusion may lead to novel designs of ionic conductors. We show that the dominant vacancy position may vary in the superlattices, depending on the superlattice structure and stacking period, contradicting the common assumption that point defects reside at interfaces. Moreover, we predict a significant increase in room-temperature ionic conductivity for 3STO/3PTO relative to the bulk phases. Considering the variety of cations that can be accommodated in perovskite superlattices and the potential mismatch of spin, charge, and orbitals at the interfaces, this paper identifies a pathway to control defect dynamics for technological applications.

  18. Roughness in manganite-based superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Sanchez, J.C. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)], E-mail: rojasc@ib.cnea.gov.ar; Granada, M.; Steren, L.B. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica-Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Mazzaro, I.; Mosca, D.H. [Universidade Federal de Parana (UFPR), Centro Politecnico-Depto de Fisica-Bloco II, Caixa Postal 19091 Cep: 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2007-10-31

    In this work we present a structural analysis of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} (LSMO/LNO) superlattices, performed by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity. The samples were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering on single-crystalline (0 0 1) oriented SrTiO{sub 3}. The strain relaxation and the roughness at the interfaces were estimated from the analysis of the X-ray patterns. The thickness of LSMO reference layers has been measured by means of low-angle X-ray reflectivity, finding a very good agreement with the nominal values.

  19. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  20. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors.   In our FY12 IRAD “Strained Layer Superlattice Infrared Detector Array...

  1. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  2. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  3. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  5. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  6. Magnetoresistance peculiarities of bismuth wires in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condrea, E., E-mail: condrea@nano.asm.md [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Science of Moldova, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 51-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Gilewski, A. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, 51-421 Wroclaw (Poland); MagNet, 50-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Nicorici, A. [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Science of Moldova, 2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2016-03-11

    Magnetoresistance measurements of Bi wires performed in the magnetic field oriented along the bisector axis revealed unexpected anomalous peaks in a high magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons. By combining a magnetic field and an uniaxial strain, we obtained a modification of the electronic structure; as a result, the quantum limit for light and heavy electrons is changed in a different way. For the case where heavy electrons are in the quantum limit, a correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of light electrons and the Lifshitz transition was found. - Highlights: • Glass-coated single-crystalline Bi wires attain high limit of elastic strain of up to 3.0%. • Selective modification of the electronic structure of Bi wires is obtained by combining a high magnetic field and uniaxial strain. • The correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of electrons and Lifshitz transition was found.

  7. Magnetoresistance peculiarities of bismuth wires in high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condrea, E.; Gilewski, A.; Nicorici, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of Bi wires performed in the magnetic field oriented along the bisector axis revealed unexpected anomalous peaks in a high magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons. By combining a magnetic field and an uniaxial strain, we obtained a modification of the electronic structure; as a result, the quantum limit for light and heavy electrons is changed in a different way. For the case where heavy electrons are in the quantum limit, a correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of light electrons and the Lifshitz transition was found. - Highlights: • Glass-coated single-crystalline Bi wires attain high limit of elastic strain of up to 3.0%. • Selective modification of the electronic structure of Bi wires is obtained by combining a high magnetic field and uniaxial strain. • The correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of electrons and Lifshitz transition was found.

  8. Optical studies on a series of AlAs/GaAs short period superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, M S; Kim, Y D; Woo, D H; Koh, E H; Kim, S H; Kang, K N; Rhee, S J; Woo, J C

    1999-01-01

    We present optical studies of a series of GaAs/AlAs short period superlattices (SLs) grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE). The structural properties were examined by X-ray diffraction measurements. Quantum confinement of the electronic states was observed in the low temperature photoluminescence (PL). Spectroscopic ellipsometric (SE) measurements were also performed to determine energies of the interband transitions at room temperature. As n increase, we found that the lower transition energies (below 4.0 eV) decrease. The results are compared with low temperature photoluminescence measurements. We found a new structure at the lower E sub 2 peak, which demonstrates the best resolution of the E sub 2 structure in these SLs so far obtained by SE.

  9. Short wavelength infrared InAs/InSb/AlSb type-II superlattice photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Elias, D.; Uliel, Y.; Klin, O.; Snapi, N.; Weiss, E.; Shafir, I.; Westreich, O.; Katz, M.

    2017-08-01

    A photodetector based on InAs/InSb/AlSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) with thicknesses of 15, 1 and 4 monolayers respectively, was fabricated and characterized. The interface between InAs and AlAs of one InSb monolayer, increases the λcutoff to 3.3 μm, and improves the InAs/AlSb layer correlation and strain balancing. With a -0.5 V bias, the dark current at 300 and 200 K was 1.1 and 8.5 × 10-3 A/cm2 respectively, and the quantum efficiency at λ = 2.75 μm, for both 300 K and 200 K, was 34%. The detectivity was above 109 cm-Hz1/2/W for 300 K and above 1010 cm-Hz1/2/W for 200 K between 2.5 and 3 μm wavelength.

  10. Electric-field domain boundary instability in weakly coupled semiconductor superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulova, G. K., E-mail: rasulova@sci.lebedev.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pentin, I. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Brunkov, P. N. [A. F. Ioffe Physical and Technical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-28

    Damped oscillations of the current were observed in the transient current pulse characteristics of a 30-period weakly coupled GaAs/AlGaAs superlattice (SL). The switching time of the current is exponentially decreased as the voltage is verged towards the current discontinuity region indicating that the space charge necessary for the domain boundary formation is gradually accumulated in a certain SL period in a timescale of several hundreds ns. The spectral features in the electroluminescence spectra of two connected in parallel SL mesas correspond to the energy of the intersubband transitions and the resonance detuning of subbands caused by charge trapping in the quantum wells (QWs) residing in a region of the expanded domain boundary. The obtained results support our understanding of the origin of self-oscillations as a cyclic dynamics of the subband structure in the QWs forming the expanded domain boundary.

  11. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  12. Absence of confinement in (SrTiO3)/( SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3 ) superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzerar, G.; Thébaud, S.; Bouzerar, R.; Pailhès, S.; Adessi, Ch.

    2018-03-01

    The reduction of dimensionality is considered an efficient pathway to boost the performances of thermoelectric materials. Quantum confinement of the carriers is expected to induce large Seebeck coefficients (S ) and it also suppresses the thermal conductivity by increasing the phonon scattering processes. However, quantum confinement in superlattices is not always easy to achieve and needs to be carefully validated. In the past decade, large values of S have been measured in (SrTiO3)/(SrTi0.8Nb0.2O3 ) superlattices [H. Ohta et al., Nat. Mater. 6, 129 (2007), 10.1038/nmat1821; Y. Mune et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 192105 (2007), 10.1063/1.2809364]. In the δ -doped compound, the reported S was almost six times larger than that of the bulk material. This huge increase has been attributed to the two-dimensional carrier confinement in the doped regions. Here, we demonstrate that the experimental data are well explained quantitatively assuming delocalized electrons in both in-plane and growth directions. Moreover, we rule out the confined electron hypothesis whose signature would be the suppression of the Seebeck coefficient. This strongly suggests that the presupposed confinement picture in these superlattices is unlikely.

  13. Control of the interparticle spacing in gold nanoparticle superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTIN,JAMES E.; WILCOXON,JESS P.; ODINEK,JUDY G.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.

    2000-04-06

    The authors have investigated the formation of 2-D and 3-D superlattices of Au nanoclusters synthesized in nonionic inverse micelles, and capped with alkyl thiol ligands, with alkane chains ranging from C{sub 6} to C1{sub 18}. The thiols are found to play a significant role in the ripening of these nanoclusters, and in the formation of superlattices. Image processing techniques were developed to reliably extract from transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) the particle size distribution, and information about the superlattice domains and their boundaries. The latter permits one to compute the intradomain vector pair correlation function, from which one can accurately determine the lattice spacing and the coherent domain size. From these data the gap between the particles in the coherent domains can be determined as a function of the thiol chain length. It is found that as the thiol chain length increases, the nanoclusters become more polydisperse and larger, and the gaps between particles within superlattice domains increases. Annealing studies at elevated temperatures confirm nanocluster ripening. Finally, the effect of the particle gaps on physical properties is illustrated by computing the effective dielectric constant, and it is shown that the gap size now accessible in superlattices is rather large for dielectric applications.

  14. Background–limited long wavelength infrared InAs/InAs1− xSbx type-II superlattice-based photodetectors operating at 110 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Haddadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the demonstration of high-performance long-wavelength infrared (LWIR nBn photodetectors based on InAs/InAs1− xSbx type-II superlattices. A new saw-tooth superlattice design was used to implement the electron barrier of the photodetectors. The device exhibited a cut-off wavelength of ∼10 μ m at 77 K. The photodetector exhibited a peak responsivity of 2.65 A/W, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 43%. With an R × A of 664 Ω · cm 2 and a dark current density of 8 × 10−5 A/cm2, under −80 mV bias voltage at 77 K, the photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 4.72 × 1011 cm· Hz / W and a background–limited operating temperature of 110 K.

  15. Universal spin dynamics in quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, E. A.; Zülicke, U.; Winkler, R.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the universal spin dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional systems including the real spin in narrow-gap semiconductors like InAs and InSb, the valley pseudospin in staggered single-layer graphene, and the combination of real spin and valley pseudospin characterizing single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, WS2, MoS2, and WSe2. All these systems can be described by the same Dirac-like Hamiltonian. Spin-dependent observable effects in one of these systems thus have counterparts in each of the other systems. Effects discussed in more detail include equilibrium spin currents, current-induced spin polarization (Edelstein effect), and spin currents generated via adiabatic spin pumping. Our work also suggests that a long-debated spin-dependent correction to the position operator in single-band models should be absent.

  16. Phonon wave interference in graphene and boron nitride superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xue-Kun; Zhou, Wu-Xing; Tang, Li-Ming; Chen, Ke-Qiu, E-mail: keqiuchen@hnu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie, Zhong-Xiang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Hunan Institute of Technology, Hengyang 421002 (China)

    2016-07-11

    The thermal transport properties of the graphene and boron nitride superlattice (CBNSL) are investigated via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results show that a minimum lattice thermal conductivity can be achieved by changing the period length of the superlattice. Additionally, it is found that the period length at the minimum shifts to lower values at higher temperatures, and that the depth of the minimum increases with decreasing temperature. In particular, at 200 K, the thermal conductivities of CBNSLs with certain specific period lengths are nearly equal to the corresponding values at 300 K. A detailed analysis of the phonon spectra shows that this anomalous thermal conductivity behavior is a result of strong phonon wave interference. These observations indicate a promising strategy for manipulation of thermal transport in superlattices.

  17. Magnetic structures of holmium-lutetium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swaddling, P.P.; Cowley, R.A.; Ward, R.C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Alloys and superlattices of Ho and Lu have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy and their magnetic structures determined using neutron-scattering techniques. The 4f moments in the alloys form a helix at all compositions with the moments aligned in the basal plane perpendicular to the wave vector...... of the helix remaining coherent through the nonmagnetic Lu blocks. The neutron scattering from the superlattices is consistent with a model in which there are different phase advances of the helix turn angle through the Ho and Lu blocks, but with a localized moment on the Ho sites only. A comparison...... of Ho and Lu. At low temperatures, for superlattices with fewer than approximately twenty atomic planes of Ho, the Ho moments within a block undergo a phase transition from helical to ferromagnetic order, with the coupling between successive blocks dependent on the thickness of the Lu spacer....

  18. The magnetic structure of holmium-erbium superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMorrow, D.F.; Simpson, J.A.; Cowley, R.A.; Jehan, D.A.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.; Thurston, T.R.; Gibbs, D.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of completing crystal-field anisotropies on magnetic order has been investigated in a series of Ho/Er superlattices using neutron and resonant x-ray magnetic diffraction techniques. The neutron diffraction reveals that for temperatures in the interval T N (Er) ≤ T ≤ T N (Ho) the Ho basal-plane order propagates coherently through the paramagnetic Er, and that below T N (Er) the longitudinal component of the Er moments fails to order across the Ho block. The magnetic superlattice peaks observed in the x-ray scattering display an anomalous energy dependence: a sharp resonance is found at L III (Ho), with no resonance visible at L III (Er). These results are discussed with reference to models of exchange in metallic superlattices

  19. Sm cluster superlattice on graphene/Ir(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousadakos, Dimitris; Pivetta, Marina; Brune, Harald; Rusponi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    We report on the first example of a self-assembled rare earth cluster superlattice. As a template, we use the moiré pattern formed by graphene on Ir(111); its lattice constant of 2.52 nm defines the interparticle distance. The samarium cluster superlattice forms for substrate temperatures during deposition ranging from 80 to 110 K, and it is stable upon annealing to 140 K. By varying the samarium coverage, the mean cluster size can be increased up to 50 atoms, without affecting the long-range order. The spatial order and the width of the cluster size distribution match the best examples of metal cluster superlattices grown by atomic beam epitaxy on template surfaces.

  20. Thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons, junctions and superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Jayasekera, T; Calzolari, A; Kim, K W; Nardelli, M Buongiorno

    2010-09-22

    Using model interaction Hamiltonians for both electrons and phonons and Green's function formalism for ballistic transport, we have studied the thermal conductance and the thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNR), GNR junctions and periodic superlattices. Among our findings we have established the role that interfaces play in determining the thermoelectric response of GNR systems both across single junctions and in periodic superlattices. In general, increasing the number of interfaces in a single GNR system increases the peak ZT values that are thus maximized in a periodic superlattice. Moreover, we proved that the thermoelectric behavior is largely controlled by the width of the narrower component of the junction. Finally, we have demonstrated that chevron-type GNRs recently synthesized should display superior thermoelectric properties.

  1. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  2. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  3. Nodal-line semimetals from Weyl superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Jan; Rhim, Jun-Won; Liu, Shang; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Bardarson, Jens H.

    2017-12-01

    The existence and topological classification of lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces is often tied to the crystal symmetries of the underlying lattice systems. Artificially engineered lattices, such as heterostructures and other superlattices, provide promising avenues to realize desired crystal symmetries that protect lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces, such as nodal lines. In this work, we investigate a Weyl semimetal subjected to spatially periodic onsite potential, giving rise to several phases, including a nodal-line semimetal phase. In contrast to proposals that purely focus on lattice symmetries, the emergence of the nodal line in this setup does not require small spin-orbit coupling, but rather relies on its presence. We show that the stability of the nodal line is understood from reflection symmetry and a combination of a fractional lattice translation and charge-conjugation symmetry. Depending on the choice of parameters, this model exhibits drumhead surface states that are exponentially localized at the surface, or weakly localized surface states that decay into the bulk at all energies.

  4. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2007-03-14

    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  6. Interface properties of superlattices with artificially broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, Th.; Yamada, H.; Matsuno, J.; Arima, T.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We have used superlattices made of thin layers of transition metal oxides to design the so-called multiferroics, i.e. materials possessing simultaneously an electric polarization and a magnetic ordering. The polarization originates from the asymmetric stacking order accompanied by charge transfer effects, while the latter one also influences the magnetic properties of the interfaces. Due to the breaking of space and time-reversal symmetry by multiple ordering mechanism magnetic second harmonic generation is proven to be an ideal method to investigate the electric and magnetic properties of the superlattices

  7. Strong impact of impurity bands on domain formation in superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wacker, Andreas; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    The formation of electric field domains in doped semiconductor superlattices is described within a microscopic model. Due to the presence of impurity bands in low-doped samples the current-voltage characteristic is essentially different compared to medium-doped samples. (C) 1998 Published by Else...... by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......The formation of electric field domains in doped semiconductor superlattices is described within a microscopic model. Due to the presence of impurity bands in low-doped samples the current-voltage characteristic is essentially different compared to medium-doped samples. (C) 1998 Published...

  8. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  9. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  10. Quantum contact interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The existence of several exotic phenomena, such as duality and spectral anholonomy is pointed out in one-dimensional quantum wire with a single defect. The topological structure in the spectral space which is behind these phenomena is identified.

  11. Phonon Surface Scattering and Thermal Energy Distribution in Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Kartik; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-07-17

    Thermal transport at small length scales has attracted significant attention in recent years and various experimental and theoretical methods have been developed to establish the reduced thermal conductivity. The fundamental understanding of how phonons move and the physical mechanisms behind nanoscale thermal transport, however, remains poorly understood. Here we move beyond thermal conductivity calculations and provide a rigorous and comprehensive physical description of thermal phonon transport in superlattices by solving the Boltzmann transport equation and using the Beckman-Kirchhoff surface scattering theory with shadowing to precisely describe phonon-surface interactions. We show that thermal transport in superlattices can be divided in two different heat transport modes having different physical properties at small length scales: layer-restricted and extended heat modes. We study how interface conditions, periodicity, and composition can be used to manipulate the distribution of thermal energy flow among such layer-restricted and extended heat modes. From predicted frequency and mean free path spectra of superlattices, we also investigate the existence of wave effects. The results and insights in this paper advance the fundamental understanding of heat transport in superlattices and the prospects of rationally designing thermal systems with tailored phonon transport properties.

  12. The structural and magnetic properties of holmium/scandium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho/Sc superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have been investigated using X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal the novel existence of more than one a lattice parameter. Examining the magnetic properties, it is found that the Ho 4f...

  13. InAs/GaSb superlattice quality investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henig, Aleksandra; Grodecki, Kacper; Murawski, Krzysztof; Michalczewski, Krystian; Kubiszyn, Łukasz; Benyahia, Djalal; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej; Budner, Bogusław; Martyniuk, Piotr

    2017-08-01

    In this work we compare two InAs/GaSb superlattice samples grown in MBE VIGO/MUT laboratory on 2 inch (001) GaAs substrate, using MBE technique. Both samples have the same architecture, however their growth processes were conducted at different temperatures. For sample A the growth temperature was equal 668 K (395°C), for sample B 588 K (315°C). Photoluminescence measurements were performed at 30 K. For sample A there is no photoluminescence signal, while spectrum for sample B consists of two peaks: bandgap peak at 0.5 eV and deep state peak at 0.25 eV. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that sample A has better crystallographic quality than sample B. Raman spectra consists of low energy peaks (20-100 cm-1) which confirm the existence of superlattice for both samples [4]. Additionally, for sample A there are peaks related to Sb precipitates. It suggests that except the InAs/GaSb superlattice there is an additional Sb layer which may disturb band structure of superlattice and cause the disappearance of photoluminescence for sample A.

  14. Localization in superlattices with randomness in layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jian; Tsai Chienhua.

    1987-08-01

    The localization length for electrons in superlattices with randomness in layer thickness is studied in both the commensurate and the incommensurate cases. It is demonstrated that disorder limits the electrons to see only structures within the extent of their wave functions and to be hardly effected by any long range correlation. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs

  15. Recent results on heterojunctions and superlattices: transport and optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voos, M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental results obtained on two-dimensional semiconductor structures, namely heterojunctions and superlattices are presented. This review, which includes both optical and transport experiments, is not exhaustive, but describes briefly some investigations which are thought to be important from the point of view of fundamental physics. (Author) [pt

  16. Magnetoplasmons in gapless graphene superlattices with the different Fermi velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, Pavel V.

    2018-03-01

    Planar superlattices consisted of gapless graphenes with identical work functions and different Fermi velocities were studied. The dispersion relation of magnetoplasmons is determined for the case of small charge carriers concentrations when the Fermi level is located within the first miniband.

  17. Quantum well lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zory, Jr, Peter S; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the information necessary for the reader to achieve a thorough understanding of all aspects of QW lasers - from the basic mechanism of optical gain, through the current technolgoical state of the art, to the future technologies of quantum wires and quantum dots. In view of the growing importance of QW lasers, this book should be read by all those with an active interest in laser science and technology, from the advanced student to the experienced laser scientist.* The first comprehensive book-length treatment of quantum well lasers* Provides a detailed treatment

  18. Magnetoresistance peculiarities of bismuth wires in high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrea, E.; Gilewski, A.; Nicorici, A.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetoresistance measurements of Bi wires performed in the magnetic field oriented along the bisector axis revealed unexpected anomalous peaks in a high magnetic field far above the quantum limit of the electrons. By combining a magnetic field and an uniaxial strain, we obtained a modification of the electronic structure; as a result, the quantum limit for light and heavy electrons is changed in a different way. For the case where heavy electrons are in the quantum limit, a correlation between the exit of the lowest Landau level of light electrons and the Lifshitz transition was found.

  19. 6. QUANTUM COMPUTING: Unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, A. Yu

    2001-10-01

    Certain one-dimensional Fermi systems have an energy gap in the bulk spectrum while boundary states are described by one Majorana operator per boundary point. A finite system of length L possesses two ground states with an energy difference proportional to exp(-L/l0) and different fermionic parities. Such systems can be used as qubits since they are intrinsically immune to decoherence. The property of a system to have boundary Majorana fermions is expressed as a condition on the bulk electron spectrum. The condition is satisfied in the presence of an arbitrary small energy gap induced by proximity of a three-dimensional p-wave superconductor, provided that the normal spectrum has an odd number of Fermi points in each half of the Brillouin zone (each spin component counts separately).

  20. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  1. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  2. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  3. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  4. Design and Fabrication of High-Performance LWIR Photodetectors Based on Type-II Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-11

    and strain-balanced InAs1-xSbx/InAs Type- II superlattices for LWIR detection and imaging . After this study, it is expected to achieve a superlattice...persistent surveillance applications. Improvement in material quality and processing technique, as well as evolutionary modifications in device... imaging . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Focal plane array, improved minority carrier lifetime, type II superlattice and infrared 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  5. Optical and vibrational properties of (ZnO){sub k} In{sub 2}O{sub 3} natural superlattice nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margueron, Samuel [Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et Systèmes, Université de Lorraine et CentraleSupélec, 57070 Metz (France); John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Maryland 02138 (United States); Pokorny, Jan; Skiadopoulou, Stella; Kamba, Stanislav [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Liang, Xin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province 213164 (China); Clarke, David R. [John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Maryland 02138 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    A thermodynamically stable series of superlattices, (ZnO){sub k}In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, form in the ZnO-In{sub 2}O{sub 3} binary oxide system for InO{sub 1.5} concentrations from about 13 up to about 33 mole percent (m/o). These natural superlattices, which consist of a periodic stacking of single, two-dimensional sheets of InO{sub 6} octahedra, are found to give rise to systematic changes in the optical and vibrational properties of the superlattices. Low-frequency Raman scattering provides the evidence for the activation of acoustic phonons due to the folding of Brillouin zone. New vibrational modes at 520 and 620 cm{sup −1}, not present in either ZnO or In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, become Raman active. These new modes are attributed to collective plasmon oscillations localized at the two-dimensional InO{sub 1.5} sheets. Infrared reflectivity experiments, and simulations taking into account a negative dielectric susceptibility due to electron carriers in ZnO and interface modes of the dielectric layer of InO{sub 2}, explain the occurrence of these new modes. We postulate that a localized electron gas forms at the ZnO/InO{sub 2} interface due to the electron band alignment and polarization effects. All our observations suggest that there are quantum contributions to the thermal and electrical conductivity in these natural superlattices.

  6. A new interpretation for performance improvement of high-efficiency vertical blue light-emitting diodes by InGaN/GaN superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Zhijue; Liu, Junlin; Fang, Fang; Wang, Guangxu; Jiang, Fengyi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of InGaN/GaN superlattices (SLs) on quantum efficiency and forward voltage of vertical blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) light-emitting diodes (LED) grown on Si substrate has been experimentally and theoretically investigated. We have prepared two LED samples, in which the 30 and 45 periods of SLs are inserted between MQW active layers and n-GaN layer, respectively. Electroluminescence measurement shows that the LED with 45 periods of SLs has higher quantum efficiency but lower forward voltage. It is observed that V-shaped pits grow up in size with an increase in SLs period number by means of scan transmission electron microscope and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Further numerical simulations confirm that the performance improvement of LED by SLs is mainly ascribed to enhancing hole injection from the V-shaped pits

  7. Computer simulation of the anomalous elastic behavior of thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1992-10-01

    Atomistic simulations are reviewed that elucidate the causes of the anomalous elastic behavior of thin films and superlattices (the so-called supermodulus effect). The investigation of free-standing thin films and of superlattices of grain boundaries shows that the supermodulus effect is not an electronic but a structural interface effect intricately connected with the local atomic disorder at the interfaces. The consequent predictions that (1) coherent strained-layer superlattices should show the smallest elastic anomalies and (2) the introduction of incoherency at the interfaces should enhance all anomalies are validated by simulations of dissimilar-material superlattices. 38 refs, 10 figs

  8. Terahertz emission of Bloch oscillators excited by electromagnetic field in lateral semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, E.P.; Zharov, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the strong high-frequency electromagnetic field on the lateral semiconductor superlattice is considered on the basis of the quasi-classical theory on the electron transport in the self-consistent wave arrangement. It is theoretically identified, that the lateral superlattice in the strong feed-up wave field may emit the terahertz radiation wave trains, which are associated with the periodical excitation of the Bloch oscillations in the superlattice. The conditions, required for the Bloch oscillators radiation observation, are determined. The spectral composition of the radiation, passing through the superlattice, and energy efficiency of multiplying the frequency, related to the Bloch oscillator excitation, are calculated [ru

  9. Piezoelectricity in the dielectric component of nanoscale dielectric-ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Ji Young; Sichel, Rebecca J; Lee, Ho Nyung; Nakhmanson, Serge M; Dufresne, Eric M; Evans, Paul G

    2010-05-21

    The origin of the functional properties of complex oxide superlattices can be resolved using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray diffraction into contributions from the component layers making up the repeating unit. The CaTiO3 layers of a CaTiO3/BaTiO3 superlattice have a piezoelectric response to an applied electric field, consistent with a large continuous polarization throughout the superlattice. The overall piezoelectric coefficient at large strains, 54  pm/V, agrees with first-principles predictions in which a tetragonal symmetry is imposed on the superlattice by the SrTiO3 substrate.

  10. Size-dependent electromechanical properties in piezoelectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric superlattice is a potential component for nanoelectromechanical systems. Due to the strong nonlocal effect such as flexoelectric effect at interfaces, classical piezoelectric theory is unable to accurately describe the electromechanical response of piezoelectric superlattice at nanoscale scale. Based on the previous nonlocal thermodynamics theory with flexoelectric effect Liu et al. (2016, the size-dependent electromechanical properties of piezoelectric superlattices made of BaTiO3 (BTO and PbTiO3 (PTO layers are investigated systematically in the present work. Giant strain gradient is found near the interface between BTO and PTO layers, which leads to the significant enhancement of polarization in the superlattice due to the flexoelectric effect. For the piezoelectric BTO–PTO superlattices with different unit-cell sizes, the thickness of interface with nontrivial strain gradient is almost constant. The influence of strain gradient at the interface becomes significant when the size of superlattice decreases. As a result, a strong size dependence of electromechanical properties is predicted for the piezoelectric BTO–PTO superlattices. In particular, for the superlattices with a specific thickness ratio of BTO and PTO layers, the piezoelectric response can be several times larger than that of bulk structure. The present work demonstrates a practical way to design the piezoelectric superlattices with high piezoelectric coefficient by using the nonlocal effect at nanoscale.

  11. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.

    2013-11-12

    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized in this superlattice. In particular, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved. Due to the wide band gap of hexagonal boron nitride, the superlattice realizes the characteristic physical phenomena of free-standing silicene. In particular, we address by model calculations the combined effect of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and an external electric field, which induces a transition from a semimetal to a topological insulator and further to a band insulator.

  12. Dependence of Fe/Cr superlattice magnetoresistance on orientation of external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, V.V.; Romashev, L.N.; Minin, V.I.; Semerikov, A.V.; Del', A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations into giant magnetoresistance of [Fe/Cr] 30 /MgO superlattices obtained using molecular-beam epitaxy under various orientations of magnetic field relatively to the layers of superlattice and to the direction of current flow. Theory of orientation dependence of superlattice magnetoresistance enabling to describe satisfactorily behaviour of magnetoresistance at arbitrary direction of magnetic field on the ground of results of magnetoresistance measurements in magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to plane of layers, is elaborated. It is pointed out that it is possible to obtain field dependence of superlattice magnetization on the ground of measurement results. 9 refs., 6 figs

  13. Quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices for neuromorphic networks and nonlinear control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyshev, K. V., E-mail: malyshev@bmstu.ru [Electronics and Laser Technology Department, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-28

    The application of quasiperiodic AlGaAs superlattices as a nonlinear element of the FitzHugh–Nagumo neuromorphic network is proposed and theoretically investigated on the example of Fibonacci and figurate superlattices. The sequences of symbols for the figurate superlattices were produced by decomposition of the Fibonacci superlattices' symbolic sequences. A length of each segment of the decomposition was equal to the corresponding figurate number. It is shown that a nonlinear network based upon Fibonacci and figurate superlattices provides better parallel filtration of a half-tone picture; then, a network based upon traditional diodes which have cubic voltage-current characteristics. It was found that the figurate superlattice F{sup 0}{sub 11}(1) as a nonlinear network's element provides the filtration error almost twice less than the conventional “cubic” diode. These advantages are explained by a wavelike shape of the decreasing part of the quasiperiodic superlattice's voltage-current characteristic, which leads to multistability of the network's cell. This multistability promises new interesting nonlinear dynamical phenomena. A variety of wavy forms of voltage-current characteristics opens up new interesting possibilities for quasiperiodic superlattices and especially for figurate superlattices in many areas—from nervous system modeling to nonlinear control systems development.

  14. Characterization by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of (AlAs)m(InAs)m short period superlattices grown by migration enhanced epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradshaw, J.; Song, X.J.; Shealy, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We report growth of (InAs)1(AlAs)1 and (InAs)2(AlAs)2 strained layer superlattices by migration enhanced epitaxy. The samples were grown on InP (001) substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Satellite peaks in the x-ray data...... confirm the intended periodicity and indicate the presence of some disorder in the monolayer sample. The energies of the zone folded and quantum confined optic phonons are in reasonable agreement with calculations based on one-dimensional elastic continuum and linear chain models. Journal of Applied...

  15. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  16. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  17. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  18. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  19. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  20. Theory of Semiconducting Superlattices and Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    is true if drical Bessel function. f+(x)=cotht.), and 1: Z I G(imnlx)l = d(k) IG(kax) 1 (6) f_(x) =cot(x). and we have used the identities (31 Rai mal ...Frisch, and R. A. Whiteside, Int. 3. Quantum 20R. E. Allen and M. Menon, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5611 (1986); M. Chem. Symp. IS, 26’) (1981). Menor . and R

  1. Electron transport in n-doped Si/SiGe quantum cascade structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazic, I.; Ikonic, Z.; Milanovic, V.; Kelsall, R.W.; Indjin, D.; Harrison, P.

    2007-01-01

    An electron transport model in n-Si/SiGe quantum cascade or superlattice structures is described. The model uses the electronic structure calculated within the effective-mass complex-energy framework, separately for perpendicular (Xz) and in-plane (Xxy) valleys, the degeneracy of which is lifted by

  2. Tunneling time and Hartman effect in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Sattari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using transfer-matrix and stationary phase methods, we study the tunneling time (group delay time in a ferromagnetic monolayer graphene superlattice. The system we peruse consists of a sequence of rectangular barriers and wells, which can be realized by putting a series of electronic gates on the top of ferromagnetic graphene. The magnetization in the two ferromagnetic layers is aligned parallel. We find out that the tunneling time for normal incident is independent of spin state of electron as well as the barrier height and electron Fermi energy while for the oblique incident angles the tunneling time depends on the spin state of electron and has an oscillatory behavior. Also the effect of barrier width on tunneling time is also investigated and shown that, for normal incident, the Hartman effect disappears in a ferromagnetic graphene superlattice but it appears for oblique incident angles when the x component of the electron wave vector in the barrier is imaginary.

  3. Large negative differential resistance in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P.; Chen, C. H.; Hsu, S. A.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2018-05-01

    A graphene nanoribbon superlattice with a large negative differential resistance (NDR) is proposed. Our results show that the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the graphene superlattices can reach 21 at room temperature with bias voltages between 90-220 mV, which is quite large compared with the one of traditional graphene-based devices. It is found that the NDR is strongly influenced by the thicknesses of the potential barrier. Therefore, the NDR effect can be optimized by designing a proper barrier thickness. The large NDR effect can be attributed to the splitting of the gap in transmission spectrum (segment of Wannier-Stark ladder) with larger thicknesses of barrier when the applied voltage increases.

  4. Surface magnetic phase transitions in Dy/Lu superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.P.; Sarthour, R.S.; Micheletti, C.; Langridge, S.; Wilkins, C.J.T.; Ward, R.C.C.; Wells, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Dy/Lu superlattices comprising ferromagnetic Dy blocks coupled antiferromagnetically across the Lu blocks may be modelled as a chain of XY spins with antiferromagnetic exchange and six-fold anisotropy. We have calculated the stable magnetic phases for the cases of large anisotropy and a field applied along an easy direction. For an infinite chain an intermediate phase (1, 5,...) is predicted, where the notation gives the angle between the moment and the applied field in units of π/3. Furthermore, the effects of surface reconstruction are determined for finite chains. A [Dy 20 Lu 12 ] 20 superlattice has been studied using bulk magnetization and polarized neutron reflectivity. The (1, 5,...) phase has been identified and the results provide direct evidence in support of the theoretical predictions. Dipolar forces are shown to account for the magnitude of the observed exchange coupling. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Capacitance-Voltage (CV) Measurement of Type-2 Superlattice Photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Department of Defense position, policy, or decision. CQD Contents 1. Background and Motivation ...1. Background and Motivation 1.1. Development of Type-II superalttice Type-II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) were first proposed by Sai-Halasz et...equals the ionized impurity concentration. In such case, the semiconductor is under extrinsic regime, and the dynamic of mobile carriers depends on

  6. n-B-pi-p Superlattice Infrared Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    A specially designed barrier (B) is inserted at the n-pi junction [where most GR (generation-recombination) processes take place] in the standard n-pi-p structure to substantially reduce generation-recombination dark currents. The resulting n-Bpi- p structure also has reduced tunneling dark currents, thereby solving some of the limitations to which current type II strained layer superlattice infrared detectors are prone. This innovation is compatible with common read-out integrated circuits (ROICs).

  7. Efficient Quantum Information Transfer Through a Uniform Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Verrucchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be obtained by inducing a coherent dynamics in quantum wires with homogeneous intrawire interactions. This goal is accomplished by optimally tuning the coupling between the wire endpoints and the two qubits there attached. A general procedure to determine such value is devised, and scaling laws between the optimal coupling and the length of the wire are found. The procedure is implemented in the case of a wire consisting of a spin-1/2 XY chain: results for the time dependence of the quantities which characterize quantum-state and entanglement transfer are found of extremely good quality also for very long wires. The present approach does not require engineered intrawire interactions nor a specific initial pulse shaping, and can be applied to a vast class of quantum channels.

  8. pi-phase magnetism in ferromagnetic-superconductor superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Khusainov, M G; Proshin, Y N

    2001-01-01

    The Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fylde-Ferrel new 0 pi- and pi pi-states are forecasted for the ferromagnetic metal/superconductor superlattices with antiferromagnetic magnetization orientation in the neighbouring layers. The above-mentioned states are characterized under certain conditions by higher critical temperature T sub c as compared to the earlier known LOFF 00- and pi 0-states with the FM-layers ferromagnetic ordering. It is shown that the nonmonotonous behavior of the T sub c of the FM/S superlattices by the thickness of the S-layers lower than the d sub s suppi value is connected with the cascades of the 0 pi-pi pi-0 pi phase transitions. The character of the T sub c oscillations by the d sub s > d sub s suppi is related to the 00-pi 0-00 transitions. The logical elements of the new type, combining the advantages of the superconducting and magnetic information recording in one sample are proposed on the basis of the FM/S superlattices

  9. Manganite/Cuprate Superlattice as Artificial Reentrant Spin Glass

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Junfeng

    2016-05-04

    Emerging physical phenomena at the unit-cell-controlled interfaces of transition-metal oxides have attracted lots of interest because of the rich physics and application opportunities. This work reports a reentrant spin glass behavior with strong magnetic memory effect discovered in oxide heterostructures composed of ultrathin manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and cuprate La2CuO4 (LCO) layers. These heterostructures are featured with enhanced ferromagnetism before entering the spin glass state: a Curie temperature of 246 K is observed in the superlattice with six-unit-cell LSMO layers, while the reference LSMO film with the same thickness shows much weaker magnetism. Furthermore, an insulator-metal transition emerges at the Curie temperature, and below the freezing temperature the superlattices can be considered as a glassy ferromagnetic insulator. These experimental results are closely related to the interfacial spin reconstruction revealed by the first-principles calculations, and the dependence of the reentrant spin glass behavior on the LSMO layer thickness is in line with the general phase diagram of a spin system derived from the infinite-range SK model. The results of this work underscore the manganite/cuprate superlattices as a versatile platform of creating artificial materials with tailored interfacial spin coupling and physical properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of strontium titanate superlattices incorporating niobium oxide nanolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2014-04-22

    A novel superlattice structure based on epitaxial nanoscale layers of NbOx and Nb-doped SrTiO3 is fabricated using a layer-by-layer approach on lattice matched LAO substrates. The absolute Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the [(NbOx) a/(Nb-doped SrTiO3)b]20 superlattices (SLs) were found to increase with decreasing layer thickness ratio (a/b ratio), reaching, at high temperatures, a power factor that is comparable to epitaxial Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STNO) films (∼0.7 W m-1 K-1). High temperature studies reveal that the SLs behave as n-type semiconductors and undergo an irreversible change at a varying crossover temperature that depends on the a/b ratio. By use of high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, the irreversible changes are identified to be due to a phase transformation from cubic NbO to orthorhombic Nb2O5, which limits the highest temperature of stable operation of the superlattice to 950 K. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Band structure of ABC-trilayer graphene superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Salah; Chan, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of one-dimensional periodic potentials on the low energy band structure of ABC trilayer graphene first by assuming that all the three layers have the same potential. Extra Dirac points having the same electron hole crossing energy as that of the original Dirac point are generated by superlattice potentials with equal well and barrier widths. When the potential height is increased, the numbers of extra Dirac points are increased. The dispersions around the Dirac points are not isotropic. It is noted that the dispersion along the k y direction for k x  = 0 oscillates between a non-linear dispersion and a linear dispersion when the potential height is increased. When the well and barrier widths are not identical, the symmetry of the conduction and valence bands is broken. The extra Dirac points are shifted either upward or downward depending on the barrier and well widths from the zero energy, while the position of the central Dirac point oscillates with the superlattice potential height. By considering different potentials for different layers, extra Dirac points are generated not from the original Dirac points but from the valleys formed in the energy spectrum. Two extra Dirac points appear from each pair of touched valleys, so four Dirac points appeared in the spectrum at particular barrier height. By increasing the barrier height of superlattice potential two Dirac points merge into the original Dirac point. This emerging and merging of extra Dirac points is different from the equal potential case

  12. Lateral surface superlattices in strained InGaAs layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.

    2000-08-01

    Lateral Surface Superlattices were fabricated by etching in strained InGaAs layers above a GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEG channel. These were etched both by dry plasma wet chemical etching to produce periods of 100nm, 200nm and 300nm. These superlattices were fabricated on Hall bars to allow four terminal measurement and a blanket gate was placed on top, to allow variations in the carrier concentration. The magnetoresistance effects of these superlattices were studied at varying values of gate voltage, which varies the carrier concentration and the electrostatic periodic potential and at temperatures down to 45mK in a dilution refrigerator. From the oscillations observed in the magnetoresistance trace's it is possible to calculate the magnitude of the periodic potential. This showed that the etched, strained InGaAs was producing an anisotropic piezoelectric potential, along with an isotropic electrostatic potential. The variation in period allowed a study of the change of this piezoelectric potential with the period as well as a study of the interactions between the electrostatic and piezoelectric potentials. Further, at the lowest temperatures a strong interaction was observed between the Commensurability Oscillations, caused by the periodic potential, and the Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations due to the Landau. Levels. This interaction was studied as it varied with temperature and carrier concentration. (author)

  13. Shape-Anisotropy Driven Symmetry Transformations in Nanocrystal Superlattice Polymorphs

    KAUST Repository

    Bian, Kaifu

    2011-04-26

    Despite intense research efforts by research groups worldwide, the potential of self-assembled nanocrystal superlattices (NCSLs) has not been realized due to an incomplete understanding of the fundamental molecular interactions governing the self-assembly process. Because NCSLs reside naturally at length-scales between atomic crystals and colloidal assemblies, synthetic control over the properties of constituent nanocrystal (NC) building blocks and their coupling in ordered assemblies is expected to yield a new class of materials with remarkable optical, electronic, and vibrational characteristics. Progress toward the formation of suitable test structures and subsequent development of NCSL-based technologies has been held back by the limited control over superlattice spacing and symmetry. Here we show that NCSL symmetry can be controlled by manipulating molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface and the surrounding solvent. Specifically, we demonstrate solvent vapor-mediated NCSL symmetry transformations that are driven by the orientational ordering of NCs within the lattice. The assembly of various superlattice polymorphs, including face-centered cubic (fcc), body-centered cubic (bcc), and body-centered tetragonal (bct) structures, is studied in real time using in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) under controlled solvent vapor exposure. This approach provides quantitative insights into the molecular level physics that controls solvent-ligand interactions and assembly of NCSLs. Computer simulations based on all-atom molecular dynamics techniques confirm several key insights gained from experiment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    blende InP nanowires. We have constructed the energy band diagram of the resulting multiquantum well heterostructure and have performed detailed quantum mechanical calculations of the electron and hole wave functions. The excitation power dependent blue-shift of the photoluminescence can be explained...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering.......We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...

  15. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  16. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    /polymer composite films showed that their energy-conversion properties were comparable to those of an array attached to the growth substrate. High quantum efficiencies were observed relative to the packing density of the wires, particularly with illumination at high angles of incidence. The results indicate that an inexpensive, solid-state Si wire array solar cell is possible, and a plan is presented to develop one.

  17. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  18. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  19. Lateral superlattice La_1-xCa_xMnO_3/La_1-ySry MnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, J. N.; Bozovic, I.; O'Donnell, J.; Rzchowski, M.; Onellion, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have fabricated lateral superlattice (wire) samples by atomic layer-by- layer molecular beam expitaxy. The samples are composed of alternating layers of La_1-xCa_xMnO3 and La_1-ySr_yMnO_3, grown on vicianl SrTiO3 (001). Such lateral superlattices provide a way to study the effects of interfaces on magnetoresistance. We have measured the magnetoresistance for all six orientations of current (parallel and perpendicular to interfaces) and applied magnetic field (both in-plane directions and perpendicular to the film plane). We find that for a current perpendicular to the interfaces, and applied field parallel to the current, that the low field resistivity response, [1ρ(dρ/dH)] is as large as 29 Tesla-1 at low field (0-200 Oe), compared to bulk values of resistivity response, (1-1.5) Tesla-1 and to values of current magnetic sensors of (4-5) Telsa-1.[1] The [1ρ(dρ/dH)] figure of merit exhibits a marked temperature dependence, with the largest value occuring at a temperature near the Curie temperature of the more resistive material (La_1-xCa_xMnO_3). We model the magnetoresistive response based on enhancing the applied field by the susceptibility of the (La_1-ySr_yMnO_3) layers, which are ferromagnetic at the Curie temperature of the (La_1-xCa_xMnO_3) layers. We contrast the behavior of lateral superlattice and single film samples; the latter exhibit tetragonal rather than the bulk cubic symmetry.

  20. InN/GaN Superlattices: Band Structures and Their Pressure Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, Iza; Suski, Tadek; Staszczak, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Creation of short-period InN/GaN superlattices is one of the possible ways of conducting band gap engineering in the green-blue range of the spectrum. The present paper reports results of photoluminescence experiments, including pressure effects, on a superlattice sample consisting of unit cells ...

  1. A GaAs/AlAs superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnerl, S.; Pesahl, S.; Schomburg, E.; Grenzer, J.; Renk, K. F.; Pellemans, H. P. M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Pavel' ev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Y.; Ignatov, A. A.; Melzer, B.; Ustinov, V.; Ivanov, S.; Kop' ev, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a GaAs/AlAs, wide-miniband, superlattice autocorrelator for picosecond THz radiation pulses (operated at room temperature); the autocorrelator is based on the THz radiation-induced reduction of current through the superlattice. THz radiation (frequency 7.2 THz) from the FELIX

  2. Electrical, Optical and Structural Studies of INAS/INGASB VLWIR Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    which is in agreement with theoretical calculations of based on published values of elastic constants. The InGaSb-on-InAs and InAs-on-InGaSb interfaces...Probing the interface fluctuations in semiconductor superlattices using a magneto -transport technique,” Superlattices Microstructructures 5, 225-228

  3. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  4. Wave fronts, pulses and wave trains in photoexcited superlattices behaving as excitable or oscillatory media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J I; Bonilla, L L; Grahn, H T

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and strongly photoexcited semiconductor superlattices with field-dependent recombination behave as excitable or oscillatory media with spatially discrete nonlinear convection and diffusion. Infinitely long, dc-current-biased superlattices behaving as excitable media exhibit wave fronts with increasing or decreasing profiles, whose velocities can be calculated by means of asymptotic methods. These superlattices can also support pulses of the electric field. Pulses moving downstream with the flux of electrons can be constructed from their component wave fronts, whereas pulses advancing upstream do so slowly and experience saltatory motion: they change slowly in long intervals of time separated by fast transitions during which the pulses jump to the previous superlattice period. Photoexcited superlattices can also behave as oscillatory media and exhibit wave trains. (paper)

  5. Spectral Filtering in Quantum Y-Junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheon, T.; Exner, Pavel; Turek, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 12 (2009), 124004/1-124004/7 ISSN 0031-9015 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : quantum graph * singular vertex * quantum wire Subject RIV: BE - The oretical Physics Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2009

  6. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  7. Quadra-Quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules: Basic Nanostructures for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called 'Droplet Epitaxy' has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390'C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7'8'10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200'C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or, which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  8. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  9. Enhancing Carrier Injection Using Graded Superlattice Electron Blocking Layer for UVB Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2014-12-01

    We have studied enhanced carrier injection by having an electron blocking layer (EBL) based on a graded superlattice (SL) design. Here, we examine, using a selfconsistent 6 × 6 k.p method, the energy band alignment diagrams under equilibrium and forward bias conditions while also considering carrier distribution and recombination rates (Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, and radiative recombination rates). The graded SL is based on AlxGa1-xN (larger bandgap) Al0:5Ga0:5N (smaller bandgap) SL, where x is changed from 0.8 to 0.56 in steps of 0.06. Graded SL was found to be effective in reducing electron leakage and enhancing hole injection into the active region. Due to our band engineering scheme for EBL, four orders-of-magnitude enhancement were observed in the direct recombination rate, as compared with the conventional bulk EBL consisting of Al0:8Ga0:2N. An increase in the spatial overlap of carrier wavefunction was obtained due to polarization-induced band bending in the active region. An efficient single quantum-well ultraviolet-B light-emitting diode was designed, which emits at 280 nm. This is the effective wavelength for water disinfection application, among others.

  10. Giant superconductivity-induced modulation of the ferromagnetic magnetization in a cuprate-manganite superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppler, J; Stahn, J; Niedermayer, Ch; Malik, V K; Bouyanfif, H; Drew, A J; Rössle, M; Buzdin, A; Cristiani, G; Habermeier, H-U; Keimer, B; Bernhard, C

    2009-04-01

    Artificial multilayers offer unique opportunities for combining materials with antagonistic orders such as superconductivity and ferromagnetism and thus to realize novel quantum states. In particular, oxide multilayers enable the utilization of the high superconducting transition temperature of the cuprates and the versatile magnetic properties of the colossal-magnetoresistance manganites. However, apart from exploratory work, the in-depth investigation of their unusual properties has only just begun. Here we present neutron reflectometry measurements of a [Y(0.6)Pr(0.4)Ba(2)Cu(3)O(7) (10 nm)/La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) (10 nm)](10) superlattice, which reveal a surprisingly large superconductivity-induced modulation of the vertical ferromagnetic magnetization profile. Most surprisingly, this modulation seems to involve the density rather than the orientation of the magnetization and is highly susceptible to the strain, which is transmitted from the SrTiO(3) substrate. We outline a possible explanation of this unusual superconductivity-induced phenomenon in terms of a phase separation between ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic nanodomains in the La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO(3) layers.

  11. Influence of confined optical phonons and laser radiation on the hall effect in a compositional superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Nguyen Quang; Long, Do Tuan

    2018-03-01

    The effect of confined optical phonons and laser radiation are taken into account to study the Hall effect in a compositional semiconductor superlattice (CSSL). The new theoretical expressions of the Hall conductivity, the Hall coefficient and the magnetoresistance are obtained as functions of the external fields (the magnetic field B, the laser frequency Ω and amplitude E), the CSSL parameters (the well length dI, the barrier length dII and height U) and the quantum number m characterizing the phonon confinement effect. The magneto-confined phonon resonance condition in a CSSL is also carried out to explain the numerical evaluation results for the GaAs /AlxGa1-x As CSSL. When optical phonons are confined, the Hall conductivity has more resonance peaks in comparison with that for bulk phonons. In addition, these sub-peaks are more separate from the main peaks as the CSSL layers thickness decreases. The tighter CSSL period is, the more forcefully the phonon confinement makes. When the CSSL period d is smaller than 30 nm , the contribution of confined optical phonons is significant and could not be neglected. The magnetophonon resonance for bulk semiconductor could be achieved in the limit the CSSL period goes to infinity. Furthermore, the Hall conductivity increases and the Hall coefficient, the magnetoresistance decrease due to the laser radiation and the effect of confined optical phonons. Especially, the near-linear dependence of the magnetoresistance on temperature is in good agreement with the experimental result.

  12. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  13. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  14. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  15. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  16. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  17. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  18. Competing interactions in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic perovskite superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamura, Y.; Biegalski, M.B.; Christen, H.M.

    2009-10-22

    Soft x-ray magnetic dichroism, magnetization, and magnetotransport measurements demonstrate that the competition between different magnetic interactions (exchange coupling, electronic reconstruction, and long-range interactions) in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}FeO{sub 3}(LSFO)/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}(LSMO) perovskite oxide superlattices leads to unexpected functional properties. The antiferromagnetic order parameter in LSFO and ferromagnetic order parameter in LSMO show a dissimilar dependence on sublayer thickness and temperature, illustrating the high degree of tunability in these artificially layered materials.

  19. Photoinduced Domain Pattern Transformation in Ferroelectric-Dielectric Superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Youngjun; Park, Joonkyu; Pateras, Anastasios; Rich, Matthew B.; Zhang, Qingteng; Chen, Pice; Yusuf, Mohammed H.; Wen, Haidan; Dawber, Matthew; Evans, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    The nanodomain pattern in ferroelectric/dielectric superlattices transforms to a uniform polarization state under above-bandgap optical excitation. X-ray scattering reveals a disappearance of domain diffuse scattering and an expansion of the lattice. The reappearance of the domain pattern occurs over a period of seconds at room temperature, suggesting a transformation mechanism in which charge carriers in long-lived trap states screen the depolarization field. A Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire model predicts changes in lattice parameter and a critical carrier concentration for the transformation.

  20. The hyperfine properties of a hydrogenated Fe/V superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M., E-mail: elzain@squ.edu.om; Al-Barwani, M.; Gismelseed, A.; Al-Rawas, A.; Yousif, A.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.; Al-Omari, I. [Sultan Qaboos University, Department of Physics, College of Science (Oman)

    2012-03-15

    We study the effect of hydrogen on the electronic, magnetic and hyperfine structures of an iron-vanadium superlattice consisting of three Fe monolayers and nine V monolayers. The contact charge density ({rho}), the contact hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) and the electronic field gradient (EFG) at the Fe sites for different H locations and H fillings are calculated using the first principle full-potential linear-augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. It is found that sizeable changes in the hyperfine properties are obtained only when H is in the interface region.

  1. Theory of the negative differential conductivity effect in semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh; Nguyen Hong Shon; Le Vu Ky

    1990-01-01

    A new mechanism of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) effect in semiconductor superlattices (SL) is proposed and analysed that is due to the conduction electron trapping by donor centers. It is shown that the NDC effect occurs for sufficently high (but reasonable) impurity concentration and not too large value of the τ ε /τ c ratio (where τ ε is the electron energy relaxation time and τ c the electron life time in the conduction band) when the applied d.c. electric field reaches certain critical value defined by the physical parameters of the sample. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  2. Thermal Contraction of Electrodeposited Bi/BiSb Superlattice Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dou XC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lattice parameter of Bi/BiSb superlattice nanowire (SLNW has been measured using in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction method. The single crystalline Bi/BiSb SLNW arrays with different bilayer thicknesses have been fabricated within the porous anodic alumina membranes (AAMs by a charge-controlled pulse electrodeposition. Different temperature dependences of the lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient were found for the SLNWs. It was found that the thermal expansion coefficient of the SLNWs with a large bilayer thickness has weak temperature dependence, and the interface stress and defect are the main factors responsible for the thermal contraction of the SLNWs.

  3. Coherent magnetic structures in terbium/holmium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron-scattering techniques have been used to investigate the magnetic properties of three Tb/Ho superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. It is revealed that for temperatures in the range T = 10 to T-N(Ho)approximate to 130 K, there is a basal-plane ferromagnetic alignment of Tb moments...... to 230 K, two samples retain this magnetic structure while the third undergoes a transition first to a mixed phase of helically and ferromagnetically ordered Tb moments, then to a phase with only helically ordered To moments. Ln all cases, the magnetic ordering is found to be long ranged, with coherence...

  4. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. Type-II superlattice-based extended short-wavelength infrared focal plane array with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice etch-stop layer to allow near-visible light detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Romain; Dehzangi, Arash; Haddadii, Abbas; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2017-11-01

    A versatile infrared imager capable of imaging the near-visible to the extended short-wavelength infrared (e-SWIR) is demonstrated using e-SWIR InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice-based photodiodes. A bi-layer etch-stop scheme consisting of bulk InAs 0.91 Sb 0.09 and AlAs 0.1 Sb 0.9 /GaSb superlattice layers is introduced for substrate removal from the hybridized back-side illuminated photodetectors. The implementation of this new technique on an e-SWIR focal plane array results in a significant enhancement in the external quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1.8-0.8 μm spectral region, while maintaining a high QE at wavelengths longer than 1.8 μm. Test pixels exhibit 100% cutoff wavelengths of ∼2.1 and ∼2.25  μm at 150 and 300 K, respectively. They achieve saturated QE values of 56% and 68% at 150 and 300 K, respectively, under back-side illumination and without any anti-reflection coating. At 150 K, the photodetectors (27  μm×27  μm area) exhibit a dark current density of 4.7×10 -7   A/cm 2 under a -50  mV applied bias providing a specific detectivity of 1.77×10 12   cm·Hz 1/2 /W. At 300 K, the dark current density reaches 6.6×10 -2   A/cm 2 under -50  mV bias, providing a specific detectivity of 5.17×10 9   cm·Hz 1/2 /W.

  6. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Lattice mismatch induced ripples and wrinkles in planar graphene/boron nitride superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwana, Dinkar [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Ertekin, Elif, E-mail: ertekin@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-06-21

    A continuum theory to describe periodic ripple formation in planar graphene/boron nitride superlattices is formulated. Due to the lattice mismatch between the two materials, it is shown that flat superlattices are unstable with respect to ripple formation of appropriate wavelengths. A competition between bending energy and transverse stretching energy gives rise to an optimal ripple wavelength that depends on the superlattice pitch. The optimal wavelengths predicted by the continuum theory are in good agreement with atomic scale total energy calculations previously reported by Nandwana and Ertekin [Nano Lett. 15, 1468 (2015)].

  8. Electron Bloch oscillations and electromagnetic transparency of semiconductor superlattices in multi-frequency electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Yu. A.; Romanova, J. Yu.; Mourokh, L. G.

    2009-06-01

    We examine the phenomenon of electromagnetic transparency in semiconductor superlattices (having various miniband dispersion laws) in the presence of multi-frequency periodic and nonperiodic electric fields. Effects of induced transparency and spontaneous generation of static fields are discussed. We pay special attention to self-induced electromagnetic transparency and its correlation to dynamic electron localization. Processes and mechanisms of the transparency formation, collapse, and stabilization in the presence of external fields are studied. In particular, we present the numerical results of the time evolution of the superlattice current in an external biharmonic field showing main channels of transparency collapse and its partial stabilization in the case of low-electron-density superlattices.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of holmium-scandium alloys and superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryn-Jacobsen, C.; Cowley, R.A.; McMorrow, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of Ho-Sc alloys and superlattices grown by molecular-beam epitaxy have been investigated using x-ray and neutron-diffraction techniques. Structural studies reveal that the alloy samples have different a lattice parameters for the Sc-seed layer and the Ho:Sc alloy grown on top...... of the seed layer; while the superlattices have different a lattice parameters for the Sc seed, and for both the Ho and Sc in the superlattice layers. The structural characteristics are related to the large lattice mismatches (of the order 7%) between the constituent elements. The magnetic moments...

  10. Quadra-quantum Dots and Related Patterns of Quantum Dot Molecules:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsak Panyakeow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laterally close-packed quantum dots (QDs called quantum dot molecules (QDMs are grown by modified molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Quantum dots could be aligned and cross hatched. Quantum rings (QRs created from quantum dot transformation during thin or partial capping are used as templates for the formations of bi-quantum dot molecules (Bi-QDMs and quantum dot rings (QDRs. Preferable quantum dot nanostructure for quantum computation based on quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is laterally close-packed quantum dot molecules having four quantum dots at the corners of square configuration. These four quantum dot sets are called quadra-quantum dots (QQDs. Aligned quadra-quantum dots with two electron confinements work like a wire for digital information transmission by Coulomb repulsion force, which is fast and consumes little power. Combination of quadra-quantum dots in line and their cross-over works as logic gates and memory bits. Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth technique called ‘‘Droplet Epitaxy” has been developed for several quantum nanostructures such as quantum rings and quantum dot rings. Quantum rings are prepared by using 20 ML In-Ga (15:85 droplets deposited on a GaAs substrate at 390°C with a droplet growth rate of 1ML/s. Arsenic flux (7–8×10-6Torr is then exposed for InGaAs crystallization at 200°C for 5 min. During droplet epitaxy at a high droplet thickness and high temperature, out-diffusion from the centre of droplets occurs under anisotropic strain. This leads to quantum ring structures having non-uniform ring stripes and deep square-shaped nanoholes. Using these peculiar quantum rings as templates, four quantum dots situated at the corners of a square shape are regrown. Two of these four quantum dots are aligned either or , which are preferable crystallographic directions of quantum dot alignment in general.

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  12. Active glass–polymer superlattice structure for photonic integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhanxiang; Jose, Gin; Fernandez, Toney T; Comyn, Tim P; Irannejad, Mehrdad; Harrington, John P; Ward, Michael; Jha, Animesh; Steenson, Paul; Bamiedakis, Nikos; Penty, Richard V; White, Ian H

    2012-01-01

    We propose an all-laser processing approach allowing controlled growth of organic–inorganic superlattice structures of rare-earth ion doped tellurium-oxide-based glass and optically transparent polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) polymer; the purpose of which is to illustrate the structural and thermal compatibility of chemically dissimilar materials at the nanometer scale. Superlattice films with interlayer thicknesses as low as 2 nm were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at low temperatures (100 °C). Planar waveguides were successfully patterned by femtosecond-laser micro-machining for light propagation and efficient Er 3+ -ion amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The proposed approach to achieve polymer–glass integration will allow the fabrication of efficient and durable polymer optical amplifiers and lossless photonic devices. The all-laser processing approach, discussed further in this paper, permits the growth of films of a multitude of chemically complex and dissimilar materials for a range of optical, thermal, mechanical and biological functions, which otherwise are impossible to integrate via conventional materials processing techniques. (paper)

  13. Coherent Phonons Spectroscopy in Si/SiGe superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Helene; Ezzahri, Younes; Shakouri, Ali; Pernot, Gilles; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Dilhaire, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Ultrafast pump-probe experiments have been extensively used for coherent zone-folded acoustic phonon spectroscopy in semiconductor superlattices (SL). Most of the spectroscopy studies have been realized via impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS). More recently some studies, focused on Si/SixGe1-x SL, have combined the spectroscopy via ISRS with the spectroscopy of phonons Bragg reflected via picosecond acoustic experiment. In the latter case, sample needs to be covered by a metallic film which serves as a transducer to convert the optical energy into an impulse heating and thermal expansion. This launches coherent acoustic phonons into the SL structure. Here we present a systematic study of coherent phonons in different Si/SixGe1-x SL structures with two different superlattice periods and transducer thicknesses. The measured acoustic spectrums show that the thickness of the transducer should be chosen as function as the SL period to be able to generate and detect both phonons Bragg reflected and excited by ISRS.

  14. Broadband mid-infrared superlattice light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R. J.; Provence, S. R.; Norton, D. T.; Boggess, T. F.; Prineas, J. P.

    2017-05-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice light-emitting diodes were fabricated to form a device that provides emission over the entire 3-5 μm mid-infrared transmission window. Variable bandgap emission regions were coupled together using tunnel junctions to emit at peak wavelengths of 3.3 μm, 3.5 μm, 3.7 μm, 3.9 μm, 4.1 μm, 4.4 μm, 4.7 μm, and 5.0 μm. Cascading the structure recycles the electrons in each emission region to emit several wavelengths simultaneously. At high current densities, the light-emitting diode spectra broadened into a continuous, broadband spectrum that covered the entire mid-infrared band. When cooled to 77 K, radiances of over 1 W/cm2 sr were achieved, demonstrating apparent temperatures above 1000 K over the 3-5 μm band. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices are capable of emitting from 3 μm to 30 μm, and the device design can be expanded to include longer emission wavelengths.

  15. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  16. Effect of layer composition on band spectrum of CdxHg1-xTe - CdyHg1-yTe-type superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchikov, L.G.; Subashiev, A.V.; Salman Dalla

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of energy spectrum of Cd x Hg 1-x Te -Cd y Hg 1-y Te superlattices at variation of layer composition is considered. Transition from 3 type superlattice to 1 type superlattice occurring for y=0.16 is studied comprehensively. In this case, dependence of the width of superlattice forbidden zone on layer thickness is shown to become more smooth, than in CdTe - HgTe superlattice and it gives more possibilities to use such superlattices for making IR phototransistors. 10 refs., 4 figs

  17. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  18. Tuning the electrical and optical anisotropy of a monolayer black phosphorus magnetic superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. J.; Yu, J. H.; Luo, K.; Wu, Z. H.; Yang, W.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of modulated periodic perpendicular magnetic fields on the electronic states and optical absorption spectrum in monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene). We demonstrate that different phosphorene magnetic superlattice (PMS) orientations can give rise to distinct energy spectra, i.e. tuning the intrinsic electronic anisotropy. Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) develops a spin-splitting energy dispersion in this phosphorene magnetic superlattice. Anisotropic momentum-dependent carrier distributions along/perpendicular to the magnetic strips are demonstrated. The manipulations of these exotic electronic properties by tuning superlattice geometry, magnetic field and the RSOC term are addressed systematically. Accordingly, we find bright-to-dark transitions in the ground-state electron-hole pair transition rate spectrum and the PMS orientation-dependent anisotropic optical absorption spectrum. This feature offers us a practical way of modulating the electronic anisotropy in phosphorene by magnetic superlattice configurations and detecting this modulation capability by using an optical technique.

  19. Intraband dynamics and terahertz emission in biased semiconductor superlattices coupled to double far-infrared pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Li; Xian-Wu, Mi

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies both the intraband polarization and terahertz emission of a semiconductor superlattice in combined dc and ac electric fields by using the superposition of two identical time delayed and phase shifted optical pulses. By adjusting the delay between these two optical pulses, our results show that the intraband polarization is sensitive to the time delay. The peak values appear again for the terahertz emission intensity due to the superposition of two optical pulses. The emission lines of terahertz blueshift and redshift in different ac electric fields and dynamic localization appears. The emission lines of THz only appear to blueshift when the biased superlattice is driven by a single optical pulse. Due to excitonic dynamic localization, the terahertz emission intensity decays with time in different dc and ac electric fields. These are features of this superlattice which distinguish it from a superlattice generated by a single optical pulse to drive it. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. High-Detectivity Type-II Superlattice Detectors for 6-14 um Infrared Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...

  1. Plasmonic Enhanced Type-II Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an novel type II superlattice structure to extend the cutoff wavelength and CBIRD SL photo diode structure with unipolar barriers to suppress...

  2. Hydrogenation of Very Long Wavelength Infrared Focal Plane Arrays Based on Type II Superlattices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance the Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type II superlattice (T2SL) materials technology for very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) by...

  3. Development of Strained-Layer Superlattice (SLS) IR Detector Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strained Layer Superlattice (SLS) detectors are a new class of detectors which may be the next generation of band-gap engineered, large format infrared detector...

  4. Growth and performance of superlattice-based long wavelength complementary barrier infrared detectors (CBIRDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J.; Soibel, Alexander; Keo, Sam A.; Lee, Michael C.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, B., Sir; Ting, David Z.; Yang, Baohua; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated the use of bulk antimonide based materials and type-II antimonide based superlattices in the development large area long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs). Barrier infrared photodetectors (BIRDS) and superlattice-based infrared photodetectors are expected to outperform traditional III-V MWIR and LWIR imaging technologies and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based FPAs. Our group has developed a novel complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) which utilizes properties unique to the antimonide material system to incorporate unipolar barriers on either side of a superlattice absorber region. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow InAs/GaSb CBIRD structures on large area 100mm GaSb substrates with excellent results. Furthermore, we have fabricated initial 1024x1024 pixels superlattice imaging FPAs based on the CBIRD concept.

  5. Controlling Nanocrystal Superlattice Symmetry and Shape-Anisotropic Interactions through Variable Ligand Surface Coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-03-09

    The assembly of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into superstructures with long-range translational and orientational order is sensitive to the molecular interactions between ligands bound to the NC surface. We illustrate how ligand coverage on colloidal PbS NCs can be exploited as a tunable parameter to direct the self-assembly of superlattices with predefined symmetry. We show that PbS NCs with dense ligand coverage assemble into face-centered cubic (fcc) superlattices whereas NCs with sparse ligand coverage assemble into body-centered cubic (bcc) superlattices which also exhibit orientational ordering of NCs in their lattice sites. Surface chemistry characterization combined with density functional theory calculations suggest that the loss of ligands occurs preferentially on {100} than on reconstructed {111} NC facets. The resulting anisotropic ligand distribution amplifies the role of NC shape in the assembly and leads to the formation of superlattices with translational and orientational order. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki; Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito

    2006-01-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu 5 structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  7. Development of high-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries using superlattice hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Magari, Yoshifumi; Murata, Tetsuyuki; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Ishida, Jun; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nohma, Toshiyuki [Mobile Energy Company, Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., 7-3-2, Ibukidai-higashimachi Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2242 (Japan); Kihara, Masaru; Baba, Yoshitaka; Teraoka, Hirohito [Sanyo Energy Twicell Co. Ltd., 307-2 Koyagimachi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-0071 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    New R-Mg-Ni (R: rare earths) superlattice alloys with higher-capacity and higher-durability than the conventional Mm-Ni alloys with CaCu{sub 5} structure have been developed. The oxidation resistibility of the superlattice alloys has been improved by optimizing the alloy composition by such as substituting aluminum for nickel and optimizing the magnesium content in order to prolong the battery life. High-capacity nickel-metal hydride batteries for the retail market, the Ni-MH2500/900 series (AA size type 2500mAh, AAA size type 900mAh), have been developed and commercialized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. alized by using an improved superlattice alloy for negative electrode material. (author)

  8. Interwell and intrawell magnetoexcitons in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timofeev, V. B.; Filin, A. I.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of spatially indirect (interwell) excitons in superlattices (SLs) with different barrier widths (different tunneling coupling) is experimentally investigated in a strong enough magnetic field with the use of photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), reflectance spec...

  9. Tunable porous nanoallotropes prepared by post-assembly etching of binary nanoparticle superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayabhaskararao, Thumu; Altantzis, Thomas; Houben, Lothar; Coronado-Puchau, Marc; Langer, Judith; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Vuković, Lela; Král, Petr; Bals, Sara; Klajn, Rafal

    2017-10-01

    Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles has been used to prepare hundreds of different colloidal crystals, but almost invariably with the restriction that the particles must be densely packed. Here, we show that non–close-packed nanoparticle arrays can be fabricated through the selective removal of one of two components comprising binary nanoparticle superlattices. First, a variety of binary nanoparticle superlattices were prepared at the liquid-air interface, including several arrangements that were previously unknown. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the particular role of the liquid in templating the formation of superlattices not achievable through self-assembly in bulk solution. Second, upon stabilization, all of these binary superlattices could be transformed into distinct “nanoallotropes”—nanoporous materials having the same chemical composition but differing in their nanoscale architectures.

  10. The chemical and magnetic structures of holmium-yttrium and holmium-lutetium superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMorrow, D.F.; Jehan, D.A.; Swaddling, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    : the average structural coherence length in the growth direction is approximately 2000 angstrom, while the interfaces between the two elements are well defined, extending over approximately four lattice planes. The magnetic structures were determined using neutron scattering techniques. In the case of the Ho......We present the results of a study of the chemical and magnetic structures of Ho/Y and Ho/Lu superlattices, all grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By combining the results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction with detailed modelling we show that the superlattices have high crystallographic integrity....../Y superlattices, the Ho3+ moments form a basal-plane helix at all temperatures in the ordered phase, with an apparent suppression of the low-temperature cone phase. Instead spin-slip structures are formed, including some not observed in bulk Ho. For the Ho/Lu superlattices the magnetic structure was found...

  11. GeTe sequences in superlattice phase change memories and their electrical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyanagi, T., E-mail: ohyanagi@leap.or.jp; Kitamura, M.; Takaura, N. [Low-Power Electronics Association and Projects (LEAP), Onogawa 16-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Araidai, M. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kato, S. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Shiraishi, K. [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    We studied GeTe structures in superlattice phase change memories (superlattice PCMs) with a [GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}] stacked structure by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. We examined the electrical characteristics of superlattice PCMs with films deposited at different temperatures. It was found that XRD spectra differed between the films deposited at 200 °C and 240 °C; the differences corresponded to the differences in the GeTe sequences in the films. We applied first-principles calculations to calculate the total energy of three different GeTe sequences. The results showed the Ge-Te-Ge-Te sequence had the lowest total energy of the three and it was found that with this sequence the superlattice PCMs did not run.

  12. Manganites in Perovskite Superlattices: Structural and Electronic Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Jilili, Jiwuer

    2016-07-13

    Perovskite oxides have the general chemical formula ABO3, where A is a rare-earth or alkali-metal cation and B is a transition metal cation. Perovskite oxides can be formed with a variety of constituent elements and exhibit a wide range of properties ranging from insulators, metals to even superconductors. With the development of growth and characterization techniques, more information on their physical and chemical properties has been revealed, which diversified their technological applications. Perovskite manganites are widely investigated compounds due to the discovery of the colossal magnetoresistance effect in 1994. They have a broad range of structural, electronic, magnetic properties and potential device applications in sensors and spintronics. There is not only the technological importance but also the need to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the unusual magnetic and transport properties that drive enormous attention. Manganites combined with other perovskite oxides are gaining interest due to novel properties especially at the interface, such as interfacial ferromagnetism, exchange bias, interfacial conductivity. Doped manganites exhibit diverse electrical properties as compared to the parent compounds. For instance, hole doped La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 is a ferromagnetic metal, whereas LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. Since manganites are strongly correlated systems, heterojunctions composed of manganites and other perovskite oxides are sunject to complex coupling of the spin, orbit, charge, and lattice degrees of freedom and exhibit unique electronic, magnetic, and transport properties. Electronic reconstructions, O defects, doping, intersite disorder, magnetic proximity, magnetic exchange, and polar catastrophe are some effects to explain these interfacial phenomena. In our work we use first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of manganite based superlattices. Firstly, we investigate the electronic

  13. Terahertz parametric gain in semiconductor superlattices in the absence of electric domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyart, Timo; Alexeeva, Natalia V.; Leppänen, Ahti; Alekseev, Kirill N.

    2006-09-01

    The authors theoretically show that conditions for terahertz gain and conditions for formation of destructive electric domains in semiconductor superlattices are fairly different in the case of parametric generation and amplification. Action of an unbiased high-frequency electric field on a superlattice causes a periodic variation of energy and effective mass of miniband electrons. This parametric effect can result in a significant gain at some even harmonic of the pump frequency without the formation of electric domains and corruption from pump harmonics.

  14. Enhancement of Seebeck coefficient in graphene superlattices by electron filtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shakti Kumar; Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, Chetan Prakash; Dikshit, Biswaranjan

    2018-01-01

    We show theoretically that the Seebeck coefficient and the thermoelectric figure of merit can be increased by using electron filtering technique in graphene superlattice based thermoelectric devices. The average Seebeck coefficient for graphene-based thermoelectric devices is proportional to the integral of the distribution of Seebeck coefficient versus energy of electrons. The low energy electrons in the distribution curve are found to reduce the average Seebeck coefficient as their contribution is negative. We show that, with electron energy filtering technique using multiple graphene superlattice heterostructures, the low energy electrons can be filtered out and the Seebeck coefficient can be increased. The multiple graphene superlattice heterostructures can be formed by graphene superlattices with different periodic electric potentials applied above the superlattice. The overall electronic band gap of the multiple heterostructures is dependent upon the individual band gap of the graphene superlattices and can be tuned by varying the periodic electric potentials. The overall electronic band gap of the multiple heterostructures has to be properly chosen such that, the low energy electrons which cause negative Seebeck distribution in single graphene superlattice thermoelectric devices fall within the overall band gap formed by the multiple heterostructures. Although the electrical conductance is decreased in this technique reducing the thermoelectric figure of merit, the overall figure of merit is increased due to huge increase in Seebeck coefficient and its square dependency upon the Seebeck coefficient. This is an easy technique to make graphene superlattice based thermoelectric devices more efficient and has the potential to significantly improve the technology of energy harvesting and sensors.

  15. Electromagnetic Waves Reflectance of Graphene -- Magnetic Semiconductor Superlattice in Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bychkov, Igor V.; Shavrov, Vladimir G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice placed in magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in Faraday geometry with taking into account dissipation processes. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such superlattice have been calculated for different numbers of periods of the structure and different sizes of the periods with using a transfer matrix method. The p...

  16. Piezoelectric thin-film super-lattices without using piezoelectric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, N. D.; Landis, C. M.; Sharma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we show that experimentally realizable apparently piezoelectric thin-film super-lattices can be created from non-piezoelectric materials provided an odd-order (e.g. trilayer) stacking sequence is used. The size-dependent mechanism of flexoelectricity, which couples gradients of strain to polarization, allows such a possibility. We present closed-form analytical expressions for the response of various thin-film and super-lattice configurations. We also clarify some of t...

  17. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0440 FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED-LAYER SUPERLATTICES (POSTPRINT) Zhi Gang Yu...2017 Interim 11 September 2013 – 31 May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FORMATION ENERGIES OF NATIVE POINT DEFECTS IN STRAINED-LAYER SUPERLATTICES...Hamiltonian, tight-binding Hamiltonian, and Green’s function techniques to obtain energy levels arising from native point defects (NPDs) in InAs-GaSb and

  18. Preliminary studies in the electrodeposition of PbSe/PbTe superlattice thin films via electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ALD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Raman; Cox, Steven M; Happek, Uwe; Banga, Dhego; Mathe, Mkhulu K; Stickney, John L

    2006-12-05

    This paper concerns the electrochemical growth of compound semiconductor thin film superlattice structures using electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ALD). Electrochemical ALD is the electrochemical analogue of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and ALD, methods based on nanofilm formation an atomic layer at a time, using surface-limited reactions. Underpotential deposition (UPD) is a type of electrochemical surfaced-limited reaction used in the present studies for the formation of PbSe/PbTe superlattices via electrochemical ALD. PbSe/PbTe thin-film superlattices with modulation wavelengths (periods) of 4.2 and 7.0 nm are reported here. These films were characterized using electron probe microanalysis, X- ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and infrared reflection absorption measurements. The 4.2 nm period superlattice was grown after deposition of 10 PbSe cycles, as a prelayer, resulting in an overall composition of PbSe0.52Te0.48. The 7.0 nm period superlattice was grown after deposition of 100 PbTe cycle prelayer, resulting for an overall composition of PbSe0.44Te0.56. The primary Bragg diffraction peak position, 2theta, for the 4.2 superlattice was consistent with the average (111) angles for PbSe and PbTe. First-order satellite peaks, as well as a second, were observed, indicating a high-quality superlattice film. For the 7.0 nm superlattice, Bragg peaks for both the (200) and (111) planes of the PbSe/PbTe superlattice were observed, with satellite peaks shifted 1 degrees closer to the (111), consistent with the larger period of the superlattice. AFM suggested conformal superlattice growth on the Au on glass substrate. Band gaps for the 4.2 and 7.0 nm period superlattices were measured as 0.48 and 0.38 eV, respectively.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, P.D., E-mail: pabloborges@ufv.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tec., Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Rio Paranaíba, MG (Brazil); Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Petersen, J.E.; Scolfaro, L. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Leite Alves, H.W. [Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de São João Del Rei, Caixa Postal 110, São João Del Rei 36300-000, MG (Brazil); Myers, T.H. [Department of Physics, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Doping in a manner that introduces anisotropy in order to reduce thermal conductivity is a significant focus in thermoelectric research today. By solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in the constant scattering time (τ) approximation, in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory, we compare the Seebeck coefficient (S) and figure of merit (ZT) of bulk PbTe to PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures and PbTe doping superlattices (SLs) with periodically doped planes. Bismuth and Thallium were used as the n- and p-type impurities, respectively. The effects of carrier concentration are considered via chemical potential variation in a rigid band approximation. The impurity bands near the Fermi level in the electronic structure of PbTe SLs are of Tl s- and Bi p-character, and this feature is independent of the doping concentration or the distance between impurity planes. We observe the impurity bands to have a metallic nature in the directions perpendicular to the doping planes, yet no improvement on the values of ZT is found when compared to bulk PbTe. For the PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructures, the calculated S presents good agreement with recent experimental data, and an anisotropic behavior is observed for low carrier concentrations (n<10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}). A large value of ZT{sub ||} (parallel to the growth direction) of 3.0 is predicted for n=4.7×10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and T=700 K, whereas ZT{sub p} (perpendicular to the growth direction) is found to peak at 1.5 for n=1.7×10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. Both electrical conductivity enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction are analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit for PbTe/SnTe/PbTe heterostructure along the [0 0 1] direction, P.D. Borges, J.E. Petersen, L. Scolfaro, H.W. Leite Alves, T.H. Myers, Improved thermoelectric properties of IV–VI-based heterostructures and superlattices. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of IV

  20. Evolving random fractal Cantor superlattices for the infrared using a genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossard, Jeremy A; Lin, Lan; Werner, Douglas H

    2016-01-01

    Ordered and chaotic superlattices have been identified in Nature that give rise to a variety of colours reflected by the skin of various organisms. In particular, organisms such as silvery fish possess superlattices that reflect a broad range of light from the visible to the UV. Such superlattices have previously been identified as 'chaotic', but we propose that apparent 'chaotic' natural structures, which have been previously modelled as completely random structures, should have an underlying fractal geometry. Fractal geometry, often described as the geometry of Nature, can be used to mimic structures found in Nature, but deterministic fractals produce structures that are too 'perfect' to appear natural. Introducing variability into fractals produces structures that appear more natural. We suggest that the 'chaotic' (purely random) superlattices identified in Nature are more accurately modelled by multi-generator fractals. Furthermore, we introduce fractal random Cantor bars as a candidate for generating both ordered and 'chaotic' superlattices, such as the ones found in silvery fish. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve optimal fractal random Cantor bars with multiple generators targeting several desired optical functions in the mid-infrared and the near-infrared. We present optimized superlattices demonstrating broadband reflection as well as single and multiple pass bands in the near-infrared regime. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Transport phenomena in SrVO3/SrTiO3 superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Man; Wolf, Stuart A.; Lu, Jiwei

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxial [(SrVO3)7/(SrTiO3)4] r (SVO/STO) superlattices were grown on (0 0 1)-oriented LSAT substrates using a pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. The transport properties of the superlattices were investigated by varying the number of repetitions of the SVO/STO bilayers r (1  ⩽  r  ⩽  9). A single SVO/STO bilayer (r  =  1) was semiconducting, whereas an increase in the number of repetitions r resulted in metallic behavior in the superlattices with r  ⩾  3. The transport phenomena in the SVO/STO superlattices can be regarded as conduction through parallel-coupled SVO layers, the SVO layer embedded in the superlattices showed a great enhancement in the conductivity compared with the single SVO layer. This work provides further evidence of electronic phase separation in the SVO ultrathin layer that has been recently discovered, the SVO ultrathin layer is considered as a 2D Mott insulator with metallic and insulating phases coexisting, the coupling between SVO layers embedded in the SVO/STO superlattices creates more conduction pathways with increasing number of repetitions r, resulting in a crossover from insulating to metallic behavior.

  2. Hierarchically self-assembled hexagonal honeycomb and kagome superlattices of binary 1D colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Taehoon; Oh, Younghoon; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Sung, Bong June; Choi, Sung-Min

    2017-08-25

    Synthesis of binary nanoparticle superlattices has attracted attention for a broad spectrum of potential applications. However, this has remained challenging for one-dimensional nanoparticle systems. In this study, we investigate the packing behavior of one-dimensional nanoparticles of different diameters into a hexagonally packed cylindrical micellar system and demonstrate that binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices of two different symmetries can be obtained by tuning particle diameter and mixing ratios. The hexagonal arrays of one-dimensional nanoparticles are embedded in the honeycomb lattices (for AB 2 type) or kagome lattices (for AB 3 type) of micellar cylinders. The maximization of free volume entropy is considered as the main driving force for the formation of superlattices, which is well supported by our theoretical free energy calculations. Our approach provides a route for fabricating binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices and may be applicable for inorganic one-dimensional nanoparticle systems.Binary mixtures of 1D particles are rarely observed to cooperatively self-assemble into binary superlattices, as the particle types separate into phases. Here, the authors design a system that avoids phase separation, obtaining binary superlattices with different symmetries by simply tuning the particle diameter and mixture composition.

  3. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  4. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  6. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  7. Regulating Multiple Variables To Understand the Nucleation and Growth and Transformation of PbS Nanocrystal Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwu; Bian, Kaifu; Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Fan, Hongyou; Cao, Y Charles

    2017-10-18

    Nanocrystals (NCs) can self-assemble into ordered superlattices with collective properties, but the ability for controlling NC assembly remains poorly understandable toward achievement of desired superlattice. This work regulates several key variables of PbS NC assembly (e.g., NC concentration and solubility, solvent type, evaporation rate, seed mediation and thermal treatment), and thoroughly exploits the nucleation and growth as well as subsequent superlattice transformation of NC assembles and underneath mechanisms. PbS NCs in toluene self-assemble into a single face-centered-cubic (fcc) and body-centered-cubic (bcc) superlattice, respectively, at concentrations ≤17.5 and ≥70 mg/mL, but an intermediate concentration between them causes the coexistence of the two superlattices. Differently, NCs in hexane or chloroform self-assemble into only a single bcc superlattice. Distinct controls of NC assembly in solvent with variable concentrations confirm the NC concentration/solubility mediated nucleation and growth of superlattice, in which an evaporation-induced local gradient of NC concentration causes simultaneous nucleation of the two superlattices. The observation for the dense packing planes of NCs in fast growing fcc rather than bcc reveals the difference of entropic driving forces responsible for the two distinct superlattices. Decelerating the solvent evaporation does not amend the superlattice symmetry, but improves the superlattice crystallinity. In addition to shrinking the superlattice volume, thermal treatment also transforms the bcc to an fcc superlattice at 175 °C. Through a seed-meditated growth, the concentration-dependent superlattice does not change lattice symmetry over the course of continuous growth, whereas the newly nucleated secondary small nuclei through a concentration change have relatively higher surface energy and quickly dissolve in solution, providing additional NC sources for the ripening of the primarily nucleated larger and

  8. High Coefficient of Performance HgCdTe And Metallic Superlattice-Based Thermoelectric Coolers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of nanoscale superlattices (SLs) as the active elements of high efficiency thermoelectric coolers. Recent models predict that the...

  9. Designing artificial 2D crystals with site and size controlled quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuejun; Kang, Jiahao; Cao, Wei; Chu, Jae Hwan; Gong, Yongji; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2017-08-30

    Ordered arrays of quantum dots in two-dimensional (2D) materials would make promising optical materials, but their assembly could prove challenging. Here we demonstrate a scalable, site and size controlled fabrication of quantum dots in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), and quantum dot arrays with nanometer-scale spatial density by focused electron beam irradiation induced local 2H to 1T phase change in MoS 2 . By designing the quantum dots in a 2D superlattice, we show that new energy bands form where the new band gap can be controlled by the size and pitch of the quantum dots in the superlattice. The band gap can be tuned from 1.81 eV to 1.42 eV without loss of its photoluminescence performance, which provides new directions for fabricating lasers with designed wavelengths. Our work constitutes a photoresist-free, top-down method to create large-area quantum dot arrays with nanometer-scale spatial density that allow the quantum dots to interfere with each other and create artificial crystals. This technique opens up new pathways for fabricating light emitting devices with 2D materials at desired wavelengths. This demonstration can also enable the assembly of large scale quantum information systems and open up new avenues for the design of artificial 2D materials.

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  11. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  12. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  13. Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.

  14. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zallo, Eugenio; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb 2 Te 3 have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  15. Laser induced structural transformation in chalcogenide based superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zallo, Eugenio, E-mail: zallo@pdi-berlin.de; Wang, Ruining; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-30

    Superlattices made of alternating layers of nominal GeTe and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} have been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy. A structural irreversible transformation into ordered GeSbTe alloy is induced by high power laser light exposure. The intensity ratio of anti-Stokes and Stokes scattering under laser illumination gives a maximum average temperature in the sample of 177 °C. The latter is lower than the growth temperature and of 400 °C necessary by annealing to transform the structure in a GeSbTe alloy. The absence of this configuration after in situ annealing even up to 300 °C evidences an electronic excitation induced-transition which brings the system into a different and stable crystalline state.

  16. Transport properties of graphene under periodic and quasiperiodic magnetic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Tao, E-mail: luweitao@lyu.edu.cn [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Wang, Shun-Jin [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu (China); Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China); Li, Wen [School of Science, Linyi University, 276005 Linyi (China)

    2013-08-15

    We study the transmission of Dirac electrons through the one-dimensional periodic, Fibonacci, and Thue–Morse magnetic superlattices (MS), which can be realized by two different magnetic blocks arranged in certain sequences in graphene. The numerical results show that the transmission as a function of incident energy presents regular resonance splitting effect in periodic MS due to the split energy spectrum. For the quasiperiodic MS with more layers, they exhibit rich transmission patterns. In particular, the transmission in Fibonacci MS presents scaling property and fragmented behavior with self-similarity, while the transmission in Thue–Morse MS presents more perfect resonant peaks which are related to the completely transparent states. Furthermore, these interesting properties are robust against the profile of MS, but dependent on the magnetic structure parameters and the transverse wave vector.

  17. Novel electronic and transport properties of graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol-Hwan

    2009-03-01

    Charge carriers in graphene show linear and isotropic energy dispersion relation and chiral behavior, like massless neutrinos in particle physics. Because of these novel properties, many interesting and unconventional phenomena occur in graphene. On the other hand, since the 1970's, metallic and semiconducting superlattice structures -- man-made crystals -- have been extensively studied regarding to their fundamental electronic and optical properties as well as many applications. In this talk, I will present calculations on the properties of charge carriers in graphene under an external periodic potential (graphene superlattices) which are found to be greatly different from those of conventional two-dimensional electron gases in similar conditions [1-3]. I will discuss the anisotropies in the group velocity around the Dirac point and in the gap opening at the supercell Brillouin zone boundary [1]. Next, I will focus on the special cases where the group velocity along one direction becomes zero [1,2], emphasizing the phenomena of pseudospin collapse and possible electron beam supercollimation effects in these systems [2]. Finally, I will discuss the properties of a new generation of massless Dirac fermions at the supercell Brillouin zone boundaries and their experimental implications [3]. [4pt] [1] C. -H. Park, L. Yang, Y. -W. Son, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, Nature Phys. 4, 870 (2008). [0pt] [2] C. -H. Park, Y. -W. Son, L. Yang, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, Nano Lett. 8, 2920 (2008). [0pt] [3] C. -H. Park, L. Yang, Y. -W. Son, M. L. Cohen, and S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 126804 (2008).

  18. Type-II superlattice based low dark current short-wavelength infrared photodetectors with optical response from 0.4 to 2.5um, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent years, Type-II superlattices have experienced significant development. However, the full potential of Type-II superlattice has not been fully explored and...

  19. InP based lasers and optical amplifiers with wire-/dot-like active regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Somers, A.; Deubert, S.

    2005-01-01

    Long wavelength lasers and semiconductor optical amplifiers based on InAs quantum wire/dot-like active regions were developed on InP substrates dedicated to cover the extended telecommunication wavelength range between 1.4 - 1.65 mm. In a brief overview different technological approaches...

  20. MeV Si ion modifications on the thermoelectric generators from Si/Si + Ge superlattice nano-layered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budak, S., E-mail: satilmis.budak@aamu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Heidary, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Johnson, R.B.; Colon, T. [Department of Physics, Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, AL (United States); Muntele, C. [Cygnus Scientific Services, Huntsville, AL (United States); Ila, D. [Department of Physics, Fayetteville St. University, Fayetteville, NC (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The performance of thermoelectric materials and devices is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S{sup 2}σT/K, where, S and σ denote, respectively, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and K represents the thermal conductivity. The figure of merit may be improved by means of raising either S or σ or by lowering K. In our laboratory, we have fabricated and characterized the performance of a large variety of thermoelectric generators (TEG). Two TEG groups comprised of 50 and 100 alternating layers of Si/Si + Ge multi-nanolayered superlattice films have been fabricated and thoroughly characterized. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was utilized to assemble the alternating sandwiched layers, resulting in total thickness of 300 nm and 317 nm for 50 and 100 layer devices, respectively. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was employed in order to monitor the precise quantity of Si and Ge utilized in the construction of specific multilayer thin films. The material layers were subsequently impregnated with quantum dots and/or quantum clusters, in order to concurrently reduce the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and raise the cross plane electrical conductivity. The quantum dots/clusters were implanted via the 5 MeV Si ion bombardment which was performed using a Pelletron high energy ion beam accelerator. We have achieved remarkable results for the thermoelectric and optical properties of the Si/Si + Ge multilayer thin film TEG systems. We have demonstrated that with optimal setting of the 5 MeV Si ion beam bombardment fluences, one can fabricate TEG systems with figures of merits substantially higher than the values previously reported.

  1. MeV Si ion modifications on the thermoelectric generators from Si/Si + Ge superlattice nano-layered films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, S.; Heidary, K.; Johnson, R. B.; Colon, T.; Muntele, C.; Ila, D.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of thermoelectric materials and devices is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = S2σT/K, where, S and σ denote, respectively, the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin and K represents the thermal conductivity. The figure of merit may be improved by means of raising either S or σ or by lowering K. In our laboratory, we have fabricated and characterized the performance of a large variety of thermoelectric generators (TEG). Two TEG groups comprised of 50 and 100 alternating layers of Si/Si + Ge multi-nanolayered superlattice films have been fabricated and thoroughly characterized. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was utilized to assemble the alternating sandwiched layers, resulting in total thickness of 300 nm and 317 nm for 50 and 100 layer devices, respectively. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was employed in order to monitor the precise quantity of Si and Ge utilized in the construction of specific multilayer thin films. The material layers were subsequently impregnated with quantum dots and/or quantum clusters, in order to concurrently reduce the cross plane thermal conductivity, increase the cross plane Seebeck coefficient and raise the cross plane electrical conductivity. The quantum dots/clusters were implanted via the 5 MeV Si ion bombardment which was performed using a Pelletron high energy ion beam accelerator. We have achieved remarkable results for the thermoelectric and optical properties of the Si/Si + Ge multilayer thin film TEG systems. We have demonstrated that with optimal setting of the 5 MeV Si ion beam bombardment fluences, one can fabricate TEG systems with figures of merits substantially higher than the values previously reported.

  2. Dielectric enhancement of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with embedded Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhengwei; Sun Weiguo; Wang Xuemin; Jiang Fan; Wu Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs were successfully fabricated by L-MBE. ► The influence with the various concentrations of Ni nanocrystals embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. ► The dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory. - Abstract: The self-organized Ni nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE). The stress of the composite films was increased with the increasing concentration of embedded Ni NCs, as investigation in stress calculation. The influence with the various concentrations of Ni NCs embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. The internal stress of the films was too strong to epitaxial growth of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. Compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices, the BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss. Furthermore, the dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory.

  3. Correlated insulator behaviour at half-filling in magic-angle graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Fatemi, Valla; Demir, Ahmet; Fang, Shiang; Tomarken, Spencer L.; Luo, Jason Y.; Sanchez-Yamagishi, Javier D.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Ashoori, Ray C.; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    A van der Waals heterostructure is a type of metamaterial that consists of vertically stacked two-dimensional building blocks held together by the van der Waals forces between the layers. This design means that the properties of van der Waals heterostructures can be engineered precisely, even more so than those of two-dimensional materials. One such property is the ‘twist’ angle between different layers in the heterostructure. This angle has a crucial role in the electronic properties of van der Waals heterostructures, but does not have a direct analogue in other types of heterostructure, such as semiconductors grown using molecular beam epitaxy. For small twist angles, the moiré pattern that is produced by the lattice misorientation between the two-dimensional layers creates long-range modulation of the stacking order. So far, studies of the effects of the twist angle in van der Waals heterostructures have concentrated mostly on heterostructures consisting of monolayer graphene on top of hexagonal boron nitride, which exhibit relatively weak interlayer interaction owing to the large bandgap in hexagonal boron nitride. Here we study a heterostructure consisting of bilayer graphene, in which the two graphene layers are twisted relative to each other by a certain angle. We show experimentally that, as predicted theoretically, when this angle is close to the ‘magic’ angle the electronic band structure near zero Fermi energy becomes flat, owing to strong interlayer coupling. These flat bands exhibit insulating states at half-filling, which are not expected in the absence of correlations between electrons. We show that these correlated states at half-filling are consistent with Mott-like insulator states, which can arise from electrons being localized in the superlattice that is induced by the moiré pattern. These properties of magic-angle-twisted bilayer graphene heterostructures suggest that these materials could be used to study other exotic many

  4. Strong far-infrared intersubband absorption under normal incidence in heavily n-type doped nonalloy GaSb-AlSb superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, L. A.; Brar, Berinder; Kroemer, H.

    1993-01-01

    We report on long-wavelength intersubband absorption under normal incidence in heavily doped binary-binary GaSb-AlSb superlattices. Due to a small energy difference between the ellipsoidal L valleys in GaSb and the low-density-of-states Gamma minimum, electrons spill over from the first Gamma subband into the higher-energy L subband in GaSb wells, where they are allowed to make an intersubband transition under normally incident radiation. A peak fractional absorption per quantum well of 6.8 x 10 exp 3 (absorption coefficient alpha of about 8500/cm) is observed at about 15 microns wavelength for a sheet concentration of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 sq cm/well.

  5. Growth and characterization of In1-xGaxAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 strained layer superlattice infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyawansa, G.; Duran, J. M.; Reyner, C. J.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Yoon, N.; Wasserman, D.; Scheihing, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    Type-II strained layer superlattices (SLS) are an active research topic in the infrared detector community and applications for SLS detectors continue to grow. SLS detector technology has already reached the commercial market due to improvements in material quality, device design, and device fabrication. Despite this progress, the optimal superlattice design has not been established, and at various times has been believed to be InAs/GaSb, InAs/InGaSb, or InAs/InAsSb. Building on these, we investigate the properties of a new mid-wave infrared SLS material: InGaAs/InAsSb SLS. The ternary InGaAs/InAsSb SLS has three main advantages over other SLS designs: greater support for strain compensation, enhanced absorption due to increased electron-hole wavefunction overlap, and improved vertical hole mobility due to reduced hole effective mass. Here, we compare three ternary SLSs, with approximately the same bandgap (0.240 eV at 150 K), comprised of Ga fractions of 5%, 10%, and 20% to a reference sample with 0% Ga. Enhanced absorption is both theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. Furthermore, the characteristics of ternary SLS infrared detectors based on an nBn architecture are reported and exhibit nearly state-of-the-art dark current performance with minimal growth optimization. We report standard material and device characterization information, including dark current and external quantum efficiency, and provide further analysis that indicates improved quantum efficiency and vertical hole mobility. Finally, a 320×256 focal plane array built based on the In0.8Ga0.2As/InAs0.65Sb0.35 SLS design is demonstrated with promising performance.

  6. Field-induced decay of quantum vacuum: visualizing pair production in a classical photonic system

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of vacuum decay, i.e. electron-positron pair production due to the instability of the quantum electrodynamics vacuum in an external field, is a remarkable prediction of Dirac theory whose experimental observation is still lacking. Here a classic wave optics analogue of vacuum decay, based on light propagation in curved waveguide superlattices, is proposed. Our photonic analogue enables a simple and experimentally-accessible visualization in space of the process of pair producti...

  7. Electronic states in tunneling semiconductor superlattices: Technical progress report for the period September 15, 1987-September 14, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This research project funded by DOE has concentrated in the systematic study of the effects of a gate voltage on the electronic structure of a tunneling superlattice system. The effects of strong magnetic fields and other various parameters on energy levels of tunneling superlattices have been investigated

  8. Ultrafast detection and autocorrelation of picosecond THz radiation pulses with a GaAs/AlAs superlattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnerl, S.; Seiwerth, W.; Schomburg, E.; Grenzer, J.; Renk, K. F.; Langerak, Cjgm; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Pavel' ev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Y.; Ignatov, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    We used a wide miniband GaAs/AlAs superlattice (at room temperature) for detection and autocorrelation of picosecond THz radiation pulses (frequency 4.3 THz) from a free- electron laser. The detection was based on a THz-field induced change in conductivity of the superlattice, and the correlation on

  9. Strain and Defect Engineering for Tailored Electrical Properties in Perovskite Oxide Thin Films and Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, Greg Hsiang-Chun

    Functional complex-oxides display a wide spectrum of physical properties, including ferromagnetism, piezoelectricity, ferroelectricity, photocatalytic and metal-insulating transition (MIT) behavior. Within this family, oxides with a perovskite structure have been widely studied, especially in the form of thin films and superlattices (heterostructures), which are strategically and industrially important because they offer a wide range of opportunities for electronic, piezoelectric and sensor applications. The first part of my thesis focuses on understanding and tuning of the built-in electric field found in PbTiO3/SrTiO3 (PTO/STO) ferroelectric superlattices and other ferroelectric films. The artificial layering in ferroelectric superlattices is a potential source of polarization asymmetry, where one polarization state is preferred over another. One manifestation of this asymmetry is a built-in electric field associated with shifted polarization hysteresis. Using off-axis RF-magnetron sputtering, we prepared several compositions of PTO/STO superlattice thin films; and for comparison PbTiO3/SrRuO 3 (PTO/SRO) superlattices, which have an additional intrinsic compositional asymmetry at the interface. Both theoretical modeling and experiments indicate that the layer-by-layer superlattice structure aligns the Pb-O vacancy defect dipoles in the c direction which contributes significantly to the built-in electric field; however the preferred polarization direction is different between the PTO/STO and PTO/SRO interface. By designing a hybrid superlattice that combines PTO/STO and PTO/SRO superlattices, we show the built-in electric field can be tuned to zero by changing the composition of the combo-superlattice. The second part of my thesis focuses on the epitaxial growth of SrCrO 3 (SCO) films. The inconsistent reports regarding its electrical and magnetic properties through the years stem from the compositionally and structurally ill-defined polycrystalline samples, but

  10. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  11. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan12@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai, E-mail: yhchen@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China); Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue [The State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  12. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed

  13. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene superlattice p-n junction with different shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Benliang; Yao, Yagang; Zhou, Guanghui; Hu, Ming

    2017-10-11

    We theoretically calculate the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon p-n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength. Interestingly, a metal to semiconductor transition occurs as the number of the superlattice for a crossed superlattice p-n junction increases, and its spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than that for the T-shaped one around the zero Fermi energy. Furthermore, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed systems can be much pronounced and their maximum absolute value can reach 528 μV [Formula: see text] by choosing optimized parameters. Besides, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed p-n junction is strongly enhanced around the zero Fermi energy for a weak magnetic field. Our results provide theoretical references for modulating the thermoelectric properties of a graphene superlattice p-n junction by tuning its geometric structure and physical parameters.

  14. Resonant tunneling effect in graphene superlattice heterostructures by tuning the electric potential of defect layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Mishra, Shakti; Kumar, Amar; Prakash Kaushik, Chetan; Dikshit, Biswaranjan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated the electronic resonant tunneling effect in graphene superlattice heterostructures with an electric potential controlled defect layer. This layer is created by a single irregular electrode inserted in between two different superlattices. We have numerically investigated the tunable giant thermoelectric effect in the above-mentioned structure which is caused by complete electronic tunneling using a transfer matrix approach. The magnitude of the maximum Seebeck coefficient generated in the above structures is several times more than that in an individual superlattice as well as in superlattice heterostructures. This structure can be tuned to give a maximum Seebeck coefficient by varying the applied voltage on the defect layer. By this method, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is found to be 384.9 mV/K, which is the largest reported ever. The tunneling state and the maximum value of the Seebeck coefficient are found to be located in the small overlapped forbidden gap of two graphene superlattices. This voltage controlled tuning technique for complete electronic tunneling is practically preferable against the width controlled technique reported in the literature. These types of structures are important for graphene-based devices which can be used for efficient thermoelectric devices in energy harvesting and high-Q narrowband electron wave filters.

  15. Giant piezoelectric response in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Huaping; Wang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the linear response of electrical polarization to a strain gradient, which can be used to enhance the piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric material or realize the piezoelectric effect in nonpiezoelectric materials. Here, we demonstrate from thermodynamics theory that a giant piezoelectric effect exists in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices due to flexoelectric effect. The apparent piezoelectric coefficient is calculated from the closed-form of analytical expression of the polarization distribution in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice subjected to a normal stress, in which the flexoelectric effect is included. It is found that there exists a strong nonlinear coupling between the flexoelectric and piezoelectric effects, which significantly enhances the apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the piezoelectric/dielectric superlattice. For a specific thickness ratio of the piezoelectric and dielectric layers, the enhanced apparent piezoelectric coefficient in the superlattice is ten times larger than that of its pure piezoelectric counterpart. The present work suggests an effective way to obtain giant apparent piezoelectric effect in piezoelectric/dielectric superlattices through flexoelectric effect.

  16. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene superlattice p-n junction with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Benhu; Zhou, Benliang; Yao, Yagang; Zhou, Guanghui; Hu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically calculate the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for a zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbon p-n junction with periodically attached stubs under a perpendicular magnetic field and a ferromagnetic insulator. By using the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that the spin-dependent transmission probability and spin Seebeck coefficient for two types of superlattices can be modulated by the potential drop, the magnetization strength, the number of periods of the superlattice, the strength of the perpendicular magnetic field, and the Anderson disorder strength. Interestingly, a metal to semiconductor transition occurs as the number of the superlattice for a crossed superlattice p-n junction increases, and its spin Seebeck coefficient is much larger than that for the T-shaped one around the zero Fermi energy. Furthermore, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed systems can be much pronounced and their maximum absolute value can reach 528 μV K-1 by choosing optimized parameters. Besides, the spin Seebeck coefficient for crossed p-n junction is strongly enhanced around the zero Fermi energy for a weak magnetic field. Our results provide theoretical references for modulating the thermoelectric properties of a graphene superlattice p-n junction by tuning its geometric structure and physical parameters.

  17. ZnO: Hydroquinone superlattice structures fabricated by atomic/molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    Here we employ atomic layer deposition in combination with molecular layer deposition to deposit crystalline thin films of ZnO interspersed with single layers of hydroquinone in an effort to create hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures. The ratio of the ZnO and hydroquinone deposition cycles is varied between 199:1 and 1:1, and the structure of the resultant thin films is verified with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques. Clear evidence of the formation of a superlattice-type structure is observed in the X-ray reflectivity patterns and the presence of organic bonds in the films corresponding to the structure of hydroquinone is confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. We anticipate that hybrid superlattice structures such as the ones described in this work have the potential to be of great importance for future applications where the precise control of different inorganic and organic layers in hybrid superlattice materials is required. - Highlights: • Inorganic–organic superlattices can be made by atomic/molecular layer deposition. • This is demonstrated here for ZnO and hydroquinone (HQ). • The ratio of the ZnO and HQ layers is varied between 199:1 and 14:1. • The resultant thin films are crystalline

  18. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  19. Structure and strain state of polar and semipolar InGaN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoula, T.; Lotsari, A.; Kehagias, Th. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Dimitrakopulos, G.P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Haeusler, I. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, AG Kristallographie, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Das, A.; Monroy, E. [CEA-CNRS Group ' NanoPhysique et SemiConducteurs,' INAC/SP2M/NPSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Karakostas, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2012-11-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of ultrathin (0 0 0 1) and (112{sup Macron }2) InGaN quantum dots were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polar dots grown at high temperatures exhibited defined truncated morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indium interdiffusion was reduced under the employed PAMBE growth scheme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lenticular semipolar quantum dots can be deposited at lower temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The indium content in the dots was determined taking a plane stress state. - Abstract: The nanoscale structural properties of ultrathin (2 nm high) self-assembled (0 0 0 1) polar and (112{sup Macron }2) semipolar InGaN/GaN quantum dot (QD) superlattices, grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Samples grown under two sets of temperature ranges were compared. The higher-temperature uncapped polar QDs were well-defined and exhibited a truncated pyramidal morphology. Similar morphology was observed for the embedded QDs, albeit faintly diffused. On the other hand, the polar superlattices grown at lower temperatures were heavily distorted due to a large stacking fault density. Semipolar QDs exhibited lenticular morphology. The QD superlattices were found to be elastically strained using geometrical phase analysis, and their strain state was well-described by a biaxial approximation. The extrapolated indium content was consistent with reduced indium incorporation efficiency for the semipolar case compared with the polar one.

  20. First-principles modeling of titanate/ruthenate superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquera, Javier

    2013-03-01

    The possibility to create highly confined two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces has generated much excitement during the last few years. The most widely studied system is the 2DEG formed at the LaO/TiO2 polar interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, where the polar catastrophe at the interface has been invoked as the driving force. More recently, partial or complete delta doping of the Sr or Ti cations at a single layer of a SrTiO3 matrix has also been used to generate 2DEG. Following this recipe, we report first principles characterization of the structural and electronic properties of (SrTiO3)5/(SrRuO3)1 superlattices, where all the Ti of a given layer have been replaced by Ru. We show that the system exhibits a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas extremely confined to the 4 d orbitals of Ru in the SrRuO3 layer, a fact that is independent of the level of correlation included in the simulations. For hybrid functionals or LDA+U, every interface in the superlattice behaves as minority-spin half-metal ferromagnet, with a magnetic moment of μ = 2.0 μB/SrRuO3 unit. The shape of the electronic density of states, half metallicity and magnetism are explained in terms of a simplified tight-binding model, considering only the t2 g orbitals plus (i) the bi-dimensionality of the system, and (ii) strong electron correlations. Possible applications are discussed, from their eventual role in thermoelectric applications to the possible tuning of ferromagnetic properties of the 2DEG with the polarization of the dielectric. Work done in collaboration with P. García, M. Verissimo-Alves, D. I. Bilc, and Ph. Ghosez. Financial support provided by MICINN Grant FIS2009-12721-C04-02, and by the European Union Grant No. CP-FP 228989-2 ``OxIDes.'' The authors thankfully acknowledge the computer resources, technical expertise and assistance provided by the BSC/RES.

  1. Strained superlattices and magnetic tunnel junctions based on doped manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafeng Lu

    2001-01-01

    In the first part of this work the effect of biaxial strain on the structure and transport properties of doped manganites has been studied to explore the relevance of Jahn-Teller electron-lattice interaction for the CMR phenomenon in these materials. A series of high quality, coherently strained La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with different modulation periods have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO 3 and NdGaO 3 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. A detailed structural characterization was performed by high-angle X-ray diffraction (HAXRD) and low-angle X-ray reflectivity (LAXRR). The fabricated superlattices are very flat, show excellent structural coherence and very small mosaic spread (0.2 ∝0.03 ). The in-plane coherency strain could be varied by changing the thickness ratio of the constituent layers allowing for a systematic variation of the resulting lattice distortion of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 . By the in-plane coherency strain the out-of-plane lattice constant could be continuously adjusted by varying the relative thickness of the SrTiO 3 and La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 layers: the c-axis lattice constant of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 was found to vary from 3.910 A to 3.975 A due to a compressive in-plane strain, whereas the c-axis constant of La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 was found to change from 3.87 A to 3.79A due to tensile in-plane strain. The strain results in a biaxial distortion ε bi of La 2/3 (Ca or Ba) 1/3 MnO 3 that strongly affects the electrical transport properties and the magnetoresistance. Our measurements show that there is a clear correlation between ε bi and the temperature T p corresponding to the maximum in the resistivity versus temperature curves as well as the measured magnetoresistance in the two systems. In the second part of this work we have investigated the spin-dependent tunneling in trilayer structures of La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 /La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 . (orig.)

  2. Quantum walks, quantum gates, and quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Andrew P.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2007-01-01

    The physics of quantum walks on graphs is formulated in Hamiltonian language, both for simple quantum walks and for composite walks, where extra discrete degrees of freedom live at each node of the graph. It is shown how to map between quantum walk Hamiltonians and Hamiltonians for qubit systems and quantum circuits; this is done for both single-excitation and multiexcitation encodings. Specific examples of spin chains, as well as static and dynamic systems of qubits, are mapped to quantum walks, and walks on hyperlattices and hypercubes are mapped to various gate systems. We also show how to map a quantum circuit performing the quantum Fourier transform, the key element of Shor's algorithm, to a quantum walk system doing the same. The results herein are an essential preliminary to a Hamiltonian formulation of quantum walks in which coupling to a dynamic quantum environment is included

  3. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Yiqiao [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States); Moy, Aaron [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  4. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  5. Evidence of negative electrorefraction in type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Karachinsky, L. Ya; Blokhin, S. A.; Novikov, I. I.; Egorov, A. Yu; Maximov, M. V.; Gordeev, N. Yu; Kulagina, M. M.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    A type-II GaAs/GaAlAs short-period superlattice (SPSL) used as an electro-optic medium for the spectral range 820-850 nm is studied in a vertical microcavity geometry. SPSL is sandwiched between two GaAlAs distributed Bragg reflectors. Optical power reflectance (OR) spectra are measured as a function of applied reverse bias at different tilt angles and temperatures. All spectra reveal a blue shift of the reflectivity dip upon applied voltage which evidences a negative electrorefraction of the electro-optic medium. The shift enhances up to ˜0.6 nm once the exciton resonance is brought close to the wavelength of the reflectivity dip. As opposed to those modulators based on quantum-confined Stark effect, no increased absorption is observed at an applied bias, because the integrated intensity of the reflectivity dip in the OR spectra is virtually constant. This indicates a low absorption loss with applied bias and consequently a high potential for the increased dynamic range of the related modulator.

  6. InGaAs/GaAsSb Type-II superlattice based photodiodes for short wave infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliel, Y.; Cohen-Elias, D.; Sicron, N.; Grimberg, I.; Snapi, N.; Paltiel, Y.; Katz, M.

    2017-08-01

    Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) photodetectors operating above the response cutoff of InGaAs- based detectors (1.7-2.5 μm) are required for both defense and civil applications. Type II Super-Lattices (T2SL) were recently proposed For near- room temperature SWIR detection as a possible system enabling bandgap adjustment in the required range. The work presented here focuses on a T2SL with alternating nano-layers of InGaAs and GaAsSb lattice-matched to an InP substrate. A near room temperature SWIR cutoff of 2.4 μm was measured. Electrical junctions were realized using Zn diffusion p-doping process. We realized and studied both mesa- and selective diffusion- based p-i-n photodiodes. Dark currents of mesa-based devices were 1.5 mA/cm2 and 32 μA/cm2 at 300 and 230 K respectively. Dark currents were reduced to 1.2 mA/cm2 and 12 μA/cm2 respectively by utilizing the selective diffusion process. The effect of operating voltage is discussed. At 300 K the quantum efficiency was up to 40% at 2.18 μm in mesa devices. D∗ was 1.7 ×1010cm ·√{Hz } /W at 2 μm.

  7. Thermal transport of III-V semiconductor materials and superlattices based on molecular dynamics with optimized Tersoff potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Song; Knezevic, Irena

    III-V compound semiconductor materials are widely used in optoelectronics devices. III-V superlattices (SLs) make the active core of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). Achieving room-temperature (RT), high-power, and continuous-wave (CW) operation in QCLs hinges on the understanding and engineering of thermal transport in the layers and across the interfaces. Cations in III-V ternary alloys differ a lot in mass and this effect on thermal transport is hard to capture using the scattering rates deduced from common perturbation theories. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can explicitly take the mass difference into consideration and are suitable for calculating the bulk thermal conductivity of III-V ternary alloys. Furthermore, the morphology and anharmonic interactions at an interface are naturally captured in MD, leading to an accurate description of interfacial transport. We adopt the Tersoff-type potentials for III-V binaries and optimize them according to acoustic phonon dispersions in order to capture thermal properties. The optimized potential is then used to directly compute the thermal boundary resistance at a heterojunction interface, as well as the thermal conductivity in the SL as a whole. US Department of Energy Award No. DE-SC0008712.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of thin film and superlattice structure of IV-VI and V-VI compound semiconductors; Thermoelektrische Eigenschaften duenner Schichten und Uebergitterstrukturen von IV-VI- und V-VI-Verbundhalbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumers, Mathias

    2012-02-29

    The basic material property governing the efficiency of thermoelectric applications is the thermoelectric figure of merit Z=S{sup 2}.{sigma}/k, where S is the Seebeck-coefficient, {sigma} is the electrical conductivity and k the thermal conductivity. A promising concept of increasing Z by one and two dimensional quantum well superlattices (QW-SL) was introduced in the early 1990s in terms of theoretical predictions. The realization of such low dimensional systems is done by use of semiconductor compounds with different energy gaps. The ambition of the Nitherma project was to investigate the thermoelectric properties of superlattices and Multi-Quantum-Well-structures (MQW) made of Pb{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Te and Bi{sub 2}(Se{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}){sub 3}, respectively. Therefore SL- and MQW-structures of this materials were grown and Z was determined by measuring of S, {sigma} and {kappa} parallel to the layer planes. Aim of this thesis is the interpretation of the transport measurements (S,{sigma},{kappa}) of low dimensional structures and the improvement of preparation and measurement techniques. The influence of low dimensionality on the thermal conductivity in SL- and MQW-structures was investigated by measurements on structures with different layer thicknesses. In addition, measurements of the Seebeck-coefficient were performed, also to verify the results of the participating groups.

  9. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The

  10. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  11. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  12. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  13. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  14. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  15. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  16. The effect of interfacial charge transfer on ferromagnetism in perovskite oxide superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Gu, M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Arenholz, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Browning, N. D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology; Takamura, Y. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2012-01-05

    We investigate the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of superlattices composed of the ferromagnetic/metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and non-magnetic/metal La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 grown on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates. Using a combination of bulk magnetometry, soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that robust ferromagnetic properties can be maintained in this superlattice system where charge transfer at the interfaces is minimized. Thus, ferromagnetism can be controlled effectively through the chemical identity and the thickness of the individual superlattice layers.

  17. Coherent, atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide superlattices with engineered strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Saien; Tu, Lijie; Han, Yimo; Huang, Lujie; Kang, Kibum; Lao, Ka Un; Poddar, Preeti; Park, Chibeom; Muller, David A.; DiStasio, Robert A.; Park, Jiwoong

    2018-03-01

    Epitaxy forms the basis of modern electronics and optoelectronics. We report coherent atomically thin superlattices in which different transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers—despite large lattice mismatches—are repeated and laterally integrated without dislocations within the monolayer plane. Grown by an omnidirectional epitaxy, these superlattices display fully matched lattice constants across heterointerfaces while maintaining an isotropic lattice structure and triangular symmetry. This strong epitaxial strain is precisely engineered via the nanoscale supercell dimensions, thereby enabling broad tuning of the optical properties and producing photoluminescence peak shifts as large as 250 millielectron volts. We present theoretical models to explain this coherent growth and the energetic interplay governing the ripple formation in these strained monolayers. Such coherent superlattices provide building blocks with targeted functionalities at the atomically thin limit.

  18. Lattice dynamics and Raman scattering by phonons of GaAs/AlAs(001) superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdekas, D; Ves, S

    2009-07-08

    The lattice dynamics of (GaAs)(n)/(AlAs)(n)(001) superlattices (SLs), n = 1,2, with perfect and disordered (non-perfect) interfaces is studied in detail. The SLs with disordered interfaces are approached by primitive cells, much larger in volume than that of the perfect SL primitive cell. The dynamical matrices of the SLs have been constructed from a combination of the dynamical matrices corresponding to the bulk crystalline constituents, while the interionic forces are calculated by using a ten-parameter valence overlap shell model (VOSM). Furthermore, we calculate the Raman spectra, for both perfect and disordered superlattices by using an eight-parameter bond polarizability model (BPM). Our theoretical results are in very good agreement with the available experimental spectra. Finally, our results clearly demonstrate that intermixing of Ga and Al cations, even to a very small extent, can induce Raman activity, which although not expected in the spectra of perfect superlattices, is actually observed experimentally.

  19. Energy minibands degeneration induced by magnetic field effects in graphene superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Villagrana, R. A.; Carrera-Escobedo, V. H.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2017-12-01

    Energy minibands are a basic feature of practically any superlattice. In this regard graphene superlattices are not the exception and recently miniband transport has been reported through magneto-transport measurements. In this work, we compute the energy miniband and transport characteristics for graphene superlattices in which the energy barriers are generated by magnetic and electric fields. The transfer matrix approach and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism have been implemented to calculate the energy minibands and the linear-regime conductance. We find that energy minibands are very sensitive to the magnetic field and become degenerate by rising it. We were also able to correlate the evolution of the energy minibands as a function of the magnetic field with the transport characteristics, finding that miniband transport can be destroyed by magnetic field effects. Here, it is important to remark that although magnetic field effects have been a key element to unveil miniband transport, they can also destroy it.

  20. Statistically induced topological phase transitions in a one-dimensional superlattice anyon-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zheng-Wei; Li, Guo-Ling; Li, Liben

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically investigate topological properties of the one-dimensional superlattice anyon-Hubbard model, which can be mapped to a superlattice bose-Hubbard model with an occupation-dependent phase factor by fractional Jordan-Wigner transformation. The topological anyon-Mott insulator is identified by topological invariant and edge modes using exact diagonalization and the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. When only the statistical angle is varied and all other parameters are fixed, a statistically induced topological phase transition can be realized, which provides insights into the topological phase transitions. What's more, we give an explanation of the statistically induced topological phase transition. The topological anyon-Mott phases can also appear in a variety of superlattice anyon-Hubbard models.

  1. Bulk elastic waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states in a time-dependent superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinteck, N., E-mail: swinteck@email.arizona.edu; Matsuo, S.; Runge, K.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Vasseur, J. O. [Institut d' Electronique, de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2015-08-14

    Recent progress in electronic and electromagnetic topological insulators has led to the demonstration of one way propagation of electron and photon edge states and the possibility of immunity to backscattering by edge defects. Unfortunately, such topologically protected propagation of waves in the bulk of a material has not been observed. We show, in the case of sound/elastic waves, that bulk waves with unidirectional backscattering-immune topological states can be observed in a time-dependent elastic superlattice. The superlattice is realized via spatial and temporal modulation of the stiffness of an elastic material. Bulk elastic waves in this superlattice are supported by a manifold in momentum space with the topology of a single twist Möbius strip. Our results demonstrate the possibility of attaining one way transport and immunity to scattering of bulk elastic waves.

  2. Electron conductance in curved quantum structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A differential-geometry analysis is employed to investigate the transmission of electrons through a curved quantum-wire structure. Although the problem is a three-dimensional spatial problem, the Schrodinger equation can be separated into three general coordinates. Hence, the proposed method...

  3. Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Putnam, Morgan C.; Warren, Emily L.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2010-02-14

    Si wire arrays are a promising architecture for solar-energy-harvesting applications, and may offer a mechanically flexible alternative to Si wafers for photovoltaics. To achieve competitive conversion efficiencies, the wires must absorb sunlight over a broad range of wavelengths and incidence angles, despite occupying only a modest fraction of the array’s volume. Here, we show that arrays having less than 5% areal fraction of wires can achieve up to 96% peak absorption, and that they can absorb up to 85% of day-integrated, above-bandgap direct sunlight. In fact, these arrays show enhanced near-infrared absorption, which allows their overall sunlight absorption to exceed the ray-optics light-trapping absorption limit18 for an equivalent volume of randomly textured planar Si, over a broad range of incidence angles. We furthermore demonstrate that the light absorbed by Si wire arrays can be collected with a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.89, and that they show broadband, near-unity internal quantum efficiency for carrier collection through a radial semiconductor/liquid junction at the surface of each wire. The observed absorption enhancement and collection efficiency enable a cell geometry that not only uses 1/100th the material of traditional wafer-based devices, but also may offer increased photovoltaic efficiency owing to an effective optical concentration of up to 20 times.

  4. Spin-dependent charge recombination along para-phenylene molecular wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Thomas P.; Lewis, Alan M.; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2017-08-01

    We have used an efficient new quantum mechanical method for radical pair recombination reactions to study the spin-dependent charge recombination along PTZ•+-Phn-PDI•- molecular wires. By comparing our results with the experimental data of Weiss et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 5577 (2004)], we are able to extract the spin-dependent (singlet and triplet) charge recombination rate constants for wires with n = 2-5. These spin-dependent rate constants have not been extracted previously from the experimental data because they require fitting its magnetic field-dependence to the results of quantum spin dynamics simulations. We find that the triplet recombination rate constant decreases exponentially with the length of the wire, consistent with the superexchange mechanism of charge recombination. However, the singlet recombination rate constant is nearly independent of the length of the wire, suggesting that the singlet pathway is dominated by an incoherent hopping mechanism. A simple qualitative explanation for the different behaviours of the two spin-selective charge recombination pathways is provided in terms of Marcus theory. We also find evidence for a magnetic field-independent background contribution to the triplet yield of the charge recombination reaction and suggest several possible explanations for it. Since none of these explanations is especially compelling given the available experimental evidence, and since the result appears to apply more generally to other molecular wires, we hope that this aspect of our study will stimulate further experimental work.

  5. Angle-dependent bandgap engineering in gated graphene superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Cervantes, H.; Sotolongo-Costa, O. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Gaggero-Sager, L. M. [CIICAp, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Naumis, G. G. [Instituto Física, Depto. de Física-Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, México D.F., México (Mexico); Rodríguez-Vargas, I., E-mail: isaac@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, IICBA, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac., México (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    Graphene Superlattices (GSs) have attracted a lot of attention due to its peculiar properties as well as its possible technological implications. Among these characteristics we can mention: the extra Dirac points in the dispersion relation and the highly anisotropic propagation of the charge carriers. However, despite the intense research that is carried out in GSs, so far there is no report about the angular dependence of the Transmission Gap (TG) in GSs. Here, we report the dependence of TG as a function of the angle of the incident Dirac electrons in a rather simple Electrostatic GS (EGS). Our results show that the angular dependence of the TG is intricate, since for moderated angles the dependence is parabolic, while for large angles an exponential dependence is registered. We also find that the TG can be modulated from meV to eV, by changing the structural parameters of the GS. These characteristics open the possibility for an angle-dependent bandgap engineering in graphene.

  6. Thiol passivation of MWIR type II superlattice photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, O.; Muti, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2013-06-01

    Poor passivation on photodetectors can result in catastrophic failure of the device. Abrupt termination of mesa side walls during pixel definition generates dangling bonds that lead to inversion layers and surface traps leading to surface leakage currents that short circuit diode action. Good passivation, therefore, is critical in the fabrication of high performance devices. Silicondioxide has been the main stay of passivation for commercial photodetectors, deposited at high temperatures and high RF powers using plasma deposition techniques. In photodetectors based on III-V compounds, sulphur passivation has been shown to replace oxygen and saturate the dangling bonds. Despite its effectiveness, it degrades over time. More effort is required to create passivation layers which eliminate surface leakage current. In this work, we propose the use of sulphur based octadecanethiol (ODT), CH3(CH2)17SH, as a passivation layer for the InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors that acts as a self assembled monolayer (SAM). ODT SAMs consist of a chain of 18 carbon atoms with a sulphur atom at its head. ODT Thiol coating is a simple process that consist of dipping the sample into the solution for a prescribed time. Excellent electrical performance of diodes tested confirm the effectiveness of the sulphur head stabilized by the intermolecular interaction due to van der Walls forces between the long chains of ODT SAM which results in highly stable ultrathin hydrocarbon layers without long term degradation.

  7. Engineered superlattices with crossover from decoupled to synthetic ferromagnetic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Malik, Vivek K.; Kane, Alexander M.; Mehta, Apurva; Arenholz, Elke; Takamura, Yayoi

    2018-01-01

    The extent of interfacial charge transfer and the resulting impact on magnetic interactions were investigated as a function of sublayer thickness in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 ferromagnetic superlattices. Element-specific soft x-ray magnetic spectroscopy reveals that the electronic structure is altered within 5–6 unit cells of the chemical interface, and can lead to a synthetic ferromagnet with strong magnetic coupling between the sublayers. The saturation magnetization and coercivity depends sensitively on the sublayer thickness due to the length scale of this interfacial effect. For larger sublayer thicknesses, the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 sublayers are magnetically decoupled, displaying two independent magnetic transitions with little sublayer thickness dependence. These results demonstrate how interfacial phenomena at perovskite oxide interfaces can be used to tailor their functional properties at the atomic scale.

  8. Nano-engineering of electron correlation in oxide superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverock, J.; Gu, M.; Jovic, V.; Lu, J. W.; Wolf, S. A.; Qiao, R. M.; Yang, W.; Smith, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Oxide heterostructures and superlattices (SLs) have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years owing to the rich exotic properties encountered at their interfaces. We focus on the potential of tunable correlated oxides by investigating the spectral function of the prototypical correlated metal SrVO3, using soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering to access both unoccupied and occupied electronic states, respectively. We demonstrate a remarkable level of tunability in the spectral function of SrVO3 by varying its thickness within the SrVO3/SrTiO3 SL, showing that the effects of electron correlation can be tuned from dominating the energy spectrum in a strongly correlated Mott–Hubbard insulator, towards a correlated metal. We show that the effects of dimensionality on the correlated properties of SrVO3 are augmented by interlayer coupling, yielding a highly flexible correlated oxide that may be readily married with other oxide systems.

  9. Mid-wavelength infrared unipolar nBp superlattice photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alireza; Myers, Stephen; Taghipour, Zahra; Mathews, Sen; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Lee, Seunghyun; Cowan, Vincent M.; Garduno, Eli; Steenbergen, Elizabeth; Morath, Christian; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Scheihing, John; Krishna, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    We report a Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) barrier photodetector based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) material system. The nBp design consists of a single unipolar barrier (InAs/AlSb SL) placed between a 4 μm thick p-doped absorber (InAs/GaSb SL) and an n-type contact layer (InAs/GaSb SL). At 80 K, the device exhibited a 50% cut-off wavelength of 5 μm, was fully turned-ON at zero bias and the measured QE was 50% (front side illumination with no AR coating) at 4.5 μm with a dark current density of 4.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at Vb = 50 mV. At 150 K and Vb = 50 mV, the 50% cut-off wavelength increased to 5.3 μm, and the QE was 54% at 4.5 μm with a dark current of 5.0 × 10-4 A/cm2.

  10. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  11. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  12. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  14. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  15. Investigation of Photovoltaic Properties of Single Core-Shell GaN/InGaN Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messanvi, A; Zhang, H; Neplokh, V; Julien, F H; Bayle, F; Foldyna, M; Bougerol, C; Gautier, E; Babichev, A; Durand, C; Eymery, J; Tchernycheva, M

    2015-10-07

    We report the investigation of the photovoltaic properties of core-shell GaN/InGaN wires. The radial structure is grown on m-plane {11̅00} facets of self-assembled c̅-axis GaN wires elaborated by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates. The conversion efficiency of wires with radial shell composed of thick In0.1Ga0.9N layers and of 30× In0.18Ga0.82N/GaN quantum wells are compared. We also investigate the impact of the contact nature and layout on the carrier collection and photovoltaic performances. The contact optimization results in an improved conversion efficiency of 0.33% and a fill factor of 83% under 1 sun (AM1.5G) on single wires with a quantum well-based active region. Photocurrent spectroscopy demonstrates that the response ascribed to the absorption of InGaN/GaN quantum wells appears at wavelengths shorter than 440 nm.

  16. Quantum Multiverses

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.

    2018-01-01

    A quantum theory of the universe consists of a theory of its quantum dynamics and a theory of its quantum state The theory predicts quantum multiverses in the form of decoherent sets of alternative histories describing the evolution of the universe's spacetime geometry and matter content. These consequences follow: (a) The universe generally exhibits different quantum multiverses at different levels and kinds of coarse graining. (b) Quantum multiverses are not a choice or an assumption but ar...

  17. Quantum Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Mikhail I

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Imaging is a newly born branch of quantum optics that investigates the ultimate performance limits of optical imaging allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics. Using the methods and techniques from quantum optics, quantum imaging addresses the questions of image formation, processing and detection with sensitivity and resolution exceeding the limits of classical imaging. This book contains the most important theoretical and experimental results achieved by the researchers of the Quantum Imaging network, a research programme of the European Community.

  18. Quantum Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    When quantum communication networks proliferate they will likely be subject to a new type of attack: by hackers, virus makers, and other malicious intruders. Here we introduce the concept of "quantum malware" to describe such human-made intrusions. We offer a simple solution for storage of quantum information in a manner which protects quantum networks from quantum malware. This solution involves swapping the quantum information at random times between the network and isolated, distributed an...

  19. Thermal conductivity of GaAs/AlAs superlattices and the puzzle of interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chantrenne, Patrice; Duquesne, Jean-Yves; Saci, Abdelhak

    2010-12-01

    We present a molecular dynamics investigation of the cross-plane thermal conductivity of superlattices using the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. The purpose is to investigate the influence of the interfaces, which is expected to be important in those nanostructures where the superlattice period is smaller than the phonon mean free path. In contrast to previous studies, more realistic interfaces are considered: interfacial roughness is modeled using atomic rectangular islands and interdiffusion is taken into account. It is shown that thermal conductivity is very sensitive to the detailed interfacial shape and to the presence of interdiffusion. This may be relevant to recent experiments.

  20. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.