WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless magnetic sensors

  1. Wireless Magnetic Sensor with Orthogonal Frequency Coding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR Phase I research project is to develop batteryless, wireless magnetic sensors with orthogonal frequency coding (OFC). These sensors will be...

  2. Wireless Power Supply via Coupled Magnetic Resonance for on-line Monitoring Wireless Sensor of High-voltage Electrical Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xingkui, Mao; Qisheng, Huang; Yudi, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    On-line monitoring of high-voltage electrical equipment (HV-EE) aiming to detect faults effectively has become crucial to avoid serious accidents. Moreover, highly reliable power supplies are the key component for the wireless sensors equipped in such on-line monitoring systems. Therefore......, in this paper, the wireless power supply via coupled magnetic resonance (MR-WPS) is proposed for powering the wireless sensor and the associated wireless sensor solution is also proposed. The key specifications of the MR-WPS working in switchgear cabinet with a harsh operation environment are analyzed...... and determined. Design of these key parameters of the coupled magnetic resonant unit (CMRU) in MR-WPS is provided as well as the method of optimizing the resonant windings is given. Finally, a prototype is built and tested. The experimental results are presented in order to show that sufficient and reliable...

  3. Integrated passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a surface acoustic wave-based passive and wireless sensor that can measure magnetic field, temperature and humidity. A thin film giant magnetoimpedance sensor, a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate and a humidity sensitive hydrogel are integrated together with a surface acoustic wave transducer to realize the multifunctional sensor. The device is characterized using a network analyzer under sequentially changing humidity, temperature and magnetic field conditions. The first hand results show the sensor response to all three sensing parameters with small temperature interference on the magnetic signals. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. A Wireless, Passive, Magnetically-soft Harmonic Sensor for Monitoring Sodium Hypochlorite Concentrations in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Grimes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless, passive, remote-query sensor for monitoring sodium hypochlorite (bleach solutions is reported. The sensor is comprised of a magnetically-soft ferromagnetic ribbon, coated with a layer of polyurethane and alumina, having a large and nonlinear permeability that supports higher-order harmonics in response to a time varying magnetic field. The hypochlorite ions induce swelling in the coating, with the resultant stress altering the harmonic signature of the sensor from which the sodium hypochlorite concentration can be determined. The wireless, passive nature of the sensor platform enables long-term monitoring of bleach concentrations in the environment. The sensor platform can be extended to other chemical analytes of interest as desired.

  5. Optimized 425MHz passive wireless magnetic field sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2014-06-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave device loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance element is developed. The GMI element with a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, is fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum magnitude change and phase shift of 7.8 dB and 27 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 1.6 dB/Oe and 5 deg/Oe. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  7. A surface acoustic wave passive and wireless sensor for magnetic fields, temperature, and humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report an integrated single-chip surface acoustic wave sensor with the capability of measuring magnetic field, temperature, and humidity. The sensor is fabricated using a thermally sensitive LiNbO3 substrate, a humidity sensitive hydrogel coating, and a magnetic field sensitive impedance load. The sensor response to individually and simultaneously changing magnetic field, temperature and humidity is characterized by connecting a network analyzer directly to the sensor. Analytical models for each measurand are derived and used to compensate noise due to cross sensitivities. The results show that all three measurands can be monitored in parallel with sensitivities of 75 ppm/°C, 0.13 dB/%R.H. (at 50%R.H.), 0.18 dB/Oe and resolutions of 0.1 °C, 0.4%R.H., 1 Oe for temperature, humidity and magnetic field, respectively. A passive wireless measurement is also conducted on a current line using, which shows the sensors capability to measure both temperature and current signals simultaneously.

  8. Wireless sensor platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2017-08-08

    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  9. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2015-04-30

    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  10. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  11. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  12. Wireless Sensors Network (Sensornet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network System presented in this paper provides a flexible reconfigurable architecture that could be used in a broad range of applications. It also provides a sensor network with increased reliability; decreased maintainability costs, and assured data availability by autonomously and automatically reconfiguring to overcome communication interferences.

  13. A Wireless Magnetic Resonance Energy Transfer System for Micro Implantable Medical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyang Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm3.

  14. A wireless magnetic resonance energy transfer system for micro implantable medical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhan; Zhang, Hanru; Peng, Fei; Li, Yang; Yang, Tianyang; Wang, Bo; Fang, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the magnetic resonance coupling principle, in this paper a wireless energy transfer system is designed and implemented for the power supply of micro-implantable medical sensors. The entire system is composed of the in vitro part, including the energy transmitting circuit and resonant transmitter coils, and in vivo part, including the micro resonant receiver coils and signal shaping chip which includes the rectifier module and LDO voltage regulator module. Transmitter and receiver coils are wound by Litz wire, and the diameter of the receiver coils is just 1.9 cm. The energy transfer efficiency of the four-coil system is greatly improved compared to the conventional two-coil system. When the distance between the transmitter coils and the receiver coils is 1.5 cm, the transfer efficiency is 85% at the frequency of 742 kHz. The power transfer efficiency can be optimized by adding magnetic enhanced resonators. The receiving voltage signal is converted to a stable output voltage of 3.3 V and a current of 10 mA at the distance of 2 cm. In addition, the output current varies with changes in the distance. The whole implanted part is packaged with PDMS of excellent biocompatibility and the volume of it is about 1 cm(3).

  15. Wireless Sensor Technologies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in the design and applications of wirelessly networked and embedded sensors. Wireless sensor nodes are typically low-cost, low-power, small devices equipped with limited sensing, data processing and wireless communication capabilities, as well as power supplies. They leverage the concept of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, in which a large (possibly huge number of collaborative sensor nodes could be deployed. As an outcome of the convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics, WSNs represent a significant improvement over traditional sensors. In fact, the rapid evolution of WSN technology has accelerated the development and deployment of various novel types of wireless sensors, e.g., multimedia sensors. Fulfilling Moore’s law, wireless sensors are becoming smaller and cheaper, and at the same time more powerful and ubiquitous. [...

  16. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum Corporation has demonstrated the feasibility in the Phase I of " A Wireless Sensor Portal Technology" and proposes a Phase II effort to develop a wireless...

  17. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Per

    Smart homes are further development of intelligent buildings and home automation, where context awareness and autonomous behaviour are added. They are based on a combination of the Internet and emerging technologies like wireless sensor nodes. These wireless sensor nodes are challenging because....... This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  18. Wireless Sensor Portal Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Recognizing the needs and challenges facing NASA Earth Science for data input, manipulation and distribution, Mobitrum is proposing a ? Wireless Sensor Portal...

  19. Advanced Wireless Sensor Nodes - MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Richeson, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.

  20. Introduction to wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications. The book begins with an introduction to wireless sensor networks and their fundamental concepts. Hardware components, operating systems, protocols, and algorithms that make up the anatomy of a sensor node are described in chapter two. Properties of wireless communications, medium access protocols, wireless links, and link estimation protocols are described in chapter three and chapter four. Routing basics and metrics, clustering techniques, time synchronization and localization protocols, as well as sensing techniques are introduced in chapter five to nine. The concluding chapter summarizes the learnt methods and shows how to use them to deploy real-world sensor networks in a structured way.

  1. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  2. Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    COVERED (From- To) 09-05-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 5b . GRANT NUMBER . 5c...reliability of wireless sensor networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, sinkhole attack, routing protocol 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 1 Sinkhole Avoidance Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks MIDN 1/C

  3. Wireless SAW Interrogator and Sensor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) temperature sensors, operating in a multi-sensor environment, developed at the...

  4. Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various architectures have been developed for wireless sensor networks. Many of them leave to the programmer important concepts as the way in which the inter-task communication and dynamic reconfigurations are addressed. In this paper we describe the characteristics of a new architecture we proposed

  5. Networking wireless sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2005-01-01

    ... by networking techniques across multiple layers. The topics covered include network deployment, localization, time synchronization, wireless radio characteristics, medium-access, topology control, routing, data-centric techniques, and transport protocols. Ideal for researchers and designers seeking to create new algorithms and protocols and enginee...

  6. [Development of Bluetooth wireless sensors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, C; Schwaibold, M; Roth, H; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    Wireless communication could help to overcome current obstacles in medical devices and could enable medical services to offer completely new scenarios in health care. The Bluetooth technology which is the upcoming global market leader in wireless communication turned out to be perfectly suited not only for consumer market products but also in the medical environment [1]. It offers a low power, low cost connection in the medium range of 1-100 m with a bandwidth of currently 723.2 kbaud. This paper describes the development of a wireless ECG device and a Pulse Oximeter. Equipped with a Bluetooth port, the measurement devices are enabled to transmit data between the sensor and a Bluetooth-monitor. Therefore, CSR's Bluetooth protocol embedded two-processor and embedded single-processor architecture has been used.

  7. Dynamic wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oteafy, Sharief M A

    2014-01-01

    In this title, the authors leap into a novel paradigm of scalability and cost-effectiveness, on the basis of resource reuse. In a world with much abundance of wirelessly accessible devices, WSN deployments should capitalize on the resources already available in the region of deployment, and only augment it with the components required to meet new application requirements. However, if the required resources already exist in that region, WSN deployment converges to an assignment and scheduling scheme to accommodate for the new application given the existing resources. Such resources are polled

  8. Contemporary Developments in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Mittal; Alok Aggarwal; S.L. Maskara

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) since their inception, a decade ago, have grown well in research and implementation. In this work the developments in WSNs are reported in three sub areas of wireless sensor networks that is, wireless sensor node (hardware and software), Communication & Networking issues in WSNs and application areas. WSNs are characterized by huge data hence research work in aggregation & mining is also discussed. Contemporary issues of integration of WSNs with other prevalent ...

  9. Wireless Sensor Needs Defined by SBIR Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the needs for wireless sensor technology from various U.S. government agencies as exhibited by an analysis of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) solicitations. It would appear that a multi-agency group looking at overlapping wireless sensor needs and technology projects is desired. Included in this presentation is a review of the NASA SBIR process, and an examination of some of the SBIR projects from NASA, and other agencies that involve wireless sensor development

  10. A SURVEY ON WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sudha*1 & B. Shamile2

    2017-01-01

    A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can communicate the information through wireless devices. WSN consists of base stations and wireless sensor nodes. These networks are used to monitor various condition are sound, pressure, temperature and cooperatively pass data through the network to the main location. The functionality parameters of a sensor are energy consumption, computational speed rate, bandwidth, memory. In this paper, it embraces application of WSN, types of WSN, security issues and sec...

  11. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  12. Adaptive Naive Bayes classification for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are tiny devices equipped with sensors and wireless communication. These devices observe environments and communicatie about these observations. Machine Learning techniques are of interest for Wireless Sensor Network applications since they can reduce the amount of needed

  13. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  14. The art of wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    During the last one and a half decades, wireless sensor networks have witnessed significant growth and tremendous development in both academia and industry.   “The Art of Wireless Sensor Networks: Volume 1: Fundamentals” focuses on the fundamentals concepts in the design, analysis, and implementation of wireless sensor networks. It covers the various layers of the lifecycle of this type of network from the physical layer up to the application layer. Its rationale is that the first volume covers contemporary design issues, tools, and protocols for radio-based two-dimensional terrestrial sensor networks. All the book chapters in this volume include up-to-date research work spanning various classic facets of the physical properties and functional behavior of wireless sensor networks, including physical layer, medium access control, data routing, topology management, mobility management, localization, task management, data management, data gathering, security, middleware, sensor technology, standards, and ...

  15. Functional Testing of Wireless Sensor Node Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    test approach can enable their conformance to design and deployment specifications. We discuss off-line, hierarchical, functional testing of complete wireless sensor nodes containing configurable logic through a combination of FPGA-based board test and Software-Based Self-Test (SBST) techniques....... The proposed functional test methodology has been applied to a COTS-based sensor node development platform and can be applied, in general, for testing all types of wireless sensor node designs....

  16. Advancing profiling sensors with a wireless approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Alex; Russomanno, David J

    2012-11-22

    The notion of a profiling sensor was first realized by a Near-Infrared (N-IR) retro-reflective prototype consisting of a vertical column of wired sparse detectors. This paper extends that prior work and presents a wireless version of a profiling sensor as a collection of sensor nodes. The sensor incorporates wireless sensing elements, a distributed data collection and aggregation scheme, and an enhanced classification technique. In this novel approach, a base station pre-processes the data collected from the sensor nodes and performs data re-alignment. A back-propagation neural network was also developed for the wireless version of the N-IR profiling sensor that classifies objects into the broad categories of human, animal or vehicle with an accuracy of approximately 94%. These enhancements improve deployment options as compared with the first generation of wired profiling sensors, possibly increasing the application scenarios for such sensors, including intelligent fence applications.

  17. Application for Measurement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MAHDAL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with wireless sensor networks, which are based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The development kit from Jennic company was used for wireless measuring of values and for creation of sensor network. For this purposes the sensor boards with wireless modules with marking JN5139 were used. These boards provide sensors (sensor of temperature, relative humidity and light sensor but also another interface, which helps to develop applications. Modules are programmed in Integrated Development Environment (IDE, which integrates C function library and C++ compiler and linker. The visualization application was created for monitoring of wireless sensor network. There is the possibility of local and wireless measurement. For creation of this application the SCADA/HMI system, Control Web 5 was used. This SCADA/HMI system enables to communicate with all wireless modules through base station (network's coordinator. The application also enables initialisation and network setting the any wireless module communicating with the base station. The advantage is the remote configuration and control of network. The application also enables the gathering, converting, viewing and archiving of incoming data from particular modules.

  18. On computer vision in wireless sensor networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Ko, Teresa H.

    2004-09-01

    Wireless sensor networks allow detailed sensing of otherwise unknown and inaccessible environments. While it would be beneficial to include cameras in a wireless sensor network because images are so rich in information, the power cost of transmitting an image across the wireless network can dramatically shorten the lifespan of the sensor nodes. This paper describe a new paradigm for the incorporation of imaging into wireless networks. Rather than focusing on transmitting images across the network, we show how an image can be processed locally for key features using simple detectors. Contrasted with traditional event detection systems that trigger an image capture, this enables a new class of sensors which uses a low power imaging sensor to detect a variety of visual cues. Sharing these features among relevant nodes cues specific actions to better provide information about the environment. We report on various existing techniques developed for traditional computer vision research which can aid in this work.

  19. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Network Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg

    Advancements in wireless communication and electronics improving form factor and hardware capabilities has expanded the applicability of wireless sensor networks. Despite these advancements, devices are still limited in terms of energy which creates the need for duty-cycling and low-power protocols...... environments and communication primitives in wireless sensor network and traditional network development are closing. However, fundamental differences in wireless technology and energy constraints are still to be considered at the lower levels of the software stack. To fulfill energy requirements hardware......, and network management which enables construction of low-power wireless sensor network applications. More specifically, these services are designed with the extreme low-power scenarios of the SensoByg project in mind and are implemented as follows. First, low-power communication is implemented with Auto...

  20. Wireless Sensor Networks TestBed: ASNTbed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in different types of applications and deployed within various environments. Simulation tools are essential for studying WSNs, especially for exploring large-scale networks. However, WSN testbeds...

  1. Artificial intelligence based event detection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of large number of small, inexpensive devices, called sensor nodes, which are equipped with sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. While traditional applications of wireless sensor networks focused on periodic monitoring, the focus of more

  2. Availability Issues in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G.; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless visual sensor networks have been considered for a large set of monitoring applications related with surveillance, tracking and multipurpose visual monitoring. When sensors are deployed over a monitored field, permanent faults may happen during the network lifetime, reducing the monitoring quality or rendering parts or the entire network unavailable. In a different way from scalar sensor networks, camera-enabled sensors collect information following a directional sensing model, which changes the notions of vicinity and redundancy. Moreover, visual source nodes may have different relevancies for the applications, according to the monitoring requirements and cameras' poses. In this paper we discuss the most relevant availability issues related to wireless visual sensor networks, addressing availability evaluation and enhancement. Such discussions are valuable when designing, deploying and managing wireless visual sensor networks, bringing significant contributions to these networks. PMID:24526301

  3. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    ISLAM, M. R.; KIM, J.

    2009-01-01

    An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs) are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP). Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for...

  4. Distributed Estimation, Coding, and Scheduling in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider estimation, coding, and sensor scheduling for energy efficient operation of wireless visual sensor networks (VSN), which consist of battery-powered wireless sensors with sensing (imaging), computation, and communication capabilities. The competing requirements for applications of these wireless sensor networks (WSN)…

  5. Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Vuckovic, Dusan; Di Mauro, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Energy Harvesting comprises a promising solution to one of the key problems faced by battery-powered Wireless Sensor Networks, namely the limited nature of the energy supply (finite battery capacity). By harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, the sensors can have a continuous lifetime...... Sensor Networks with energy harvesting capability....... without any needs for battery recharge or replacement. However, energy harvesting introduces a change to the fundamental principles based on which WSNs are designed and realized. In this poster we sketch some of the key research challenges as well as our ongoing work in designing and realizing Wireless...

  6. Design of a Room Monitoring System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Kuk Noh; Kuk-Se Kim; Yoo-Kang Ji

    2013-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSN) systems, various indoor environmental parameters can be monitored in real time by an RF wireless sensor module. A wireless sensor module with several sensors is developed for an indoor environment monitoring system. ZigBee is a wireless standard for personal area network (PAN) sensor monitoring and control, also known as IEEE 802.15.4. In this paper, we designed a wireless sensor module that had a ZigBee communication module and a sensor module for monitoring...

  7. Virtual Lab for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PICOVICI, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article details an experimental system developed to enhance the education and research in the area of wireless networks technologies. The system referred, as Virtual Lab (VL is primarily targeting first time users or users with limited experience in programming and using wireless sensor networks. The VL enables a set of predefined sensor networks to be remotely accessible and controlled for constructive and time-efficient experimentation. In order to facilitate the user's wireless sensor applications, the VL is using three main components: a a Virtual Lab Motes (VLM, representing the wireless sensor, b a Virtual Lab Client (VLC, representing the user's tool to interact with the VLM and c a Virtual Lab Server (VLS representing the software link between the VLM and VLC. The concept has been proven using the moteiv produced Tmote Sky modules. Initial experimental use clearly demonstrates that the VL approach reduces dramatically the learning curve involved in programming and using the associated wireless sensor nodes. In addition the VL allows the user's focus to be directed towards the experiment and not towards the software programming challenges.

  8. Structural health monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevallabhan, K.; Nikhil Chand, B.; Ramasamy, Sudha

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring and analysing health of large structures like bridges, dams, buildings and heavy machinery is important for safety, economical, operational, making prior protective measures, and repair and maintenance point of view. In recent years there is growing demand for such larger structures which in turn make people focus more on safety. By using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Accelerometer we can perform Structural Health Monitoring by studying the dynamic response through measure of ambient vibrations and strong motion of such structures. By using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) we can embed these sensors in wireless networks which helps us to transmit data wirelessly thus we can measure the data wirelessly at any remote location. This in turn reduces heavy wiring which is a cost effective as well as time consuming process to lay those wires. In this paper we developed WSN based MEMS-accelerometer for Structural to test the results in the railway bridge near VIT University, Vellore campus.

  9. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless Sensor Technologies has for several years been developing a passive Wireless Temperature Sensor (WTS) for gas turbine engine and other harsh environment...

  10. Magnetic actuators and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Brauer, John R

    2014-01-01

    An accessible, comprehensive guide on magnetic actuators and sensors, this fully updated second edition of Magnetic Actuators and Sensors includes the latest advances, numerous worked calculations, illustrations, and real-life applications. Covering magnetics, actuators, sensors, and systems, with updates of new technologies and techniques, this exemplary learning tool emphasizes computer-aided design techniques, especially magnetic finite element analysis, commonly used by today's engineers. Detailed calculations, numerous illustrations, and discussions of discrepancies make this text an inva

  11. Secure Wireless Sensor Networks: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available As sensor networks edge closer towards wide-spread deployment, security issues become a central concern. So far, the main research focus has been on making sensor networks feasible and useful, and less emphasis was placed on security. This paper analyzes security challenges in wireless sensor networks and summarizes key issues that should be solved for achieving the ad hoc security. It gives an overview of the current state of solutions on such key issues as secure routing, prevention of denial-of-service and key management service. We also present some secure methods to achieve security in wireless sensor networks. Finally we present our integrated approach to securing sensor networks.

  12. Wireless Nde Sensor System for Continuous Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, G.; Mhamdi, L.; Khan, T.; Udpa, L.; Lajnef, N.; Hong, J.-W.; Udpa, S.; Ramuhalli, P.; Balasubramaniam, K.

    2011-06-01

    For continuous monitoring of power-plant components, the use of in-situ sensors (i.e., sensors that are permanently mounted on the structure) is necessary. In-situ wired sensors require an unrealistic amount of cabling for power and data transfer, which can drive up costs of installation and maintenance. In addition, the use of cabling in hostile environments (high temperature/pressure environments) is not a viable option. This paper presents a wireless system for continuous monitoring, identification of anomalous events, NDE data acquisition and data transfer. NDE sensors are integrated with a wireless radio unit such as a MICA mote. Measurements from the sensors are typically acquired at prescribed intervals, encoded and compressed, and transmitted to a central processing server, where appropriate signal processing techniques may be used to filter out noise in the measurements, enhance the desired signal and quantify the damage in terms of severity.

  13. Wireless Sensor Applications in Extreme Aeronautical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    NASA aeronautical programs require rigorous ground and flight testing. Many of the testing environments can be extremely harsh. These environments include cryogenic temperatures and high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). Temperature, pressure, vibration, ionizing radiation, and chemical exposure may all be part of the harsh environment found in testing. This paper presents a survey of research opportunities for universities and industry to develop new wireless sensors that address anticipated structural health monitoring (SHM) and testing needs for aeronautical vehicles. Potential applications of passive wireless sensors for ground testing and high altitude aircraft operations are presented. Some of the challenges and issues of the technology are also presented.

  14. Research Challenges for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melodia, Tommaso; Akyildiz, Ian F.

    This chapter discusses the state of the art and the major research challenges in architectures, algorithms, and protocols, for wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). These are networks of wirelessly interconnected smart devices designed and deployed to retrieve video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data. First, applications and key factors influencing the design of WMSNs are discussed. Then, the existing solutions at the application, transport, network, link, and physical layers of the communication protocol stack are investigated. Finally, fundamental open research issues are discussed and future research trends in this area are outlined.

  15. Topology Optimisation of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thike Aye Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are widely used in a variety of fields including industrial environments. In case of a clustered network the location of cluster head affects the reliability of the network operation. Finding of the optimum location of the cluster head, therefore, is critical for the design of a network. This paper discusses the optimisation approach, based on the brute force algorithm, in the context of topology optimisation of a cluster structure centralised wireless sensor network. Two examples are given to verify the approach that demonstrate the implementation of the brute force algorithm to find an optimum location of the cluster head.

  16. Energy Efficient MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka KOSKELA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an overlay solution for asynchronous Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in a duty-cycled wireless sensor network (WSN. The solution extends sleeping times and corrects time drift when the sampling rate is low. The sleeping time is adjusted according to the requisite data sampling rate and the delay requirements of the prevailing application. This and the time drift correction considerably reduced idle listening and thus also decreased power consumption. When the power consumption is reduced, the life of wireless sensor nodes extends.

  17. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  18. Problem solving for wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernando, Ana-Belen; Lopez-Navarro, Juan-Manuel; Prayati, Aggeliki; Redondo-Lopez, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is an area of huge research interest, attracting substantial attention from industry and academia for its enormous potential and its inherent challenges. This reader-friendly text delivers a comprehensive review of the developments related to the important technological issues in WSN.

  19. Clock Synchronization for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis Robles, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, more so generally than in other types of distributed systems, clock synchronization is crucial since by having this service available, several applications such as media access protocols, object tracking, or data fusion, would improve their performance. In this dissertation, we propose a set of algorithms to achieve…

  20. Wireless sensor networks principles, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shuang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks presents the latest practical solutions to the design issues presented in wireless-sensor-network-based systems. Novel features of the text, distributed throughout, include workable solutions, demonstration systems and case studies of the design and application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based on the first-hand research and development experience of the author, and the chapters on real applications: building fire safety protection; smart home automation; and logistics resource management. Case studies and applications illustrate the practical perspectives of: ·         sensor node design; ·         embedded software design; ·         routing algorithms; ·         sink node positioning; ·         co-existence with other wireless systems; ·         data fusion; ·         security; ·         indoor location tracking; ·         integrating with radio-frequency identification; and ·         In...

  1. Audio coding in wireless acoustic sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of source coding for a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node in the network makes its own noisy measurement of the sound field, and communicates with other nodes in the network by sending and receiving encoded versions of the measurements. To make...

  2. How to secure a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The security of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a complex issue. While security research of WSNs is progressing at a tremendous pace, and many security techniques have been proposed, no comprehensive framework has so far emerged that attempts to tie the bits and pieces together to ease the

  3. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK BASED CONVEYOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Trohák; Máté Kolozsi-Tóth; Péter Rádi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper we will introduce an intelligent conveyor surveillance system. We started a research project to design and develop a conveyor surveillance system based on wireless sensor network and GPRS communication. Our system is able to measure temperature on fixed and moving, rotating surfaces and able to detect smoke. We would like to introduce the developed devices and give an application example.

  4. Integrating Wireless Sensor Networks with Computational Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preve, Nikolaos

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been greatly developed and emerged their significance in a wide range of important applications such as ac quisition and process in formation from the physical world. The evolvement of Grid computing has been based on coordination of distributed and shared re sources. A Sensor Grid network can integrate these two leading technologies enabling real-time sensor data collection, the sharing of computational and stor age grid resources for sensor data processing and management. Several issues have occurred from this integration which dispute the modern design of sensor grids. In order to address these issues, in this paper we propose a sensor grid ar chitecture supporting it by a testbed which focuses on the design issues and on the improvement of our sensor grid architecture design.

  5. Data centric wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The vision of wirteless sensing systems requires the development of devices and technologies that can be pervasive without being intrusive. The basic component of such a smart environment will be a small node with sensing and wireless communications capabilities, able to organize itself flexibly

  6. Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat G. Ong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of magnetoelastic environmental sensor technology; topics include operating physics, sensor design, and illustrative applications. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons or wires, with a characteristic resonant frequency inversely proportional to length. The remotely detected resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor shifts in response to different physical parameters including stress, pressure, temperature, flow velocity, liquid viscosity, magnetic field, and mass loading. Coating the magnetoelastic sensor with a mass changing, chemically responsive layer enables realization of chemical sensors. Magnetoelastic sensors can be remotely interrogated by magnetic, acoustic, or optical means. The sensors can be characterized in the time domain, where the resonant frequency is determined through analysis of the sensor transient response, or in the frequency domain where the resonant frequency is determined from the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the sensor.

  7. The use of Wireless Sensor Network for increasing airport security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of wireless sensor networks for airport security, respectively using sensor networks as a replacement or add-on to existing security measures. The article describes the sensor network and its possible application to various airport objects and financial analysis of the perimeter security with wireless sensor network.

  8. Wireless multimedia sensor networks on reconfigurable hardware information reduction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Li-minn; Chew, Li Wern; Yeong, Lee Seng; Chia, Wai Chong

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) capture scalar data such as temperature, vibration, pressure, or humidity. Motivated by the success of WSNs and also with the emergence of new technology in the form of low-cost image sensors, researchers have proposed combining image and audio sensors with WSNs to form wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs).

  9. Ambient Data Collection with Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Limin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important applications for wireless sensor networks (WSNs is Data Collection, where sensing data are collected at sensor nodes and forwarded to a central base station for further processing. Since using battery powers and wireless communications, sensor nodes can be very small and easily attached at specified locations without disturbing surrounding environments. This makes WSN a competitive approach for data collection comparing with its wired counterpart. In this paper, we review recent advances in this research area. We first highlight the special features of data collection WSNs, by comparing with wired data collection network and other WSN applications. With these features in mind, we then discuss issues and prior solutions on the data gathering protocol design. Our discussion also covers different approaches for message dissemination, which is a critical component for network control and management and greatly affects the overall performance of a data collection WSN system.

  10. The Application of Wireless Sensor in Aquaculture Water Quality Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Wen; Ma, Yinchi

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Simulation, Optimization, Monitoring and Control Technology; International audience; The current means for aquaculture water quality monitoring have a weak infrastructure. We research to use wireless sensor technology, embedded computing technology, MEMS technology, distributing information processing technology and wireless communication technology to build the wireless network sensor network system. This system is a digital, networked, intelligent real-time dynamic for monitoring th...

  11. Wireless sensor networks distributed consensus estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief evaluates the cooperative effort of sensor nodes to accomplish high-level tasks with sensing, data processing and communication. The metrics of network-wide convergence, unbiasedness, consistency and optimality are discussed through network topology, distributed estimation algorithms and consensus strategy. Systematic analysis reveals that proper deployment of sensor nodes and a small number of low-cost relays (without sensing function) can speed up the information fusion and thus improve the estimation capability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This brief also investiga

  12. An MRI-readable wireless flexible pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -detectable wireless flexible pressure sensor with pressure-sensitive LC resonator fabricated on a flexible film substrate. Measuring pressures in the body such as blood vessels and cardiac ventricle are very important in making diagnoses and in postoperative observation. However, conventional wired pressure sensors have difficulty in maintaining their connections to external readout equipment, and they also increase the risk of infection during and after implantation. In this study, to read the pressure wirelessly using an MRI system, an LC resonator consisting of a spiral coil and a pressure-sensitive capacitor was designed resonate at 300 MHz which corresponds to the Larmor frequency in an external magnetic field of 7-T. In order to validate the operating principle of the fabricated device, the frequency-impedance characteristics were measured by changing the pressure. The resonance frequencies of complemented LC circuits were lower by approximately 10% than those of nonpressured conditions. After implanting these devices in a 1% agarose gel, MR images were acquired by inducing pressures close to blood pressures of 20 kPa. As a result, contrast changes in the MR images were observed around the integrated spiral coils. This result indicated that the developed flexible pressure sensor has sufficient sensitivity to measure physiological pressure such as blood pressure of 20 kPa wirelessly in the body. In the future, quantitative pressure sensing will be evaluated by comparing it to the contrast changes in MR images with flip angle mapping.

  13. JSC Wireless Sensor Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes composed of three basic components... radio module: COTS radio module implementing standardized WSN protocol; treated as WSN modem by main board main board: contains application processor (TI MSP430 microcontroller), memory, power supply; responsible for sensor data acquisition, pre-processing, and task scheduling; re-used in every application with growing library of embedded C code sensor card: contains application-specific sensors, data conditioning hardware, and any advanced hardware not built into main board (DSPs, faster A/D, etc.); requires (re-) development for each application.

  14. An Efficient Multibit Aggregation Scheme for Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dey BikashK; Merchant SN; Desai UB; Jagyasi BhushanG

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A single-hop wireless sensor network for distributed detection has been considered in the majority of the existing literature. However, a wireless sensor network for an event detection application with cheap and short range sensors is likely to be a multihop network. Here we consider a distributed detection problem in a multihop wireless sensor network with tree topology. We propose an optimum multibit decision fusion rule derived from the previously known optimum likelihood ratio fo...

  15. Artificial intelligence based event detection in wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bahrepour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of large number of small, inexpensive devices, called sensor nodes, which are equipped with sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. While traditional applications of wireless sensor networks focused on periodic monitoring, the focus of more recent applications is on fast and reliable identification of out-of-ordinary situations and events. This new functionality of wireless sensor networks is known as event detection. Due to the fact t...

  16. Ultra wideband technology for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xiong, Weiming

    2011-08-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as an important method for planetary surface exploration. To investigate the optimized wireless technology for WSNs, we summarized the key requirements of WSNs and justified ultra wideband (UWB) technology by comparing with other competitive wireless technologies. We also analyzed network topologies as well as physical and MAC layer designs of IEEE 802.15.4a standard, which adopted impulse radio UWB (IR-UWB) technology. Our analysis showed that IR-UWB-based 802.15.4a standard could enable robust communication, precise ranging, and heterogeneous networking for WSNs applications. The result of our present work implies that UWB-based WSNs can be applied to future planetary surface exploration.

  17. Cooperative Jamming for Physical Layer Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohokale, Vandana M.; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    Interference is generally considered as the redundant and unwanted occurrence in wireless communication. This work proposes a novel cooperative jamming mechanism for scalable networks like Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) which makes use of friendly interference to confuse the eavesdropper...

  18. Localization in wireless sensor networks: Classification and evaluation of techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz

    2012-01-01

      Localization in wireless sensor networks: Classification and evaluation of techniques Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of low cost, low power and multi functional wireless sensing devices...

  19. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  20. Distributed estimation for adaptive sensor selection in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Hassan Hamid, Matasm M.

    2014-05-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are usually deployed for monitoring systems with the distributed detection and estimation of sensors. Sensor selection in WSNs is considered for target tracking. A distributed estimation scenario is considered based on the extended information filter. A cost function using the geometrical dilution of precision measure is derived for active sensor selection. A consensus-based estimation method is proposed in this paper for heterogeneous WSNs with two types of sensors. The convergence properties of the proposed estimators are analyzed under time-varying inputs. Accordingly, a new adaptive sensor selection (ASS) algorithm is presented in which the number of active sensors is adaptively determined based on the absolute local innovations vector. Simulation results show that the tracking accuracy of the ASS is comparable to that of the other algorithms.

  1. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  2. Security in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Oreku, George S

    2016-01-01

    This monograph covers different aspects of sensor network security including new emerging technologies. The authors present a mathematical approach to the topic and give numerous practical examples as well as case studies to illustrate the theory. The target audience primarily comprises experts and practitioners in the field of sensor network security, but the book may also be beneficial for researchers in academia as well as for graduate students.

  3. SITRUS: Semantic Infrastructure for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Kalil A.; Rosa, Nelson S.; Cunha, Paulo R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are made up of nodes with limited resources, such as processing, bandwidth, memory and, most importantly, energy. For this reason, it is essential that WSNs always work to reduce the power consumption as much as possible in order to maximize its lifetime. In this context, this paper presents SITRUS (semantic infrastructure for wireless sensor networks), which aims to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes using ontologies. SITRUS consists of two major parts: a message-oriented middleware responsible for both an oriented message communication service and a reconfiguration service; and a semantic information processing module whose purpose is to generate a semantic database that provides the basis to decide whether a WSN node needs to be reconfigurated or not. In order to evaluate the proposed solution, we carried out an experimental evaluation to assess the power consumption and memory usage of WSN applications built atop SITRUS. PMID:26528974

  4. Data storage system for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sacramento, David

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado, Engenharia Informática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are starting to have a high impact on our societies and, for next generation WSNs to become more integrated with the Internet, researchers recently proposed to embed Internet Protocol (IP) v6 into such very constrained networks. Also, Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and Observe have been proposed for RESTful services to be pr...

  5. Wireless sensors powered by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantaram, Avinash; Beyenal, Haluk; Raajan, Raaja; Veluchamy, Angathevar; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2005-07-01

    Monitoring parameters characterizing water quality, such as temperature, pH, and concentrations of heavy metals in natural waters, is often followed by transmitting the data to remote receivers using telemetry systems. Such systems are commonly powered by batteries, which can be inconvenient at times because batteries have a limited lifetime and must be recharged or replaced periodically to ensure that sufficient energy is available to power the electronics. To avoid these inconveniences, a microbial fuel cell was designed to power electrochemical sensors and small telemetry systems to transmit the data acquired by the sensors to remote receivers. The microbial fuel cell was combined with low-power, high-efficiency electronic circuitry providing a stable power source for wireless data transmission. To generate enough power for the telemetry system, energy produced by the microbial fuel cell was stored in a capacitor and used in short bursts when needed. Since commercial electronic circuits require a minimum 3.3 V input and our cell was able to deliver a maximum of 2.1 V, a DC-DC converter was used to boost the potential. The DC-DC converter powered a transmitter, which gathered the data from the sensor and transmitted it wirelessly to a remote receiver. To demonstrate the utility of the system, temporal variations in temperature were measured, and the data were wirelessly transmitted to a remote receiver.

  6. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  7. Maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks using genetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagh, Sanjeev; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    The wireless sensor networks are designed to install the smart network applications or network for emergency solutions, where human interaction is not possible. The nodes in wireless sensor networks have to self organize as per the users requirements through monitoring environments. As the sensor...

  8. RESTful Web services in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Yeste, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Premi Accenture al millor projecte de fi de carrera d’Enginyeria de Telecomunicació en Serveis Telemàtics (curs 2011-2012) English: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become very popular in recent years. A WSN consists of distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions and to cooperatively send their data through the network to a main location. A WSN facilitates the creation of low-cost networks that can be used for multiple applications when the use of wir...

  9. Locomotive monitoring system using wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Croucamp, PL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 27-30 July 2014 Locomotive monitoring system using wireless sensor networks P. L. Croucamp1, S. Rimer1 and C. Kruger2 1Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering University of Johannesburg... Johannesburg, South Africa Email: suvendic@uj.ac.za 2Advanced Sensor Networks, Meraka. CSIR Pretoria, South Africa Email: ckruger1@csir.co.za Abstract Theft of cables used for powering a locomotive not only stops the train from functioning but also...

  10. Synchronized Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used for monitoring and data collection purposes. A key challenge in effective data collection is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with global clock. This paper proposes the Synchronized Data Aggregation Algorithm (SDA) using spanning tree...... mechanism. It provides network-wide time synchronization for sensor network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the network and then perform the pair - wise synchronization. SDA aggregate data with a global time scale throughout the network. The aggregated packets...

  11. Wireless sensor networks and ecological monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Joe-Air

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.  

  12. Wireless sensor networks in a maritime environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelaars, W.; Maris, M.

    2005-10-01

    In the recent years, there has been a lot of research on sensor networks and their applications. In particular for monitoring large and potentially hostile areas these networks have proven to be very useful. The technique of land-based sensor networks can be extrapolated to sensing buoys at sea or in harbors. This is a novel and intriguing addition to existing maritime monitoring systems. At TNO, much research effort has gone into developing sensor networks. In this paper, the TNOdes sensor network is presented. Its practical employability is demonstrated in a surveillance application deploying 50 nodes. The system is capable of tracking persons in a field, as would be the situation around a military compound. A camera-system is triggered by the sensors and zooms into the detected moving objects. It is described how this system could be modified to create a wireless buoys network. Typical applications of a wireless (and potentially mobile) buoy network are bay-area surveillance, mine detection, identification and ship protection.

  13. Autonomic Context-Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nídia G. S. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic Computing allows systems like wireless sensor networks (WSN to self-manage computing resources in order to extend their autonomy as much as possible. In addition, contextualization tasks can fuse two or more different sensor data into a more meaningful information. Since these tasks usually run in a single centralized context server (e.g., sink node, the massive volume of data generated by the wireless sensors can lead to a huge information overload in such server. Here we propose DAIM, a distributed autonomic inference machine distributed which allows the sensor nodes to do self-management and contextualization tasks based on fuzzy logic. We have evaluated DAIM in a real sensor network taking into account other inference machines. Experimental results illustrate that DAIM is an energy-efficient contextualization method for WSN, reducing 48.8% of the number of messages sent to the context servers while saving 19.5% of the total amount of energy spent in the network.

  14. Wireless Sensor Network for Forest Fire Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emansa Hasri Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are one of problems that threaten sustainability of the forest. Early prevention system for indications of forest fires is absolutely necessary. The extent of the forest to be one of the problems encountered in the forest condition monitoring. To overcome the problems of forest extent, designed a system of forest fire detection system by adopting the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN using multiple sensor nodes. Each sensor node has a microcontroller, transmitter/receiver and three sensors. Measurement method is performed by measuring the temperature, flame, the levels of methane, hydrocarbons, and CO2 in some forest area and the combustion of peat in a simulator. From results of measurements of temperature, levels of methane, a hydrocarbon gas and CO2 in an open area indicates there are no signs of fires due to the value of the temperature, methane, hydrocarbon gas, and CO2 is below the measurement in the space simulator.

  15. Graphical Model Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William B.

    2002-12-08

    Information processing in sensor networks, with many small processors, demands a theory of computation that allows the minimization of processing effort, and the distribution of this effort throughout the network. Graphical model theory provides a probabilistic theory of computation that explicitly addresses complexity and decentralization for optimizing network computation. The junction tree algorithm, for decentralized inference on graphical probability models, can be instantiated in a variety of applications useful for wireless sensor networks, including: sensor validation and fusion; data compression and channel coding; expert systems, with decentralized data structures, and efficient local queries; pattern classification, and machine learning. Graphical models for these applications are sketched, and a model of dynamic sensor validation and fusion is presented in more depth, to illustrate the junction tree algorithm.

  16. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  17. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Morris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medical point of care diagnostics. This great diversity is seeing exciting developments in magnetic resonance sensing technology published in application specific journals where they are often not seen by the wider sensor community. It is clear that there is enormous interest in magnetic resonance sensors which represents a significant growth area. The aim of this special edition of Sensors was to address the wide distribution of relevant articles by providing a forum to disseminate cutting edge research in this field in a single open source publication.[...

  18. Hypergol Sensor Using Passive Wireless SAW Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hypergolic fuel sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless leak...

  19. Cognitive radio wireless sensor networks: applications, challenges and research trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-08-22

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized.

  20. Cognitive Radio Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Challenges and Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gyanendra Prasad; Nam, Seung Yeob; Kim, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    A cognitive radio wireless sensor network is one of the candidate areas where cognitive techniques can be used for opportunistic spectrum access. Research in this area is still in its infancy, but it is progressing rapidly. The aim of this study is to classify the existing literature of this fast emerging application area of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, highlight the key research that has already been undertaken, and indicate open problems. This paper describes the advantages of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, the difference between ad hoc cognitive radio networks, wireless sensor networks, and cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, potential application areas of cognitive radio wireless sensor networks, challenges and research trend in cognitive radio wireless sensor networks. The sensing schemes suited for cognitive radio wireless sensor networks scenarios are discussed with an emphasis on cooperation and spectrum access methods that ensure the availability of the required QoS. Finally, this paper lists several open research challenges aimed at drawing the attention of the readers toward the important issues that need to be addressed before the vision of completely autonomous cognitive radio wireless sensor networks can be realized. PMID:23974152

  1. Micrometer-Scale Magnetic-Resonance-Coupled Radio-Frequency Identification and Transceivers for Wireless Sensors in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Aggarwal, Kamal; Yang, Mimi X.; Parizi, Kokab B.; Xu, Xiaoqing; Akin, Demir; Poon, Ada S. Y.; Wong, H.-S. Philip

    2017-07-01

    We report the design, analysis, and characterization of a three-inductor radio-frequency identification (RFID) and transceiver system for potential applications in individual cell tracking and monitoring. The RFID diameter is 22 μ m and can be naturally internalized by living cells. Using magnetic resonance coupling, the system shows resonance shifts when the RFID is present and also when the RFID loading capacitance changes. It operates at 60 GHz with a high signal magnitude up to -50 dB and a sensitivity of 0.2. This miniaturized RFID with a high signal magnitude is a promising step toward continuous, real-time monitoring of activities at cellular levels.

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  3. Track classification within wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumerc, Robin; Pannetier, Benjamin; Moras, Julien; Dezert, Jean; Canevet, Loic

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present our study on track classification by taking into account environmental information and target estimated states. The tracker uses several motion model adapted to different target dynamics (pedestrian, ground vehicle and SUAV, i.e. small unmanned aerial vehicle) and works in centralized architecture. The main idea is to explore both: classification given by heterogeneous sensors and classification obtained with our fusion module. The fusion module, presented in his paper, provides a class on each track according to track location, velocity and associated uncertainty. To model the likelihood on each class, a fuzzy approach is used considering constraints on target capability to move in the environment. Then the evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) is used to perform a time integration of this classifier output. The fusion rules are tested and compared on real data obtained with our wireless sensor network.In order to handle realistic ground target tracking scenarios, we use an autonomous smart computer deposited in the surveillance area. After the calibration step of the heterogeneous sensor network, our system is able to handle real data from a wireless ground sensor network. The performance of this system is evaluated in a real exercise for intelligence operation ("hunter hunt" scenario).

  4. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  5. A wireless, remote query magnetoelastic CO2 sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Q Y; Cammers-Goodwin, A; Grimes, C A

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents a wireless, passive, remote query CO2 sensor comprising a ribbon-like magnetoelastic thick-film coated with a mass-changing CO2 responsive polymer synthesized from acrylamide and isooctylacrylate. In response to a magnetic field impulse, the magnetostrictive magnetoelastic sensor vibrates at a characteristic resonant frequency that is inversely dependent upon the mass of the attached CO2 responsive polymer. The mechanical vibrations of the magnetostrictive sensor launch magnetic flux, which can be detected remotely using a pickup coil. By monitoring the resonant frequency of the passive sensor, the atmospheric CO2 concentration can be determined without the need for physical connections to the sensor or specific alignment requirements. The effect of humidity and the CO2 responsive copolymer composition on the measurement sensitivity are reported. Greatest sensitivity is achieved with a polymer comprising a 1:1 mole ratio of acrylamide to isooctyl acrylate. A 0.7% change in atmospheric CO2 concentration can be detected for a 20 microns thick polymer coated sensor.

  6. Wireless sensors and sensor networks for homeland security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Nagraj, Nandini; Surman, Cheryl; Boudries, Hacene; Lai, Hanh; Slocik, Joseph M; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R

    2012-11-01

    New sensor technologies for homeland security applications must meet the key requirements of sensitivity to detect agents below risk levels, selectivity to provide minimal false-alarm rates, and response speed to operate in high throughput environments, such as airports, sea ports, and other public places. Chemical detection using existing sensor systems is facing a major challenge of selectivity. In this review, we provide a brief summary of chemical threats of homeland security importance; focus in detail on modern concepts in chemical sensing; examine the origins of the most significant unmet needs in existing chemical sensors; and, analyze opportunities, specific requirements, and challenges for wireless chemical sensors and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We further review a new approach for selective chemical sensing that involves the combination of a sensing material that has different response mechanisms to different species of interest, with a transducer that has a multi-variable signal-transduction ability. This new selective chemical-sensing approach was realized using an attractive ubiquitous platform of battery-free passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags adapted for chemical sensing. We illustrate the performance of RFID sensors developed in measurements of toxic industrial materials, humidity-independent detection of toxic vapors, and detection of chemical-agent simulants, explosives, and strong oxidizers.

  7. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  8. Research on dynamic routing mechanisms in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, A Q; Weng, Y N; Lu, Y; Liu, C Y

    2014-01-01

    WirelessHART is the most widely applied standard in wireless sensor networks nowadays. However, it does not provide any dynamic routing mechanism, which is important for the reliability and robustness of the wireless network applications. In this paper, a collection tree protocol based, dynamic routing mechanism was proposed for WirelessHART network. The dynamic routing mechanism was evaluated through several simulation experiments in three aspects: time for generating the topology, link quality, and stability of network. Besides, the data transmission efficiency of this routing mechanism was analyzed. The simulation and evaluation results show that this mechanism can act as a dynamic routing mechanism for the TDMA-based wireless sensor network.

  9. Indoor Wireless RF Energy Transfer for Powering Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Visser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For powering wireless sensors in buildings, rechargeable batteries may be used. These batteries will be recharged remotely by dedicated RF sources. Far-field RF energy transport is known to suffer from path loss and therefore the RF power available on the rectifying antenna or rectenna will be very low. As a consequence, the RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of the rectenna will also be very low. By optimizing not only the subsystems of a rectenna but also taking the propagation channel into account and using the channel information for adapting the transmit antenna radiation pattern, the RF energy transport efficiency will be improved. The rectenna optimization, channel modeling and design of a transmit antenna are discussed.

  10. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique...

  11. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) temperature sensors, which can operate in a multi-sensor environment, have recently been successfully demonstrated. A...

  12. Distributed Wireless Sensor Data Acquisition and Control System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combining smart sensor with wireless technology is a compelling addition to structure a large-scale smart sensor networks for real-time data acquisition, distributed...

  13. New Wireless Sensors for Diagnostics Under Harsh Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an acute need for robust sensors and sensor systems capable of operation in harsh environments. In particular, high temperature passive wireless surface...

  14. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  15. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks.

  16. Wireless sensor networks from theory to applications

    CERN Document Server

    El Emary, Ibrahiem M M

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many books available on WSNs, most are low-level, introductory books. The few available for advanced readers fail to convey the breadth of knowledge required for those aiming to develop next-generation solutions for WSNs. Filling this void, Wireless Sensor Networks: From Theory to Applications supplies comprehensive coverage of WSNs. In order to provide the wide-ranging guidance required, the book brings together the contributions of domain experts working in the various subfields of WSNs worldwide. This edited volume examines recent advances in WSN technologies and consider

  17. BABY MONITORING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS is marked by the sudden death of an infant during sleep that is not predicted by the medical history and remains unexplained even after thorough forensic autopsy and detailed death investigation. In this we developed a system that provides solutions for the above problems by making the crib smart using the wireless sensor networks (WSN and smart phones. The system provides visual monitoring service through live video, alert services by crib fencing and awakens alert, monitoring services by temperature reading and light intensity reading, vaccine reminder and weight monitoring.

  18. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  19. Trust framework for a secured routing in wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Ouassila Hoceini; Saïd Talbi; Rachida Aoudjit

    2015-01-01

    Traditional techniques to eliminate insider attacks developed for wired and wireless ad hoc networks are not well suited for wireless sensors networks due to their resource constraints nature. In order to protect WSNs against malicious and selfish behavior, some trust-based systems have recently been modeled. The resource efficiency and dependability of a trust system are the most fundamental requirements for any wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we propose a Trust Framework for a...

  20. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's) have become an important and challenging research area in recent years. Wireless Sensor Networks consisting of nodes with limited power are deployed to gather useful information from the field. In WSNs it is critical to collect the information in an energy efficient manner. Ant Colony ...

  1. X-raying neighbour discovery in a wireless sensor network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most wireless sensor networks, the nodes are often assumed to be stationary. However, network connectivity is subject to changes arising from interference in wireless communication, changes in transmission power or loss of synchronization among neighbouring network nodes. Hence, even after a sensor node is aware ...

  2. An Efficient Multitask Scheduling Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensor nodes of multitask wireless network are constrained in performance-driven computation. Theoretical studies on the data processing model of wireless sensor nodes suggest satisfying the requirements of high qualities of service (QoS of multiple application networks, thus improving the efficiency of network. In this paper, we present the priority based data processing model for multitask sensor nodes in the architecture of multitask wireless sensor network. The proposed model is deduced with the M/M/1 queuing model based on the queuing theory where the average delay of data packets passing by sensor nodes is estimated. The model is validated with the real data from the Huoerxinhe Coal Mine. By applying the proposed priority based data processing model in the multitask wireless sensor network, the average delay of data packets in a sensor nodes is reduced nearly to 50%. The simulation results show that the proposed model can improve the throughput of network efficiently.

  3. Handbook of sensor networks compact wireless and wired sensing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ilyas, Mohammad

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Opportunities and Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks, M. Haenggi, Next Generation Technologies to Enable Sensor Networks, J. I.  Goodman, A. I. Reuther, and D. R. Martinez Sensor Networks Management, L. B. Ruiz, J. M. Nogueira, and A. A. F. Loureiro Models for Programmability in Sensor Networks, A. Boulis Miniaturizing Sensor Networks with MEMS, Brett Warneke A Taxonomy of Routing Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks, J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal Artificial Perceptual Systems, A. Loutfi, M. Lindquist, and P. Wide APPLICATIONS Sensor Network Architecture and Appl

  4. Magnetic Nanocomposite Cilia Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-07-19

    Recent progress in the development of artificial skin concepts is a result of the increased demand for providing environment perception such as touch and flow sensing to robots, prosthetics and surgical tools. Tactile sensors are the essential components of artificial skins and attracted considerable attention that led to the development of different technologies for mimicking the complex sense of touch in humans. This dissertation work is devoted to the development of a bioinspired tactile sensing technology that imitates the extremely sensitive hair-like cilia receptors found in nature. The artificial cilia are fabricated from permanent magnetic, biocompatible and highly elastic nanocomposite material, and integrated on a giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor to measure the stray field. A force that bends the cilia changes the stray field and is therefore detected with the magnetic sensor, providing high performance in terms of sensitivity, power consumption and versatility. The nanocomposite is made of Fe nanowires (NWs) incorporated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fe NWs have a high remanent magnetization, due the shape anisotropy; thus, they are acting as permanent nano-magnets. This allows remote device operation and avoids the need for a magnetic field to magnetize the NWs, benefiting miniaturization and the possible range of applications. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposite can be easily tuned by modifying the NWs concentration or by aligning the NWs to define a magnetic anisotropy. Tactile sensors are realized on flexible and rigid substrates that can detect flow, vertical and shear forces statically and dynamically, with a high resolution and wide operating range. The advantage to operate the sensors in liquids and air has been utilized to measure flows in different fluids in a microfluidic channel. Various dynamic studies were conducted with the tactile sensor demonstrating the detection of moving objects or the texture of objects. Overall

  5. Cross-platform wireless sensor network development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Kusy, Branislav

    Design and development of wireless sensor network applications adds an additional layer of complexity to traditional computer systems. The developer needs to be an expert in resource constrained embedded devices as well as traditional desktop computers. We propose Tinylnventor, an open......-source development environment that takes a holistic approach to implementing sensor network applications. Users build applications using a drag-and-drop visual programming language Open Blocks, a language that Google selected for its App Inventor for Android. Tinylnventor uses cross-platform programming concepts......, such as threads and common network operations, to provide a unified environment from which it generates application binaries for the respective platforms. We demonstrate through an application example that Tinylnventor is both simple to use and powerful in expressing complex applications....

  6. Wireless Sensors for Wind Turbine Blades Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftimie, N.; Steigmann, R.; Danila, N. A.; Rosu, D.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2017-06-01

    The most common defects in turbine blades may be faulty microscopic and mesoscopic appeared in matrix, no detected by classical nondestructive testing (i.e. using phased array sensors), broken fibers can also appear and develop under moderated loads, or cracks and delaminations due to low energy impacts, etc. The paper propose to present the results obtained from testing of glass fiber reinforced plastic used in the construction of the wind turbine blades as well as the monitoring of the entire scalable blade using wireless sensors placed on critical location on blade. In order to monitories the strain/stress during the tests, the determination of the location and the nature of defects have been simulated using FEM.

  7. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, RH; Newton, MI

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance finds countless applications, from spectroscopy to imaging, routinely in almost all research and medical institutions across the globe. It is also becoming more frequently used for specific applications in which the whole instrument and system is designed for a dedicated application. With beginnings in borehole logging for the petro-chemical industry Magnetic Resonance sensors have been applied to fields as varied as online process monitoring for food manufacture and medica...

  9. Mechanisms for Prolonging Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yinying

    2010-01-01

    Sensors are used to monitor and control the physical environment. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of a large number of sensor nodes that are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it [18][5]. Sensor nodes measure various parameters of the environment and transmit data collected to one or more sinks, using…

  10. Autonomous vision networking: miniature wireless sensor networks with imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Gioia; Goldberg, Giora

    2006-09-01

    The recent emergence of integrated PicoRadio technology, the rise of low power, low cost, System-On-Chip (SOC) CMOS imagers, coupled with the fast evolution of networking protocols and digital signal processing (DSP), created a unique opportunity to achieve the goal of deploying large-scale, low cost, intelligent, ultra-low power distributed wireless sensor networks for the visualization of the environment. Of all sensors, vision is the most desired, but its applications in distributed sensor networks have been elusive so far. Not any more. The practicality and viability of ultra-low power vision networking has been proven and its applications are countless, from security, and chemical analysis to industrial monitoring, asset tracking and visual recognition, vision networking represents a truly disruptive technology applicable to many industries. The presentation discusses some of the critical components and technologies necessary to make these networks and products affordable and ubiquitous - specifically PicoRadios, CMOS imagers, imaging DSP, networking and overall wireless sensor network (WSN) system concepts. The paradigm shift, from large, centralized and expensive sensor platforms, to small, low cost, distributed, sensor networks, is possible due to the emergence and convergence of a few innovative technologies. Avaak has developed a vision network that is aided by other sensors such as motion, acoustic and magnetic, and plans to deploy it for use in military and commercial applications. In comparison to other sensors, imagers produce large data files that require pre-processing and a certain level of compression before these are transmitted to a network server, in order to minimize the load on the network. Some of the most innovative chemical detectors currently in development are based on sensors that change color or pattern in the presence of the desired analytes. These changes are easily recorded and analyzed by a CMOS imager and an on-board DSP processor

  11. Development of a Testbed for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Vuran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs constitute one of the promising application areas of the recently developed wireless sensor networking techniques. WUSN is a specialized kind of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN that mainly focuses on the use of sensors that communicate through soil. Recent models for the wireless underground communication channel are proposed but few field experiments were realized to verify the accuracy of the models. The realization of field WUSN experiments proved to be extremely complex and time-consuming in comparison with the traditional wireless environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that proposes guidelines for the development of an outdoor WUSN testbed with the goals of improving the accuracy and reducing of time for WUSN experiments. Although the work mainly aims WUSNs, many of the presented practices can also be applied to generic WSN testbeds.

  12. Existing PON Infrastructure Supported Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals.......We propose a hybrid fiber wireless sensor network based on the existing PON infrastructure. The feasibility of remote sensing and PON convergence is experimentally proven by transmitting direct-sequence spread-spectrum wireless sensing and 2.5Gbps GPON signals....

  13. Security Attacks and its Countermeasures in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar; Vani B. A

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks have come to the forefront of the scientific community recently. Present WSNs typically communicate directly with a centralized controller or satellite. Going on the other hand, a smart WSN consists of a number of sensors spread across a geographical area; each sensor has wireless communication ability and sufficient intelligence for signal processing and networking of the data. This paper surveyed the different types of attacks, security related issue...

  14. System-level Modeling of Wireless Integrated Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif M.; Hansen, Knud; Madsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Wireless integrated sensor networks have emerged as a promising infrastructure for a new generation of monitoring and tracking applications. In order to efficiently utilize the extremely limited resources of wireless sensor nodes, accurate modeling of the key aspects of wireless sensor networks...... is necessary so that system-level design decisions can be made about the hardware and the software (applications and real-time operating system) architecture of sensor nodes. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based abstract modeling framework that enables system-level modeling of sensor network behavior...... by modeling the applications, real-time operating system, sensors, processor, and radio transceiver at the sensor node level and environmental phenomena, including radio signal propagation, at the sensor network level. We demonstrate the potential of our modeling framework by simulating and analyzing a small...

  15. Sensor anomaly detection in wireless sensor networks for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shah Ahsanul; Rahman, Mustafizur; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2015-04-15

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are vulnerable to various sensor faults and faulty measurements. This vulnerability hinders efficient and timely response in various WSN applications, such as healthcare. For example, faulty measurements can create false alarms which may require unnecessary intervention from healthcare personnel. Therefore, an approach to differentiate between real medical conditions and false alarms will improve remote patient monitoring systems and quality of healthcare service afforded by WSN. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to detect sensor anomaly by analyzing collected physiological data from medical sensors. The objective of this method is to effectively distinguish false alarms from true alarms. It predicts a sensor value from historic values and compares it with the actual sensed value for a particular instance. The difference is compared against a threshold value, which is dynamically adjusted, to ascertain whether the sensor value is anomalous. The proposed approach has been applied to real healthcare datasets and compared with existing approaches. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system, providing high Detection Rate (DR) and low False Positive Rate (FPR).

  16. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  17. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  18. Development of wireless sensor network for landslide monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi; Puranto, Prabowo; Adinanta, Hendra; Tohari, Adrin; Priambodo, Purnomo S.

    2017-05-01

    A wireless sensor network has been developed to monitor soil movement of some observed areas periodically. The system consists of four nodes and one gateway which installed on a scope area of 0.2 Km2. Each of nodehastwo types of sensor,an inclinometer and an extensometer. An inclinometer sensor is used to measure the tilt of a structure while anextensometer sensor is used to measure the displacement of soil movement. Each of nodeisalso supported by awireless communication device, a solar power supply unit, and a microcontroller unit called sensor module. In this system, there is also gateway module as a main communication system consistinga wireless communication device, power supply unit, and rain gauge to measure the rainfall intensity of the observed area. Each sensor of inclinometer and extensometer isconnected to the sensor module in wiring system but sensor module iscommunicating with gateway in a wireless system. Those four nodes are alsoconnectedeach other in a wireless system collecting the data from inclinometer and extensometer sensors. Module Gateway istransmitting the instruction code to each sensor module one by one and collecting the data from them. Gateway module is an important part to communicate with not only sensor modules but also to the server. This wireless system wasdesigned toreducethe electric consumption powered by 80 WP solar panel and 55Ah battery. This system has been implemented in Pangalengan, Bandung, which has high intensity of rainfall and it can be seen on the website.

  19. Wireless Temperature Sensor Having No Electrical Connections and Sensing Method for Use Therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Marie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor includes an electrical conductor and a dielectric material on the conductor. The conductor is electrically unconnected and is shaped for storage of an electric field and a magnetic field. In the presence of a time-varying magnetic field, the conductor resonates to generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses, each of which has a frequency associated therewith. The material is selected such that it experiences changes in either dielectric or magnetic permeability attributes in the presence of a temperature change. Shifts from the sensor's baseline frequency response indicate that the material has experienced a temperature change.

  20. Sensor data security level estimation scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alex; Filho, Raimir Holanda

    2015-01-19

    Due to their increasing dissemination, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become the target of more and more sophisticated attacks, even capable of circumventing both attack detection and prevention mechanisms. This may cause WSN users, who totally trust these security mechanisms, to think that a sensor reading is secure, even when an adversary has corrupted it. For that reason, a scheme capable of estimating the security level (SL) that these mechanisms provide to sensor data is needed, so that users can be aware of the actual security state of this data and can make better decisions on its use. However, existing security estimation schemes proposed for WSNs fully ignore detection mechanisms and analyze solely the security provided by prevention mechanisms. In this context, this work presents the sensor data security estimator (SDSE), a new comprehensive security estimation scheme for WSNs. SDSE is designed for estimating the sensor data security level based on security metrics that analyze both attack prevention and detection mechanisms. In order to validate our proposed scheme, we have carried out extensive simulations that show the high accuracy of SDSE estimates.

  1. Connectivity, Coverage and Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Heng Foh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication between sensors allows the formation of flexible sensor networks, which can be deployed rapidly over wide or inaccessible areas. However, the need to gather data from all sensors in the network imposes constraints on the distances between sensors. This survey describes the state of the art in techniques for determining the minimum density and optimal locations of relay nodes and ordinary sensors to ensure connectivity, subject to various degrees of uncertainty in the locations of the nodes.

  2. Distributed Service Discovery for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Service discovery in heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks is a challenging research objective, due to the inherent limitations of sensor nodes and their extensive and dense deployment. The protocols proposed for ad hoc networks are too heavy for sensor environments. This paper presents a

  3. Data retrieval time for energy harvesting wireless sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitici, M.A.; Goseling, Jasper; de Graaf, Maurits; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of retrieving a reliable estimate of an attribute monitored by a wireless sensor network, where the sensors harvest energy from the environment independently, at random. Each sensor stores the harvested energy in batteries of limited capacity. Moreover, provided they have

  4. Software structure for broadband wireless sensor network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeokjun; Oh, Sechang; Yoon, Hargsoon; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2010-04-01

    Zigbee Sensor Network system has been investigating for monitoring and analyzing the data measured from a lot of sensors because the Zigbee Sensor Network has several advantages of low power consumption, compact size, and multi-node connection. However, it has a disadvantage not to be able to monitor the data measured from sensors at the remote area such as other room that is located at other city. This paper describes the software structure to compensate the defect with combining the Zigbee Sensor Network and wireless LAN technology for remote monitoring of measured sensor data. The software structure has both benefits of Zigbee Sensor Network and the advantage of wireless LAN. The software structure has three main software structures. The first software structure consists of the function in order to acquire the data from sensors and the second software structure is to gather the sensor data through wireless Zigbee and to send the data to Monitoring system by using wireless LAN. The second part consists of Linux packages software based on 2440 CPU (Samsung corp.), which has ARM9 core. The Linux packages include bootloader, device drivers, kernel, and applications, and the applications are TCP/IP server program, the program interfacing with Zigbee RF module, and wireless LAN program. The last part of software structure is to receive the sensor data through TCP/IP client program from Wireless Gate Unit and to display graphically measured data by using MATLAB program; the sensor data is measured on 100Hz sampling rate and the measured data has 10bit data resolution. The wireless data transmission rate per each channel is 1.6kbps.

  5. An Energy Efficient Multipath Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Wu Jian, W.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this paper we introduce a new routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. The aim of this algorithm is to provide on-demand multiple disjoint paths between a data source and a destination. Our Multipath On-Demand Routing Algorithm (MDR) improves the reliability of data routing in a wireless

  6. Design issues and applications of wireless sensor networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the emerging protocol of environmental monitoring using tiny wireless sensor motes known as “smart dusts”, which have been made possible by advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, wireless communications and digital electronics. Design considerations for the hardware ...

  7. MAC Protocols for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosunalp, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) technology in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is gaining increasing popularity through removing the burden of having to replace/recharge depleted energy sources by energy harvester devices...

  8. Helicopter Rotor Blade Monitoring using Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Loendersloot, Richard; Tinga, Tiedo; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    The advancement on Wireless Sensor Networks for vibration monitoring presents important possibilities for helicopter rotor health and usage monitoring. While main rotor blades account for the main source of lift for helicopters, rotor induced vibration establishes an important source for

  9. Passive Wireless Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Albido proposes to develop a Passive Wireless Sensor System for Structural Health Monitoring capable of measuring high-bandwidth temperature and strain of space and...

  10. New Wireless Sensors for Diagnostics Under Harsh Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-temperature passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are highly desirable for improving safety and efficiency in aviation and space vehicles. This...

  11. A Study on Wireless Charging for Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Tu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, since it can provide an emerging and effective solution in the absence of other power supplies. The state-of-the-art methods employ a mobile car and a predefined moving path to charge the sensor nodes in the network. Previous studies only consider a factor of the network (i.e., residual energy of sensor node as a constraint to design the wireless charging strategy. However, other factors, such as the travelled distance of the mobile car, can also affect the effectiveness of wireless charging strategy. In this work, we study wireless charging strategy based on the analysis of a combination of two factors, including the residual energy of sensor nodes and the travelled distance of the charging car. Firstly, we theoretically analyze the limited size of the sensor network to match the capability of a charging car. Then, the networked factors are selected as the weights of traveling salesman problem (TSP to design the moving path of the charging car. Thirdly, the charging time of each sensor node is computed based on the linear programming problem for the charging car. Finally, a charging period for the network is studied. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can significantly maximize the lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

  12. A Power Balance Aware Wireless Charger Deployment Method for Complete Coverage in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu-Liang Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sensor nodes are usually battery powered, and the limited battery power constrains the overall lifespan of the sensors. Recently, wireless power transmission technology has been applied in wireless sensor networks (WSNs to transmit wireless power from the chargers to the sensor nodes and solve the limited battery power problem. The combination of wireless sensors and wireless chargers forms a new type of network called wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. In this research, we focus on how to effectively deploy chargers to maximize the lifespan of a network. In WSNs, the sensor nodes near the sink consume more power than nodes far away from the sink because of frequent data forwarding. This important power unbalanced factor has not been considered, however, in previous charger deployment research. In this research, a power balance aware deployment (PBAD method is proposed to address the power unbalance in WRSNs and to design the charger deployment with maximum charging efficiency. The proposed deployment method is effectively aware of the existence of the sink node that would cause unbalanced power consumption in WRSNs. The simulation results show that the proposed PBAD algorithm performs better than other deployment methods, and fewer chargers are deployed as a result.

  13. A Study on Wireless Charging for Prolonging the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weijian; Xu, Xianghua; Ye, Tingcong; Cheng, Zongmao

    2017-07-04

    Wireless charging is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, since it can provide an emerging and effective solution in the absence of other power supplies. The state-of-the-art methods employ a mobile car and a predefined moving path to charge the sensor nodes in the network. Previous studies only consider a factor of the network (i.e., residual energy of sensor node) as a constraint to design the wireless charging strategy. However, other factors, such as the travelled distance of the mobile car, can also affect the effectiveness of wireless charging strategy. In this work, we study wireless charging strategy based on the analysis of a combination of two factors, including the residual energy of sensor nodes and the travelled distance of the charging car. Firstly, we theoretically analyze the limited size of the sensor network to match the capability of a charging car. Then, the networked factors are selected as the weights of traveling salesman problem (TSP) to design the moving path of the charging car. Thirdly, the charging time of each sensor node is computed based on the linear programming problem for the charging car. Finally, a charging period for the network is studied. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can significantly maximize the lifetime of the wireless sensor network.

  14. Wireless Sensor Networks Formation: Approaches and Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Carlos-Mancilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wireless sensor networks (WSNs emerge as an active research area in which challenging topics involve energy consumption, routing algorithms, selection of sensors location according to a given premise, robustness, efficiency, and so forth. Despite the open problems in WSNs, there are already a high number of applications available. In all cases for the design of any application, one of the main objectives is to keep the WSN alive and functional as long as possible. A key factor in this is the way the network is formed. This survey presents most recent formation techniques and mechanisms for the WSNs. In this paper, the reviewed works are classified into distributed and centralized techniques. The analysis is focused on whether a single or multiple sinks are employed, nodes are static or mobile, the formation is event detection based or not, and network backbone is formed or not. We focus on recent works and present a discussion of their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, the paper overviews a series of open issues which drive further research in the area.

  15. Energy Monitoring and Management Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadakis Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss a mechanism for the monitoring and management of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. We consider that the Wireless Sensor Network consists of nodes that operate individually and collaborate with each other. After briefly discussing the typical network topologies and associating with the expected communications needs, we describe a conceptual framework for monitoring and managing the energy consumption on per process basis.

  16. Health Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network: "A Matlab Approach"

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, David Chukwuemeka

    2016-01-01

    A wireless sensor network consists of locally distributed independent sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants. Wireless Body Area Network (WBANs) represents a promising trend in wearable health monitoring systems. WBANs promise to revolutionize health monitoring and offer continuous and omnipresent moving health monitoring at the least level of obtrusiveness, resulting in an increase in user’s...

  17. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  18. Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ali Alrajeh; Khan, S.; Bilal Shams

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes deployed in a manner to collect information about surrounding environment. Their distributed nature, multihop data forwarding, and open wireless medium are the factors that make WSNs highly vulnerable to security attacks at various levels. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) can play an important role in detecting and preventing security attacks. This paper presents current Intrusion Detection Systems and some open research problems relat...

  19. Application of wireless sensor network technology in logistics information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Lina; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xuhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Wenwen

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts of active RFID (WSN-ARFID) based on wireless sensor networks and analyzes the shortcomings of the existing RFID-based logistics monitoring system. Integrated wireless sensor network technology and the scrambling point of RFID technology. A new real-time logistics detection system based on WSN and RFID, a model of logistics system based on WSN-ARFID is proposed, and the feasibility of this technology applied to logistics field is analyzed.

  20. Wireless medical sensors – context, robustness and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollmeyer Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless medical sensors are an emerging technology. Wireless sensors form networks and are placed in an unknown environment. For indoor scenarios context detection of medical sensors, e.g. removal of sensors from a specific room, is important. Current algorithms for context detection of wireless sensors are based on RF signals, but RF signal propagation and room location show only a weak correlation. Recent approaches with RSSI-measurements are based on prior fingerprinting and therefore costly. In our approach, we equip wireless sensor nodes with a barometric sensor to measure pressure disturbances that occur, when doors of rooms are opened or closed. By signal processing of these disturbances our proposed algorithm detects rooms and estimates distances without prior knowledge in an unknown environment. Based on these measurement we automatically build a topology graph representing the room context and distances for indoor environment in a model for buildings. We evaluate our algorithm within a wireless sensor network and show the performance of our solution.

  1. Wireless sensor network for streetlight monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-Ming; Ma, Jing; Leblanc, Lawrence E.

    2004-08-01

    Wireless sensor network has attracted considerable research attention as the world becomes more information oriented. This technology provides an opportunity of innovations in traditional industries. Management and control of streetlight system is a labor-intensive high-cost task for public facility operations. This paper applies wireless sensor network technology in streetlight monitoring and control. Wireless sensor networks are employed to replace traditional physical patrol maintenance and manual switching on every lamp in the street or along the highway at the aim of reducing the maintenance and management expense. Active control is used to preserve energy cost while ensuring public safety. A proof-of-concept network architecture operated at 900 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band is designed for a two-way wireless telemetry system in streetlight remote control and monitoring. The radio architecture, multi-hop protocol and system interface are discussed in detail. MOTES sensor nodes are used in simulation and experimental tests. Simulation results show that the sensor network approach provides an efficient solution to monitor and control lighting infrastructures through wireless links. The unique application in this paper addresses an immediate need in streetlight control and monitoring, the architecture developed in this research could also serve as a platform for many other applications and researches in wireless sensor network.

  2. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  3. 1-Bit Compressive Data Gathering for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiping Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS has been widely used in wireless sensor networks for the purpose of reducing the data gathering communication overhead in recent years. In this paper, we firstly apply 1-bit compressive sensing to wireless sensor networks to further reduce the communication overhead that each sensor needs to send. Furthermore, we propose a novel blind 1-bit CS reconstruction algorithm which outperforms other state-of-the-art blind 1-bit CS reconstruction algorithms under the settings of WSN. Experimental results on real sensor datasets demonstrate the efficiency of our method.

  4. A Survey of Coverage Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbin LIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, which has a great impact on the performance of wireless sensor networks. Given a sensor network, the coverage problem is to determine how well the sensing field is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we classify the coverage problem into three categories: area coverage, target coverage, and barrier coverage, give detailed description of different algorithms belong to these three categories. Moreover, we specify the advantages and disadvantages of the existing classic algorithms, which can give a useful direction in this area.

  5. Virtual View Image over Wireless Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamantyo Hendrantoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, visual sensors are applied to build virtual view images. When number of visual sensors increases then quantity and quality of the information improves. However, the view images generation is a challenging task in Wireless Visual Sensor Network environment due to energy restriction, computation complexity, and bandwidth limitation. Hence this paper presents a new method of virtual view images generation from selected cameras on Wireless Visual Sensor Network. The aim of the paper is to meet bandwidth and energy limitations without reducing information quality. The experiment results showed that this method could minimize number of transmitted imageries with sufficient information.

  6. Research Update: Nanogenerators for self-powered autonomous wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Hinchet, Ronan; Ryu, Hanjun; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2017-07-01

    Largely distributed networks of sensors based on the small electronics have great potential for health care, safety, and environmental monitoring. However, in order to have a maintenance free and sustainable operation, such wireless sensors have to be self-powered. Among various energies present in our environment, mechanical energy is widespread and can be harvested for powering the sensors. Piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators (NGs) have been recently introduced for mechanical energy harvesting. Here we introduce the architecture and operational modes of self-powered autonomous wireless sensors. Thereafter, we review the piezoelectric and triboelectric NGs focusing on their working mechanism, structures, strategies, and materials.

  7. Enhanced Distributed Dynamic Skyline Query for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic skyline query is one of the most popular and significant variants of skyline query in the field of multi-criteria decision-making. However, designing a distributed dynamic skyline query possesses greater challenge, especially for the distributed data centric storage within wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this paper, a novel Enhanced Distributed Dynamic Skyline (EDDS approach is proposed and implemented in Disk Based Data Centric Storage (DBDCS architecture. DBDCS is an adaptation of magnetic disk storage platter consisting tracks and sectors. In DBDCS, the disc track and sector analogy is used to map data locations. A distance based indexing method is used for storing and querying multi-dimensional similar data. EDDS applies a threshold based hierarchical approach, which uses temporal correlation among sectors and sector segments to calculate a dynamic skyline. The efficiency and effectiveness of EDDS has been evaluated in terms of latency, energy consumption and accuracy through a simulation model developed in Castalia.

  8. Increased Efficiency of Face Recognition System using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Muraleedharan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was inspired by the need of a flexible and cost effective biometric security system. The flexibility of the wireless sensor network makes it a natural choice for data transmission. Swarm intelligence (SI is used to optimize routing in distributed time varying network. In this paper, SI maintains the required bit error rate (BER for varied channel conditions while consuming minimal energy. A specific biometric, the face recognition system, is discussed as an example. Simulation shows that the wireless sensor network is efficient in energy consumption while keeping the transmission accuracy, and the wireless face recognition system is competitive to the traditional wired face recognition system in classification accuracy.

  9. Wireless Sensor Node for Surface Seawater Density Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Saletti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes’ law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  10. Wireless sensor node for surface seawater density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronti, Federico; Fantechi, Gabriele; Roncella, Roberto; Saletti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    An electronic meter to measure surface seawater density is presented. It is based on the measurement of the difference in displacements of a surface level probe and a weighted float, which according to Archimedes' law depends on the density of the water. The displacements are simultaneously measured using a high-accuracy magnetostrictive sensor, to which a custom electronic board provides a wireless connection and power supply so that it can become part of a wireless sensor network. The electronics are designed so that different kinds of wireless networks can be used, by simply changing the wireless module and the relevant firmware of the microcontroller. Lastly, laboratory and at-sea tests are presented and discussed in order to highlight the functionality and the performance of a prototype of the wireless density meter node in a Bluetooth radio network. The experimental results show a good agreement of the values of the calculated density compared to reference hydrometer readings.

  11. The Radio Frequency Health Node Wireless Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J. Emilio; Stanley, Priscilla C.; Mackey, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN) wireless sensor system differs from other wireless sensor systems in ways originally intended to enhance utility as an instrumentation system for a spacecraft. The RFHN can also be adapted to use in terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for operational flexibility and integrability into higher-level instrumentation and data acquisition systems. As shown in the figure, the heart of the system is the RFHN, which is a unit that passes commands and data between (1) one or more commercially available wireless sensor units (optionally, also including wired sensor units) and (2) command and data interfaces with a local control computer that may be part of the spacecraft or other engineering system in which the wireless sensor system is installed. In turn, the local control computer can be in radio or wire communication with a remote control computer that may be part of a higher-level system. The remote control computer, acting via the local control computer and the RFHN, cannot only monitor readout data from the sensor units but can also remotely configure (program or reprogram) the RFHN and the sensor units during operation. In a spacecraft application, the RFHN and the sensor units can also be configured more nearly directly, prior to launch, via a serial interface that includes an umbilical cable between the spacecraft and ground support equipment. In either case, the RFHN wireless sensor system has the flexibility to be configured, as required, with different numbers and types of sensors for different applications. The RFHN can be used to effect realtime transfer of data from, and commands to, the wireless sensor units. It can also store data for later retrieval by an external computer. The RFHN communicates with the wireless sensor units via a radio transceiver module. The modular design of the RFHN makes it possible to add radio transceiver modules as needed to accommodate additional sets of wireless sensor

  12. Neural networks for error detection and data aggregation in wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Bahanfar; Helia Kousha; Ladan Darougaran

    2011-01-01

    Correct information and data aggregation are very important in wireless sensor networks because sending incorrect information by fault sensors make to wrong decision about environment and increasing defective sensor during the time incorrect data decries reliability of wireless sensor networks. Previous methods have Problems such as there are fault sensors in wireless sensor network therefore wrong data are sent to CH by these sensors. In this paper apply the neural network within the sensors...

  13. Ninth International Conference on Wireless Communication and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Murlidhar; Arora, Anish

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communication and sensor networks would form the backbone to create pervasive and ubiquitous environments that would have profound influence on the society and thus are important to the society. The wireless communication technologies and wireless sensor networks would encompass a wide range of domains such as HW devices such as motes, sensors and associated instrumentation, actuators, transmitters, receivers, antennas, etc., sensor network aspects such as topologies, routing algorithms, integration of heterogeneous network elements and topologies, designing RF devices and systems for energy efficiency and reliability etc. These sensor networks would provide opportunity to continuously and in a distributed manner monitor the environment and generate the necessary warnings and actions. However most of the developments have been demonstrated only in controlled and laboratory environments. So we are yet to see those powerful, ubiquitous applications for the benefit of the society. The conference and con...

  14. A wireless soil moisture sensor powered by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingliang; Lv, Mouchao; Deng, Zhong; Zhai, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In a variety of agricultural activities, such as irrigation scheduling and nutrient management, soil water content is regarded as an essential parameter. Either power supply or long-distance cable is hardly available within field scale. For the necessity of monitoring soil water dynamics at field scale, this study presents a wireless soil moisture sensor based on the impedance transform of the frequency domain. The sensor system is powered by solar energy, and the data can be instantly transmitted by wireless communication. The sensor electrodes are embedded into the bottom of a supporting rod so that the sensor can measure soil water contents at different depths. An optimal design with time executing sequence is considered to reduce the energy consumption. The experimental results showed that the sensor is a promising tool for monitoring moisture in large-scale farmland using solar power and wireless communication.

  15. Environment Based Secure Transfer of Data in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhya, B.; Joseph, Mary; Girinath, D. Rajini; Malathi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most critical sensor readings (Top-k Monitoring) in environment monitoring system are important to many wireless sensor applications. In such applications, sensor nodes transmit the data continuously for a specific time period to the storage nodes. It is responsible for transferring the received results to the Authority on Top-k Query request from them. Dummy data's were added into the original text data to secure the data against adversary in case of hacking the sensor and storage nodes. If ...

  16. Trust framework for a secured routing in wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila Hoceini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques to eliminate insider attacks developed for wired and wireless ad hoc networks are not well suited for wireless sensors networks due to their resource constraints nature. In order to protect WSNs against malicious and selfish behavior, some trust-based systems have recently been modeled. The resource efficiency and dependability of a trust system are the most fundamental requirements for any wireless sensor network (WSN. In this paper, we propose a Trust Framework for a Secured Routing in Wireless Sensor Network (TSR scheme, which works with clustered networks. This approach can effectively reduce the cost of trust evaluation and guarantee a better selection of safest paths that lead to the base station. Theoretical as well as simulation results show that our scheme requires less communication overheads and consumes less energy as compared to the current typical trust systems for WSNs. Moreover, it detects selfish and defective nodes and prevents us of insider attacks

  17. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O' Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  18. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.

  19. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP. The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS, Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS, Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP, and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR in the geographic routing protocols.

  20. Wirelessly powered sensor networks and computational RFID

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Wireless Identification and Sensing Platform (WISP) is the first of a new class of RF-powered sensing and computing systems.  Rather than being powered by batteries, these sensor systems are powered by radio waves that are either deliberately broadcast or ambient.  Enabled by ongoing exponential improvements in the energy efficiency of microelectronics, RF-powered sensing and computing is rapidly moving along a trajectory from impossible (in the recent past), to feasible (today), toward practical and commonplace (in the near future). This book is a collection of key papers on RF-powered sensing and computing systems including the WISP.  Several of the papers grew out of the WISP Challenge, a program in which Intel Corporation donated WISPs to academic applicants who proposed compelling WISP-based projects.  The book also includes papers presented at the first WISP Summit, a workshop held in Berkeley, CA in association with the ACM Sensys conference, as well as other relevant papers. The book provides ...

  1. Wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Jiannong

    2016-01-01

    This brief covers the emerging area of wireless sensor network (WSN)-based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems, and introduces the authors’ WSN-based platform called SenetSHM. It helps the reader differentiate specific requirements of SHM applications from other traditional WSN applications, and demonstrates how these requirements are addressed by using a series of systematic approaches. The brief serves as a practical guide, explaining both the state-of-the-art technologies in domain-specific applications of WSNs, as well as the methodologies used to address the specific requirements for a WSN application. In particular, the brief offers instruction for problem formulation and problem solving based on the authors’ own experiences implementing SenetSHM. Seven concise chapters cover the development of hardware and software design of SenetSHM, as well as in-field experiments conducted while testing the platform. The brief’s exploration of the SenetSHM platform is a valuable feature for civil engine...

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, X.; Liang, Y.; Navarro, M.; Zhong, X.; Villalba, G.; Li, Y.; Davis, T.; Erratt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained an increasing interest in a broad range of new scientific research and applications. WSN technologies can provide high resolution for spatial and temporal data which has not been possible before, opening up new opportunities. On the other hand, WSNs, particularly outdoor WSNs in harsh environments, present great challenges for scientists and engineers in terms of the network design, deployment, operation, management, and maintenance. Since 2010, we have been working on the deployment of an outdoor multi-hop WSN testbed for hydrological/environmental monitoring in a forested hill-sloped region at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP), Pennsylvania, USA. The ASWP WSN testbed has continuously evolved and had more than 80 nodes by now. To our knowledge, the ASWP WSN testbed represents one of the first known long-term multi-hop WSN deployments in an outdoor environment. As simulation and laboratory methods are unable to capture the complexity of outdoor environments (e.g., forests, oceans, mountains, or glaciers), which significantly affect WSN operations and maintenance, experimental deployments are essential to investigate and understand WSN behaviors and performances as well as its maintenance characteristics under these harsh conditions. In this talk, based on our empirical studies with the ASWP WSN testbed, we will present our discoveries and investigations on several important aspects including WSN energy profile, node reprogramming, network management system, and testbed maintenance. We will then provide our insight into these critical aspects of outdoor WSN deployments and operations.

  3. A Novel Passive Wireless Sensor for Concrete Humidity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangxi; Deng, Fangming; Yu, Lehua; Li, Bing; Wu, Xiang; Yin, Baiqiang

    2016-09-20

    This paper presents a passive wireless humidity sensor for concrete monitoring. After discussing the transmission of electromagnetic wave in concrete, a novel architecture of wireless humidity sensor, based on Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, is proposed for low-power application. The humidity sensor utilizes the top metal layer to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. The sensor interface converts the humidity capacitance into a digital signal in the frequency domain. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture. The clock generator employs a novel structure to reduce the internal voltage swing. The measurement results show that our proposed wireless humidity can achieve a high linearity with a normalized sensitivity of 0.55% %RH at 20 °C. Despite the high losses of concrete, the proposed wireless humidity sensor achieves reliable communication performances in passive mode. The maximum operating distance is 0.52 m when the proposed wireless sensor is embedded into the concrete at the depth of 8 cm. The measured results are highly consistent with the results measured by traditional methods.

  4. Compressive sensing based data collection in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoum, Alireza; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Compressive sensing originates in the field of signal processing and has recently become a topic of energy-efficient data gathering in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we introduce a distributed compressive sensing approach, which utilizes spatial correlation among sensor nodes to group them

  5. Design and Optimisation Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Premkumar Karumbu,1.05 ECE,,+91-9448227167

    2010-11-14

    Nov 14, 2010 ... Recent motivation: event detection in wireless sensor networks. The classical model does not account for many practical aspects. Sleep-wake scheduling of sensors (cost for making observations). Optimal detection with sleep-wake scheduling: [Infocom 2008]. Transient change: The event occurs and then ...

  6. A trust-based probabilistic coverage algorithm for wireless sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghikhaki, Zahra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental issue for many applications in wireless sensor networks. Due to sensors resource limitations, inherent uncertainties associated with their measurements, and the harsh and dynamic environment in which they are deployed, having a QoS-aware coverage scheme is a must.

  7. Reconfiguration of sustainable thermoelectric generation using wireless sensor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    wireless sensor networks (WSNs), where remotely deployed temperature and voltage sensors as well as latching relays can be organized as a whole to intelligently identify and execute the optimal interconnection of TEM strings. A reconfigurable TEM array with a WSN controller and a maximum power point...

  8. The Use of Wireless Sensor Network for Increasing Airport Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kraus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the use of wireless sensor networks for increasing safety at airports, respectively for replacing the current monitoring system to ensure safety. The article describes sensor networks and their applications to the identified processes and consideration of financial and safety benefits.

  9. Low power radio communication platform for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are predicted to be the most versatile, popular and useful technology in the near future. A large number of applications are targeted which will hugely benefit from a network of tiny computers with few sensors, radio communication platform, intelligent networking and

  10. Performance analysis of data retrieval in wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitici, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are currently revolutionizing the way we live, work, and interact with the surrounding environment. Due to their ease of deployment, cost effectiveness and versatile functionality, sensors are employed in a wide range of areas such as environmental monitoring, surveillance

  11. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-10-24

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S levels which are important for early warnings of two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial gas leaks. The temperature sensor has TCR of -0.018/°, the highest of any inkjet-printed sensor and the H2S sensor can detect as low as 3 ppm of gas. These sensors and an antenna have been realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing have been combined in order to realize a unique low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node. Field tests show that these sensor nodes can wirelessly communicate up to a distance of over 100m. Our proposed sensor node can be a part of internet of things with the aim of providing a better and safe living.

  12. BOUNDARY DETECTION ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sitanayah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs comprise a large number of sensor nodes, which are spread out within a region and communicate using wireless links. In some WSN applications, recognizing boundary nodes is important for topology discovery, geographic routing and tracking. In this paper, we study the problem of recognizing the boundary nodes of a WSN. We firstly identify the factors that influence the design of algorithms for boundary detection. Then, we classify the existing work in boundary detection, which is vital for target tracking to detect when the targets enter or leave the sensor field.

  13. Energy Aware Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Noushin; Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Liu, Chenglian

    2011-09-01

    The sensor nodes deployed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are extremely power constrained, so maximizing the lifetime of the entire networks is mainly considered in the design. In wireless sensor networks, hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we investigate different clustering algorithms for WSNs and also compare these clustering algorithms based on metrics such as clustering distribution, cluster's load balancing, Cluster Head's (CH) selection strategy, CH's role rotation, node mobility, clusters overlapping, intra-cluster communications, reliability, security and location awareness.

  14. Utilization of Novel Overlap Functions in Wireless Sensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rama Murthy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of high-speed wireless networks and with their increased computational capabilities, distributed sensor networks (DSNs have a wide range of real time applications in automation, defense, medical imaging, robotics, whether predictions, etc. Since the early 1990s, DSNs have been an active research area. In this research paper, various well known overlap functions utilized in wireless sensor fusion are briefly summarized. Novel overlap functions, namely the dual of W, N Functions are defined. By associating a overlap probability distribution function with the W Function, novel performance measures related to the sensor fusion problem are discussed. Other interesting approaches for defining novel overlap functions are discussed. The relationship between existing theories (such as rough set theory, detection theory and fuzzy set theory and wireless sensor fusion problem is discussed.

  15. Small Worlds in the Tree Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Li; Lingguo, Cui; Baihai, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of small worlds are investigated in the context of the tree topologies of wireless sensor networks. Tree topologies, which construct spatial graphs with larger characteristic path lengths than random graphs and small clustering coefficients, are ubiquitous...... in wireless sensor networks. Suffering from the link rewiring or the link addition, the characteristic path length of the tree topology reduces rapidly and the clustering coefficient increases greatly. The variety of characteristic path length influences the time synchronization characteristics of wireless...... sensor networks greatly. With the increase of the link rewiring or the link addition probability, the time synchronization error decreases drastically. Two novel protocols named LEACH-SW and TREEPSI-SW are proposed to improve the performances of the sensor networks, in which the small world...

  16. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  17. Power source for wireless sensors in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddis, Sherif; Schwesinger, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present investigations on wireless sensors for fluid control inside a pipe. Autarkic sensors are in the technical trend. They are typically connected with a transceiver unit for data transmission. Sensors usually need a lower amount of energy than data transceivers. Therefore, they are commonly supplied via wires or batteries with electricity. With common technologies, this request leads to high requirements on tightness in liquids since poor sealing could easily lead to failures. Replacement of batteries inside pipes is complicated and almost accompanied by a flow interruption. The application of energy harvesters as power supply is therefore a good alternative. In our studies we used flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters of PVDF (Poly-Vinylidene-Di-Fluoride). All harvesting units consist of piezoelectric PVDF-foils as active layers and Aluminum-foils as electrodes. The layers were stacked alternating on each other and wound to a spool. A LDPE-film wraps the spool and prevents the inflow of liquids. The device has following parameters: No. of windings: 4 in air, 4, 5, 7 in water Dimensions: 15 mm Ø 22mm Materials: PDVF: 25μm Aluminimum: 6μm, LDPE: 25μm A ring shaped bluff body was placed inside the pipe to induce turbulence in the fluid stream. As the harvesters have been arranged downstream of the bluff body, they were forced to oscillate independent of the media. In each case, deformation of the active layers led to a polarization and a separation of electrical charges. Experiments were carried out in a wind channel as well as in a water pipe. In air, the spool oscillates with a frequency of about 30Hz, at a wind speed of about 7m/s. A -Voltage of about 4V (peak-peak) was measured. This delivers in case of power adjustment, power values of about 0.54μW. In water, the velocity of the fluid was limited to nearly one tenth. Oscillation starts only at a water speed above 0.6m/s. The average oscillation frequency is about 18Hz. At a velocity

  18. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-08-27

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  19. 7th China Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Li; Guo, Zhongwen

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Technologies in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks collects selected papers from the 7th China Conference on Wireless Sensor Networks (CWSN2013) held in Qingdao, October 17-19, 2013. The book features state-of-the-art studies on Sensor Networks in China with the theme of “Advances in wireless sensor networks of China”. The selected works can help promote development of sensor network technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of sensor networks can benefit from the book. Xue Wang is a professor at Tsinghua University; Li Cui is a professor at Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhongwen Guo is a professor at Ocean University of China.

  20. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks. PMID:26205271

  1. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan; Ahmed, Ashfaq; Azam, Muhammad

    2015-07-20

    Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks.

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Optimization: Multi-Objective Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network planning, design, deployment and operation often give rise to multi-objective optimization formulations where multiple desirable objectives compete with each other and the decision maker has to select one of the tradeoff solutions. These multiple objectives may or may not conflict with each other. Keeping in view the nature of the application, the sensing scenario and input/output of the problem, the type of optimization problem changes. To address different nature of optimization problems relating to wireless sensor network design, deployment, operation, planing and placement, there exist a plethora of optimization solution types. We review and analyze different desirable objectives to show whether they conflict with each other, support each other or they are design dependent. We also present a generic multi-objective optimization problem relating to wireless sensor network which consists of input variables, required output, objectives and constraints. A list of constraints is also presented to give an overview of different constraints which are considered while formulating the optimization problems in wireless sensor networks. Keeping in view the multi facet coverage of this article relating to multi-objective optimization, this will open up new avenues of research in the area of multi-objective optimization relating to wireless sensor networks.

  3. Research trends in wireless visual sensor networks when exploiting prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso; Vasques, Francisco; Portugal, Paulo

    2015-01-15

    The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  4. Research Trends in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks When Exploiting Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless sensor networks for control and monitoring functions has created a vibrant investigation scenario, where many critical topics, such as communication efficiency and energy consumption, have been investigated in the past few years. However, when sensors are endowed with low-power cameras for visual monitoring, a new scope of challenges is raised, demanding new research efforts. In this context, the resource-constrained nature of sensor nodes has demanded the use of prioritization approaches as a practical mechanism to lower the transmission burden of visual data over wireless sensor networks. Many works in recent years have considered local-level prioritization parameters to enhance the overall performance of those networks, but global-level policies can potentially achieve better results in terms of visual monitoring efficiency. In this paper, we make a broad review of some recent works on priority-based optimizations in wireless visual sensor networks. Moreover, we envisage some research trends when exploiting prioritization, potentially fostering the development of promising optimizations for wireless sensor networks composed of visual sensors.

  5. Design of verification platform for wireless vision sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juanjuan; Shang, Fei; Yu, Chuang

    2017-08-01

    At present, the majority of research for wireless vision sensor networks (WVSNs) still remains in the software simulation stage, and the verification platforms of WVSNs that available for use are very few. This situation seriously restricts the transformation from theory research of WVSNs to practical application. Therefore, it is necessary to study the construction of verification platform of WVSNs. This paper combines wireless transceiver module, visual information acquisition module and power acquisition module, designs a high-performance wireless vision sensor node whose core is ARM11 microprocessor and selects AODV as the routing protocol to set up a verification platform called AdvanWorks for WVSNs. Experiments show that the AdvanWorks can successfully achieve functions of image acquisition, coding, wireless transmission, and obtain the effective distance parameters between nodes, which lays a good foundation for the follow-up application of WVSNs.

  6. Open-WiSe: a solar powered wireless sensor network platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Apolinar; Aquino, Raúl; Mata, Walter; Ochoa, Alberto; Saldaña, Pedro; Edwards, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSIX Real-Time Kernel. A sleep and wake up strategy was implemented to prolong the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. This platform was developed as a tool for researchers investigating Wireless sensor network or system integrators.

  7. Wireless Passive Strain Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Saitoh, A

    2008-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor. In addition, an electronic system for accurately measuring the phase characteristics of the signal wave from the passive strain ...

  8. Interoperability in wireless sensor networks based on IEEE 1451 standard

    OpenAIRE

    Higuera Portilla, Jorge Eduardo; Polo Cantero, José

    2012-01-01

    The syntactic and semantic interoperability is a challenge of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) with smart sensors in pervasive computing environments to increase their harmonization in a wide variety of applications. This chapter contains a detailed description of interoperability in heterogeneous WSN using the IEEE 1451 standard. This work focuses on personal area networks (PAN) with smart sensors and actuators. Also, a technical, syntactic and semantic levels of interoperability based on ...

  9. Automatic Recognition of Object Use Based on Wireless Motion Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, S.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Havinga, Paul J. M.; Marin Perianu, Mihai; Horst, Arie; Vasilescu, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic, online detection of a user’s interaction with objects. This represents an essential building block for improving the performance of distributed activity recognition systems. Our method is based on correlating features extracted from motion sensors worn by the user and attached to objects. We present a complete implementation of the idea, using miniaturized wireless sensor nodes equipped with motion sensors. We achieve a recognition accuracy of...

  10. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  11. Cooperative Positioning in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Semidefinite Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Vaghefi, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless technologies, the demand for positioning services has grown dramatically over the past three decades. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used in wireless devices for positioning purposes. However, in addition to having bulky and expensive equipment, GPS receivers do not operate properly in dense and indoor environments. Difficulties in using GPS lead us to use sensor localization in which the position information is obtained from the measureme...

  12. Decentralized Multi-Charger Coordination for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Lei; You, Pengcheng; Cao, Xianghui; Song, Ye-Qiong; Chen, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Wireless charging is a promising technology for provisioning dynamic power supply in wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). The charging equipment can be carried by some mobile nodes to enhance the charging flexibility. With such mobile chargers (MCs), the charging process should simultaneously address the MC scheduling, the moving and charging time allocation, while saving the total energy consumption of MCs. However, the efficient solutions that jointly solve...

  13. Field test of wireless sensor network in the nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L., E-mail: lil@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Q.; Bari, A. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Deng, C.; Chen, D. [Univ. of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Jiang, J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are appealing options for the health monitoring of nuclear power plants due to their low cost and flexibility. Before they can be used in highly regulated nuclear environments, their reliability in the nuclear environment and compatibility with existing devices have to be assessed. In situ electromagnetic interference tests, wireless signal propagation tests, and nuclear radiation hardness tests conducted on candidate WSN systems at AECL Chalk River Labs are presented. The results are favourable to WSN in nuclear applications. (author)

  14. Design and control approaches for energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Frezzetti, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Networks are monitoring infrastructures composed of sensing (measuring), computing, and communication devices used to observe, supervise and monitor environmental phenomena. Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSN) have the additional feature to save energy from the environment in order to ensure long life autonomy of the entire network, without ideally the human intervention over long periods of time. The present work is aimed to address some of the most significant limit...

  15. Real-time stress monitoring of highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This collaborative research aims to develop a real-time stress monitoring system for highway bridges with a secured wireless sensor network. The near term goal is to collect wireless sensor data under different traffic patterns from local highway br...

  16. A wireless sensor tag platform for container security and integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ivan A.; Cree, Johnathan V.; Mauss, Fredrick J.

    2011-04-01

    Cargo containers onboard ships are widely used in the global supply chain. The need for container security is evidenced by the Container Security Initiative launched by the U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP). One method of monitoring cargo containers is using low power wireless sensor tags. The wireless sensor tags are used to set up a network that is comprised of tags internal to the container and a central device. The sensor network reports alarms and other anomalies to a central device, which then relays the message to an outside network upon arrival at the destination port. This allows the port authorities to have knowledge of potential security or integrity issues before physically examining the container. Challenges of using wireless sensor tag networks for container security include battery life, size, environmental conditions, information security, and cost among others. PNNL developed an active wireless sensor tag platform capable of reporting data wirelessly to a central node as well as logging data to nonvolatile memory. The tags, operate at 2.4 GHz over an IEEE 802.15.4 protocol, and were designed to be distributed throughout the inside of a shipping container in the upper support frame. The tags are mounted in a housing that allows for simple and efficient installation or removal prior to, during, or after shipment. The distributed tags monitor the entire container volume. The sensor tag platform utilizes low power electronics and provides an extensible sensor interface for incorporating a wide range of sensors including chemical, biological, and environmental sensors.

  17. Implantable radio frequency identification sensors: wireless power and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Chriswell; Rennaker, Robert L; Venkataraman, Srinivasan; Ahmed, Rehan; Liao, Ran; Ibrahim, Tamer

    2011-01-01

    There are significant technical challenges in the development of a fully implantable wirelessly powered neural interface. Challenges include wireless transmission of sufficient power to the implanted device to ensure reliable operation for decades without replacement, minimizing tissue heating, and adequate reliable communications bandwidth. Overcoming these challenges is essential for the development of implantable closed loop system for the treatment of disorders ranging from epilepsy, incontinence, stroke and spinal cord injury. We discuss the development of the wireless power, communication and control for a Radio-Frequency Identification Sensor (RFIDS) system with targeted power range for a 700 mV, 30 to 40 uA load attained at -2 dBm.

  18. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  19. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  20. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  1. [Advances in sensor node and wireless communication technology of body sensor network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weibing; Lei, Sheng; Wei, Caihong; Li, Chunxiang; Wang, Cang

    2012-06-01

    With the development of the wireless communication technology, implantable biosensor technology, and embedded system technology, Body Sensor Network (BSN) as one branch of wireless sensor networks and important part of the Internet of things has caught more attention of researchers and enterprises. This paper offers the basic concept of the BSN and analyses the related research. We focus on sensor node and wireless communication technology from perspectives of technology challenges, research advance and development trend in the paper. Besides, we also present a relative overview of domestic and overseas projects for the BSN.

  2. Routing in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Tiab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, industrial wireless sensor networks have attracted more attention, due to their large benefits in terms of faster installation, cost savings, and flexibility. Nevertheless, the acceptance of wireless sensor networks by the industrial community is not without its difficulties. In fact, several research efforts have been made in this field and a number of state-of-the-art reviews exist, presenting the current standards, the challenges, and the design principles. However, a comprehensive review on routing protocols appears to be missing. In this paper, we give a survey on routing protocols for industrial monitoring applications of the wireless sensor networks technology, and we present their limitations and weaknesses according to the industrial requirements.

  3. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  4. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURE AODV FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharmila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are extremely vulnerable to any kind of routing attacks due to several factors such as wireless transmission and resource-constrained nodes. In this respect, securing the packets is of great importance when designing the infrastructure and protocols of sensor networks. This paper describes the hardware architecture of secure routing for wireless sensor networks. The routing path is selected using Ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV. The data packets are converted into digest using hash functions. The functionality of the proposed method is modeled using Verilog HDL in MODELSIM simulator and the performance is compared with various target devices. The results show that the data packets are secured and defend against the routing attacks with minimum energy consumption.

  5. Tracking Mobile Robot in Indoor Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the problem of tracking mobile robots in indoor wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Our approach is based on a localization scheme with RSSI (received signal strength indication which is used widely in WSN. The developed tracking system is designed for continuous estimation of the robot’s trajectory. A WSN, which is composed of many very simple and cheap wireless sensor nodes, is deployed at a specific region of interest. The wireless sensor nodes collect RSSI information sent by mobile robots. A range-based data fusion scheme is used to estimate the robot’s trajectory. Moreover, a Kalman filter is designed to improve tracking accuracy. Experiments are provided to assess the performance of the proposed scheme.

  6. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  7. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  8. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-02-27

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  9. Wireless Capacitive Pressure Sensor Operating up to 400 Celcius from 0 to 100 psi Utilizing Power Scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Harsh, Kevin; Mackey, Jonathan A.; Meredith, Roger D.; Zorman, Christian A.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Dynys, Frederick W.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a wireless capacitive pressure sensor developed for the health monitoring of aircraft engines has been demonstrated. The sensing system is composed of a Clapp-type oscillator that operates at 131 MHz. The Clapp oscillator is fabricated on a alumina substrate and consists of a Cree SiC (silicon carbide) MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors), this film inductor, Compex chip capacitors and Sporian Microsystem capacitive pressure sensor. The resonant tank circuit within the oscillator is made up of the pressure sensor and a spiral thin film inductor, which is used to magnetically couple the wireless pressure sensor signal to a coil antenna placed over 1 meter away. 75% of the power used to bias the sensing system is generated from thermoelectric power modules. The wireless pressure sensor is operational at room temperature through 400 C from 0 to 100 psi and exhibits a frequency shift of over 600 kHz.

  10. A Piezoelectric Passive Wireless Sensor for Monitoring Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiyue; Ferri, Paul N.; Hogan, Ben; Mazzeo, Aaron D.; Hull. Patrick V.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in passive wireless sensing has grown over the past few decades to meet demands in structural health monitoring.(Deivasigamani et al., 2013; Wilson and Juarez, 2014) This work describes a passive wireless sensor for monitoring strain, which does not have an embedded battery or chip. Without an embedded battery, the passive wireless sensor has the potential to maintain its functionality over long periods in remote/harsh environments. This work also focuses on monitoring small strain (less than 1000 micro-?). The wireless sensing system includes a reader unit, a coil-like transponder, and a sensing unit. It operates in the Megahertz (MHz) frequency range, which allows for a few centimeters of separation between the reader and sensing unit during measurements. The sensing unit is a strain-sensitive piezoelectric resonator that maximizes the energy efficiency at the resonance frequency, so it converts nanoscale mechanical variations to detectable differences in electrical signal. In response to an external loading, the piezoelectric sensor breaks from its original electromechanical equilibrium, and the resonant frequency shifts as the system reaches a new balanced equilibrium. In this work, the fixture of the sensing unit is a small, sticker-like package that converts the surface strain of a test material to measurable shifts in resonant frequencies. Furthermore, electromechanical modeling provides a lumped-parameter model of the system to describe and predict the measured wireless signals of the sensor. Detailed characterization demonstrates how this wireless sensor has resolution comparable to that of conventional wired strain sensors for monitoring small strain.

  11. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  12. Low power sensor network for wireless condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ch.; Frankenstein, B.; Schubert, L.; Weihnacht, B.; Friedmann, H.; Ebert, C.

    2009-03-01

    For comprehensive fatigue tests and surveillance of large scale structures, a vibration monitoring system working in the Hz and sub Hz frequency range was realized and tested. The system is based on a wireless sensor network and focuses especially on the realization of a low power measurement, signal processing and communication. Regarding the development, we met the challenge of synchronizing the wireless connected sensor nodes with sufficient accuracy. The sensor nodes ware realized by compact, sensor near signal processing structures containing components for analog preprocessing of acoustic signals, their digitization, algorithms for data reduction and network communication. The core component is a digital micro controller which performs the basic algorithms necessary for the data acquisition synchronization and the filtering. As a first application, the system was installed in a rotor blade of a wind power turbine in order to monitor the Eigen modes over a longer period of time. Currently the sensor nodes are battery powered.

  13. Reward and Punishment based Cooperative Adaptive Sampling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masoum, Alireza; Meratnia, Nirvana; Taghikhaki, Zahra; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the main concerns in wireless sensor networks. One of the mechanisms to better manage energy in wireless sensor networks is adaptive sampling, by which instead of using a fixed frequency interval for sensing and data transmission, the wireless sensor network employs a

  14. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoor Temperature Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojkoska, Biljana Risteska; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Chatzimisios, Periklis

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks take a major part in our everyday lives by enhancing systems for home automation, healthcare, temperature control, energy consumption monitoring, and so forth. In this paper we focus on a system used for temperature regulation for residential, educational, industrial......, and commercial premises, and so forth. We propose a framework for indoor temperature regulation and optimization using wireless sensor networks based on ZigBee platform. This paper considers architectural design of the system, as well as implementation guidelines. The proposed system favors methods that provide...

  15. A survey of routing protocols in wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-13

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Efficient combined security system for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Fayed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs need effective security mechanisms because these networks deployed in hostel unattended environments. There are many parameters affect selecting the security mechanism as its speed and energy consumption. This paper presents a combined security system for WSN that enhance the speed of the network and it is energy consumption. This system combines two strong protocols, Lightweight Kerberos and Elliptic Curve Menezes–Qu–Vanstone (ECMQV. The simulation results demonstrate that the combined system can enlarge the life time for wireless sensor networks, enhance its security, and increase its speed.

  17. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  18. An LDPC decoder architecture for wireless sensor network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroli, Andrea Dario Giancarlo; Martina, Maurizio; Masera, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive use of wireless sensors in a growing spectrum of human activities reinforces the need for devices with low energy dissipation. In this work, coded communication between a couple of wireless sensor devices is considered as a method to reduce the dissipated energy per transmitted bit with respect to uncoded communication. Different Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes are considered to this purpose and post layout results are shown for a low-area low-energy decoder, which offers percentage energy savings with respect to the uncoded solution in the range of 40%-80%, depending on considered environment, distance and bit error rate.

  19. Wireless Sensor Networks Data Processing Summary Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a newly proposed theory, compressive sensing (CS is commonly used in signal processing area. This paper investigates the applications of compressed sensing (CS in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. First, the development and research status of compressed sensing technology and wireless sensor networks are described, then a detailed investigation of WSNs research based on CS are conducted from aspects of data fusion, signal acquisition, signal routing transmission, and signal reconstruction. At the end of the paper, we conclude our survey and point out the possible future research directions.

  20. Sensors on speaking terms: Schedule-based medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks make the previously unobservable, observable. The basic idea behind these networks is straightforward: all wires are cut in traditional sensing systems and the sensors are equipped with batteries and radio's to virtually restore the cut wires. The resulting sensors can be

  1. Analyzing Multimode Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Network Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N-MM models each node as a multimode component. We prove that the maximum delay bound computed by the method A-MM is tighter than or equal to that computed by the method N-MM. Experiments show that our proposed methods can significantly decrease the analytical delay bound comparing with the separate flow analysis method. For the large-scale wireless sensor network with 32 thousands of sensor nodes, our proposed methods can decrease about 70% of the analytical delay bound.

  2. Development of metamaterial based low cost passive wireless temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Hasanul; Shuvo, Mohammad Arif Ishtiaq; Delfin, Diego; Lin, Yirong; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Rumpf, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    Wireless passive temperature sensors are gaining increasing attention due to the ever-growing need of precise monitoring of temperature in high temperature energy conversion systems such as gas turbines and coal-based power plants. Unfortunately, the harsh environment such as high temperature and corrosive atmosphere present in these systems limits current solutions. In order to alleviate these issues, this paper presents the design, simulation, and manufacturing process of a low cost, passive, and wireless temperature sensor that can withstand high temperature and harsh environment. The temperature sensor was designed following the principle of metamaterials by utilizing Closed Ring Resonators (CRR) embedded in a dielectric matrix. The proposed wireless, passive temperature sensor behaves like an LC circuit that has a resonance frequency that depends on temperature. A full wave electromagnetic solver Ansys Ansoft HFSS was used to perform simulations to determine the optimum dimensions and geometry of the sensor unit. The sensor unit was prepared by conventional powder-binder compression method. Commercially available metal washers were used as CRR structures and Barium Titanate (BTO) was used as the dielectric materials. Response of the fabricated sensor at room temperature was analyzed using a pair of horn antenna connected with a network analyzer.

  3. Wireless Passive Strain Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nomura

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface acoustic wave (SAW devices offer many attractive features for applications as chemical and physical sensors. In this paper, a novel SAW strain sensor that employs SAW delay lines has been designed. Two crossed delay lines were used to measure the two-dimensional strain. A wireless sensing system is also proposed for effective operation of the strain sensor. In addition, an electronic system for accurately measuring the phase characteristics of the signal wave from the passive strain sensor is proposed.

  4. A Fatigue Measuring Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Sana; Javaid, Nadeem; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Imran, Muhammad; Guizani, Mohsen; Hayat, Amir; Ilahi, Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue. Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves about 68 % link efficiency. Simulation results show better performance of the proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected metrics.

  5. Energy Efficient Moving Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yingyou; Gao, Rui; Zhao, Hong

    2016-01-02

    Moving target tracking in wireless sensor networks is of paramount importance. This paper considers the problem of state estimation for L-sensor linear dynamic systems. Firstly, the paper establishes the fuzzy model for measurement condition estimation. Then, Generalized Kalman Filter design is performed to incorporate the novel neighborhood function and the target motion information, improving with an increasing number of active sensors. The proposed measurement selection approach has some advantages in time cost. As such, if the desired accuracy has been achieved, the parameter initialization for optimization can be readily resolved, which maximizes the expected lifespan while preserving tracking accuracy. Through theoretical justifications and empirical studies, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves substantially superior performances over conventional methods in terms of moving target tracking under the resource-constrained wireless sensor networks.

  6. Evaluation of communication in wireless underground sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X. Q.; Zhang, Z. L.; Han, W. T.

    2017-06-01

    Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN) are an emerging area of research that promises to provide communication capabilities to buried sensors. In this paper, experimental measurements have been conducted with commodity sensor motes at the frequency of 2.4GHz and 433 MHz, respectively. Experiments are run to examine the received signal strength of correctly received packets and the packet error rate for a communication link. The tests show the potential feasibility of the WUSN with the use of powerful RF transceivers at 433MHz frequency. Moreover, we also illustrate a classification for wireless underground sensor network communication. Finally, we conclude that the effects of burial depth, inter-node distance and volumetric water content of the soil on the signal strength and packet error rate in communication of WUSN.

  7. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Li, Bodong; Moellendick, Timothy E

    2017-10-19

    In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors-fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors-in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  8. Linking Simulation with Formal Verification and Modeling of Wireless Sensor Network in TLA+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Jerzy

    In this paper, we present the results of the simulation of a wireless sensor network based on the flooding technique and SPIN protocols. The wireless sensor network was specified and verified by means of the TLA+ specification language [1]. For a model of wireless sensor network built this way simulation was carried with the help of specially constructed software tools. The obtained results allow us to predict the behaviour of the wireless sensor network in various topologies and spatial densities. Visualization of the output data enable precise examination of some phenomenas in wireless sensor networks, such as a hidden terminal, etc.

  9. Reliability Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Markovian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates reliability analysis of wireless sensor networks whose topology is switching among possible connections which are governed by a Markovian chain. We give the quantized relations between network topology, data acquisition rate, nodes' calculation ability, and network reliability. By applying Lyapunov method, sufficient conditions of network reliability are proposed for such topology switching networks with constant or varying data acquisition rate. With the conditions satisfied, the quantity of data transported over wireless network node will not exceed node capacity such that reliability is ensured. Our theoretical work helps to provide a deeper understanding of real-world wireless sensor networks, which may find its application in the fields of network design and topology control.

  10. Coexistence of Wireless Sensor Networks in Factory Automation Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo FERRARI

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The factory automation world can take advantage from innovative wireless sensors network applications, but installation of several wireless systems in the same industrial plant will raise coexistence problems. However, in general, industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs operate cyclically and coexistence can be obtained exploiting this characteristic. The paper proposes a methodology based on a central arbiter that assigns medium resources according to requests coming from WSN coordinators. An infrastructure (e.g. a wired Real-Time Ethernet (RTE network assures synchronization and distribute resource allocation results. A simulation framework has been designed to evaluate allocation scheme and WSNs coexistence before physical implementation. The real feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by means of prototype WSNs (based on IEEE802.15.4 synchronized by means of PROFINET IO RT_Class 3 network. Experimental results show a synchronization accuracy below 4 ms that allows reading of two WSNs (32 nodes in 128 ms without collisions.

  11. Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

  12. The Reliability of Wireless Sensor Network on Pipeline Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Prihtiadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN is an attractive technology, which combines embedded systems and communication networks making them more efficient and effective. Currently, WSNs have been developed for various monitoring applications. In this research, a wireless mesh network for a pipeline monitoring system was designed and developed. Sensor nodes were placed at each branch in the pipe system. Some router fails were simulated and the response of each node in the network was evaluated. Three different scenarios were examined to test the data transmission performance. The results proved that the wireless mesh network was reliable and robust. The system is able to perform link reconfiguration, automatic routing and safe data transmission from the beginning node to the end node.

  13. Supporting Learning with Wireless Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arttu Perttula

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, learning is studied in in situ applications that involve sensors. The main questions are how to conceptualize experiential learning involving sensors and what kinds of learning applications using sensors already exist or could be designed. It is claimed that experiential learning, context information and sensor data supports twenty first century learning. The concepts of context, technology-mediated experiences, shared felt experiences and experiential learning theory will be used to describe a framework for sensor-based mobile learning environments. Several scenarios and case examples using sensors and sensor data will be presented, and they will be analyzed using the framework. Finally, the article contributes to the discussion concerning the role of technology-mediated learning experiences and collective sensor data in developing twenty first century learning by characterizing what kinds of skills and competences are supported in learning situations that involve sensors.

  14. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Xu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs, localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs.

  15. Localization algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes' mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs.

  16. Wireless powering for low-power distributed sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zoya B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview of the field of wireless powering is presented with an emphasis on low-power applications. Several rectenna elements and arrays are discussed in more detail: (1 a 10-GHz array for powering sensors in aircraft wings; (2 a single antenna in the 2.4-GHz ISM band for low-power assisted-living sensors; and (3 a broadband array for power harvesting in the 2-18GHz frequency range.

  17. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    conventional WSN . VSN enabled closed loop system consumes more energy than the VSN only system, because of the commands that are send to the nodes. Energy ...predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless Sensor Network ( WSN ) to...Network ( WSN ) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based monitoring

  18. Scalable Cluster-based Routing in Large Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Li; Xuelian Cai; Jin Yang; Lina Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Large control overhead is the leading factor limiting the scalability of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Clustering network nodes is an efficient solution, and Passive Clustering (PC) is one of the most efficient clustering methods. In this letter, we propose an improved PC-based route building scheme, named Route Reply (RREP) Broadcast with Passive Clustering (in short RBPC). Through broadcasting RREP packets on an expanding ring to build route, sensor nodes cache their route to the sink no...

  19. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  20. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  1. Wireless sensor networks for monitoring physiological signals of multiple patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmaghani, R S; Bobarshad, H; Ghavami, M; Choobkar, S; Wolfe, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a novel wireless sensor network structure to monitor patients with chronic diseases in their own homes through a remote monitoring system of physiological signals. Currently, most of the monitoring systems send patients' data to a hospital with the aid of personal computers (PC) located in the patients' home. Here, we present a new design which eliminates the need for a PC. The proposed remote monitoring system is a wireless sensor network with the nodes of the network installed in the patients' homes. These nodes are then connected to a central node located at a hospital through an Internet connection. The nodes of the proposed wireless sensor network are created by using a combination of ECG sensors, MSP430 microcontrollers, a CC2500 low-power wireless radio, and a network protocol called the SimpliciTI protocol. ECG signals are first sampled by a small portable device which each patient carries. The captured signals are then wirelessly transmitted to an access point located within the patients' home. This connectivity is based on wireless data transmission at 2.4-GHz frequency. The access point is also a small box attached to the Internet through a home asynchronous digital subscriber line router. Afterwards, the data are sent to the hospital via the Internet in real time for analysis and/or storage. The benefits of this remote monitoring are wide ranging: the patients can continue their normal lives, they do not need a PC all of the time, their risk of infection is reduced, costs significantly decrease for the hospital, and clinicians can check data in a short time.

  2. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks Employing MACGSP6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitipaichit, Yuttasart

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have unique characteristics which constrain them; including small energy stores, limited computation, and short range communication capability. Most traditional security algorithms use cryptographic primitives such as Public-key cryptography and are not optimized for energy usage. Employing these algorithms for the…

  3. Outlier Detection Techniques For Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the field of wireless sensor networks, measurements that significantly deviate from the normal pattern of sensed data are considered as outliers. The potential sources of outliers include noise and errors, events, and malicious attacks on the network. Traditional outlier detection techniques are

  4. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SWEET routing protocol is one of the many pro- tocols developed for cluster formation and routing in wireless sensor networks. The SWEET protocol is a decentralized clus- tering protocol, it uses timers and interim updated cluster head estimation...

  5. Autonomous Vehicle Coordination with Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Mihai; Bosch, S.; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A coordinated team of mobile wireless sensor and actuator nodes can bring numerous benefits for various applications in the field of cooperative surveillance, mapping unknown areas, disaster management, automated highway and space exploration. This article explores the idea of mobile nodes using

  6. Characteristics of Key Update Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low-resource communication. Challenged by this simplicity and low-resources, security is of particular importance in many cases such as transmission of sensitive data or strict requirements of tamper-resistance. Updating the security keys...

  7. Wireless Sensor Networks Framework for Indoor Temperature Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojkoska, Biljana; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks take a major part in our everyday lives by enhancing systems for home automation, health-care, temperature control, energy consumption monitoring etc. In this paper we focus on a system used for temperature regulation for homes, educational, industrial, commercial premises...

  8. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  9. Sustainable Performance in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In this practical demo we illustrate the concept of "sustainable performance" in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). In particular, for different classes of applications and under several energy harvesting scenarios, we show how it is possible to have sustainable performance when...

  10. Extending Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks using Forward Error Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donapudi, S U; Obel, C O; Madsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Communication between nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is susceptible to transmission errors caused by low signal strength or interference. These errors manifest themselves as lost or corrupt packets. This often leads to retransmission, which in turn results in increased power consumption...

  11. Survey and Benchmark of Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Cryptographic algorithms play an important role in the security architecture of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher is essential, due to the facts that these networks are meant to operate without human intervention for a long period of time

  12. Key Management Building Blocks for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Palaniswami, M

    2007-01-01

    Cryptography is the means to ensure data confidentiality, integrity and authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To use cryptography effectively however, the cryptographic keys need to be managed properly. First of all, the necessary keys need to be distributed to the nodes before the

  13. Survey and Benchmark of Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. In this paper, we have identified the candidates of block ciphers

  14. Quality-Aware Resource Management for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemesi, R.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Anderson, J.H.; Prencipe, G.; Wattenhoffer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the distributed and resource constrained nature of wireless sensor networks, their design proves to be difficult. We present a resource management framework, which integrates a data-centric lightweight operating system with a publish/subscribe middleware. In this framework, the main system

  15. Wireless-accessible sensor populations for monitoring biological variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzu, Marco; Scalvini, Simonetta; Giordano, A.; Frumento, E.; Wells, Hannah; Lokhorst, C.; Glisenti, Fulvio

    2008-01-01

    The current health-care infrastructure is generally considered to be inadequate to meet the needs of an increasingly older population. We have investigated the feasibility of a passive in-home monitoring system based on wireless accessible sensor populations (WASP). In an EU-funded project we have

  16. Cluster-based service discovery for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    We propose an energy-efficient service discovery protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks that interact with the users in open and dynamic environments. Our solution exploits a cluster overlay, where the clusterhead nodes form a distributed service registry. A service lookup results in

  17. Cluster-based service discovery for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an energy-efficient service discovery protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Our solution exploits a cluster overlay, where the clusterhead nodes form a distributed service registry. A service lookup results in visiting only the clusterhead nodes. We aim for minimizing the

  18. Fast and Accurate Residential Fire Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and accurate residential fire detection is important for on-time fire extinguishing and consequently reducing damages and life losses. To detect fire sensors are needed to measure the environmental parameters and algorithms are required to decide about occurrence of fire. Recently, wireless

  19. Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocols, Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive systems, which are described as networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments, are considered to have the potential to change our daily lives by creating smart surroundings and by their ubiquity, just as the Internet. In the last decade, “Wireless Sensor Networks��? have

  20. GCF: Green Conflict Free TDMA Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawar, Pranav M.; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    The last few years have seen the promising growth in the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The contribution of this paper is on a cluster-based time division multiple access (TDMA) scheduling algorithm to improve the performance of WSN applications in terms of energy efficiency, delay...

  1. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever...

  2. Overview of wireless underground sensor networks for agriculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, many applications have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). One of these is agriculture, where WSN can play an important role in the handling and management of water resources for agricultural irrigation and so on. The WSN suffer from intensive human involvement and delay of ...

  3. Secure collaborative system in heterogenous wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kasraoui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPANs have turned out to be one of the most emerging field in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs which can be integrated with Internet technology. 6LoWPAN network consists of heterogeneous wireless sensors which have high resource-constraints such as bandwidth, processing power, memory, energy, etc. The resource-constraints put forth many challenges to apply the available standard security protocols such as Transport Layer Security (TLS, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec, Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2, etc., for the interconnection of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (HWSNs with Internet. To overcome these situations, the researchers aimed to reinforce and adapt the end-to-end security between Internet and the IP enabled sensor networks. The above mentioned security protocols are not modified at the Internet end point in HWSNs. Hence we are proposing a novel Cooperative Key Exchange System (CKES by using the concept of Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT. We have used NS2 simulator to implement the proposed concept and also compared with IKEv2.

  4. Outlier detection techniques for wireless sensor networks: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of wireless sensor networks, those measurements that significantly deviate from the normal pattern of sensed data are considered as outliers. The potential sources of outliers include noise and errors, events, and malicious attacks on the network. Traditional outlier detection

  5. Distributed Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks for Disaster Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Poel, Mannes; Taghikhaki, Zahra; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become mature enough to go beyond being simple fine-grained continuous monitoring platforms and become one of the enabling technologies for disaster early-warning systems. Event detection functionality of WSNs can be of great help and importance for

  6. Prototyping Service Discovery and Usage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are envisioned to provide different types of services in an open and dynamic environment. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a service discovery and usage solution for heterogeneous WSNs. The users have the possibility to

  7. Multipath Routing with Erasure Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu Jian, W.J.; Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Nieberg, T.

    2004-01-01

    Multipath routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks (WSN) increase the reliability of the system at the cost of significantly increased traffic. This paper introduces a splitted multipath routing scheme to improve the reliability of data routing in WSN by keeping the traffic at a low level. Our

  8. Automated wireless monitoring system for cable tension using smart sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sung-Han; Li, Jian; Jo, Hongki; Park, Jongwoong; Cho, Soojin; Spencer, Billie F.; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2013-04-01

    Cables are critical load carrying members of cable-stayed bridges; monitoring tension forces of the cables provides valuable information for SHM of the cable-stayed bridges. Monitoring systems for the cable tension can be efficiently realized using wireless smart sensors in conjunction with vibration-based cable tension estimation approaches. This study develops an automated cable tension monitoring system using MEMSIC's Imote2 smart sensors. An embedded data processing strategy is implemented on the Imote2-based wireless sensor network to calculate cable tensions using a vibration-based method, significantly reducing the wireless data transmission and associated power consumption. The autonomous operation of the monitoring system is achieved by AutoMonitor, a high-level coordinator application provided by the Illinois SHM Project Services Toolsuite. The monitoring system also features power harvesting enabled by solar panels attached to each sensor node and AutoMonitor for charging control. The proposed wireless system has been deployed on the Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge located in South Korea. Tension forces are autonomously monitored for 12 cables in the east, land side of the bridge, proving the validity and potential of the presented tension monitoring system for real-world applications.

  9. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  10. Sleep Scheduling in Critical Event Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kui

    In this paper, we focus on the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for critical event monitoring, where normally there are only small number of packets need to be transmitted, while when urgent event occurs, the alarm should be broadcast to the entire network as soon as possible. During

  11. Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their ...

  12. Magnetic sensor nodes for enhanced situational awareness in urban settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, Hoke; Shelby, Richard; Mathis, Kevin; Dalichaouch, Yacine; Kumar, Sankaran

    2005-05-01

    Military forces conducting urban operations are in need of non-line-of-sight sensor technologies for enhanced situational awareness. Disposable sensors ought to be able to detect and track targets through walls and within rooms in a building and relay that information in real-time to the soldier. We have recently developed magnetic sensor nodes aimed towards low cost, small size, low power consumption, and wireless communication. The current design uses a three-axis thin-film magnetoresistive sensor for low bandwidth B-field monitoring of magnetic targets such as vehicles and weapons carried by personnel. These sensor nodes are battery operated and use IEEE 802.15.4 communication link for control and data transmission. Power consumption during signal acquisition and communication is approximately 300 mW per channel. We will present and discuss node array performance, future node development and sensor fusion concepts.

  13. Open-WiSe: A Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Network Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Edwards; Alberto Ochoa; Pedro Saldaña; Walter Mata; Raúl Aquino; Apolinar González

    2012-01-01

    Because battery-powered nodes are required in wireless sensor networks and energy consumption represents an important design consideration, alternate energy sources are needed to provide more effective and optimal function. The main goal of this work is to present an energy harvesting wireless sensor network platform, the Open Wireless Sensor node (WiSe). The design and implementation of the solar powered wireless platform is described including the hardware architecture, firmware, and a POSI...

  14. A Vehicle-mounted Crop Detector with Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjiang ZHONG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect crop chlorophyll content in real-time, a new vehicle-mounted detector for measuring crop canopy spectral characteristics was developed. It was designed to work as a wireless sensor network with several optical sensor nodes and one control unit. All the optical sensor nodes were mounted on an on-board mechanical structure so that they could collect the canopy spectral data while in mobile condition. Each optical sensor node was designed to contain four optical channels, which allowed it work at the wavebands of 550, 650, 766 and 850 nm. The control unit included a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant device with a ZigBee wireless network coordinator and a GPRS module. It was used to receive, display, store all the data sent from optical sensor nodes and send data to the server through GPRS module. The calibration tests verified the stability of the wireless network and the measurement precision of the sensors. Both stationary and moving field experiments were also conducted in a winter wheat experimental field. Results showed that the correlation between chlorophyll content and vegetation index had high significance with the highest R2 of 0.6824. Those results showed the potential of the detector for field application.

  15. Passive Wireless Sensors for Spacecraft Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New classes of sensors are needed on spacecraft that can be interrogated remotely using RF signals and respond with the sensor's identity as well as the...

  16. Wireless Sensor Networks : Structure and Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841293

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we look at various problems in wireless networking. First we consider two problems in physical-model networks. We introduce a new model for localisation. The model is based on a range-free model of radio transmissions. The first scheme is randomised and we analyse its expected

  17. Wireless Sensor Networks for Developmental and Flight Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Figueroa, Fernando; Becker, Jeffrey; Foster, Mark; Wang, Ray; Gamudevelli, Suman; Studor, George

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network and ZigBee Pro 2007 standards are finding increasing use in home automation and smart energy markets providing a framework for interoperable software. The Wireless Connections in Space Project, funded by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center, is developing technology, metrics and requirements for next-generation spacecraft avionics incorporating wireless data transport. The team from Stennis Space Center and Mobitrum Corporation, working under a NASA SBIR grant, has developed techniques for embedding plug-and-play software into ZigBee WSN prototypes implementing the IEEE 1451 Transducer Electronic Datasheet (TEDS) standard. The TEDS provides meta-information regarding sensors such as serial number, calibration curve and operational status. Incorporation of TEDS into wireless sensors leads directly to building application level software that can recognize sensors at run-time, dynamically instantiating sensors as they are added or removed. The Ames Research Center team has been experimenting with this technology building demonstration prototypes for on-board health monitoring. Innovations in technology, software and process can lead to dramatic improvements for managing sensor systems applied to Developmental and Flight Instrumentation (DFI) aboard aerospace vehicles. A brief overview of the plug-and-play ZigBee WSN technology is presented along with specific targets for application within the aerospace DFI market. The software architecture for the sensor nodes incorporating the TEDS information is described along with the functions of the Network Capable Gateway processor which bridges 802.15.4 PAN to the TCP/IP network. Client application software connects to the Gateway and is used to display TEDS information and real-time sensor data values updated every few seconds, incorporating error detection and logging to help measure performance and reliability in relevant target environments

  18. A Wireless, Passive Sensor for Quantifying Packaged Food Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keat Ghee Ong

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the fabrication of a wireless, passive sensor based on aninductive-capacitive resonant circuit, and its application for in situ monitoring of thequality of dry, packaged food such as cereals, and fried and baked snacks. The sensor ismade of a planar inductor and capacitor printed on a paper substrate. To monitor foodquality, the sensor is embedded inside the food package by adhering it to the package’sinner wall; its response is remotely detected through a coil connected to a sensor reader. Asfood quality degrades due to increasing humidity inside the package, the paper substrateabsorbs water vapor, changing the capacitor’s capacitance and the sensor’s resonantfrequency. Therefore, the taste quality of the packaged food can be indirectly determined bymeasuring the change in the sensor’s resonant frequency. The novelty of this sensortechnology is its wireless and passive nature, which allows in situ determination of foodquality. In addition, the simple fabrication process and inexpensive sensor material ensure alow sensor cost, thus making this technology economically viable.

  19. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  20. Why General Outlier Detection Techniques Do Not Suffice For Wireless Sensor Networks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Raw data collected in wireless sensor networks are often unreliable and inaccurate due to noise, faulty sensors and harsh environmental effects. Sensor data that significantly deviate from normal pattern of sensed data are often called outliers. Outlier detection in wireless sensor networks aims at

  1. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  2. Distributed Global Function Model Finding for Wireless Sensor Network Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Function model finding has become an important tool for analysis of data collected from wireless sensor networks (WSNs. With the development of WSNs, a large number of sensors have been widely deployed so that the collected data show the characteristics of distribution and mass. For distributed and massive sensor data, traditional centralized function model finding algorithms would lead to a significant decrease in performance. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a distributed global function model finding algorithm for wireless sensor network data (DGFMF-WSND. In DGFMF-WSND, on the basis of gene expression programming (GEP, an adaptive population generation strategy based on sub-population associated evolution is applied to improve the convergence speed of GEP. Secondly, to solve the generation of global function model in distributed wireless sensor networks data, this paper provides a global model generation algorithm based on unconstrained nonlinear least squares. Four representative datasets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The comparative results show that the improved GEP with adaptive population generation strategy outperforms all other algorithms on the average convergence speed, time-consumption, value of R-square, and prediction accuracy. Meanwhile, experimental results also show that DGFMF-WSND has a clear advantage in terms of time-consumption and error of fitting. Moreover, with increasing of dataset size, DGFMF-WSND also demonstrates good speed-up ratio and scale-up ratio.

  3. Wireless Sensor Platform for Cultural Heritage Monitoring and Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Schrott, Alejandro G.; Tsukada, Masahiko; Kargere, Lucretia; Marianno, Fernando; Hamann, Hendrik F.; López, Vanessa; Leona, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Results from three years of continuous monitoring of environmental conditions using a wireless sensor platform installed at The Cloisters, the medieval branch of the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art, are presented. The platform comprises more than 200 sensors that were distributed in five galleries to assess temperature and air flow and to quantify microclimate changes using physics-based and statistical models. The wireless sensor network data shows a very stable environment within the galleries, while the dense monitoring enables localized monitoring of subtle changes in air quality trends and impact of visitors on the microclimate conditions. The high spatial and temporal resolution data serves as a baseline study to understand the impact of visitors and building operations on the long-term preservation of art objects. PMID:28858223

  4. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  5. ACO-Based Sweep Coverage Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is one of the major issues in wireless sensor networks (WSN. In order to optimize the network coverage, different coverage formulations have been proposed. Recently, a newly emerging coverage scheme in wireless sensor networks, sweep coverage, which uses mobile sensors to monitor certain points of interest (POIs, is proposed. However, the data delivery to sink, an important problem in WSN, is not considered in original sweep coverage and many of the existing works did not consider it yet. In this work, a novel algorithm named ACOSC (ACO-based sweep coverage to solve the sweep coverage problem considering periodical coverage of POIs and delivery of data simultaneously is proposed. The evaluation results show that our algorithm has better performance than existing schemes.

  6. Investigation of Wireless Sensor Networks for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are one of the most able technologies in the structural health monitoring (SHM field. Through intelligent, self-organising means, the contents of this paper will test a variety of different objects and different working principles of sensor nodes connected into a network and integrated with data processing functions. In this paper the key issues of WSN applied in SHM are discussed, including the integration of different types of sensors with different operational modalities, sampling frequencies, issues of transmission bandwidth, real-time ability, and wireless transmitter frequency. Furthermore, the topology, data fusion, integration, energy saving, and self-powering nature of different systems will be investigated. In the FP7 project “Health Monitoring of Offshore Wind Farms,” the above issues are explored.

  7. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  8. Critical Infrastructure Surveillance Using SecureWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Niedermeier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a secure wireless sensor network (WSN for the surveillance, monitoring and protection of critical infrastructures was developed. To guarantee the security of the system, the main focus was the implementation of a unique security concept, which includes both security on the communication level, as well as mechanisms that ensure the functional safety during its operation. While there are many theoretical approaches in various subdomains of WSNs—like network structures, communication protocols and security concepts—the construction, implementation and real-life application of these devices is still rare. This work deals with these aforementioned aspects, including all phases from concept-generation to operation of a secure wireless sensor network. While the key focus of this paper lies on the security and safety features of the WSN, the detection, localization and classification capabilities resulting from the interaction of the nodes’ different sensor types are also described.

  9. Energy Efficient Distributed Fault Identification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed fault identification algorithm is proposed here to find both hard and soft faulty sensor nodes present in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm is distributed, self-detectable, and can detect the most common byzantine faults such as stuck at zero, stuck at one, and random data. In the proposed approach, each sensor node gathered the observed data from the neighbors and computed the mean to check whether faulty sensor node is present or not. If a node found the presence of faulty sensor node, then compares observed data with the data of the neighbors and predict probable fault status. The final fault status is determined by diffusing the fault information from the neighbors. The accuracy and completeness of the algorithm are verified with the help of statistical model of the sensors data. The performance is evaluated in terms of detection accuracy, false alarm rate, detection latency and message complexity.

  10. Observing the Unobservable - Distributed Online Outlier Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The generation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes human beings observe and reason about the physical environment better, easier, and faster. The wireless sensor nodes equipped with sensing, processing, wireless communication and actuation capabilities can be densely deployed in a wide

  11. Distributed estimation based on observations prediction in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchoucha, Taha

    2015-03-19

    We consider wireless sensor networks (WSNs) used for distributed estimation of unknown parameters. Due to the limited bandwidth, sensor nodes quantize their noisy observations before transmission to a fusion center (FC) for the estimation process. In this letter, the correlation between observations is exploited to reduce the mean-square error (MSE) of the distributed estimation. Specifically, sensor nodes generate local predictions of their observations and then transmit the quantized prediction errors (innovations) to the FC rather than the quantized observations. The analytic and numerical results show that transmitting the innovations rather than the observations mitigates the effect of quantization noise and hence reduces the MSE. © 2015 IEEE.

  12. An Air-Ground Wireless Sensor Network for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a collaborative system made up of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and an aerial robot, which is applied to real-time frost monitoring in vineyards. The core feature of our system is a dynamic mobile node carried by an aerial robot, which ensures communication between sparse clusters located at fragmented parcels and a base station. This system overcomes some limitations of the wireless networks in areas with such characteristics. The use of a dedicated communication channel enables data routing to/from unlimited distances.

  13. Information Extraction from Wireless Sensor Networks: System and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq ALSBOUI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wireless communication have made it possible to develop low-cost, and low power Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. The WSN can be used for several application areas (e.g., habitat monitoring, forest fire detection, and health care. WSN Information Extraction (IE techniques can be classified into four categories depending on the factors that drive data acquisition: event-driven, time-driven, query-based, and hybrid. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art IE techniques in WSNs. The benefits and shortcomings of different IE approaches are presented as motivation for future work into automatic hybridization and adaptation of IE mechanisms.

  14. Link-quality measurement and reporting in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Abdellah; Jeon, Gwanggil; Choi, Byoungjo

    2013-03-04

    Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  15. Link-Quality Measurement and Reporting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjo Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  16. Mobile Assisted Security in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-03

    falsify the routing packets to disrupt the routing tables [6]. In the wormhole attack, an adversary tunnels messages re- ceived in one part of the...station that they are only one or two hops away via the wormhole [5]. To defend against wormhole attacks, a leash is added to a packet to restrict the...Packet leashes: a defense against wormhole attacks in wireless networks. In INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-Second Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer

  17. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  18. Sensor fault detection and isolation over wireless sensor network based on hardware redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jingjing; Kinnaert, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In order to diagnose sensor faults with small magnitude in wireless sensor networks, distinguishability measures are defined to indicate the performance for fault detection and isolation (FDI) at each node. A systematic method is then proposed to determine the information to be exchanged between nodes to achieve FDI specifications while limiting the computation complexity and communication cost.

  19. Roll-to-roll paper sensors (ROPAS); Wireless communicating sensors on paper in the logistic chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentrop, C.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Lelieveld, R.; Sandberg, H.

    2014-01-01

    The ROPAS project (Roll-to-roll paper sensors) combines high end electronics and wireless sensors with low cost paper substrates and processing techniques that can be applied on a large scale. Paper is the next step in the printed electronics roadmap of utilising cheaper substrate materials as a

  20. Downhole Applications of Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka P. Gooneratne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of the application of two types of magnetic sensors—fluxgate magnetometers and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR sensors—in the oil/gas industry. These magnetic sensors play a critical role in drilling wells safely, accurately and efficiently into a target reservoir zone by providing directional data of the well and acquiring information about the surrounding geological formations. Research into magnetic sensors for oil/gas drilling has not been explored by researchers to the same extent as other applications, such as biomedical, magnetic storage and automotive/aerospace applications. Therefore, this paper aims to serve as an opportunity for researchers to truly understand how magnetic sensors can be used in a downhole environment and to provide fertile ground for research and development in this area. A look ahead, discussing other magnetic sensor technologies that can potentially be used in the oil/gas industry is presented, and what is still needed in order deploy them in the field is also addressed.

  1. Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is often necessary to update the software running on sensors, which requires reliable dissemination of large data objects to each sensor with energy efficiency. During data dissemination, due to sleep scheduling designed for energy efficiency, some sensors may not receive some packets at some time slots. In the meantime, due to the unreliability of wireless communication, a sensor may not successfully receive a packet even when it is in the active mode. Thus, retransmission of such packets to those sensors is necessary, which consumes more energy and increases the delay of data dissemination cycle. In this paper, we propose a network coding-based approach in data dissemination such that data dissemination can be accomplished at the earliest time. Thus, less energy is consumed and the delay can be decreased. The impact of packet loss probability and the sleep probability of sensors on the network coding gain is analyzed. A threshold is also given to decide whether the current sleep scheduling is effective on energy saving in data dissemination process or not. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed work.

  2. Efficient Path Key Establishment for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Garcia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Key predistribution schemes have been proposed as means to overcome wireless sensor network constraints such as limited communication and processing power. Two sensor nodes can establish a secure link with some probability based on the information stored in their memories, though it is not always possible that two sensor nodes may set up a secure link. In this paper, we propose a new approach that elects trusted common nodes called “Proxies” which reside on an existing secure path linking two sensor nodes. These sensor nodes are used to send the generated key which will be divided into parts (nuggets according to the number of elected proxies. Our approach has been assessed against previously developed algorithms, and the results show that our algorithm discovers proxies more quickly which are closer to both end nodes, thus producing shorter path lengths. We have also assessed the impact of our algorithm on the average time to establish a secure link when the transmitter and receiver of the sensor nodes are “ON.” The results show the superiority of our algorithm in this regard. Overall, the proposed algorithm is well suited for wireless sensor networks.

  3. Wireless Fluid-Level Sensors for Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic-field-response sensors have been developed for use in measuring levels of fluids under extreme conditions. The sensors work without wire connections or direct physical contact with power sources, microprocessors, data-acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. For fuel-level sensors, the absence of wire connections offers an important safety advantage in elimination of potential ignition sources.

  4. Wireless sensor networks in a maritime environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, W.; Maris, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, there has been a lot of research on sensor networks-and their applications. In particular for monitoring large and potentially hostile areas these networks have proven to be very useful. The technique of land-based sensor networks can be extrapolated to sensing buoys at sea or

  5. Wireless sensor systems and methods, and methods of monitoring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunerth, Dennis C.; Svoboda, John M.; Johnson, James T.; Harding, L. Dean; Klingler, Kerry M.

    2007-02-20

    A wireless sensor system includes a passive sensor apparatus configured to be embedded within a concrete structure to monitor infiltration of contaminants into the structure. The sensor apparatus includes charging circuitry and a plurality of sensors respectively configured to measure environmental parameters of the structure which include information related to the infiltration of contaminants into the structure. A reader apparatus is communicatively coupled to the sensor apparatus, the reader apparatus being configured to provide power to the charging circuitry during measurements of the environmental parameters by the sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to independently interrogate individual ones of the sensors to obtain information measured by the individual sensors. The reader apparatus is configured to generate an induction field to energize the sensor apparatus. Information measured by the sensor apparatus is transmitted to the reader apparatus via a response signal that is superimposed on a return induction field generated by the sensor apparatus. Methods of monitoring structural integrity of the structure are also provided.

  6. Low-noise Magnetic Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-03-27

    Magnetic sensors are disclosed, as well as methods for fabricating and using the same. In some embodiments, an EMR effect sensor includes a semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a conductive layer substantially coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a voltage lead coupled to the conductive layer. In some embodiments, the voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. In some embodiments, the EMR effect sensor may include a second voltage lead coupled to the semiconductor layer. In some embodiments, the second voltage lead may be configured to provide a voltage for measurement by a voltage measurement circuit. Embodiments of a Hall effect sensor having the same or similar structure are also disclosed.

  7. Thermoelectric energy harvesting as a wireless sensor node power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C.; Davidson, J.

    2010-04-01

    Size and power requirements of wireless sensor nodes are gradually decreasing and this has allowed data collection across a range of spatial and temporal ranges. These nodes have power requirements that often necessitate batteries as an energy source. As the power requirements decrease for these sensors, alternative energy sources become more attractive. One such technology is thermal energy harvesting. Thermal energy harvesting requires a differential temperature between a heat source and a cool sink. As heat energy flows from source to the sink, energy can be harvested and utilized to power sensor nodes. By exploiting the temperature difference between a sun-warmed plate and a heat sink immersed in water, electrical energy can be harvested. The proposed concept utilizes a thermoelectric device to convert solar energy into electrical power. Initial experiments were carried out at the CSIRO Energy Centre for a variety of winter time intervals in 2009, with peak power outputs in the order of 50mW. Results indicate such a system could power a wireless sensor node continuously at ocean, lake and river water interfaces. We are presently in the process of evaluating the concept by powering a CSIRO FleckTM wireless node to transmit water temperature and battery voltage data.

  8. Economical wireless optical ratiometric pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuppu, Sandeep; Kostov, Yordan; Rao, Govind

    2009-04-01

    The development and application of a portable, wireless fluorescence-based optical pH sensor is presented. The design incorporates the MSP430 microcontroller as the control unit, an RF transceiver for wireless communication, digital filters and amplifiers and a USB-based communication module for data transmission. The pH sensor is based on ratiometric fluorescence detection from pH sensitive dye incorporated in a peel-and-stick patch. The ability of the instrument to detect the pH of the solution with contact only between the sensor patch and the solution makes it partially non-invasive. The instrument also has the ability to transmit data wirelessly, enabling its use in processes that entail stringent temperature control and sterility. The use of the microcontroller makes it a reliable, low-cost and low-power device. The luminous intensity of the light source can be digitally controlled to maximize the sensitivity of the instrument. It has a resolution of 0.05 pH. The sensor is accurate and reversible over the pH range of 6.5-9.

  9. Wireless energizing system for an automated implantable sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Biswaranjan; Nayak, Praveen P.; Kar, Durga P.; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Mishra, Laxmi P. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India)

    2016-07-15

    The wireless drive of an automated implantable electronic sensor has been explored for health monitoring applications. The proposed system comprises of an automated biomedical sensing system which is energized through resonant inductive coupling. The implantable sensor unit is able to monitor the body temperature parameter and sends back the corresponding telemetry data wirelessly to the data recoding unit. It has been observed that the wireless power delivery system is capable of energizing the automated biomedical implantable electronic sensor placed over a distance of 3 cm from the power transmitter with an energy transfer efficiency of 26% at the operating resonant frequency of 562 kHz. This proposed method ensures real-time monitoring of different human body temperatures around the clock. The monitored temperature data have been compared with a calibrated temperature measurement system to ascertain the accuracy of the proposed system. The investigated technique can also be useful for monitoring other body parameters such as blood pressure, bladder pressure, and physiological signals of the patient in vivo using various implantable sensors.

  10. Wireless, Passive Encoded Saw Sensors and Communication Links - Phase II Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a complete, wireless remote sensing solution using passive SAW Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) sensors and a wireless interrogation...

  11. Information Source Selection and Management Framework in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    With an advancement of technologies especially in the field of electronics, different types of sensors which can measure same physical phenomenon can be found in the market. Therefore, it is likely that difl'erent types of sensors which measure same physical phenomenon will be used for some...... applications. Different properties and characteristics like sensitivity, response time etc., of these different sensors will result in generating information at difl'erent rates. When these different types of sensors are deployed to collect same information, the users have choice to select from different...... information source selection and management framework and presents an algorithm which selects the information source based on the information mismatch probability [1]. The sampling rate for every access is decided as per the maximum allowable power consumption limit. Index Terms-wireless sensor network...

  12. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jesus Yuste-Delgado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator.

  13. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Martinez, Juan Carlos; Gadeo-Martos, Manuel Angel; Fernandez-Prieto, Jose Angel; Canada-Bago, Joaquin; Yuste-Delgado, Antonio Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator.

  14. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring.

  15. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  16. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-28

    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  17. A Reliable Handoff Mechanism for Mobile Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Hongke; Gidlund, Mikael

    2017-08-04

    With the prevalence of low-power wireless devices in industrial applications, concerns about timeliness and reliability are bound to continue despite the best efforts of researchers to design Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) to improve the performance of monitoring and control systems. As mobile devices have a major role to play in industrial production, IWSNs should support mobility. However, research on mobile IWSNs and practical tests have been limited due to the complicated resource scheduling and rescheduling compared with traditional wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes an effective mechanism to guarantee the performance of handoff, including a mobility-aware scheme, temporary connection and quick registration. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed mechanism is implemented not only in our testbed but in a real industrial environment. The results indicate that our mechanism not only improves the accuracy of handoff triggering, but also solves the problem of ping-pong effect during handoff. Compared with the WirelessHART standard and the RSSI-based approach, our mechanism facilitates real-time communication while being more reliable, which can help end-to-end packet delivery remain an average of 98.5% in the scenario of mobile IWSNs.

  18. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  19. WISS - Wireless, Intelligent Sensor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low power, robust communications protocols such as IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee have made the concept of smart sensor networks attractive across many applications. These...

  20. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  1. Service Oriented Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, S. A.; Adinarayana, J.; Durbha, S. S.; Tripathy, A. K.; Sudharsan, D.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid advances in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for agricultural applications has provided a platform for better decision making for crop planning and management, particularly in precision agriculture aspects. Due to the ever-increasing spread of WSNs there is a need for standards, i.e. a set of specifications and encodings to bring multiple sensor networks on common platform. Distributed sensor systems when brought together can facilitate better decision making in agricultural domain. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) through Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) provides guidelines for semantic and syntactic standardization of sensor networks. In this work two distributed sensing systems (Agrisens and FieldServer) were selected to implement OGC SWE standards through a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. Online interoperable data processing was developed through SWE components such as Sensor Model Language (SensorML) and Sensor Observation Service (SOS). An integrated web client was developed to visualize the sensor observations and measurements that enables the retrieval of crop water resources availability and requirements in a systematic manner for both the sensing devices. Further, the client has also the ability to operate in an interoperable manner with any other OGC standardized WSN systems. The study of WSN systems has shown that there is need to augment the operations / processing capabilities of SOS in order to understand about collected sensor data and implement the modelling services. Also, the very low cost availability of WSN systems in future, it is possible to implement the OGC standardized SWE framework for agricultural applications with open source software tools.

  2. Multichannel magnetic resonance sounding with wirelessly operated coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahner, Klaus Günter; Larsen, Jakob Juul; Auken, Esben

    2015-01-01

    of interest. To further improve on noise reduction, better methods for dealing with complex noise fields are needed. In available systems the reference channels are connected to a base station by wires. In this paper we argue that by using reference channels with wireless connections to the base station...... improvements in noise reduction can be expected. We present and discuss a design study of an MRS receiver system using wireless reference channels. The design is based on using as many standard components as possible e.g. GPS disciplined oscillators for time synchronization and WiFi for communication between...... units. Key words: Multichannel MRS, noise reduction techniques, wireless sensors, geophysics instrumentation....

  3. Power consumption analysis of operating systems for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José; Perez Solano, Juan J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper four wireless sensor network operating systems are compared in terms of power consumption. The analysis takes into account the most common operating systems--TinyOS v1.0, TinyOS v2.0, Mantis and Contiki--running on Tmote Sky and MICAz devices. With the objective of ensuring a fair evaluation, a benchmark composed of four applications has been developed, covering the most typical tasks that a Wireless Sensor Network performs. The results show the instant and average current consumption of the devices during the execution of these applications. The experimental measurements provide a good insight into the power mode in which the device components are running at every moment, and they can be used to compare the performance of different operating systems executing the same tasks.

  4. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  5. Decentralized Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Channel Fading Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Liu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing channel aware signal processing design for decentralized detection in wireless sensor networks typically assumes the clairvoyant case, that is, global channel state information (CSI is known at the design stage. In this paper, we consider the distributed detection problem where only the channel fading statistics, instead of the instantaneous CSI, are available to the designer. We investigate the design of local decision rules for the following two cases: (1 fusion center has access to the instantaneous CSI; (2 fusion center does not have access to the instantaneous CSI. As expected, in both cases, the optimal local decision rules that minimize the error probability at the fusion center amount to a likelihood ratio test (LRT. Numerical analysis reveals that the detection performance appears to be more sensitive to the knowledge of CSI at the fusion center. The proposed design framework that utilizes only partial channel knowledge will enable distributed design of a decentralized detection wireless sensor system.

  6. Decentralized Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Channel Fading Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing channel aware signal processing design for decentralized detection in wireless sensor networks typically assumes the clairvoyant case, that is, global channel state information (CSI is known at the design stage. In this paper, we consider the distributed detection problem where only the channel fading statistics, instead of the instantaneous CSI, are available to the designer. We investigate the design of local decision rules for the following two cases: (1 fusion center has access to the instantaneous CSI; (2 fusion center does not have access to the instantaneous CSI. As expected, in both cases, the optimal local decision rules that minimize the error probability at the fusion center amount to a likelihood ratio test (LRT. Numerical analysis reveals that the detection performance appears to be more sensitive to the knowledge of CSI at the fusion center. The proposed design framework that utilizes only partial channel knowledge will enable distributed design of a decentralized detection wireless sensor system.

  7. Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Crop Storages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jakob Pilegaard; Green, Ole; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2015-01-01

    of a wireless sensor network based system that provides continuous, automatic, and up-to-date information on a crop storage, while presenting the data in an easily accessible manner, is also described. The design decisions, challenges, and practical experiences from real-world large scale deployment...... of the system are also discussed. It is concluded that the network works well for the intended application and that the intended users also see a value in the provided service....

  8. Scheduled Collision Avoidance in wireless sensor network using Zigbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    Transmission reliability and energy consumptions are two critical concerns associated with wireless sensor network (WSN) design for a long time and continuous operation. With the increase in reliability of the transmission, the energy consumption increases by affecting the efficiency of the network...... of the channel providing efficient energy consumption. It analyses different scheduling schemes to provide an appropriate solution for reducing collisions and improving network lifetime....

  9. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to serve for the ecological monitoring efficiency of Poyang Lake, an improved hybrid algorithm, mixed with differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, is proposed and applied to optimize the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. And then, the affect of the population size and the number of iterations on the coverage performance are both discussed and analyzed. The four kinds of statistical results about the coverage rate are obtained through lots of simulation experiments.

  10. Reliable Event Detectors for Constrained Resources Wireless Sensor Node Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    López Trinidad MarcoAntonio; Valle Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A novel event detector algorithm, which points out in-door acoustic human activities, for constrained wireless sensor node hardware is proposed in the present paper. In our approach, event detections are computed from the signal energy statistics change rate at two instants separated by an samples interval. The experimentation is run in two phases: (i) the detector characterisation and tuning seek detector configurations that enable event detections from three acoustic human activi...

  11. Wireless Sensor Networks Buoy For Coastal Waters Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Rizqi Rizaldi; Jaya, Indra; Hestirianoto, Totok

    2016-01-01

    The availability of data in real time and continuous is important to monitor in environmental change as early as possible. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer a new paradigm in the field of oceanography that can measure the parameters of complex marine environment using a moored buoy. This paper described design of a data transmission system with a moored buoy and tested the performance of WSN instrument based on ZigBee protocol radio module for monitoring coastal water environment in real t...

  12. Multi-Domain SDN Survivability for Agricultural Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Liu, Jiang

    2016-11-06

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely applied in agriculture field; meanwhile, the advent of multi-domain software-defined networks (SDNs) have improved the wireless resource utilization rate and strengthened network management. In recent times, multi-domain SDNs have been applied to agricultural sensor networks, namely multi-domain software-defined wireless sensor networks (SDWSNs). However, when the SDNs controlling agriculture networks suddenly become unavailable, whether intra-domain or inter-domain, sensor network communication is abnormal because of the loss of control. Moreover, there are controller and switch info-updating problems even if the controller becomes available again. To resolve these problems, this paper proposes a new approach based on an Open vSwitch extension for multi-domain SDWSNs, which can enhance agriculture network survivability and stability. We achieved this by designing a connection-state mechanism, a communication mechanism on both L2 and L3, and an info-updating mechanism based on Open vSwitch. The experimental results show that, whether it is agricultural inter-domain or intra-domain during the controller failure period, the sensor switches can enter failure recovery mode as soon as possible so that the sensor network keeps a stable throughput, a short failure recovery time below 300 ms, and low packet loss. Further, the domain can smoothly control the domain network again once the controller becomes available. This approach based on an Open vSwitch extension can enhance the survivability and stability of multi-domain SDWSNs in precision agriculture.

  13. Multi-Domain SDN Survivability for Agricultural Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been widely applied in agriculture field; meanwhile, the advent of multi-domain software-defined networks (SDNs have improved the wireless resource utilization rate and strengthened network management. In recent times, multi-domain SDNs have been applied to agricultural sensor networks, namely multi-domain software-defined wireless sensor networks (SDWSNs. However, when the SDNs controlling agriculture networks suddenly become unavailable, whether intra-domain or inter-domain, sensor network communication is abnormal because of the loss of control. Moreover, there are controller and switch info-updating problems even if the controller becomes available again. To resolve these problems, this paper proposes a new approach based on an Open vSwitch extension for multi-domain SDWSNs, which can enhance agriculture network survivability and stability. We achieved this by designing a connection-state mechanism, a communication mechanism on both L2 and L3, and an info-updating mechanism based on Open vSwitch. The experimental results show that, whether it is agricultural inter-domain or intra-domain during the controller failure period, the sensor switches can enter failure recovery mode as soon as possible so that the sensor network keeps a stable throughput, a short failure recovery time below 300 ms, and low packet loss. Further, the domain can smoothly control the domain network again once the controller becomes available. This approach based on an Open vSwitch extension can enhance the survivability and stability of multi-domain SDWSNs in precision agriculture.

  14. Potentials and Limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumberger, J.; Remmler, P.; Hutschenreuther, T.; Toepfer, H.; Dietrich, P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding and dealing with environmental challenges worldwide requires suitable interdisciplinary methods and a level of expertise to be able to implement these solutions, so that the lifestyles of future generations can be secured in the years to come. To characterize environmental systems it is necessary to identify and describe processes with suitable methods. Environmental systems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, so individual measurements for their complete representation are often not sufficient. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems offer significant benefits as a better consideration of the local test conditions becomes possible. This can be essential for the monitoring of heterogeneous environmental systems. Significant advantages in the application of wireless sensor networks are their self-organizing behaviour, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, a point measurement with a sensor is significantly improved by measuring at several points. It is also possible to perform analog and digital signal processing and computation on the basis of the measured data close to the sensor. Hence, a significant reduction of the data to be transmitted can be achieved which leads to a better energy management of sensor nodes. Furthermore, their localization via satellite, the miniaturization of the nodes and long-term energy self-sufficiency are current topics under investigation. In this presentation, the possibilities and limitations of the applicability of wireless sensor networks for long-term environmental monitoring are presented. To underline the importance of this future technology, example concepts are given in the field of near-surface geothermics, groundwater observation, measurement of spatial radiation intensity and air humidity on soils, measurement of matter fluxes, greenhouse gas measurement, and landslide monitoring.

  15. Multi-Domain SDN Survivability for Agricultural Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely applied in agriculture field; meanwhile, the advent of multi-domain software-defined networks (SDNs) have improved the wireless resource utilization rate and strengthened network management. In recent times, multi-domain SDNs have been applied to agricultural sensor networks, namely multi-domain software-defined wireless sensor networks (SDWSNs). However, when the SDNs controlling agriculture networks suddenly become unavailable, whether intra-domain or inter-domain, sensor network communication is abnormal because of the loss of control. Moreover, there are controller and switch info-updating problems even if the controller becomes available again. To resolve these problems, this paper proposes a new approach based on an Open vSwitch extension for multi-domain SDWSNs, which can enhance agriculture network survivability and stability. We achieved this by designing a connection-state mechanism, a communication mechanism on both L2 and L3, and an info-updating mechanism based on Open vSwitch. The experimental results show that, whether it is agricultural inter-domain or intra-domain during the controller failure period, the sensor switches can enter failure recovery mode as soon as possible so that the sensor network keeps a stable throughput, a short failure recovery time below 300 ms, and low packet loss. Further, the domain can smoothly control the domain network again once the controller becomes available. This approach based on an Open vSwitch extension can enhance the survivability and stability of multi-domain SDWSNs in precision agriculture. PMID:27827971

  16. A Hybrid Structure for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedieh Sajedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been used for various applications such as environmental monitoring, military and medical applications. A wireless sensor network uses a large number of sensor nodes that continuously collect and send data from a specific region to a base station. Data from sensors are collected from the study area in the common scenario of sensor networks. Afterward, sensed data is sent to the base station. However, neighboring sensors often lead to redundancy of data. Transmission of redundant data to the base station consumes energy and produces traffic, because process is run in a large network. Data aggregation was proposed in order to reduce redundancy in data transformation and traffic. The most popular communication protocol in this field is cluster based data aggregation. Clustering causes energy balance, but sometimes energy consumption is not efficient due to the long distance between cluster heads and base station. In another communication protocol, which is based on a tree construction, because of the short distance between the sensors, energy consumption is low. In this data aggregation approach, since each sensor node is considered as one of the vertices of a tree, the depth of tree is usually high. In this paper, an efficient hierarchical hybrid approach for data aggregation is presented. It reduces energy consumption based on clustering and minimum spanning tree. The benefit of combining clustering and tree structure is reducing the disadvantages of previous structures. The proposed method firstly employs clustering algorithm and then a minimum spanning tree is constructed based on cluster heads. Our proposed method was compared to LEACH which is a well-known data aggregation method in terms of energy consumption and the amount of energy remaining in each sensor network lifetime. Simulation results indicate that our proposed method is more efficient than LEACH algorithm considering energy

  17. Usage Based Building Management through Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Varick L.

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a field with broad variety of applications. Its flexibility for remote continuous measurement lends itself to applications ranging from locating snipers to measuring volcanic activity. One application that stands to substantially benefit from WSNs is building management. Buildings currently account for 41% of the total energy consumption of U.S. [bed11]. Reducing this energy is of critical importance if we are to achieve sustainability. In most commercial buildings, many rooms remain unoccupied or are conditioned assuming maximum occupancy. By relaxing temperature setbacks and adjusting ventilation to match actual occupancy, significant energy savings are possible. This Dissertation examines the use of wireless sensor networks for the purpose of building energy management and actuation. It explores the design and development of wireless sensor networks for building energy management, how data from these deployments are utilized, the development and implementation of data driven occupancy models to perform simulation and prediction, how data models are used to actuate building management systems, and how crowd-sourced data can be integrated into building control strategies. We show based on real-world data that 30% energy savings is possible through usage based strategies and that 80% occupant satisfaction rates are possible by occupant driven control strategies.

  18. Development of Wireless Smart Sensor for Structure and Machine Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyo Haryanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vibration based condition monitoring is a method used for determining the condition of a system. The condition of mechanical or a structural system can be determined from the vibration. The vibration that is produced by the system indicates the condition of a system and possibly used to calculate the lifetime of a system or even used to take early action before fatal failure occurred. This paper explains how the wireless smart sensor can be used to identify the health condition of a system by monitoring the vibration parameters. The wireless smart sensor would continously  senses the vibration parameters of the system in a real-time systems and then data will be transmitted wirelessly  to a base station which is a host PC used for digital signal processing, from there the vibration will be plotted as a graph which used to analyzed the condition of the system. Finally, several tested performed to the real system to verify the accuracy of a smart sensor and the method of condition based monitoring.

  19. Performance Analysis of Cluster Formation in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Edgar Romo; Rivero-Angeles, Mario E; Rubino, Gerardo; Molina-Lozano, Heron; Menchaca-Mendez, Rolando; Menchaca-Mendez, Ricardo

    2017-12-13

    Clustered-based wireless sensor networks have been extensively used in the literature in order to achieve considerable energy consumption reductions. However, two aspects of such systems have been largely overlooked. Namely, the transmission probability used during the cluster formation phase and the way in which cluster heads are selected. Both of these issues have an important impact on the performance of the system. For the former, it is common to consider that sensor nodes in a clustered-based Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) use a fixed transmission probability to send control data in order to build the clusters. However, due to the highly variable conditions experienced by these networks, a fixed transmission probability may lead to extra energy consumption. In view of this, three different transmission probability strategies are studied: optimal, fixed and adaptive. In this context, we also investigate cluster head selection schemes, specifically, we consider two intelligent schemes based on the fuzzy C-means and k-medoids algorithms and a random selection with no intelligence. We show that the use of intelligent schemes greatly improves the performance of the system, but their use entails higher complexity and selection delay. The main performance metrics considered in this work are energy consumption, successful transmission probability and cluster formation latency. As an additional feature of this work, we study the effect of errors in the wireless channel and the impact on the performance of the system under the different transmission probability schemes.

  20. Rancang Bangun Sistem Irigasi Tanaman Otomatis Menggunakan Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dzulkifli Syamsiar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengairan atau irigasi merupakan faktor penting dalam industri pertanian dan perkebunan. Ancaman serius yang dihadapi industri tersebut adalah semakin menurunnya ketersediaan air. Selain itu, irigasi konvensional memerlukan waktu yang tidak sedikit hanya untuk mengairi tanaman sehingga tidak efektif untuk lahan yang banyak dan relative luas. Untuk itu maka diperlukan teknologi yang secara otomatis melakukan pengairan yang efektif dan efisien.  Wireless Sensor Network (WSN merupakan suatu sistem komunikasi data nirkabel yang terdiri dari beberapa node yang ditempatkan di area tertentu. WSN ini diimplementasikan ke dalam sistem irigasi otomatis ini untuk memudahan komunikasi data dengan jarak yang jauh. Sistem ini menggunakan sensor Hygometer YL-69, untuk komunikasi wireless menggunakan NRF24L01+, prosessor menggunakan arduino untuk node dan router, dan raspberry pi pada server. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan  bahwa NRF24L01+ dapat berkomunikasi antar modul dengan baik pada jarak 35 meter. Frekuensi pada radio yang digunakan sebesar 2.4 GHz dengan kecepatan 2Mbps. Pengaturan delay optimal pada komunikasi pada wireless sensor network menggunakan NRF24L01+ adalah 500 ms. Pengaturan irigasi dengan menggunakan kontrol fuzzy didapatkan kesalahan rata-rata terhadap titik acuan  sebesar 11%.

  1. A Novel Wireless and Temperature-Compensated SAW Vibration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel wireless and passive surface acoustic wave (SAW based temperature-compensated vibration sensor utilizing a flexible Y-cut quartz cantilever beam with a relatively substantial proof mass and two one-port resonators is developed. One resonator acts as the sensing device adjacent to the clamped end for maximum strain sensitivity, and the other one is used as the reference located on clamped end for temperature compensation for vibration sensor through the differential approach. Vibration directed to the proof mass flex the cantilever, inducing relative changes in the acoustic propagation characteristics of the SAW travelling along the sensing device, and generated output signal varies in frequency as a function of vibration.  A theoretical mode using the Rayleigh method was established to determine the optimal dimensions of the cantilever beam. Coupling of Modes (COM model was used to extract the optimal design parameters of the SAW devices prior to fabrication. The performance of the developed SAW sensor attached to an antenna towards applied vibration was evaluated wirelessly by using the precise vibration table, programmable incubator chamber, and reader unit.  High vibration sensitivity of ~10.4 kHz/g, good temperature stability, and excellent linearity were observed in the wireless measurements.

  2. Low-power cryptographic coprocessor for autonomous wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna, Jakub; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2013-10-01

    The concept of autonomous wireless sensor networks involves energy harvesting, as well as effective management of system resources. Public-key cryptography (PKC) offers the advantage of elegant key agreement schemes with which a secret key can be securely established over unsecure channels. In addition to solving the key management problem, the other major application of PKC is digital signatures, with which non-repudiation of messages exchanges can be achieved. The motivation for studying low-power and area efficient modular arithmetic algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for low-power devices that can perform under constrained environment like autonomous wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a cryptographic coprocessor tailored to the autonomous wireless sensor networks constraints. Such hardware circuit is aimed to support the implementation of different public-key cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic in GF(p) and GF(2m). Key components of the coprocessor are described as GEZEL models and can be easily transformed to VHDL and implemented in hardware.

  3. A Wireless Self-Powered Urinary Incontinence Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ami; Utsunomiya, Fumiyasu; Douseki, Takakuni

    A self-powered urinary incontinence sensor system consisting of a urine-activated coin battery and a wireless transmitter has been developed as an application for wireless biosensor networks. The urine-activated battery makes possible both the sensing of urine leakage and self-powered operation. An intermittent power-supply circuit that uses an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with a small internal resistance suppresses the supply voltage drop due to the large internal resistance of the battery. This circuit and a 1-V surface acoustic wave (SAW) oscillator reduce the power dissipation of a wireless transmitter. The SAW oscillator quickly responds to the on-off control of the power supply, which is suitable for intermittent operation. To verify the effectiveness of the circuit scheme, the authors fabricated a prototype sensor system. When the volume of urine is 0.2 ml, the battery outputs a voltage of over 1.3 V; and the sensor system can transmit signals over a distance of 5 m.

  4. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  5. The Coverage Problem in Video-Based Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Affonso Guedes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks.

  6. The coverage problem in video-based wireless sensor networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel G; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks typically consist of a great number of tiny low-cost electronic devices with limited sensing and computing capabilities which cooperatively communicate to collect some kind of information from an area of interest. When wireless nodes of such networks are equipped with a low-power camera, visual data can be retrieved, facilitating a new set of novel applications. The nature of video-based wireless sensor networks demands new algorithms and solutions, since traditional wireless sensor networks approaches are not feasible or even efficient for that specialized communication scenario. The coverage problem is a crucial issue of wireless sensor networks, requiring specific solutions when video-based sensors are employed. In this paper, it is surveyed the state of the art of this particular issue, regarding strategies, algorithms and general computational solutions. Open research areas are also discussed, envisaging promising investigation considering coverage in video-based wireless sensor networks.

  7. Joint sensor placement and power rating selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bushnaq, Osama M.

    2017-11-02

    In this paper, the focus is on optimal sensor placement and power rating selection for parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We take into account the amount of energy harvested by the sensing nodes, communication link quality, and the observation accuracy at the sensor level. In particular, the aim is to reconstruct the estimation parameter with minimum error at a fusion center under a system budget constraint. To achieve this goal, a subset of sensing locations is selected from a large pool of candidate sensing locations. Furthermore, the type of sensor to be placed at those locations is selected from a given set of sensor types (e.g., sensors with different power ratings). We further investigate whether it is better to install a large number of cheap sensors, a few expensive sensors or a combination of different sensor types at the optimal locations.

  8. Improved-Coverage Preserving Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage maintenance for longer period is crucial problem in wireless sensor network (WSNs due to limited inbuilt battery in sensors. Coverage maintenance can be prolonged by using the network energy efficiently, which can be done by keeping sufficient number of sensors in sensor covers. There has been discussed a Coverage-Preserving Clustering Protocol (CPCP to increase the network lifetime in clustered WSNs. It selects sensors for various roles such as cluster heads and sensor cover members by considering various coverage aware cost metrics. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic called Improved-Coverage-Preserving Clustering Protocol (I-CPCP to maximize the total network lifetime. In our proposed method, minimal numbers of sensor are selected to construct a sensor covers based on various coverage aware cost metrics. These cost metrics are evaluated by using residual energy of a sensor and their coverage. The simulation results show that our method has longer network lifetime as compared to generic CPCP.

  9. A Survey on Virtualization of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Won Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are gaining tremendous importance thanks to their broad range of commercial applications such as in smart home automation, health-care and industrial automation. In these applications multi-vendor and heterogeneous sensor nodes are deployed. Due to strict administrative control over the specific WSN domains, communication barriers, conflicting goals and the economic interests of different WSN sensor node vendors, it is difficult to introduce a large scale federated WSN. By allowing heterogeneous sensor nodes in WSNs to coexist on a shared physical sensor substrate, virtualization in sensor network may provide flexibility, cost effective solutions, promote diversity, ensure security and increase manageability. This paper surveys the novel approach of using the large scale federated WSN resources in a sensor virtualization environment. Our focus in this paper is to introduce a few design goals, the challenges and opportunities of research in the field of sensor network virtualization as well as to illustrate a current status of research in this field. This paper also presents a wide array of state-of-the art projects related to sensor network virtualization.

  10. A survey on virtualization of Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Motaharul; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Lee, Ga-Won; Huh, Eui-Nam

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are gaining tremendous importance thanks to their broad range of commercial applications such as in smart home automation, health-care and industrial automation. In these applications multi-vendor and heterogeneous sensor nodes are deployed. Due to strict administrative control over the specific WSN domains, communication barriers, conflicting goals and the economic interests of different WSN sensor node vendors, it is difficult to introduce a large scale federated WSN. By allowing heterogeneous sensor nodes in WSNs to coexist on a shared physical sensor substrate, virtualization in sensor network may provide flexibility, cost effective solutions, promote diversity, ensure security and increase manageability. This paper surveys the novel approach of using the large scale federated WSN resources in a sensor virtualization environment. Our focus in this paper is to introduce a few design goals, the challenges and opportunities of research in the field of sensor network virtualization as well as to illustrate a current status of research in this field. This paper also presents a wide array of state-of-the art projects related to sensor network virtualization.

  11. Multiple Distributed Smart Microgrids with a Self-Autonomous, Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Kheng Tan, Yen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter covers the smart wireless sensors for microgrids, as well as the energy harvesting technology used to sustain the operations of these sensors. Last, a case study on the multiple distributed smart microgrids with a self-autonomous, energy harvesting wireless sensor network is presented....

  12. Service and device discovery of nodes in a wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Östmark, Å.; Lindgren, P.; van Halteren, Aart; Meppelink, L.

    2006-01-01

    Emerging wireless communication standards and more capable sensors and actuators have pushed further development of wireless sensor networks. Deploying a large number of sensor nodes requires a high-level framework enabling the devices to present themselves and the resources they hold. The device

  13. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de la Hoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  14. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. PMID:26610512

  15. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  16. A Latent Variable Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilev, Vladislav; Iliev, Georgi; Poulkov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we derive a clustering method based on the Hidden Conditional Random Field (HCRF) model in order to maximizes the performance of a wireless sensor. Our novel approach to clustering in this paper is in the application of an index invariant graph that we defined in a previous work...... obtain by running simulations of a time dynamic sensor network. The performance of the proposed method outperforms the existing clustering methods, such as the Girvan-Newmans algorithm, the Kargers algorithm and the Spectral Clustering method, in terms of packet acceptance probability and delay....

  17. Wireless sensors in heterogeneous networked systems configuration and operation middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Cecilio, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an examination of the middleware that can be used to configure and operate heterogeneous node platforms and sensor networks. The middleware requirements for a range of application scenarios are compared and analysed. The text then defines middleware architecture that has been integrated in an approach demonstrated live in a refinery. Features: presents a thorough introduction to the major concepts behind wireless sensor networks (WSNs); reviews the various application scenarios and existing middleware solutions for WSNs; discusses the middleware mechanisms necessary for hete

  18. A Vehicular Guidance Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2012-07-01

    Sensor networks have been heralded as one of 21 most important technologies for the 21st century by Business Week [1]. Wireless sensor/actuator networks (WSANs)are emerging as a new generation of sensor networks with the potential for enhancing the versatility and effectiveness of sensor networks. However, the unreliability of wireless communications and the real-time requirements of control applications raise great challenges for WSAN design. In this thesis, we design a WSAN for a vehicular guidance system targeting environmental disaster management applications. In this system, actuators provide mobility to all sensor nodes in the observed area whenever needed. Moreover, nodes form clusters and their movement is controlled by a master node that is selected dynamically. We also discuss the factors affecting our network performance in real-life and propose a framework which accounts for real-time requirement and reliable actuation. We finally perform some experimental studies on our system to measure its performance in an indoor environment.

  19. Software Updating in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey and Lacunae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cormac J. Sreenan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are moving out of the laboratory and into the field. For a number of reasons there is often a need to update sensor node software, or node configuration, after deployment. The need for over-the-air updates is driven both by the scale of deployments, and by the remoteness and inaccessibility of sensor nodes. This need has been recognized since the early days of sensor networks, and research results from the related areas of mobile networking and distributed systems have been applied to this area. In order to avoid any manual intervention, the update process needs to be autonomous. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of software updating in Wireless Sensor Networks, and analyses the features required to make these updates autonomous. A new taxonomy of software update features and a new model for fault detection and recovery are presented. The paper concludes by identifying the lacunae relating to autonomous software updates, providing direction for future research.

  20. A Passive and Wireless Sensor for Bone Plate Strain Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisong Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a sensor for monitoring bone plate strain in real time. The detected bone plate strain could be used for judging the healing state of fractures in patients. The sensor consists of a magnetoelastic material, which can be wirelessly connected and passively embedded. In order to verify the effectiveness of the sensor, a tibia-bone plate-screw (TBS model was established using the finite element analysis method. A variation of the bone plate strain was obtained via this model. A goat hindquarter tibia was selected as the bone fracture model in the experiment. The tibia was fixed on a high precision load platform and an external force was applied. Bone plate strain variation during the bone fracture healing process was acquired with sensing coils. Simulation results indicated that bone plate strain decreases as the bone gradually heals, which is consistent with the finite element analysis results. This validated the soundness of the sensor reported here. This sensor has wireless connections, no in vivo battery requirement, and long-term embedding. These results can be used not only for clinical practices of bone fracture healing, but also for bone fracture treatment and rehabilitation equipment design.

  1. SOUNET: Self-Organized Underwater Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2017-02-02

    In this paper, we propose an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) named SOUNET where sensor nodes form and maintain a tree-topological network for data gathering in a self-organized manner. After network topology discovery via packet flooding, the sensor nodes consistently update their parent node to ensure the best connectivity by referring to the timevarying neighbor tables. Such a persistent and self-adaptive method leads to high network connectivity without any centralized control, even when sensor nodes are added or unexpectedly lost. Furthermore, malfunctions that frequently happen in self-organized networks such as node isolation and closed loop are resolved in a simple way. Simulation results show that SOUNET outperforms other conventional schemes in terms of network connectivity, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and energy consumption throughout the network. In addition, we performed an experiment at the Gyeongcheon Lake in Korea using commercial underwater modems to verify that SOUNET works well in a real environment.

  2. SOUNET: Self-Organized Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-won Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN named SOUNET where sensor nodes form and maintain a tree-topological network for data gathering in a self-organized manner. After network topology discovery via packet flooding, the sensor nodes consistently update their parent node to ensure the best connectivity by referring to the timevarying neighbor tables. Such a persistent and self-adaptive method leads to high network connectivity without any centralized control, even when sensor nodes are added or unexpectedly lost. Furthermore, malfunctions that frequently happen in self-organized networks such as node isolation and closed loop are resolved in a simple way. Simulation results show that SOUNET outperforms other conventional schemes in terms of network connectivity, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption throughout the network. In addition, we performed an experiment at the Gyeongcheon Lake in Korea using commercial underwater modems to verify that SOUNET works well in a real environment.

  3. Security Threats in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    of the most severe routing attacks against sensor networks, namely the sinkhole and wormhole attacks, and we emphasize on strategies that an attacker can follow to successfully launch them. Then we propose novel localized countermeasures that can make legitimate nodes become aware of the threat, while...

  4. Optimization of wireless Bluetooth sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnblad, J; Castano, J; Ekstrom, M; Linden, M; Backlund, Y

    2004-01-01

    Within this study, three different Bluetooth sensor systems, replacing cables for transmission of biomedical sensor data, have been designed and evaluated. The three sensor architectures are built on 1-, 2- and 3-chip solutions and depending on the monitoring situation and signal character, different solutions are optimal. Essential parameters for all systems have been low physical weight and small size, resistance to interference and interoperability with other technologies as global- or local networks, PC's and mobile phones. Two different biomedical input signals, ECG and PPG (photoplethysmography), have been used to evaluate the three solutions. The study shows that it is possibly to continuously transmit an analogue signal. At low sampling rates and slowly varying parameters, as monitoring the heart rate with PPG, the 1-chip solution is the most suitable, offering low power consumption and thus a longer battery lifetime or a smaller battery, minimizing the weight of the sensor system. On the other hand, when a higher sampling rate is required, as an ECG, the 3-chip architecture, with a FPGA or micro-controller, offers the best solution and performance. Our conclusion is that Bluetooth might be useful in replacing cables of medical monitoring systems.

  5. Ultra-miniature wireless temperature sensor for thermal medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Ahmad; Hung, Shih-Chang; Paramesh, Jeyanandh; Fedder, Gary; Rabin, Yoed

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a prototype design of an ultra-miniature, wireless, battery-less, and implantable temperature-sensor, with applications to thermal medicine such as cryosurgery, hyperthermia, and thermal ablation. The design aims at a sensory device smaller than 1.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length, to enable minimally invasive deployment through a hypodermic needle. While the new device may be used for local temperature monitoring, simultaneous data collection from an array of such sensors can be used to reconstruct the 3D temperature field in the treated area, offering a unique capability in thermal medicine. The new sensory device consists of three major subsystems: a temperature-sensing core, a wireless data-communication unit, and a wireless power reception and management unit. Power is delivered wirelessly to the implant from an external source using an inductive link. To meet size requirements while enhancing reliability and minimizing cost, the implant is fully integrated in a regular foundry CMOS technology (0.15 μm in the current study), including the implant-side inductor of the power link. A temperature-sensing core that consists of a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) circuit has been designed and characterized. It employs a microwatt chopper stabilized op-amp and dynamic element-matched current sources to achieve high absolute accuracy. A second order sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed to convert the temperature reading to a digital code, which is transmitted by backscatter through the same antenna used for receiving power. A high-efficiency multi-stage differential CMOS rectifier has been designed to provide a DC supply to the sensing and communication subsystems. This paper focuses on the development of the all-CMOS temperature sensing core circuitry part of the device, and briefly reviews the wireless power delivery and communication subsystems.

  6. Implementing wireless sensor networks for architectural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Garrido, M. I.; Aparicio, S.; Fort, R.; Izquierdo, M. A. G.; Anaya, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Preventive conservation in architectural heritage is one of the most important aims for the development and implementation of new techniques to assess decay, lending to reduce damage before it has occurred and reducing costs in the long term. For that purpose, it is necessary to know all aspects influencing in decay evolution depending on the material under study and its internal and external conditions. Wireless sensor networks are an emerging technology and a minimally invasive technique. The use of these networks facilitates data acquisition and monitoring of a large number of variables that could provoke material damages, such as presence of harmful compounds like salts, dampness, etc. The current project presents different wireless sensors networks (WSN) and sensors used to fulfill the requirements for a complete analysis of main decay agents in a Renaissance church of the 16th century in Madrid (Spain). Current typologies and wireless technologies are studied establishing the most suitable system and the convenience of each one. Firstly, it is very important to consider that microclimate is in close correlation with material deterioration. Therefore a temperature(T) and relative humidity (RH)/moisture network has been developed, using ZigBee wireless communications protocols, and monitoring different points along the church surface. These points are recording RH/T differences depending on the height and the sensor location (inside the material or on the surface). On the other hand, T/RH button sensors have been used, minimizing aesthetical interferences, and concluding which is the most advisable way for monitoring these specific parameters. Due to the fact that microclimate is a complex phenomenon, it is necessary to examine spatial distribution and time evolution at the same time. This work shows both studies since the development expects a long term monitoring. A different wireless network has been deployed to study the effects of pollution caused by other

  7. Algorithms for energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.

    2007-01-21

    The recent advances in microsensor and semiconductor technology have opened a new field within computer science: the networking of small-sized sensors which are capable of sensing, processing, and communicating. Such wireless sensor networks offer new applications in the areas of habitat and environment monitoring, disaster control and operation, military and intelligence control, object tracking, video surveillance, traffic control, as well as in health care and home automation. It is likely that the deployed sensors will be battery-powered, which will limit the energy capacity significantly. Thus, energy efficiency becomes one of the main challenges that need to be taken into account, and the design of energy-efficient algorithms is a major contribution of this thesis. As the wireless communication in the network is one of the main energy consumers, we first consider in detail the characteristics of wireless communication. By using the embedded sensor board (ESB) platform recently developed by the Free University of Berlin, we analyze the means of forward error correction and propose an appropriate resync mechanism, which improves the communication between two ESB nodes substantially. Afterwards, we focus on the forwarding of data packets through the network. We present the algorithms energy-efficient forwarding (EEF), lifetime-efficient forwarding (LEF), and energy-efficient aggregation forwarding (EEAF). While EEF is designed to maximize the number of data bytes delivered per energy unit, LEF additionally takes into account the residual energy of forwarding nodes. In so doing, LEF further prolongs the lifetime of the network. Energy savings due to data aggregation and in-network processing are exploited by EEAF. Besides single-link forwarding, in which data packets are sent to only one forwarding node, we also study the impact of multi-link forwarding, which exploits the broadcast characteristics of the wireless medium by sending packets to several (potential

  8. Acoustic power delivery to pipeline monitoring wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziroglou, M E; Boyle, D E; Wright, S W; Yeatman, E M

    2017-05-01

    The use of energy harvesting for powering wireless sensors is made more challenging in most applications by the requirement for customization to each specific application environment because of specificities of the available energy form, such as precise location, direction and motion frequency, as well as the temporal variation and unpredictability of the energy source. Wireless power transfer from dedicated sources can overcome these difficulties, and in this work, the use of targeted ultrasonic power transfer as a possible method for remote powering of sensor nodes is investigated. A powering system for pipeline monitoring sensors is described and studied experimentally, with a pair of identical, non-inertial piezoelectric transducers used at the transmitter and receiver. Power transmission of 18mW (Root-Mean-Square) through 1m of a118mm diameter cast iron pipe, with 8mm wall thickness is demonstrated. By analysis of the delay between transmission and reception, including reflections from the pipeline edges, a transmission speed of 1000m/s is observed, corresponding to the phase velocity of the L(0,1) axial and F(1,1) radial modes of the pipe structure. A reduction of power delivery with water-filling is observed, yet over 4mW of delivered power through a fully-filled pipe is demonstrated. The transmitted power and voltage levels exceed the requirements for efficient power management, including rectification at cold-starting conditions, and for the operation of low-power sensor nodes. The proposed powering technique may allow the implementation of energy autonomous wireless sensor systems for monitoring industrial and network pipeline infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Passive Wireless Hydrogen Sensors Using Orthogonal Frequency Coded Acoustic Wave Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) based hydrogen sensors for NASA application to distributed wireless hydrogen leak...

  10. Consensus-based sparse signal reconstruction algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Bao; Zhao, Zhi; Han, Guangjie; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a distributed Bayesian reconstruction algorithm for wireless sensor networks to reconstruct the sparse signals based on variational sparse Bayesian learning and consensus filter...

  11. An Efficient Location Verification Scheme for Static Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Bo-Sung; Song, JooSeok

    2017-01-24

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the accuracy of location information is vital to support many interesting applications. Unfortunately, sensors have difficulty in estimating their location when malicious sensors attack the location estimation process. Even though secure localization schemes have been proposed to protect location estimation process from attacks, they are not enough to eliminate the wrong location estimations in some situations. The location verification can be the solution to the situations or be the second-line defense. The problem of most of the location verifications is the explicit involvement of many sensors in the verification process and requirements, such as special hardware, a dedicated verifier and the trusted third party, which causes more communication and computation overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient location verification scheme for static WSN called mutually-shared region-based location verification (MSRLV), which reduces those overheads by utilizing the implicit involvement of sensors and eliminating several requirements. In order to achieve this, we use the mutually-shared region between location claimant and verifier for the location verification. The analysis shows that MSRLV reduces communication overhead by 77% and computation overhead by 92% on average, when compared with the other location verification schemes, in a single sensor verification. In addition, simulation results for the verification of the whole network show that MSRLV can detect the malicious sensors by over 90% when sensors in the network have five or more neighbors.

  12. Advanced Communication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    interest has been identified. To verify the performance of the new ASP architecture , we used our ASP to perform vehicle classification while the digital...years. Figure 38 illustrates the architecture of our ASP as well as the projected power savings. Figure 38. Left: block diagram of our analog...estimation produced by an object or subject using sensory data collected by a distributed sensor network was a challenging problem. While the problem was

  13. Extending lifetime of wireless sensor networks using multi-sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SOUMITRA DAS

    LPG pipes laid in deep underwater, waste water monitoring, structural health monitoring and many more [1, 2]. The sensor devices of WSN are responsible for the transfer of information across the sensor network to the base station. (BS), using some techniques that enhance the lifetime of the network by saving a substantial ...

  14. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  15. GPS-free localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Qingzheng

    2010-01-01

    Localization is one of the most fundamental problems in wireless sensor networks, since the locations of the sensor nodes are critical to both network operations and most application level tasks. A GPS-free localization scheme for wireless sensor networks is presented in this paper. First, we develop a standardized clustering-based approach for the local coordinate system formation wherein a multiplication factor is introduced to regulate the number of master and slave nodes and the degree of connectivity among master nodes. Second, using homogeneous coordinates, we derive a transformation matrix between two Cartesian coordinate systems to efficiently merge them into a global coordinate system and effectively overcome the flip ambiguity problem. The algorithm operates asynchronously without a centralized controller; and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. A set of parameter-setting guidelines for the proposed algorithm is derived based on a probability model and the energy requirements are also investigated. A simulation analysis on a specific numerical example is conducted to validate the mathematical analytical results. We also compare the performance of the proposed algorithm under a variety multiplication factor, node density and node communication radius scenario. Experiments show that our algorithm outperforms existing mechanisms in terms of accuracy and convergence time.

  16. Distributed Signal Processing for Wireless EEG Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by ongoing evolutions in the field of wireless body area networks (WBANs), this tutorial paper presents a conceptual and exploratory study of wireless electroencephalography (EEG) sensor networks (WESNs), with an emphasis on distributed signal processing aspects. A WESN is conceived as a modular neuromonitoring platform for high-density EEG recordings, in which each node is equipped with an electrode array, a signal processing unit, and facilities for wireless communication. We first address the advantages of such a modular approach, and we explain how distributed signal processing algorithms make WESNs more power-efficient, in particular by avoiding data centralization. We provide an overview of distributed signal processing algorithms that are potentially applicable in WESNs, and for illustration purposes, we also provide a more detailed case study of a distributed eye blink artifact removal algorithm. Finally, we study the power efficiency of these distributed algorithms in comparison to their centralized counterparts in which all the raw sensor signals are centralized in a near-end or far-end fusion center.

  17. DS+: Reliable Distributed Snapshot Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uslu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring the snapshot of a distributed system helps gathering system related global state. In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, global state shows if a node is terminated or deadlock occurs along with many other situations which prevents a WSN from fully functioning. In this paper, we present a fully distributed snapshot acquisition algorithm adapted to tree topology wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Since snapshot acquisition is through control messages sent over highly lossy wireless channels and congested nodes, we enhanced the snapshot algorithm with a sink based reliability suit to achieve robustness. We analyzed the performance of the algorithm in terms of snapshot success ratio and response time in simulation and experimental small test bed environment. The results reveal that the proposed tailor made reliability model increases snapshot acquisition performance by a factor of seven and response time by a factor of two in a 30-node network. We have also shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms its counterparts in the specified network setting.

  18. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jie; Chen, Jian; Deng, Yansha; Wang, Xingwei; Aghvami, Abdol-Hamid

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs). While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA) for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  19. Joint Power Charging and Routing in Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of wireless power transfer (WPT technology has inspired the transition from traditional battery-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs towards wireless rechargeable sensor networks (WRSNs. While extensive efforts have been made to improve charging efficiency, little has been done for routing optimization. In this work, we present a joint optimization model to maximize both charging efficiency and routing structure. By analyzing the structure of the optimization model, we first decompose the problem and propose a heuristic algorithm to find the optimal charging efficiency for the predefined routing tree. Furthermore, by coding the many-to-one communication topology as an individual, we further propose to apply a genetic algorithm (GA for the joint optimization of both routing and charging. The genetic operations, including tree-based recombination and mutation, are proposed to obtain a fast convergence. Our simulation results show that the heuristic algorithm reduces the number of resident locations and the total moving distance. We also show that our proposed algorithm achieves a higher charging efficiency compared with existing algorithms.

  20. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  1. Integrated cable vibration control system using wireless sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seunghoo; Cho, Soojin; Sim, Sung-Han

    2017-04-01

    As the number of long-span bridges is increasing worldwide, maintaining their structural integrity and safety become an important issue. Because the stay cable is a critical member in most long-span bridges and vulnerable to wind-induced vibrations, vibration mitigation has been of interest both in academia and practice. While active and semi-active control schemes are known to be quite effective in vibration reduction compared to the passive control, requirements for equipment including data acquisition, control devices, and power supply prevent a widespread adoption in real-world applications. This study develops an integrated system for vibration control of stay-cables using wireless sensors implementing a semi-active control. Arduino, a low-cost single board system, is employed with a MEMS digital accelerometer and a Zigbee wireless communication module to build the wireless sensor. The magneto-rheological (MR) damper is selected as a damping device, controlled by an optimal control algorithm implemented on the Arduino sensing system. The developed integrated system is tested in a laboratory environment using a cable to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system on vibration reduction. The proposed system is shown to reduce the vibration of stay-cables with low operating power effectively.

  2. An experimental study of cross-technology interference in in-vehicle wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavakoli, R.; Nabi, M.; Basten, T.; Goossens, K.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless in-vehicle networks are considered as a flexible and cost-efficient solution for the new generation of cars. One of the candidate wireless technologies for these wireless sensor networks is the IEEE 802.15.4 standard which operates in the 2.4 GHz ISM band. This is while the number of

  3. Applications for wireless sensor networks : tracking with binary proximity sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Fernández, Andoni

    2012-01-01

    El interés cada vez mayor por las redes de sensores inalámbricos pueden ser entendido simplemente pensando en lo que esencialmente son: un gran número de pequeños nodos sensores autoalimentados que recogen información o detectan eventos especiales y se comunican de manera inalámbrica, con el objetivo final de entregar sus datos procesados a una estación base. Los nodos sensores están densamente desplegados dentro del área de interés, se pueden desplegar al azar y tienen capacidad de cooper...

  4. A Calibration Report for Wireless Sensor-Based Weatherboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthoni Masinde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa contains the highest number of people affected by droughts. Although this can easily be mitigated through the provision of timely, reliable and relevant weather forecasts, the sparse network of weather stations in most of these countries makes this difficult. Rapid development in wireless sensor networks has resulted in weatherboards capable of capturing weather parameters at the micro-level. Although these weatherboards offer a viable solution to Africa’s drought, the acceptability of such data by meteorologists is only possible if these sensors are calibrated and their field readiness scientifically evaluated. This is the contribution of this paper; we present results of a calibration exercise that was carried out to: (1 measure and correct lag, random and systematic errors; (2 determine if Perspex was an ideal material for building sensor boards’ enclosures; and (3 identify sensor boards’ battery charging and depletion rates. The result is a calibration report detailing actual error and uncertainty values for atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature sensors, as well as the recharge and discharge curves of the batteries. The results further ruled out the use of Perspex for enclosing the sensor boards. These experiments pave the way for the design and implementation of a sensor-based weather monitoring system (SenseWeather that was piloted in two regions in Kenya.

  5. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue that must be solved in designing a data gathering algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNS is how to save sensor node energy while meeting the needs of applications/users. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-aware routing protocol (EAP for a long-lived sensor network. EAP achieves a good performance in terms of lifetime by minimizing energy consumption for in-network communications and balancing the energy load among all the nodes. EAP introduces a new clustering parameter for cluster head election, which can better handle the heterogeneous energy capacities. Furthermore, it also introduces a simple but efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to cope with the area coverage problem. We use a simple temperature sensing application to evaluate the performance of EAP and results show that our protocol significantly outperforms LEACH and HEED in terms of network lifetime and the amount of data gathered.

  6. A Wireless Multi-Sensor Dielectric Impedance Spectroscopy Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Ghaffari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a low-cost, miniaturized, multiplexed, and connected platform for dielectric impedance spectroscopy (DIS, designed for in situ measurements and adapted to wireless network architectures. The platform has been tested and used as a DIS sensor node on ZigBee mesh and was able to interface up to three DIS sensors at the same time and relay the information through the network for data analysis and storage. The system is built from low-cost commercial microelectronics components, performs dielectric spectroscopy ranging from 5 kHz to 100 kHz, and benefits from an on-the-fly calibration system that makes sensor calibration easy. The paper describes the microelectronics design, the Nyquist impedance response, the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and the testing of the platform for in situ dielectric impedance spectroscopy applications pertaining to fertilizer sensing, water quality sensing, and touch sensing.

  7. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...... distribution and use by all involved parties of bio-sensor data during emergency response. The system is being developed in close cooperation between doctors, paramedics and IT specialists using qualitative methods including ethnographically inspired field work and simulations of future work. The system...... evaluations have already demonstrated the usefulness of being able to move patients without having to take care of wires and being able to inspect bio-sensor data without being next to the patient. However, new problems have also emerged when no wires connect a patient to a display. E.g. how do you know whose...

  8. An energy-aware routing protocol in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Cao, Jiannong; Chen, Guihai; Wang, Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    The most important issue that must be solved in designing a data gathering algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNS) is how to save sensor node energy while meeting the needs of applications/users. In this paper, we propose a novel energy-aware routing protocol (EAP) for a long-lived sensor network. EAP achieves a good performance in terms of lifetime by minimizing energy consumption for in-network communications and balancing the energy load among all the nodes. EAP introduces a new clustering parameter for cluster head election, which can better handle the heterogeneous energy capacities. Furthermore, it also introduces a simple but efficient approach, namely, intra-cluster coverage to cope with the area coverage problem. We use a simple temperature sensing application to evaluate the performance of EAP and results show that our protocol significantly outperforms LEACH and HEED in terms of network lifetime and the amount of data gathered.

  9. Resource-Aware Data Fusion Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelgawad, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces resource-aware data fusion algorithms to gather and combine data from multiple sources (e.g., sensors) in order to achieve inferences.  These techniques can be used in centralized and distributed systems to overcome sensor failure, technological limitation, and spatial and temporal coverage problems. The algorithms described in this book are evaluated with simulation and experimental results to show they will maintain data integrity and make data useful and informative.   Describes techniques to overcome real problems posed by wireless sensor networks deployed in circumstances that might interfere with measurements provided, such as strong variations of pressure, temperature, radiation, and electromagnetic noise; Uses simulation and experimental results to evaluate algorithms presented and includes real test-bed; Includes case study implementing data fusion algorithms on a remote monitoring framework for sand production in oil pipelines.

  10. Reliable Event Detectors for Constrained Resources Wireless Sensor Node Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Trinidad MarcoAntonio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A novel event detector algorithm, which points out in-door acoustic human activities, for constrained wireless sensor node hardware is proposed in the present paper. In our approach, event detections are computed from the signal energy statistics change rate at two instants separated by an samples interval. The experimentation is run in two phases: (i the detector characterisation and tuning seek detector configurations that enable event detections from three acoustic human activities: closing a door, dropping a plastic bottle, and clapping;(ii event detector validation tests measure the reliability to signal events from general acoustic activities, people talking particularly. The test results, which included emulated node hardware, actual sensor node, and a one-hop WSN, demonstrate the detector implementations signaled successfully events. And for the WSN, we found that event detections decay in a nonlinear fashion as the distance , between the acoustic signal source and the sensor, is increased.

  11. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eung Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Jeon, Seokhee

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  12. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  13. Fault Tolerance in ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Gilstrap, Ray; Baldwin, Jarren; Stone, Thom; Wilson, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 PRO Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. This technology is supported by System-on-a-Chip solutions, resulting in extremely small and low-power nodes. The Wireless Connections in Space Project addresses the aerospace flight domain for both flight-critical and non-critical avionics. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications utilizing such technology. The team from Ames Research Center has developed techniques for assessing the fault tolerance of ZigBee WSNs challenged by radio frequency (RF) interference or WSN node failure.

  14. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong M. Nguyen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu. A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  15. Wireless Power Transfer for Autonomous Wearable Neurotransmitter Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong M; Kota, Pavan Kumar; Nguyen, Minh Q; Dubey, Souvik; Rao, Smitha; Mays, Jeffrey; Chiao, J-C

    2015-09-23

    In this paper, we report a power management system for autonomous and real-time monitoring of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate (L-Glu). A low-power, low-noise, and high-gain recording module was designed to acquire signal from an implantable flexible L-Glu sensor fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based processes. The wearable recording module was wirelessly powered through inductive coupling transmitter antennas. Lateral and angular misalignments of the receiver antennas were resolved by using a multi-transmitter antenna configuration. The effective coverage, over which the recording module functioned properly, was improved with the use of in-phase transmitter antennas. Experimental results showed that the recording system was capable of operating continuously at distances of 4 cm, 7 cm and 10 cm. The wireless power management system reduced the weight of the recording module, eliminated human intervention and enabled animal experimentation for extended durations.

  16. Genetical Swarm Optimization of Multihop Routes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Caputo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks have been attracting considerable research attention for a wide range of applications, but they still present significant network communication challenges, involving essentially the use of large numbers of resource-constrained nodes operating unattended and exposed to potential local failures. In order to maximize the network lifespan, in this paper, genetical swarm optimization (GSO is applied, a class of hybrid evolutionary techniques developed in order to exploit in the most effective way the uniqueness and peculiarities of two classical optimization approaches; particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithms (GA. This procedure is here implemented to optimize the communication energy consumption in a wireless network by selecting the optimal multihop routing schemes, with a suitable hybridization of different routing criteria, confirming itself as a flexible and useful tool for engineering applications.

  17. Coding and Enhancement in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Adel; Østergaard, Jan; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a new problem which bridges between source coding and enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks. We consider a network of wireless microphones, each of which encoding its own measurement under a covariance matrix distortion constraint and sending it to a fusion center....... To process the data at the center, we use a recent spatio-temporal prediction filter. We assume that a weighted sum-rate for the network is specified. The problem is to allocate optimal distortion matrices to the nodes in order to achieve a maximum output SNR at the fusion center after processing...... the received data, while the weighted sum-rate for the network is no more than the specified value. We formulate this problem as an optimization problem for which we derive a set of equalities imposed on the solution by studying the KKT conditions. In particular, for the special case of scalar sources with two...

  18. Cooperative MIMO technology in multiple hops wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The limited lifetime is one of the important factors restricted wireless sensor networks (WSNs), when possible, wireless nodes often operate with small batteries, while battery replacement is a very difficult and expensive. So the nodes must work long hours in the case of no battery replacement. Therefore, in WSNs, minimizing energy consumption is an important design consideration, at the same time, the transmission strategies of energy efficiency must be used for data forwarding. This paper, using cooperative multiple input multiple output(MIMO) technology combined with multiple hops technology, has put forward a new transmission model, i.e., the MIMO-MISO(multi-input multi-output)/MIMO-MIMO model. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed MIMO-MISO/MIMO-MIMO to minimize energy consumption of each node every node for multi-hop WSNs, to save a great deal of energy for a larger transmission distance, which makes the life of the entire network be extended.

  19. Electric/magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Jr., Robert A.; Popek, Marc [Las Vegas, NV

    2009-01-27

    A UNLV novel electric/magnetic dot sensor includes a loop of conductor having two ends to the loop, a first end and a second end; the first end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a first conductor within a first sheath; the second end of the conductor seamlessly secured to a second conductor within a second sheath; and the first sheath and the second sheath positioned adjacent each other. The UNLV novel sensor can be made by removing outer layers in a segment of coaxial cable, leaving a continuous link of essentially uncovered conductor between two coaxial cable legs.

  20. SensorScheme: Supply Chain Management Automation using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Kuper, Jan; Lijding, M.E.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana

    2007-01-01

    The supply chain management business can benefit greatly from automation, as recent developments with RFID technology shows. The use of Wireless Sensor Network technology promises to bring the next leap in efficiency and quality of service. However, current WSN system software does not yet provide

  1. Partially Evaluated Sensor Networks: Automatic Specialization for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor & Actuator Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Kuper, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor and actuator networks consist of a large number of disparate computing devices that together aim to perform a common tasks. Management of large networks may become difficult, when the individual task of each of the devices is different from others, and memory restrictions prevent the

  2. Wearable Wireless Telemetry System for Implantable BioMEMS Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Renita E.

    2008-01-01

    Telemetry systems of a type that have been proposed for the monitoring of physiological functions in humans would include the following subsystems: Surgically implanted or ingested units that would comprise combinations of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)- based sensors [bioMEMS sensors] and passive radio-frequency (RF) readout circuits that would include miniature loop antennas. Compact radio transceiver units integrated into external garments for wirelessly powering and interrogating the implanted or ingested units. The basic principles of operation of these systems are the same as those of the bioMEMS-sensor-unit/external-RFpowering- and-interrogating-unit systems described in "Printed Multi-Turn Loop Antennas for Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48, and in the immediately preceding article, "Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry" (LEW-17483-1). The differences between what is reported here and what was reported in the cited prior articles lie in proposed design features and a proposed mode of operation. In a specific system of the type now proposed, the sensor unit would comprise mainly a capacitive MEMS pressure sensor located in the annular region of a loop antenna (more specifically, a square spiral inductor/ antenna), all fabricated as an integral unit on a high-resistivity silicon chip. The capacitor electrodes, the spiral inductor/antenna, and the conductor lines interconnecting them would all be made of gold. The dimensions of the sensor unit have been estimated to be about 110.4 mm. The external garment-mounted powering/ interrogating unit would include a multi-turn loop antenna and signal-processing circuits. During operation, this external unit would be positioned in proximity to the implanted or ingested unit to provide for near-field, inductive coupling between the loop antennas, which we have as the primary and secondary windings of an electrical transformer.

  3. Social-Driven Information Dissemination for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim MAHMOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the so-called Internet of Things (IoT, the boundary between sensor networks and social networks is likely to disappear. Moreover, previous works argue that mobility in sensor networks may become a consequence of human movement making the understanding of human mobility crucial to the design of sensor networks. When people carry sensors, they become able to use concepts from social networks in the design of sensor network infrastructures. However, to this date, the utilization of social networks in designing protocols for wireless sensor networks has not received much attention. In this paper, we focus on the concept of information dissemination in a framework where sensors are carried by people who, like most of us, are part of a social network. We propose two social-based forwarding approaches for what has been called Social Network of Sensors (SNoS. To this end, we exploit two important characteristics of ties in social networks, namely strong ties and weak ties. The former is used to achieve rapid dissemination to nearby sensors while the latter aims at dissemination to faraway sensors. We compared our results against two well-known approaches in the literature: Epidemic and PRoPHET protocols. We evaluate our approaches according to four criteria: information-dissemination distance, information-dissemination coverage area, the number of messages exchanged, and information delivery time. We believe this is the first work that investigates the issues of information-dissemination distance and information-dissemination coverage area using an approach inspired on social network concepts.

  4. PASSIVE WIRELESS MULTI-SENSOR TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE SENSING SYSTEM USING ACOUSTIC WAVE DEVICES Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors and multi-sensor systems for NASA application to remote wireless sensing of...

  5. A comparative view of routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayrakdar, Y.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Kantarci, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    Design of efficient routing protocols for underwater sensor networks is challenging because of the distinctive characteristics of the water medium. Currently, many routing protocols are available for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. However, specific properties of underwater medium such as

  6. Extending the lifetime of wireless sensor network with partial SDN deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomovic, Slavica; Radusinovic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency is one of the key requirements in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In order to optimize energy usage at sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new network architecture that relies on concepts of Software Defined Networking...

  7. Wireless Batteryless Remote Sensors for Automated Monitoring, Control, and Inspection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two new catogories of wireless batteryless sensors are proposed: magnetoelastic and LC type. These sensors are also chipless which provide significantly lower cost...

  8. Deployment Algorithms of Wireless Sensor Networks for Near-surface Underground Oil and Gas Pipeline Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ping YU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas pipelines are the infrastructure of national economic development. Deployment problem of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSN for oil and gas pipeline systems is a fundamental problem. This paper firstly analyzed the wireless channel characteristics and energy consumption model in near-surface underground soil, and then studied the spatial structure of oil and gas pipelines and introduced the three-layer system structure of WUSN for oil and gas pipelines monitoring. Secondly, the optimal deployment strategy in XY plane and XZ plane which were projected from three-dimensional oil and gas pipeline structure was analyzed. Thirdly, the technical framework of using kinetic energy of the fluid in pipelines to recharge sensor nodes and partition strategy for energy consumption balance based on the wireless communication technology of magnetic induction waveguide were proposed, which can effectively improve the energy performance and connectivity of the network, and provide theoretical guidance and practical basis for the monitoring of long oil and gas pipeline network, the city tap water pipe network and sewage pipe network.

  9. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb W. Najeeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN, one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes’ power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  10. Performance Analysis of CDMA Wireless Sensor Networks in Shadowed Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. DATTA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of a CDMA based wireless sensor networks (WSN with layered architecture in terms of QoS like outage probability, bit error rate (BER, throughput, and delay, considering correlation amongst interferers in shadowed environment. Energy consumption for successful delivery of information is also evaluated at different channel conditions. Two kinds of interference namely multiple access interference (MAI and node interference (NI are considered and an infinite ARQ is assumed at link layer between a sending node and sink till successful transmission of packetized data. An appropriate analytical model of interference considering correlation amongst interferers, power control error and shadowing is developed for evaluating bit error rate (BER, packet error rate (PER, average number of retransmission for successful delivery of information, throughput, and delay in a single hop communication. A simple energy model is used for evaluating the consumption of energy for successful delivery of information between source and sink. We also evaluate the sink capacity of wireless CDMA sensor networks considering a threshold BER. Sink capacity is defined as the maximum number of sensor nodes transmitting concurrently to the sink and located within one hop layer. The impact of NI on the sink capacity is also indicated. The effects of node density, correlation amongst interferers and power control error (pce on performance of WSN are investigated. Analytical results are supported by simulation results.

  11. Design of Networked Low-Cost Wireless Noise Measurement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka KIVELÄ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise is considered as one of the big issues in environmental pollutions. Typical noise sources like traffic can have great influence on wellbeing and healthy. In this paper, we report the sensor function design and implementation of a wireless sensor network application for measuring environmental acoustic noise. The sensing system is built on Atmega128 and CC2420 platform. The protocol stack is based on CiNet stack with a global synchronization scheme and supports multi-hop communications. Strict filtering function specified by ITU-R 468 (namely A-weighting is followed. Both the indoor and outdoor test results were compared with a standard sound level meter and showed a less than ± 2.1 dB mean differences in both short-term and long-term measurement. Power consumption has been measured that a single AA-type battery can sustain the application. Comparing to the traditional noise measurement method, the designed wireless sensor network solution is much lower in cost.

  12. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte-Luis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  13. An Efficient Wireless Sensor Network for Industrial Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Luis, Juan; Gómez-Galán, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Sánchez-Raya, Manuel; Alcina-Espigado, Javier; Teixido-Rovira, Pedro Miguel

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents the design of a wireless sensor network particularly designed for remote monitoring and control of industrial parameters. The article describes the network components, protocol and sensor deployment, aimed to accomplish industrial constraint and to assure reliability and low power consumption. A particular case of study is presented. The system consists of a base station, gas sensing nodes, a tree-based routing scheme for the wireless sensor nodes and a real-time monitoring application that operates from a remote computer and a mobile phone. The system assures that the industrial safety quality and the measurement and monitoring system achieves an efficient industrial monitoring operations. The robustness of the developed system and the security in the communications have been guaranteed both in hardware and software level. The system is flexible and can be adapted to different environments. The testing of the system confirms the feasibility of the proposed implementation and validates the functional requirements of the developed devices, the networking solution and the power consumption management.

  14. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W.; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-01-01

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes’ power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values. PMID:28714936

  15. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-06-29

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels.

  16. Using Internet of Things technologies for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Hart, J. K.; Basford, P. J.; Bragg, G. M.; Ward, T.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous authors have envisioned the future internet where anything will be connected: the Internet of Things (IoT). The idea is an extrapolation of the spread of networked devices such as phones, tablets etc. Each device is expected to have its own Internet address and thus be easy to access. The key building blocks of any IoT system are networking, hardware platforms and node software - so they are similar to wireless sensor network requirements. Most existing IoT demonstrators and applications have been gadget-style objects where power and connectivity problems are not too restricting. Environmental sensor networks can benefit from using some of the technologies involved in IoT development. However it is expected that tuning the networking and power management will be necessary to make them as efficient as state of the art wireless sensor networks. Some IoT assumptions such as always-connected nodes and full IP capability need to be considered. This paper will illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of IoT techniques for environment sensing drawing on a range of employment scenarios. We also describe a glacial 'Internet of things' project, which aims to monitor glacial processes. In particular we describe the IoT developments in a deployment in Iceland to examine glacier seismicity, velocity and provide camera images.

  17. Coded Cooperation for Multiway Relaying in Wireless Sensor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhongwei; Ma, Junyang; Thobaben, Ragnar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been considered as an enabling technology for constructing smart cities. One important feature of wireless sensor networks is that the sensor nodes collaborate in some manner for communications. In this manuscript, we focus on the model of multiway relaying with full data exchange where each user wants to transmit and receive data to and from all other users in the network. We derive the capacity region for this specific model and propose a coding strategy through coset encoding. To obtain good performance with practical codes, we choose spatially-coupled LDPC (SC-LDPC) codes for the coded cooperation. In particular, for the message broadcasting from the relay, we construct multi-edge-type (MET) SC-LDPC codes by repeatedly applying coset encoding. Due to the capacity-achieving property of the SC-LDPC codes, we prove that the capacity region can theoretically be achieved by the proposed MET SC-LDPC codes. Numerical results with finite node degrees are provided, which show that the achievable rates approach the boundary of the capacity region in both binary erasure channels and additive white Gaussian channels. PMID:26131675

  18. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-07-17

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes' power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  19. Evaluation of SVR: A Wireless Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network

  20. Sparsity-Based Spatial Interpolation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, due to environmental limitations or bad wireless channel conditions, not all sensor samples can be successfully gathered at the sink.  In this paper, we try to recover these missing samples without retransmission. The missing samples estimation problem is mathematically formulated as a 2-D spatial interpolation. Assuming the 2-D sensor data can be sparsely represented by a dictionary, a sparsity-based recovery approach by solving for l1 norm minimization is proposed. It is shown that these missing samples can be reasonably recovered based on the null space property of the dictionary. This property also points out the way to choose an appropriate sparsifying dictionary to further reduce the recovery errors. The simulation results on synthetic and real data demonstrate that the proposed approach can recover the missing data reasonably well and that it outperforms the weighted average interpolation methods when the data change relatively fast or blocks of samples are lost. Besides, there exists a range of missing rates where the proposed approach is robust to missing block sizes.

  1. Sparsity-based spatial interpolation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Di; Qu, Xiaobo; Huang, Lianfen; Yao, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks, due to environmental limitations or bad wireless channel conditions, not all sensor samples can be successfully gathered at the sink. In this paper, we try to recover these missing samples without retransmission. The missing samples estimation problem is mathematically formulated as a 2-D spatial interpolation. Assuming the 2-D sensor data can be sparsely represented by a dictionary, a sparsity-based recovery approach by solving for l(1) norm minimization is proposed. It is shown that these missing samples can be reasonably recovered based on the null space property of the dictionary. This property also points out the way to choose an appropriate sparsifying dictionary to further reduce the recovery errors. The simulation results on synthetic and real data demonstrate that the proposed approach can recover the missing data reasonably well and that it outperforms the weighted average interpolation methods when the data change relatively fast or blocks of samples are lost. Besides, there exists a range of missing rates where the proposed approach is robust to missing block sizes.

  2. Characterizing the Path Coverage of Random Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Noori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are widely used in security monitoring applications to sense and report specific activities in a field. In path coverage, for example, the network is in charge of monitoring a path and discovering any intruder trying to cross it. In this paper, we investigate the path coverage properties of a randomly deployed wireless sensor network when the number of sensors and also the length of the path are finite. As a consequence, Boolean model, which has been widely used previously, is not applicable. Using results from geometric probability, we determine the probability of full path coverage, distribution of the number of uncovered gaps over the path, and the probability of having no uncovered gaps larger than a specific size. We also find the cumulative distribution function (cdf of the covered part of the path. Based on our results on the probability of full path coverage, we derive a tight upper bound for the number of nodes guaranteeing the full path coverage with a desired reliability. Through computer simulations, it is verified that for networks with nonasymptotic size, our analysis is accurate where the Boolean model can be inaccurate.

  3. Green partial packet recovery in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Daghistani, Anas

    2015-08-18

    Partial packet recovery is well known for increasing network throughput and reducing frame retransmissions. However, partial packet recovery methods in the literature are not energy-aware and hence they are not suitable for the battery powered wireless sensor motes. We propose Green-Frag, a novel adaptive partial packet recovery mechanism that is energy friendly. It can help prolonging the battery life of wireless sensor motes that are usually resource constrained. It dynamically partitions the frame into smaller blocks to avoid dropping the whole frame due to a single bit error. Also, Green-Frag is able to tolerate high interference and save energy by varying the transmit power based on channel quality and interference pattern. We experimentally evaluate the energy efficiency as well as goodput and delay of Green-Frag using our TelosB sensor mote testbed. We find that Green-Frag reduces energy consumption by 33% on average compared to the state of the art partial packet recovery scheme in the literature in the presence of Wi-Fi interference. In the worst case, this reduction in energy consumption comes at the cost of 10% reduction in goodput. Finally, Green-Frag reduces the latency by 22% on average compared to other static frame fragmentation schemes.

  4. Sleep Deprivation Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattasali, Tapalina; Chaki, Rituparna; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-02-01

    Deployment of sensor network in hostile environment makes it mainly vulnerable to battery drainage attacks because it is impossible to recharge or replace the battery power of sensor nodes. Among different types of security threats, low power sensor nodes are immensely affected by the attacks which cause random drainage of the energy level of sensors, leading to death of the nodes. The most dangerous type of attack in this category is sleep deprivation, where target of the intruder is to maximize the power consumption of sensor nodes, so that their lifetime is minimized. Most of the existing works on sleep deprivation attack detection involve a lot of overhead, leading to poor throughput. The need of the day is to design a model for detecting intrusions accurately in an energy efficient manner. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework based on distributed collaborative mechanism for detecting sleep deprivation torture in wireless sensor network efficiently. Proposed model uses anomaly detection technique in two steps to reduce the probability of false intrusion.

  5. Low-Cost Wireless Nanotube Composite Sensor for Damage Detection of Civil Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed SAAFI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new low-cost wireless nanotube composite sensor for structural damage detection. A cement matrix with networked carbon nanotubes was used to develop an in situ, wireless and embedded sensor for crack detection in concrete structures. By wirelessly measuring the change in the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube networks, the progress of damage can be detected and monitored wirelessly. As a proof of concept, the wireless cement-carbon nanotube sensors were embedded into concrete beams and subjected to monotonic loading to evaluate the effect of damage on their response. Results indicated that the wireless response of the embedded nanotube sensors were able to detect the initiation of damage at an early stage of loading.

  6. Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuangbin Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart devices and connection technologies, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are becoming increasingly intelligent. New or special functions can be obtained by receiving new versions of program codes to upgrade their software systems, forming the so-called smart Internet of Things (IoT. Due to the lossy property of wireless channels, data collection in WSNs still suffers from a long delay, high energy consumption, and many retransmissions. Thanks to wireless software-defined networks (WSDNs, software in sensors can now be updated to help them transmit data cooperatively, thereby achieving more reliable communication. In this paper, a Reliability Improved Cooperative Communication (RICC data collection scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of random-network-coding-based cooperative communications in multi-hop relay WSNs without reducing the network lifetime. In WSNs, sensors in different positions can have different numbers of packets to handle, resulting in the unbalanced energy consumption of the network. In particular, nodes in non-hotspot areas have up to 90% of their original energy remaining when the network dies. To efficiently use the residual energy, in RICC, high data transmission power is adopted in non-hotspot areas to achieve a higher reliability at the cost of large energy consumption, and relatively low transmission power is adopted in hotspot areas to maintain the long network lifetime. Therefore, high reliability and a long network lifetime can be obtained simultaneously. The simulation results show that compared with other scheme, RICC can reduce the end-to-end Message Fail delivering Ratio (MFR by 59.4%–62.8% under the same lifetime with a more balanced energy utilization.

  7. Minimizing the Energy Consumption in ‎Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saad Talib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy in Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs represents an essential factor in designing, controlling and operating the sensor networks. Minimizing the consumed energy in WSNs application is a crucial issue for the network effectiveness and efficiency in terms of lifetime, cost and operation. Number of algorithms and protocols were proposed and implemented to decrease the energy consumption. WSNs operate with battery powered sensors. Sensors batteries have not easily rechargeable even though having restricted power. Frequently the network failure occurs due to the sensors energy insufficiency. MAC protocols in WSNs achieved low duty-cycle by employing periodic sleep and wakeup. Predictive Wakeup MAC (PW-MAC protocol was made use of the asynchronous duty cycling. It reduces the consumption of the node energy by allowing the senders to predict the receiver′s wakeup times. The WSN must be applied in an efficient manner to utilize the sensor nodes and their energy to ensure efficient network throughput. Prediction of the WSN lifetime previously to its installation represents a significant concern. To ensure energy efficiency the sensors duty cycles must be adjusted appropriately to meet the network traffic demands. The energy consumed in each node due to its switching between the active and the idle states were also estimated. The sensors are assumed to be randomly deployed. This paper aims to improve the randomly deployed network lifetime by scheduling the effects of transmission, reception and sleep states on the sensor node energy consumption. Results for these states with many performance metrics were also studied and discussed

  8. Graphical user interface for wireless sensor networks simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Tomasz; Paczesny, Daniel; Weremczuk, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are currently very popular area of development. It can be suited in many applications form military through environment monitoring, healthcare, home automation and others. Those networks, when working in dynamic, ad-hoc model, need effective protocols which must differ from common computer networks algorithms. Research on those protocols would be difficult without simulation tool, because real applications often use many nodes and tests on such a big networks take much effort and costs. The paper presents Graphical User Interface (GUI) for simulator which is dedicated for WSN studies, especially in routing and data link protocols evaluation.

  9. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash the c...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  10. Modeling Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring in Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadimi, Esmaeil

    signal strength). Fusing the two measured behavioral data resulted in an improvement of the classification results regarding the animal behavior mode (activity/inactivity), compared to the results achieved by only monitoring one of the behavioral parameters. Applying a multiple-model adaptive estimation...... (MMAE) approach to the data resulted in the highest classification success rate, due to the use of precise forth-order mathematical models which relate the feed offer to the pitch angle of the neck. This thesis shows that wireless sensor networks can be successfully employed to monitor the behavior...

  11. Information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar

    2006-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art cross-layer optimization techniques for energy-efficient information processing and routing in wireless sensor networks. Besides providing a survey on this important research area, three specific topics are discussed in detail - information processing in a collocated cluster, information transport over a tree substrate, and information routing for computationally intensive applications. The book covers several important system knobs for cross-layer optimization, including voltage scaling, rate adaptation, and tunable compression. By exploring tradeoffs of en

  12. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  13. Secure and Authenticated Data Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandi, Omar; Bochem, Arne; Kellner, Ansgar; Göge, Christian; Hogrefe, Dieter

    2015-08-10

    Securing communications in wireless sensor networks is increasingly important as the diversity of applications increases. However, even today, it is equally important for the measures employed to be energy efficient. For this reason, this publication analyzes the suitability of various cryptographic primitives for use in WSNs according to various criteria and, finally, describes a modular, PKI-based framework for confidential, authenticated, secure communications in which most suitable primitives can be employed. Due to the limited capabilities of common WSN motes, criteria for the selection of primitives are security, power efficiency and memory requirements. The implementation of the framework and the singular components have been tested and benchmarked in our testbed of IRISmotes.

  14. A SAT-Based Analysis of a Calculus for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xi; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Zhu, Huibiao

    2015-01-01

    In viewing the common unreliability problem in wireless communications, the CWQ calculus (a Calculus for Wireless sensor networks from Quality perspective) was recently proposed for modeling and reasoning about WSNs(Wireless Sensor Networks) and their applications from a quality perspective...... of the whole network. Finally, we give a real-world case study with the scenario of refueling a car to demonstrate the applicability of the extended calculus and the SAT-based analysis....

  15. Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks and future “Internet of Things""

    OpenAIRE

    Vermesan, Ovidiu

    2009-01-01

    Overview of heterogeneous networks of embedded devices that can range from RFID, to smart identifiable systems with sensing and actuating capabilitie. Presentation of wireless sensor networks protocols and Internet of Things future technology. Bridging the real, virtual and digital worlds by using wireless connectivity. Application examples in automotive, aeronautics, healthcare, building, oil and gas industries. Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks and future “Internet ...

  16. An Improved ARIMA-Based Traffic Anomaly Detection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Yu; Lyu Jibin; Lirui Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic anomaly detection is emerging as a necessary component as wireless networks gain popularity. In this paper, based on the improved Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model, we propose a traffic anomaly detection algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which considers the particular imbalanced, nonstationary properties of the WSN traffic and the limited energy and computing capacity of the wireless sensors at the same time. We systematically analyze the characteristi...

  17. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health techn...

  18. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-15

    This guide provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for various room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of various technology options, light source considerations, and codes and standards.

  19. A Framework for a Distributed and Adaptive Query Processing Engine for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Honda, S; Iwaoka, H; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed of tiny, highly energy-constrained sensor nodes that are equipped with wireless transceivers and can be used primarily in environmental monitoring applications. The nodes communicate with one another by autonomously creating ad-hoc multihop networks which

  20. Tandem: A Context-Aware Method for Spontaneous Clustering of Dynamic Wireless Sensor Nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Lombriser, C.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Scholten, Johan; Tröster, G.

    Wireless sensor nodes attached to everyday objects and worn by people are able to collaborate and actively assist users in their activities. We propose a method through which wireless sensor nodes organize spontaneously into clusters based on a common context. Provided that the confidence of sharing

  1. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  2. Extending lifetime of wireless sensor networks using multi-sensor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this proposed methodology, the collected temperature tand humidity data are processed by multi-sensor data fusion techniques, which help in decreasing the energy ... Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600119, India; Department of Electronics and Control Engineering, ...

  3. Evolution of Wireless Sensor Networks for Industrial Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Low

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Technologies evolve in a process of gradual scientific change, but the commercial application of technologies is discontinuous. Managers interested in technology evolution can integrate these contrasting ideas using a powerful theoretical framework, based on the concept of punctuated equilibrium from evolutionary biology. The framework, which enables the differentiation of the technical evolution of a technology from its market application, is used in this article to compare the two standards for wireless sensor networks (WSN for industrial instrumentation and control: WirelessHART and ISA100.11a. The two WSN standards are the product of two different market contexts, which have selected different minimum viable technologies for evolution in their respective niches. Network security issues present some important selection criteria. Both WSN standards implement security countermeasures against localized wireless network attacks based on the application of the AES encryption standard, but some specific security threats – some local, others remotely launched – are only well-defended by the adoption of public-key cryptographic (PKC protocols, which only ISA100.11a supports. This article concludes that the mainstream market potential of the Internet has influenced the evolution of ISA100.11a and will continue to demand that each WSN standard evolve in ways that are difficult to predict.

  4. P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Sahar Sayeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented

  5. An Embedded Multi-Agent Systems Based Industrial Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboun, Mohammed S; Brennan, Robert W

    2017-09-14

    With the emergence of cyber-physical systems, there has been a growing interest in network-connected devices. One of the key requirements of a cyber-physical device is the ability to sense its environment. Wireless sensor networks are a widely-accepted solution for this requirement. In this study, an embedded multi-agent systems-managed wireless sensor network is presented. A novel architecture is proposed, along with a novel wireless sensor network architecture. Active and passive wireless sensor node types are defined, along with their communication protocols, and two application-specific examples are presented. A series of three experiments is conducted to evaluate the performance of the agent-embedded wireless sensor network.

  6. An Embedded Multi-Agent Systems Based Industrial Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Taboun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of cyber-physical systems, there has been a growing interest in network-connected devices. One of the key requirements of a cyber-physical device is the ability to sense its environment. Wireless sensor networks are a widely-accepted solution for this requirement. In this study, an embedded multi-agent systems-managed wireless sensor network is presented. A novel architecture is proposed, along with a novel wireless sensor network architecture. Active and passive wireless sensor node types are defined, along with their communication protocols, and two application-specific examples are presented. A series of three experiments is conducted to evaluate the performance of the agent-embedded wireless sensor network.

  7. Wireless sensor networks design principles for scattered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Haenselmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consist of small, mostly battery powered computers. Despite their simplicity, each sensor node is equipped with its own memory, CPU and radio transceiver. A typical application is to scatter many of them over a large area. Some sensor nodes can take measurements like temperature, air pressure and humidity. The latest models can also capture audio and images. But even the simplest capabilities like monitoring the temperature can be used e.g., to detect and fight forest fires at an early stage. The strength of this new paradigm comes from the mere number of nodes. Messages are forwarded over long distances from node to node. However, a sensor network does not only provide its own communication infrastructure. Within this book, it will also be shown how it can be used like a massively distributed database or as a compute cluster which filters and analyzes its data prior to transmission. A key-factor to the success of a sensor network is its longevity. Communication algorithms for medium ...

  8. Clustering and Beamforming for Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Porcel-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a critical issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs as sensor nodes have limited power availability. In order to address this issue, this paper tries to maximize the power efficiency in WSNs by means of the evaluation of WSN node networks and their performance when both clustering and antenna beamforming techniques are applied. In this work, four different scenarios are defined, each one considering different numbers of sensors: 50, 20, 10, five, and two nodes per scenario, and each scenario is randomly generated thirty times in order to statistically validate the results. For each experiment, two different target directions for transmission are taken into consideration in the optimization process (φ = 0° and θ = 45°; φ = 45°, and θ = 45°. Each scenario is evaluated for two different types of antennas, an ideal isotropic antenna and a conventional dipole one. In this set of experiments two types of WSN are evaluated: in the first one, all of the sensors have the same amount of power for communications purposes; in the second one, each sensor has a different amount of power for its communications purposes. The analyzed cases in this document are focused on 2D surface and 3D space for the node location. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that beamforming and clustering are simultaneously applied to increase the network lifetime in WSNs.

  9. Wireless Power Transfer for Distributed Estimation in Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Vien V.; Shin, Won-Yong; Ishibashi, Koji

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies power allocation for distributed estimation of an unknown scalar random source in sensor networks with a multiple-antenna fusion center (FC), where wireless sensors are equipped with radio-frequency based energy harvesting technology. The sensors' observation is locally processed by using an uncoded amplify-and-forward scheme. The processed signals are then sent to the FC, and are coherently combined at the FC, at which the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is adopted for reliable estimation. We aim to solve the following two power allocation problems: 1) minimizing distortion under various power constraints; and 2) minimizing total transmit power under distortion constraints, where the distortion is measured in terms of mean-squared error of the BLUE. Two iterative algorithms are developed to solve the non-convex problems, which converge at least to a local optimum. In particular, the above algorithms are designed to jointly optimize the amplification coefficients, energy beamforming, and receive filtering. For each problem, a suboptimal design, a single-antenna FC scenario, and a common harvester deployment for colocated sensors, are also studied. Using the powerful semidefinite relaxation framework, our result is shown to be valid for any number of sensors, each with different noise power, and for an arbitrarily number of antennas at the FC.

  10. Design of a Humidity Sensor Tag for Passive Wireless Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang; Deng, Fangming; Hao, Yong; Fu, Zhihui; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-10-07

    This paper presents a wireless humidity sensor tag for low-cost and low-power applications. The proposed humidity sensor tag, based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, was fabricated in a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The top metal layer was deposited to form the interdigitated electrodes, which were then filled with polyimide as the humidity sensing layer. A two-stage rectifier adopts a dynamic bias-voltage generator to boost the effective gate-source voltage of the switches in differential-drive architecture, resulting in a flat power conversion efficiency curve. The capacitive sensor interface, based on phase-locked loop (PLL) theory, employs a simple architecture and can work with 0.5 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that humidity sensor tag achieves excellent linearity, hysteresis and stability performance. The total power-dissipation of the sensor tag is 2.5 μW, resulting in a maximum operating distance of 23 m under 4 W of radiation power of the RFID reader.

  11. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-09-18

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  12. Open hardware: a role to play in wireless sensor networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Roy; Ledwaba, Lehlogonolo; Hancke, Gerhard; Kruger, Carel

    2015-03-20

    The concept of the Internet of Things is rapidly becoming a reality, with many applications being deployed within industrial and consumer sectors. At the 'thing' level-devices and inter-device network communication-the core technical building blocks are generally the same as those found in wireless sensor network implementations. For the Internet of Things to continue growing, we need more plentiful resources for building intelligent devices and sensor networks. Unfortunately, current commercial devices, e.g., sensor nodes and network gateways, tend to be expensive and proprietary, which presents a barrier to entry and arguably slows down further development. There are, however, an increasing number of open embedded platforms available and also a wide selection of off-the-shelf components that can quickly and easily be built into device and network gateway solutions. The question is whether these solutions measure up to built-for-purpose devices. In the paper, we provide a comparison of existing built-for-purpose devices against open source devices. For comparison, we have also designed and rapidly prototyped a sensor node based on off-the-shelf components. We show that these devices compare favorably to built-for-purpose devices in terms of performance, power and cost. Using open platforms and off-the-shelf components would allow more developers to build intelligent devices and sensor networks, which could result in a better overall development ecosystem, lower barriers to entry and rapid growth in the number of IoT applications.

  13. Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for Ubiquitous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Asim; Seet, Boon-Chong; Ding, Zhiguo

    2018-02-08

    Ubiquitous wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have become a critical technology for enabling smart cities and other ubiquitous monitoring applications. Their deployment, however, can be seriously hampered by the spectrum available to the sheer number of sensors for communication. To support the communication needs of UWSNs without requiring more spectrum resources, the power-domain non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique originally proposed for 5th Generation (5G) cellular networks is investigated for UWSNs for the first time in this paper. However, unlike 5G networks that operate in the licensed spectrum, UWSNs mostly operate in unlicensed spectrum where sensors also experience cross-technology interferences from other devices sharing the same spectrum. In this paper, we model the interferences from various sources at the sensors using stochastic geometry framework. To evaluate the performance, we derive a theorem and present new closed form expression for the outage probability of the sensors in a downlink scenario under interference limited environment. In addition, diversity analysis for the ordered NOMA users is performed. Based on the derived outage probability, we evaluate the average link throughput and energy consumption efficiency of NOMA against conventional orthogonal multiple access (OMA) technique in UWSNs. Further, the required computational complexity for the NOMA users is presented.

  14. Clustering and Beamforming for Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel-Rodríguez, Francisco; Valenzuela-Valdés, Juan; Padilla, Pablo; Luna-Valero, Francisco; Luque-Baena, Rafael; López-Gordo, Miguel Ángel

    2016-08-20

    Energy efficiency is a critical issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as sensor nodes have limited power availability. In order to address this issue, this paper tries to maximize the power efficiency in WSNs by means of the evaluation of WSN node networks and their performance when both clustering and antenna beamforming techniques are applied. In this work, four different scenarios are defined, each one considering different numbers of sensors: 50, 20, 10, five, and two nodes per scenario, and each scenario is randomly generated thirty times in order to statistically validate the results. For each experiment, two different target directions for transmission are taken into consideration in the optimization process (φ = 0° and θ = 45°; φ = 45°, and θ = 45°). Each scenario is evaluated for two different types of antennas, an ideal isotropic antenna and a conventional dipole one. In this set of experiments two types of WSN are evaluated: in the first one, all of the sensors have the same amount of power for communications purposes; in the second one, each sensor has a different amount of power for its communications purposes. The analyzed cases in this document are focused on 2D surface and 3D space for the node location. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that beamforming and clustering are simultaneously applied to increase the network lifetime in WSNs.

  15. Game Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wan-Liang; Kwok, Ngai-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Game theory (GT) is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field. PMID:23012533

  16. Game Theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngai-Ming Kwok

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Game theory (GT is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field.

  17. Wireless Sensor/Actuator Network Design for Mobile Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youxian Sung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor/actuator networks (WSANs are emerging as a new generationof sensor networks. Serving as the backbone of control applications, WSANs will enablean unprecedented degree of distributed and mobile control. However, the unreliability ofwireless communications and the real-time requirements of control applications raise greatchallenges for WSAN design. With emphasis on the reliability issue, this paper presents anapplication-level design methodology for WSANs in mobile control applications. Thesolution is generic in that it is independent of the underlying platforms, environment,control system models, and controller design. To capture the link quality characteristics interms of packet loss rate, experiments are conducted on a real WSAN system. From theexperimental observations, a simple yet efficient method is proposed to deal withunpredictable packet loss on actuator nodes. Trace-based simulations give promisingresults, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Adaptive Information Access on Multiple Applications Support Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobgay, Sonam; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    is used for safety and security monitoring purposes. In this paper, we evaluate different access strategies to remote dynamic information and compare between achieving information reliability (mismatch probability) and the associated power consumption. Lastly, based on the models, we propose an adaptive......Accessing information remotely to dynamically changing information elements cannot be avoided and has become a required functionality for various network services. Most applications require up-to-date information which is reliable and accurate. The information reliability in terms of using correct...... information is challenged by dynamic nature of information elements. These challenges are more prominent in case of wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, as the information that the sensor node collects are mostly dynamic in nature (say, temperature). Therefore, it is likely that there can be a mismatch...

  19. Optimal Node Placement in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Felamban, M.

    2013-03-25

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are expected to play a vital role in the exploration and monitoring of underwater areas which are not easily reachable by humans. However, underwater communication via acoustic waves is subject to several performance limitations that are very different from those used for terresstrial networks. In this paper, we investigate node placement for building an initial underwater WSN infrastructure. We formulate this problem as a nonlinear mathematical program with the objective of minimizing the total transmission loss under a given number of sensor nodes and targeted coverage volume. The obtained solution is the location of each node represented via a truncated octahedron to fill out the 3D space. Experiments are conducted to verify the proposed formulation, which is solved using Matlab optimization tool. Simulation is also conducted using an ns-3 simulator, and the simulation results are consistent with the obtained results from mathematical model with less than 10% error.

  20. Using LOTOS for FormalisingWireless Sensor Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Freire Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The number of wireless sensor network (WSN applications is rapidly increasingand becoming an integral part of sensor nodes. These applications have been widely devel-oped on TinyOS operating system using the nesC programming language. However, due tothe tight integration to physical world, limited node power and resources (CPU and memoryand complexity of combining components into an application, to build such applications isnot a trivial task. In this context, we present an approach for treating with this complexityadopting a formal description technique, namely LOTOS, for formalising the WSN applica-tions‘ behaviour. The formalisation has three main benefits: better understanding on how theapplication actually works, checking of desired properties of the application‘s behaviour, andsimulation facilities. In order to illustrate the proposed approach, we apply it to two nesCtraditional applications, namely BLink and Sense.

  1. Game theory for Wireless Sensor Networks: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Wang, Wan-Liang; Kwok, Ngai-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Game theory (GT) is a mathematical method that describes the phenomenon of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers. In particular, the theory has been proven very useful in the design of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This article surveys the recent developments and findings of GT, its applications in WSNs, and provides the community a general view of this vibrant research area. We first introduce the typical formulation of GT in the WSN application domain. The roles of GT are described that include routing protocol design, topology control, power control and energy saving, packet forwarding, data collection, spectrum allocation, bandwidth allocation, quality of service control, coverage optimization, WSN security, and other sensor management tasks. Then, three variations of game theory are described, namely, the cooperative, non-cooperative, and repeated schemes. Finally, existing problems and future trends are identified for researchers and engineers in the field.

  2. Event-triggered cooperative target tracking in wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kelin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the issues of low communication bandwidth supply and limited battery capacity are very crucial for wireless sensor networks, this paper focuses on the problem of event-triggered cooperative target tracking based on set-membership information filtering. We study some fundamental properties of the set-membership information filter with multiple sensor measurements. First, a sufficient condition is derived for the set-membership information filter, under which the boundedness of the outer ellipsoidal approximation set of the estimation means is guaranteed. Second, the equivalence property between the parallel and sequential versions of the set-membership information filter is presented. Finally, the results are applied to a 1D event-triggered target tracking scenario in which the negative information is exploited in the sense that the measurements that do not satisfy the triggering conditions are modelled as set-membership measurements. The tracking performance of the proposed method is validated with extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

  4. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent......-head as the next hop for delivering the messages or to send the data to the base station directly, using Dijkstra algorithm to compute an optimal path. The performance of LEICP is compared with that of LEACH. Simulation results demonstrate that LEICP can prolong the lifetime of the sensor network by about 62...... clustering protocol), an improvement of the LEACH protocol is proposed to overcome the shortcomings of LEACH. LEICP aims at balancing the energy consumption in every cluster and prolonging the network lifetime. A fitness function is defined to balance the energy consumption in every cluster according...

  5. WIRELESS SENSOR SYSTEM FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF SMART SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez-Ayala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and application of a smart sensor system based in wireless communication protocol, which was developed with the main objective of facilitate the implementation of smart places, whereby monitoring and supervision of environmental physical variables in a residence or commercial buildings. Based in this system, we want to co-help taking advantage and save electric energy, optimizing the use of the lighting systems and air conditioner only in the schedules and under pre-established conditions for the final user. The system is based in a variety of nodes o modules of sensors like temperature, humidity, light, carbon monoxide, noise and LP gas which have the ability to work collaboratively in networks with topologies like star, tree and mesh.

  6. Data Collection using Miniature Aerial Vehicles in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    Energy constraints of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a major challenge and minimising the overall data transmitted across a network using data aggregation, distributed source coding, and compressive sensing have been proposed as mechanisms for energy saving. Similarly, use...... of mobile nodes capable of relocating within the network has been widely explored for energy saving. In this paper, we propose a novel method for using miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs) for data collection instead of actively sensing from a deployed network. The proposed mechanism is referred as Data...... Collection Fly (DCFly). It is suitable for data collection from WSNs deployed in harsh-undulating terrain with the base station (BS) located far from the sensing region. The DCFly is compared with data collection based on multi-hop data aggregation and data collection with mobile sinks. The numerical results...

  7. Development of novel wireless sensor for food quality detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Nguyen, Dat; Ngan Le, Nguyen; Phat Lam, Tan; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric; Chien Dang, Mau; Tedjini, Smail

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a wireless sensor for the monitoring of food quality. We integrate sensing capability into ultrahigh frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags through the relationship between the physical read-range and permittivity of the object we label with the RFID tags. Using the known variations of food permittivity as a function of time, we can detect the contamination time at which a food product becomes unacceptable for consumption based on the measurement of read-range with the as-designed sensing tags. This low-cost UHF RFID passive sensor was designed and experimentally tested on beef, pork, and cheese with the same storage conditions as in supermarkets. The agreement between the experimental and simulation results show the potential of this technique for practical application in food-quality tracking.

  8. A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring Node of the Physiological Signals for Unrestrained Dairy Cattle Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihai; Zhang, Changli; Fang, Junlong; Fan, Yongcun

    A newly developed smart sensor node that can monitor physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle is designed through modular design and its advantages are compact structure and small volume. This sensor node is based on a MSP430F133 micro-controller; the digital sensor includes temperature sensor (DS18B20-America) and vibration-displacement sensor (DN series China); transmission of the digital data uses the nRF903. The results show that this node can collect physiological signals for unrestrained dairy cattle and then send it to upper network node. This research can provide better hardware platform for further researching the communication protocols of wireless sensor networks.

  9. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  10. Simulation of Attacks for Security in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alvaro; Sanchez, Pablo

    2016-11-18

    The increasing complexity and low-power constraints of current Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) require efficient methodologies for network simulation and embedded software performance analysis of nodes. In addition, security is also a very important feature that has to be addressed in most WSNs, since they may work with sensitive data and operate in hostile unattended environments. In this paper, a methodology for security analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks is presented. The methodology allows designing attack-aware embedded software/firmware or attack countermeasures to provide security in WSNs. The proposed methodology includes attacker modeling and attack simulation with performance analysis (node's software execution time and power consumption estimation). After an analysis of different WSN attack types, an attacker model is proposed. This model defines three different types of attackers that can emulate most WSN attacks. In addition, this paper presents a virtual platform that is able to model the node hardware, embedded software and basic wireless channel features. This virtual simulation analyzes the embedded software behavior and node power consumption while it takes into account the network deployment and topology. Additionally, this simulator integrates the previously mentioned attacker model. Thus, the impact of attacks on power consumption and software behavior/execution-time can be analyzed. This provides developers with essential information about the effects that one or multiple attacks could have on the network, helping them to develop more secure WSN systems. This WSN attack simulator is an essential element of the attack-aware embedded software development methodology that is also introduced in this work.

  11. RUASN: A Robust User Authentication Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been considered as a potential solution for real-time monitoring applications and these WSNs have potential practical impact on next generation technology too. However, WSNs could become a threat if suitable security is not considered before the deployment and if there are any loopholes in their security, which might open the door for an attacker and hence, endanger the application. User authentication is one of the most important security services to protect WSN data access from unauthorized users; it should provide both mutual authentication and session key establishment services. This paper proposes a robust user authentication framework for wireless sensor networks, based on a two-factor (password and smart card concept. This scheme facilitates many services to the users such as user anonymity, mutual authentication, secure session key establishment and it allows users to choose/update their password regularly, whenever needed. Furthermore, we have provided the formal verification using Rubin logic and compare RUASN with many existing schemes. As a result, we found that the proposed scheme possesses many advantages against popular attacks, and achieves better efficiency at low computation cost.

  12. A Practical Solution for Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COCA, E.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization in wireless sensor node networks is a hot topic. Many papers present various software algorithms and hardware solutions to keep accurate time information on mobile nodes. In terms of real life applications wireless sensor nodes are preferred in many domains, starting with simple room monitoring and finishing with pipeline surveillance projects. Positioning applications are far more restrictive on timekeeping accuracy, as for the velocity of nodes calculations precise time or time difference values are needed. The accuracy of time information on nodes has to be always correlated with the application requirements. In this paper, we present some considerations regarding time synchronization linked with specific needs for individual practical applications. A practical low energy method of time keeping at node level is proposed and tested. The performances of the proposed solution in terms of short and long term stability and energy requirements are analyzed and compared with existing solutions. Simulation and experimental results, some advantages and disadvantages of the method are presented at the end of the paper.

  13. An overview of data routing approaches for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Razak, Shukor Abd; Ngadi, Md Asri

    2012-03-27

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in deploying large populations of microsensors that collaborate in a distributed manner to gather and process sensory data and deliver them to a sink node through wireless communications systems. Currently, there is a lot of interest in data routing for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to their unique challenges compared to conventional routing in wired networks. In WSNs, each data routing approach follows a specific goal (goals) according to the application. Although the general goal of every data routing approach in WSNs is to extend the network lifetime and every approach should be aware of the energy level of the nodes, data routing approaches may focus on one (or some) specific goal(s) depending on the application. Thus, existing approaches can be categorized according to their routing goals. In this paper, the main goals of data routing approaches in sensor networks are described. Then, the best known and most recent data routing approaches in WSNs are classified and studied according to their specific goals.

  14. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Xiaoping; Maag, Stephane; Tan, Hwee-Xian; Tan, Hwee-Pink; Zhou, Zhangbing

    2015-11-19

    Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  15. Data-Centric Routing for Intra Wireless Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2015-09-01

    A significant proportion of the worldwide population is of the elderly people living with chronic diseases that result in high health-care cost. To provide continuous health monitoring with minimal health-care cost, Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) has been recently emerged as a promising technology. Depending on nature of sensory data, WBSNs might require a high level of Quality of Service (QoS) both in terms of delay and reliability during data reporting phase. In this paper, we propose a data-centric routing for intra WBSNs that adapts the routing strategy in accordance with the nature of data, temperature rise issue of the implanted bio-medical sensors due to electromagnetic wave absorption, and high and dynamic path loss caused by postural movement of human body and in-body wireless communication. We consider the network models both with and without relay nodes in our simulations. Due to the multi-facet routing strategy, the proposed data-centric routing achieves better performance in terms of delay, reliability, temperature rise, and energy consumption when compared with other state-of-the-art.

  16. A Compression Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks of Bearing Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Bin; Meng Qingfeng; Wang Nan [Theory of Lubrication and Bearing Institute, Xi' an Jiaotong University Xi' an, 710049 (China); Li Zhi, E-mail: rthree.zhengbin@stu.xjtu.edu.cn [Dalian Machine Tool Group Corp. Dalian, 116620 (China)

    2011-07-19

    The energy consumption of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is always an important problem in the application of wireless sensor networks. This paper proposes a data compression algorithm to reduce amount of data and energy consumption during the data transmission process in the on-line WSNs-based bearing monitoring system. The proposed compression algorithm is based on lifting wavelets, Zerotree coding and Hoffman coding. Among of that, 5/3 lifting wavelets is used for dividing data into different frequency bands to extract signal characteristics. Zerotree coding is applied to calculate the dynamic thresholds to retain the attribute data. The attribute data are then encoded by Hoffman coding to further enhance the compression ratio. In order to validate the algorithm, simulation is carried out by using Matlab. The result of simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is very suitable for the compression of bearing monitoring data. The algorithm has been successfully used in online WSNs-based bearing monitoring system, in which TI DSP TMS320F2812 is used to realize the algorithm.

  17. Congestion Detection and Alleviation in Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Chughtai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple traffic flows in a dense environment of a mono-sink wireless sensor network (WSN experience congestion that leads to excessive energy consumption and severe packet loss. To address this problem, a Congestion Detection and Alleviation (CDA mechanism has been proposed. CDA exploits the features and the characteristics of the sensor nodes and the wireless links between them to detect and alleviate node- and link-level congestion. Node-level congestion is detected by examining the buffer utilisation and the interval between the consecutive data packets. However, link-level congestion is detected through a novel procedure by determining link utilisation using back-off stage of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA. CDA alleviates congestion reactively by either rerouting the data traffic to a new less congested, more energy-efficient route or bypassing the affected node/link through ripple-based search. The simulation analysis performed in ns-2.35 evaluates CDA with Congestion Avoidance through Fairness (CAF and with No Congestion Control (NOCC protocols. The analysis shows that CDA improves packet delivery ratio by 33% as compared to CAF and 54% as compared to NOCC. CDA also shows an improvement in throughput by 16% as compared to CAF and 36% as compared to NOCC. Additionally, it reduces End-To-End delay by 17% as compared to CAF and 38% as compared to NOCC.

  18. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jaegeun; Jung, Im Y; Yoo, Jaesoo

    2017-04-02

    Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN) have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP), the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  19. Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Signal Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegeun Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Various wireless technologies, such as RF, Bluetooth, and Zigbee, have been applied to sensor communications. However, the applications of Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks (WSN have a security issue. In one pairing process during Bluetooth communication, which is known as simple secure pairing (SSP, the devices are required to specify I/O capability or user interference to prevent man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks. This study proposes an enhanced SSP in which a nonce to be transferred is converted to a corresponding signal interval. The quantization level, which is used to interpret physical signal intervals, is renewed at every connection by the transferred nonce and applied to the next nonce exchange so that the same signal intervals can represent different numbers. Even if attackers eavesdrop on the signals, they cannot understand what is being transferred because they cannot determine the quantization level. Furthermore, the proposed model does not require exchanging passkeys as data, and the devices are secure in the case of using a fixed PIN. Subsequently, the new quantization level is calculated automatically whenever the same devices attempt to connect with each other. Therefore, the pairing process can be protected from MITM attacks and be convenient for users.

  20. Wireless sensor networks: A survey on monitoring water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mompoloki Pule

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases related to poor water and sanitation conditions have over 200 million cases reported annually, causing 5–10 million deaths world-wide. Water quality monitoring has thus become essential to the supply of clean and safe water. Conventional monitoring processes involve manual collection of samples from various points in the distribution network, followed by laboratory testing and analysis. This process has proved to be ineffective since it is laborious, time consuming and lacks real-time results to promote proactive response to water contamination. Wireless sensor networks (WSN have since been considered a promising alternative to complement conventional monitoring processes. These networks are relatively affordable and allow measurements to be taken remotely, in real-time and with minimal human intervention. This work surveys the application of WSN in environmental monitoring, with particular emphasis on water quality. Various WSN based water quality monitoring methods suggested by other authors are studied and analyzed, taking into account their coverage, energy and security concerns. The work also compares and evaluates sensor node architectures proposed the various authors in terms of monitored parameters, microcontroller/microprocessor units (MCU and wireless communication standards adopted, localization, data security implementation, power supply architectures, autonomy and potential application scenarios.