WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless link icon

  1. Impact of wireless link quality across communication layers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, wireless networks are used in most of the applications with radio technologies being used in all kinds of wireless networks. In all wireless links, the transmitted packets can be lost. How to identify the quality of a certain wireless link and achieve the best delivery performance over a certain wireless network is an open issue. In this thesis, the performance of wireless mesh network, wireless sensor network and cellular network have been investigated by the method of measurements...

  2. Impact of wireless link quality across communication layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, wireless networks are used in most of the applications with radio technologies being used in all kinds of wireless networks. In all wireless links, the transmitted packets can be lost. How to identify the quality of a certain wireless link and achieve the best delivery performance over a

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Feedback Control of a Hovercraft over a Wireless Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Title of thesis : FEEDBACK CONTROL OF A HOVERCRAFT OVER A WIRELESS LINK Zachary Kulis, Master of Science, 2006 Dissertation directed by...to agree nicely. FEEDBACK CONTROL OF A HOVERCRAFT OVER A WIRELESS LINK by Zachary Kulis Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the...stable position and heading tracking control law for a surface vessel. In this thesis , we explore nonlinear control of a hovercraft over a Bluetooth

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  6. Radio link quality estimation in low-power wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.

  7. TULIP: A Link-Level Protocol for Improving TCP over Wireless Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Christina; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    1999-01-01

    We present the transport unaware link improvement protocol (TULIP), which dramatically improves the performance of TCP over lossy wireless links, without competing with or modifying the transport- or network-layer protocols...

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  9. Quantum-classical access networks with embedded optical wireless links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmabrok, Osama; Ghalaii, Masoud; Razavi, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    We examine the applicability of wireless indoor quantum key distribution (QKD) in hybrid quantum-classical networks. We propose practical configurations that would enable wireless access to such networks. The proposed setups would allow an indoor wireless user, equipped with a QKD-enabled mobile device, to communicate securely with a remote party on the other end of the access network. QKD signals, sent through wireless indoor channels, are combined with classical ones and sent over shared fiber links to the remote user. Dense wavelengthdivision multiplexing would enable the simultaneous transmission of quantum and classical signals over the same fiber. We consider the adverse effects of the background noise induced by Raman scattered light on the QKD receivers due to such an integration. In addition, we consider the loss and the background noise that arise from indoor environments. We consider a number of discrete and continuous-variable QKD protocols and study their performance in different scenarios.

  10. Radial transfer of tracking data with wireless links

    CERN Document Server

    Pelikan, Daniel; Brenner, Richard; Dancila, Dragos; Gustafsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Wireless data transfer has revolutionized the consumer mar ket for the last decade giving products equipped with transmitters and receiver for wireless data t ransfer. Wireless technology has fea- tures attractive for data transfer in future tracking detec tors. The removal of wires and connectors for data links is certainly beneficial both for the material b udget and the reliability of the system. One other advantage is the freedom of routing signals which t oday is particularly complicated when bringing the data the first 50 cm outside the tracker. Wit h wireless links intelligence can be built into a tracker by introducing communication betwee n tracking layers within a Region Of Interest which would allow the construction of track primit ives in real time. The wireless signal is transmitted by a passive antenna structure which is a radiat ion hard and much less complex object than an optical link. Due to the requirement of high data rate s in detectors a high bandwidth is required. The frequency band aro...

  11. Wireless communication link for capsule endoscope at 600 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, A; Balasingham, I

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of a wireless communication link for a capsule endoscopy is presented for monitoring of small intestine in humans. The realized communication link includes the transmitting capsule antenna, the outside body receiving antenna and the model of the human body. The capsule antenna is designed for operating at the frequency band of 600 MHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10 MHz and omnidirectional radiation pattern. The quality of the communication link is improved by using directive antenna outside body inside matching layer for electromagnetic wave tuning to the body. The outside body antenna has circular polarization that guaranteeing the communication link for different orientations of the capsule inside intestine. It is shown that the path loss for the capsule in 60 mm from the abdomen surface varies between 37-47 dB in relation to the antenna orientation. This link can establish high data rate wireless communications for capsule endoscopy.

  12. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1 achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2 greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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  14. TCP with header checksum option for wireless links: An analytical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TCP was designed for wired networks, where packet losses are mainly due to congestion. In today's world, more and more people use their mobile devices to access the Internet either for work or entertainment, where TCP runs over wireless links and is subjected to more corruption losses as compared to congestion losses.

  15. Link-Quality Measurement and Reporting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungjo Choi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs are created by small hardware devices that possess the necessary functionalities to measure and exchange a variety of environmental data in their deployment setting. In this paper, we discuss the experiments in deploying a testbed as a first step towards creating a fully functional heterogeneous wireless network-based underground monitoring system. The system is mainly composed of mobile and static ZigBee nodes, which are deployed on the underground mine galleries for measuring ambient temperature. In addition, we describe the measured results of link characteristics such as received signal strength, latency and throughput for different scenarios.

  16. Optical wireless links with enhanced linearity and selectivity [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Roger J.; Sweet, C.; Idrus, S.

    2005-10-01

    Optical wireless is an attractive medium as an alternative to optical fiber communications, and also to RF, because of its high bandwidth and relative ease of use, especially when it comes to deployment in new physical situations. We describe an optical wireless link approach that offers a performance that gives analog transmission with significantly reduced distortion levels and enhanced reception sensitivity by combining a novel hybrid detector-amplifier technique. Reduction of distortion by 40 dB and improvement in sensitivity of 20-30 dB is possible, using the techniques described.

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

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  18. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  19. A Millimeter-Wave Digital Link for Wireless MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kamal; Joshi, Kiran R; Rajavi, Yashar; Taghivand, Mazhareddin; Pauly, John M; Poon, Ada S Y; Scott, Greig

    2017-02-01

    A millimeter (mm) wave radio is presented in this work to support wireless MRI data transmission. High path loss and availability of wide bandwidth make mm-waves an ideal candidate for short range, high data rata communication required for wireless MRI. The proposed system uses a custom designed integrated chip (IC) mm-wave radio with 60 GHz as radio frequency carrier. In this work, we assess performance in a 1.5 T MRI field, with the addition of optical links between the console room and magnet. The system uses ON-OFF keying (OOK) modulation for data transmission and supports data rates from 200 Mb/s to 2.5 Gb/s for distances up-to 65 cm. The presence of highly directional, linearly polarized, on-chip dipole antennas on the mm-wave radio along with the time division multiplexing (TDM) circuitry allows multiple wireless links to be created simultaneously with minimal inter-channel interference. This leads to a highly scalable solution for wireless MRI.

  20. Achievable qualitative parameters of optical wireless links

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolka, Z.; Wilfert, O.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2007), s. 2419-2423 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Free-space optical link * Transmission of atmosphere * Optical communication Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007 http://inoe.inoe.ro/joam/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=838&catid=16

  1. Fully Photonic Wireless Link for Transmission of Synchronization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wilfert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and increasing demand of business tools for high-speed communications supports the request for optical communications in free space. Copper cables and related technologies such as cable modems and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL are common in existing networks, but do not meet the bandwidth requirement in the future, which opens the door to optical wireless communication technologies. Research in links for optical wireless communication (Infra Red Line of Sight, IR LOS working in the atmosphere is due to the wide support of its development on the world market. Optical wireless communications research is currently focused on increasing the transmission quality of data links. A promising new trend in data connection through IR LOS includes the transfer of accurate time synchronization pulses (time transmission. The article presents problems of modeling and design of a transmitter and receiver with a fully photonic concept. The analysis of the power levels at the link and drawn a model for determining the connection losses at the receiver caused by optical coupling between a Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope and the receiving optical fiber is shown.

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  13. Deflating link buffers in a wireless mesh network

    KAUST Repository

    Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the problem of buffer sizing for backlogged TCP flows in 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. Our objective is to maintain high network utilization while providing low queueing delays. Unlike wired networks where a single link buffer feeds a bottleneck link, the radio spectral resource in a mesh network is shared among a set of contending mesh routers. We account for this by formulating the buffer size problem as sizing a collective buffer distributed over a set of interfering nodes. In this paper we propose mechanisms for sizing and distributing this collective buffer among the mesh nodes constituting the network bottleneck. Our mechanism factors in the network topology and wireless link rates, improving on pre-set buffer allocations that cannot optimally work across the range of configurations achievable with 802.11 radios. We evaluate our mechanisms using simulations as well as experiments on a testbed. Our results show that we can reduce the RTT of a flow by 6× or more, at the cost of less than 10% drop in end-to-end flow throughput.

  14. Microwave Photonics Techniques Supporting Flexible Wireless Communications Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    constrains. Microwave photonic techniques support a number of key functionalities required to satisfy above-mentioned demands. We will review, in particular, experimental realizations of a number of functionalities such as mmw generation, detection, optical fiber transport and multi-Gigabit data transmission......Wireless data communication links supporting the next generation 5G and beyond mobile networking face a set of engineering challenges related to the mandatory operation at mmw and higher frequency bands, provide capacities above 10 Gb/s, satisfy latency, robustness, flexibility and low complexity...

  15. Capacity Limit, Link Scheduling and Power Control in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advancement of wireless technology has instigated the broad deployment of wireless networks. Different types of networks have been developed, including wireless sensor networks, mobile ad hoc networks, wireless local area networks, and cellular networks. These networks have different structures and applications, and require different…

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  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Echiniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=58 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cucumis_S.png Beroe_cucumis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucum...is&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=30 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Papilio_xuthus_S.png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuth...us&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=123 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Ardea_cinerea_S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cine...rea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=2 ...

  9. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  10. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  11. E- and W-band high-capacity hybrid fiber-wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    with transmission over different type of optical fibers and for a number of values for the wireless link distance. Hybrid wireless-optical links can be composed of mature and resilient technology available off-the-shelf, and provide functionalities that can add value to optical access networks, specifically...

  12. Frequency-division multiplexer and demultiplexer for terahertz wireless links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Karl, Nicholas J; Bretin, Sara; Ducournau, Guillaume; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2017-09-28

    The development of components for terahertz wireless communications networks has become an active and growing research field. However, in most cases these components have been studied using a continuous or broadband-pulsed terahertz source, not using a modulated data stream. This limitation may mask important aspects of the performance of the device in a realistic system configuration. We report the characterization of one such device, a frequency multiplexer, using modulated data at rates up to 10 gigabits per second. We also demonstrate simultaneous error-free transmission of two signals at different carrier frequencies, with an aggregate data rate of 50 gigabits per second. We observe that the far-field spatial variation of the bit error rate is different from that of the emitted power, due to a small nonuniformity in the angular detection sensitivity. This is likely to be a common feature of any terahertz communication system in which signals propagate as diffracting beams not omnidirectional broadcasts.There is growing interest in the development of components to facilitate wireless communications in the terahertz but the characterization of these systems involve an unmodulated input. Here the authors demonstrate multiplexing and demultiplexing of data streams in the terahertz range using a real data link.

  13. Wireless, Passive Encoded Saw Sensors and Communication Links - Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a complete, wireless remote sensing solution using passive SAW Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) sensors and a wireless interrogation...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: oriental silverfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oriental silverfish Ctenolepisma villosa Arthropoda Ctenolepisma_villosa_L.png Ctenolepisma_villosa..._NL.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_S.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aquilegia formosa [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia_formosa_L.png Aquilegia_formosa_NL.png Aquileg...ia_formosa_S.png Aquilegia_formosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegi...a+formosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic hagfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Myxine_glutinosa_NL.png Myxine_glutinosa_S.png Myxine_glutinosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Eastern Gorilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Gorilla_beringei_L.png Gorilla_beringei_NL.png Gorilla_beringei_S.png Gorilla_beringei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=...Gorilla+beringei&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+be...ringei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drillus_sphinx_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...andrillus+sphinx&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus...+sphinx&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la_melanogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosop...hila+melanogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophil...a+melanogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: sea urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotus_lividus_NL.png Paracentrotus_lividus_S.png Paracentrotus_lividus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+...lividus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+livid...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _L.png Casuarius_casuarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuari...us+casuarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casu...arius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: maize [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available maize Zea mays Zea_mays_L.png Zea_mays_NL.png Zea_mays_S.png Zea_mays_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea...+mays&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: rainbow trout [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ss_L.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NL.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_S.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncor...hynchus+mykiss&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus...+mykiss&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: reindeer [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Rangifer_tarandus_L.png Rangifer_tarandus_NL.png Rangifer_tarandus_S.png Rangifer_tarandus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangi...fer+tarandus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_clementina_S.png Citrus_clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementi...na&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Solanum_lycopersicum_S.png Solanum_lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sola...num+lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: wapiti [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cervus_canadensis_L.png Cervus_canadensis_NL.png Cervus_canadensis_S.png Cervus_canadensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+...canadensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+no...rvegicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available harias_L.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_S.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aardvark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opus_afer_L.png Orycteropus_afer_NL.png Orycteropus_afer_S.png Orycteropus_afer_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropu...s+afer&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Populus_tremuloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Po...pulus+tremuloides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Capra_aegagrus_L.png Capra_aegagrus_NL.png Capra_aegagrus_S.png Capra_aegagrus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagru...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Arabidopsis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i...=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Lama+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available illardia_theta_S.png Guillardia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+the...ta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=60 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese skink [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utatus_L.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NL.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_S.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eum...eces+latiscutatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Saccharum_officinarum_S.png Saccharum_officinarum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: turkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Papilio_polytes_S.png Papilio_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+pol...ytes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=80 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sum_NL.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.c...gi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Medicago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Med...icago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gaea_S.png Arachis_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ar...achis+hypogaea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=207 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: emperor penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NL.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_S.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apte...nodytes+forsteri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodyte...s+forsteri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese weasel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ra Mustela_itatsi_L.png Mustela_itatsi_NL.png Mustela_itatsi_S.png Mustela_itatsi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+it...atsi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aegilops speltoides [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_NL.png Aegilops_speltoides_S.png Aegilops_speltoides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pan_paniscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Lotus_corniculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lo...tus+corniculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: dugong [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Dugong_dugon_NL.png Dugong_dugon_S.png Dugong_dugon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: phylum Xenoturbellida [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phylum Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella bocki Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella_bocki_L.png Xenoturbell...a_bocki_NL.png Xenoturbella_bocki_S.png Xenoturbella_bocki_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorghum_bicolor..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia_coli_L.png Escherichia_coli_NL.png Escherichia..._coli_S.png Escherichia_coli_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+co...li&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  17. Experimental Performance Analysis of Wireless Links for Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless networking is currently being deployed for various applications. However, the application of wireless networking in healthcare remains a challenge mainly because of security and reliability concerns. This paper presents experimental results of performance analysis of a wireless network for healthcare application ...

  18. Outdoor W-Band Hybrid Photonic Wireless Link Based on an Optical SFP+ Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Chorchos, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    This letter proposes aW-band hybrid photonic wireless link based on a commercial SFP+ module and experimentally demonstrates its performance. Using a free running laser as local oscillator and heterodyne photonic upconversion, good frequency stability is achieved. Outdoor wireless transmission over...... 225m with a BER below 10-6 is demonstrated and the maximum reach of the system with typical RF components is calculated, finding wireless distances above 2km to be feasible. Being based on a commercial SFP+ the proposed hybrid photonic wireless link offers seamless integration with existing...

  19. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  20. mm-Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for Ultra-High Speed Wireless Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Large FCC spectrum allocations for wireless transmission...

  1. Low complexity source and channel coding for mm-wave hybrid fiber-wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Pang, Xiaodan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the performance of channel and source coding applied for an experimentally realized hybrid fiber-wireless W-band link. Error control coding performance is presented for a wireless propagation distance of 3 m and 20 km fiber transmission. We report on peak signal-to-noise ratio perfor...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchen...sis_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: brown bear [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_arctos_L.png Ursus_arctos_NL.png Ursus_arctos_S.png Ursus_arctos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sympetrum frequens [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _frequens_NL.png Sympetrum_frequens_S.png Sympetrum_frequens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available annuum_S.png Capsicum_annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: moose [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lces_L.png Alces_alces_NL.png Alces_alces_S.png Alces_alces_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _salar_NL.png Salmo_salar_S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+sa...lar&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NS ...

  9. Impact of Various Parameters on the Performance of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems also known as Free space optics (FSO) are capable of providing high channel bandwidth, high data transmission rates, low power consumption, and high security. OWC links are being considered in different applications such as inter-satellite links, terrestrial links, and inter-aircraft communication links. This paper investigates the impact of different system parameters such as transmission power level, operating wavelength, transmitter pointing error angle, bit transmission rate, atmospheric attenuation, antenna aperture diameter, geometric losses, the responsivity of the photodetector, and link range on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication link.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia_jap...onica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistosoma_jap...onicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+jap...onicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+jap...onicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_ham...adryas_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+ham...adryas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=186 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: spotted seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oca_largha_L.png Phoca_largha_NL.png Phoca_largha_S.png Phoca_largha_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=66 ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: house mouse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulus_L.png Mus_musculus_NL.png Mus_musculus_S.png Mus_musculus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=146 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: sheep [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_L.png Ovis_aries_NL.png Ovis_aries_S.png Ovis_aries_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ovis+aries&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=156 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: chinese pangolin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Mani...s_pentadactyla_L.png Manis_pentadactyla_NL.png Manis_pentadactyla_S.png Manis_pentadactyla_NS.png htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mani...s+pentadactyla&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mani...s+pentadactyla&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=190 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian lungfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=NS ... ...dus_forsteri_L.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_NL.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_S.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchill...a_lanigera_L.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla_lanigera_S.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NS.png http...://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapi...a_johnstoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapi...a+johnstoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_mulatta_L.png Maca...ca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Maca...ca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusc...ata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus_familia...ris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Human [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_L.png Homo_sapiens_NL.png Homo_sapiens_S.png Homo_sapiens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=157 ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ail...uropoda_melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: blue whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blue whale Balaenoptera musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Balaenoptera..._musculus_L.png Balaenoptera_musculus_NL.png Balaenoptera_musculus_S.png Balaenoptera_musculu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  13. Performance prediction of a synchronization link for distributed aerospace wireless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin; Shao, Huaizong

    2013-01-01

    For reasons of stealth and other operational advantages, distributed aerospace wireless systems have received much attention in recent years. In a distributed aerospace wireless system, since the transmitter and receiver placed on separated platforms which use independent master oscillators, there is no cancellation of low-frequency phase noise as in the monostatic cases. Thus, high accurate time and frequency synchronization techniques are required for distributed wireless systems. The use of a dedicated synchronization link to quantify and compensate oscillator frequency instability is investigated in this paper. With the mathematical statistical models of phase noise, closed-form analytic expressions for the synchronization link performance are derived. The possible error contributions including oscillator, phase-locked loop, and receiver noise are quantified. The link synchronization performance is predicted by utilizing the knowledge of the statistical models, system error contributions, and sampling considerations. Simulation results show that effective synchronization error compensation can be achieved by using this dedicated synchronization link.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: platypus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Prototheria Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_L.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NL.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_S.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: horse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available horse Equus caballus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Equus_caballus_L.png Equus_caball...us_NL.png Equus_caballus_S.png Equus_caballus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NS ...

  16. Wireless Mobile Computing and its Links to Descriptive Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří; Pardubská, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2008), s. 887-913 ISSN 0129-0541 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : alternating Turing machine * simulation * simultaneous time-space complexity * wireless parallel Turing machine Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2008

  17. Imaging and steering an optical wireless nanoantenna link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregely, Daniel; Lindfors, Klas; Lippitz, Markus; Engheta, Nader; Totzeck, Michael; Giessen, Harald

    2014-07-04

    Optical nanoantennas tailor the transmission and reception of optical signals. Owing to their capacity to control the direction and angular distribution of optical radiation over a broad spectral range, nanoantennas are promising components for optical communication in nanocircuits. Here we measure wireless optical power transfer between plasmonic nanoantennas in the far-field and demonstrate changeable signal routing to different nanoscopic receivers via beamsteering. We image the radiation pattern of single-optical nanoantennas using a photoluminescence technique, which allows mapping of the unperturbed intensity distribution around plasmonic structures. We quantify the distance dependence of the power transmission between transmitter and receiver by deterministically positioning nanoscopic fluorescent receivers around the transmitting nanoantenna. By adjusting the wavefront of the optical field incident on the transmitter, we achieve directional control of the transmitted radiation over a broad range of 29°. This enables wireless power transfer from one transmitter to different receivers.

  18. IO-Link Wireless enhanced factory automation communication for Industry 4.0 applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heynicke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the Industry 4.0 initiative, Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS or Cyber Manufacturing Systems (CMS can be characterized as advanced networked mechatronic production systems gaining their added value by interaction with the ambient Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT. In this context appropriate communication technologies and standards play a vital role to realize the manifold potential improvements in the production process. One of these standards is IO-Link. In 2016 more than 5 million IO-Link nodes have been produced and delivered, still gaining increasing acceptance for the communication between sensors, actuators and the control level. The steadily increasing demand for more flexibility in automation solutions can be fulfilled using wireless technologies. With the wireless extension for the IO-Link standard, which will be presented in this article, maximum cycle times of 5 ms can be achieved with a probability that this limit will be exceeded to be at maximum one part per billion. Also roaming capabilities, wireless coexistence mechanisms and the possibility to include battery-powered or energy-harvesting sensors with very limited energy resources in the realtime network were defined. For system planning, setup, operation and maintenance, the standard engineering tools of IO-Link can be employed so that the backward compatibility with wired IO-Link solutions can be guaranteed. Interoperability between manufacturers is a key requirement for any communication standard, thus a procedure for IO-Link Wireless testing is also suggested.

  19. Enhanced Performance Analysis of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link Using Array of Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of various parameters on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication (IaOWC) link. Also, an improved performance analysis of a 2.5 Gbps IaOWC link using an array of photodetectors at the receiver terminal has been reported. The results show an increase in the SNR and total power of the received signal at a link distance of 100 km by deploying a photodetector array at the receiver terminal.

  20. Iconics: Icon Evolution in Digitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Thompson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation, archiving, and sharing are all critical technological aspects of Western culture and postmodern civilization. Consequently, creation, identification, dissemination, and proliferation of powerful images across media channels today indicate a burgeoning area of information technology. While words alone are capable of conveying adequate information across media channels, the news industry crafts around the dual enterprise of both word and image. Audio-visual supports of these communication devices constituting new media are standard means of rhetorical expressions in acquiring and sharing information in daily life. Overwhelming sensory experiences associated with broadcast media ensure that neither 1 time to study individual factors that render media as iconic, nor 2 interest in interpretation of such dynamics prior to public release. That leads to deeper issues of access, privilege, and motive, yet only through serious scholarly inquiry can we gain understanding of rhetorical roots and expressions of the diverse entities producing media that eventually becomes iconic.

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: three-spined stickleback [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  3. Invited Article: Channel performance for indoor and outdoor terahertz wireless links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianjun; Shrestha, Rabi; Moeller, Lothar; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most exciting future applications of terahertz technology is in the area of wireless communications. As 5G systems incorporating a standard for millimeter-wave wireless links approach commercial roll-out, it is becoming clear that even this new infrastructure will not be sufficient to keep pace with the rapidly increasing global demand for bandwidth. One favorable solution that is attracting increasing attention for subsequent generations of wireless technology is to use higher frequencies, above 100 GHz. The implementation of such links will require significant advances in hardware, algorithms, and architecture. Although numerous research groups are exploring aspects of this challenging problem, many basic questions remain unaddressed. Here, we present an experimental effort to characterize THz wireless links in both indoor and outdoor environments. We report measurements at 100, 200, 300, and 400 GHz, using a link with a data rate of 1 Gbit/s. We demonstrate both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight (specular reflection) links off of interior building walls. This work represents a first step to establish the feasibility of using THz carrier waves for data transmission in diverse situations and environments.

  4. Wireless communication links for brain-machine interface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent technological developments have given neuroscientists direct access to neural signals in real time, with the accompanying ability to decode the resulting information and control various prosthetic devices and gain insight into deeper aspects of cognition. These developments - along with deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease and the possible use of electro-stimulation for other maladies - leads to the conclusion that the widespread use electronic brain interface technology is a long term possibility. This talk will summarize the various technical challenges and approaches that have been developed to wirelessly communicate with the brain, including technology constraints, dc power limits, compression and data rate issues.

  5. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, Tomasz; Lynggaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireless...... sensors in the fields far from the farms provide some challenges in terms of transmit power, path loss, and lack of power. This paper explores the possibility to deploy an efficient low power adaptable wireless link which interfaces the Internet of Things infrastructure located on the farm. This new...... adaptable link element offers many benefits such as adaptable transmit time, powered from a sustainable source, and a variable size payload based on the farmers need....

  6. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, tomasz; Lynggaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireless...... sensors in the fields far from the farms provide some challenges in terms of transmit power, path loss, and lack of power. This paper explores the possibility to deploy an efficient low power adaptable wireless link which interfaces the Internet of Things infrastructure located on the farm. This new...... adaptable link element offers many benefits such as adaptable transmit time, powered from a sustainable source, and a variable size payload based on the farmers need....

  7. 28 GHz Wireless Backhaul Transceiver Characterization and Radio Link Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko E. Leinonen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave communication is one of the main disruptive technologies in upcoming 5G mobile networks. One of the first candidate applications, which will be commercially ready by 2020, is wireless backhaul links or wireless last mile communication. This paper provides an analysis of this use‐case from radio engineering and implementation perspectives. Furthermore, preliminary experimental results are shown for a proof‐of‐concept wireless backhaul solution developed within the EU‐KR 5GCHAMPION project, which will be showcased during the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in Korea. In this paper, we verify system level calculations and a theoretical link budget analysis with conductive and radiated over‐the‐air measurements. The results indicate that the implemented radio solution is able to achieve the target key performance indicator, namely, a 2.5 Gbps data rate on average, over a range of up to 200 m.

  8. Impact of a half-space interface on the wireless link between tiny sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penkin, D.; Janssen, G.; Yarovoy, A.

    2014-01-01

    The power budget of a wireless link between two electrically small sensor nodes located close to an interface between two media is studied. The model includes both the propagation channel losses and input impedance of the radio frequency antennas. It is shown that a highly inductive half-space

  9. Energy-Efficient Link-Layer Jamming Attacks against Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Palaniswami, M; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy-efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help to prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  10. Energy-Efficient Link-Layer Jamming Attacks against Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atluri, V.; Samarati, P.; Ning, P.; Du, W.

    2005-01-01

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  11. Energy-efficient link-layer jamming attacks against wireless sensor network MAC protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    A typical wireless sensor node has little protection against radio jamming. The situation becomes worse if energy-efficient jamming can be achieved by exploiting knowledge of the data link layer. Encrypting the packets may help to prevent the jammer from taking actions based on the content of the

  12. Investigation of solar noise impact on the performance of underwater wireless optical communication links

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Tasnim; Khalighi, Mohammad-ali; Bourennane, Salah; Leon, Pierre; Opderbecke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of environmental noise, caused by solar radiations under water, on the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems. Presenting an analytical and generic model for this noise, we examine its impact on the link performance in terms of the bit error rate (BER). This study is conducted for different photo-detector types in the aim of highlighting practical limitations of establishing UWOC links in the presence of subsea solar noise. We show ho...

  13. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-09-22

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage probability and optimal power allocation optimizing the system throughput/outage probability. Finally, we complement the FSO link with an additional radio frequency (RF) link to create a hybrid RF-FSO system and reduce the system outage probability. The results show that joint implementation of the RF and FSO links leads to considerable performance improvement, compared to the cases with only FSO-based communication.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray slender loris [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NS ...

  16. Wireless link and microelectronics design for retinal prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wentai [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    This project focuses on delivering power and data to the artificial retinal implant inside the eye and the implant microstimulator electronics which delivers the current pulses to stimulate the retinal layer to elicit visual perception. Since the use of invasive means such as tethering wires to transmit power and data results in discomfort to the patients which could eventually cause infection due to the abrasion caused by the wire and contact of the internals of the eye to the external environment, a completely wireless approach is used to transfer both power and data. Power is required inside the eye for the microelectronic implant which uses a dual voltage supply scheme (positive and negative) to deliver biphasic (anodic and cathodic) current pulses. Data in the form of digital bits from the data transmitter external to the eye, carries information about the amplitude, phase width, interphase delay, stimulation sequence for each implant electrode. The data receiver unit decodes the digital stream and the microstimulator unit generates the appropriate current stimuli. Since the external unit consisting of the power transmitter can experience coupling a variation with the power receiver due to the patient’s movements, a closed loop approach is used which varies the transmitted power dynamically to automatically compensate for such movements. This report presents the salient features of this research activities and results.

  17. VillageLink: Wide-Area Wireless Coverage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pejovic, V

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available beyond simple channel utilization balancing, and uses frequency probing to profile channels according to their propagation properties. We devise VillageLink, a Gibbs sampling-based method that optimizes channel allocation in a distributed manner with a...

  18. Optical coherent and envelope detection for photonic wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin

    We present two novel optical detection techniques for radio over fiber (RoF) communication links. Firstly, we present recent results obtained with optical digital coherent detection of optical phase-modulated ROF signals supporting error-free transmission over 25 km standard SMF with BPSK and QPSK...

  19. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  20. Integration and Analysis of Neighbor Discovery and Link Quality Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Radi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network connectivity and link quality information are the fundamental requirements of wireless sensor network protocols to perform their desired functionality. Most of the existing discovery protocols have only focused on the neighbor discovery problem, while a few number of them provide an integrated neighbor search and link estimation. As these protocols require a careful parameter adjustment before network deployment, they cannot provide scalable and accurate network initialization in large-scale dense wireless sensor networks with random topology. Furthermore, performance of these protocols has not entirely been evaluated yet. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive simulation study on the efficiency of employing adaptive protocols compared to the existing nonadaptive protocols for initializing sensor networks with random topology. In this regard, we propose adaptive network initialization protocols which integrate the initial neighbor discovery with link quality estimation process to initialize large-scale dense wireless sensor networks without requiring any parameter adjustment before network deployment. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide a detailed simulation study on the performance of integrated neighbor discovery and link quality estimation protocols for initializing sensor networks. This study can help system designers to determine the most appropriate approach for different applications.

  1. A study of the impact of frequency selectivity on link adaptive wireless LAN systems

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Doufexi, A; Nix, AR; Bull, DR

    2002-01-01

    Wireless local area networks (WLANs) supporting broadband multimedia communication are being developed and standardized around the world. The HIPERLAN/2, 802.11a and HiSWANa standards provide channel adaptive data rates between 6 and 54 Mbps in the 5GHz radio band. The link adaptation mechanism is not specified in the standards. In this paper the performance of the HIPERLAN/2 system is evaluated in terms of throughput in a range of test channels with different degrees of frequency selectivity...

  2. Millimeter Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for High-Speed Wireless Access and Mobile Fronthaul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon

    , demonstrating their potential and pushing their implementation beyond the state of the art. While touching upon a multitude of aspects, the contributions can mostly be classified in three larger groups: first, the demonstration of mmw radio-over-fiber (rof) links in various configurations of reduced complexity...

  3. A secure wireless mobile-to-server link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Agaian, Sos; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2009-02-01

    Modern mobile devices are some of the most technologically advanced devices that people use on a daily basis and the current trends indicate continuous growth in mobile phone applications. Nowadays phones are equipped with cameras that can capture still images and video, they are equipped with software that can read, convert, manipulate, communicate and save multimedia in multiple formats. This tremendous progress increased the volumes of communicated sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized access. This paper discusses two general approaches for data protection, steganography and cryptography, and demonstrates how to integrate such algorithms with a mobile-toserver link being used by many applications.

  4. A Wearable Wireless Energy Link for Thin-Film Batteries Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Monti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless charger for low capacity thin-film batteries is presented. The proposed device consists of a nonradiative wireless resonant energy link and a power management unit. Experimental data referring to a prototype operating in the ISM band centered at 434 MHz are presented and discussed. In more detail, in order to facilitate the integration into wearable accessories (such as handbags or suitcases, the prototype of the wireless energy link was implemented by exploiting a magnetic coupling between two planar resonators fabricated by using a conductive fabric on a layer of leather. From experimental data, it is demonstrated that, at 434 MHz, the RF-to-RF power transfer efficiency of the link is approximately 69.3%. As for the performance of the system as a whole, when an RF power of 7.5 dBm is provided at the input port, a total efficiency of about 29.7% is obtained. Finally, experiments performed for calculating the charging time for a low capacity thin-film battery demonstrated that, for RF input power higher than 6 dBm, the time necessary for recharging the battery is lower than 50 minutes.

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona intestinalis (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NS ... ...data Ciona_intestinalis_L.png Ciona_intestinalis_NL.png Ciona_intestinalis_S.png Ciona_intestinalis_NS.png h

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona savignyi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available na_savignyi_L.png Ciona_savignyi_NL.png Ciona_savignyi_S.png Ciona_savignyi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Aplysia_kurodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+k...urodai&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=14 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: cape rock hyrax [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Procavia_capensis_L.png Procavia_capensis_NL.png Procavia_capensis_S.png Procavia_capensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procav...ia+capensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Striped bark scorpion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  13. An Inductive Link-Based Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Adeeb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless power transfer system using an inductive link has been demonstrated for implantable sensor applications. The system is composed of two primary blocks: an inductive power transfer unit and a backward data communication unit. The inductive link performs two functions: coupling the required power from a wireless power supply system enabling battery-less, long-term implant operation and providing a backward data transmission path. The backward data communication unit transmits the data to an outside reader using FSK modulation scheme via the inductive link. To demonstrate the operation of the inductive link, a board-level design has been implemented with high link efficiency. Test results from a fabricated sensor system, composed of a hybrid implementation of custom-integrated circuits and board-level discrete components, are presented demonstrating power transmission of 125 mW with a 12.5% power link transmission efficiency. Simultaneous backward data communication involving a digital pulse rate of up to 10 kbps was also observed.

  14. Hybrid Optical Fibre-wireless Links at the 75-110 GHz Band Supporting 100 Gbps Transmission Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Yu, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    We present a photonic generation and downconversion method for realizing a 40Gbps wireless link at the 75-110 GHz band exploiting the recent advances in photonic coherent detection technologies and digital signal processing. Furthermore, we analyze the capacities of hybrid optical fiber-wireless ......We present a photonic generation and downconversion method for realizing a 40Gbps wireless link at the 75-110 GHz band exploiting the recent advances in photonic coherent detection technologies and digital signal processing. Furthermore, we analyze the capacities of hybrid optical fiber...

  15. Channel capacity study of underwater wireless optical communications links based on Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Qunqun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Channel capacity of ocean water is limited by propagation distance and optical properties. Previous studies on this problem are based on water-tank experiments with different amounts of Maalox antacid. However, propagation distance is limited by the experimental set-up and the optical properties are different from ocean water. Therefore, the experiment result is not accurate for the physical design of underwater wireless communications links. This letter developed a Monte Carlo model to study channel capacity of underwater optical communications. Moreover, this model can flexibly configure various parameters of transmitter, receiver and channel, and is suitable for physical underwater optical communications links design. (paper)

  16. Channel capacity study of underwater wireless optical communications links based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Qunqun; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-01-01

    Channel capacity of ocean water is limited by propagation distance and optical properties. Previous studies on this problem are based on water-tank experiments with different amounts of Maalox antacid. However, propagation distance is limited by the experimental set-up and the optical properties are different from ocean water. Therefore, the experiment result is not accurate for the physical design of underwater wireless communications links. This letter developed a Monte Carlo model to study channel capacity of underwater optical communications. Moreover, this model can flexibly configure various parameters of transmitter, receiver and channel, and is suitable for physical underwater optical communications links design.

  17. Investigation of solar noise impact on the performance of underwater wireless optical communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Tasnim; Khalighi, Mohammad-Ali; Bourennane, Salah; Léon, Pierre; Opderbecke, Jan

    2016-10-31

    We investigate the effect of environmental noise, caused by solar radiations under water, on the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems. Presenting an analytical and generic model for this noise, we examine its impact on the link performance in terms of the bit error rate (BER). This study is conducted for different photo-detector types in the aim of highlighting practical limitations of establishing UWOC links in the presence of subsea solar noise. We show how the solar noise can impact the performance of UWOC links for relatively low operation depths. The results we present provide valuable insight for the design of UWOC links, which are likely to be established at relatively low depths. They can be exploited not only for the purpose of practical UWOC system deployment but also for in-pool experimental set-ups, since they elucidate the effect of ambient light on the measurements.

  18. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...irounga+leonina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ... ...a/Carnivora Mirounga_leonina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: African malaria mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eles_gambiae_NL.png Anopheles_gambiae_S.png Anopheles_gambiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_L.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NL.png Coptotermes_formosanus_S.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NS ...

  3. Real-time 2.5  Gbit/s spatial circuit switching on W-band wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, Sebastián; Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A spatial circuit switching system based on a beam steering application for W-band wireless links is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system enables two simultaneous transmissions of a 2.5 Gbit∕s data signal over a carrier of 81 GHz, while allowing the receiver to dynamically switch ...... between them. The performance of the system is tested with the real-time measurements of the BER, achieving values below the FEC limit for 7% of overhead and serving to prove the viability of wireless spatial circuit switching in the next generation of wireless access networks....

  4. Congestion control in wireless links based on selective delivery of erroneous packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Perkis, Andrew; Reiter, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, congestion control in packet networks is performed by reducing the transmission rate when congestion is detected, in order to cut down the traffic that overwhelms the capacity of the network. However, if the bottleneck is a wireless link, congestion is often cumulated because...... of bit errors appearing in the packet payload. In this paper, we study a congestion control mechanism for streaming applications that combines traditional congestion control with selective link layer partial checksumming allowing bit errors in the less sensitive parts of data. We have compared...... of retransmissions derived from bit errors. In this case, it might be beneficial to allow delivery of partly corrupted packets up to the application layer instead of reducing the transmission rate. This would decrease the number of retransmissions in the link layer and therefore relieve congestion, but at the cost...

  5. Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.

  6. Experimental Comparison of Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensors Networks: Routing Overhead and Asymmetric Links

    OpenAIRE

    Audéoud , Henry-Joseph; Heusse , Martin

    2017-01-01

    International audience; RPL (the IETF Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks) and LRP (Lightweight Routing Protocol) have in common to build a collection tree (or, more precisely, a DODAG) and “downward” host routes in the wireless sensor network. Additionally, the objective of LRP is to keep control overhead as low as possible. To substantiate this claim, we compare RPL and LRP using 40 nodes of the IoT-LAB testbed — and the results are telling.We then introduce asymmetric links, ...

  7. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques in enhanc...... strategy is very effective in improving the end-to-end throughput of a TCP connection. Moreover, these improvements are higher when the traffic is more bursty, like in typical Internet data applications such as e-mail and web surfing....

  8. 0.4 THz Photonic-Wireless Link With 106 Gb/s Single Channel Bitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2018-01-01

    THz channel is enabled by combining spectrally efficient modulation format, ultrabroadband THz transceiver and advanced digital signal processing routine. Besides that, our demonstration from system-wide implementation viewpoint also features high transmission stability, and hence shows its great......, we experimentally demonstrate a single channel 0.4 THz photonic-wireless link achieving a net data rate of beyond 100 Gb/s by using a single pair of THz emitter and receiver, without employing any spatial/frequency division multiplexing techniques. The high throughput up to 106 Gb/s within a single...

  9. Fiber-wireless links supporting high-capacity W-band channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2013-01-01

    , is seeding the need to use bands located at the millimeter-wave region (30-300 GHz), mainly because of its inherent broadband nature. In our lab, we have conducted extensive research on high-speed photonic-wireless links in the V-band (50-75GHz) and the W-band (75-110GHz). In this paper, we will present our...... latest findings and experimental results on the W-band, specifically on its 81-86GHz sub-band. These include photonic generation of millimeter-wave carriers and transmission performance of broadband signals on different types of fibers and span lengths....

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aon_NL.png Papilio_machaon_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pap...ilio+machaon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Eisenia_fetida_S.png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fe...tida&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=73 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cettia_diphone_NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  14. Distributed and Cooperative Link Scheduling for Large-Scale Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananthram Swami

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A distributed and cooperative link-scheduling (DCLS algorithm is introduced for large-scale multihop wireless networks. With this algorithm, each and every active link in the network cooperatively calibrates its environment and converges to a desired link schedule for data transmissions within a time frame of multiple slots. This schedule is such that the entire network is partitioned into a set of interleaved subnetworks, where each subnetwork consists of concurrent cochannel links that are properly separated from each other. The desired spacing in each subnetwork can be controlled by a tuning parameter and the number of time slots specified for each frame. Following the DCLS algorithm, a distributed and cooperative power control (DCPC algorithm can be applied to each subnetwork to ensure a desired data rate for each link with minimum network transmission power. As shown consistently by simulations, the DCLS algorithm along with a DCPC algorithm yields significant power savings. The power savings also imply an increased feasible region of averaged link data rates for the entire network.

  15. Protection of Video Packets over a Wireless Rayleigh Fading Link: FEC versus ARQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Video content can be provided to an end user by transmitting video data as a sequence of internet protocol (IP packets over the network. When the network contains a wireless link, packet erasures occur because of occasional deep fades. In order to maintain a sufficient video quality at the end user, video packets must be protected against erasures by means of a suitable form of error control. In this contribution, we investigate two types of error control: (1 forward error correction (FEC, which involves the transmission of parity packets that enables recovery of a limited number of erased video packets, and (2 the use of an automatic repeat request (ARQ protocol, where the receiver requests the retransmission of video packets that have been erased. We point out that FEC and ARQ considerably reduce the probability of unrecoverable packet loss, because both error control techniques provide a diversity gain, as compared to the case where no protection against erasures is applied. We derive a simple analytical expression for the diversity gain resulting from FEC or ARQ, in terms of the channel coherence time, the allowable latency, and (for FEC the allowable overhead or (for ARQ the time interval between (retransmissions of copies of a same packet. In the case of HDTV transmission over a 60 GHz indoor wireless link, ARQ happens to outperform FEC.

  16. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques in enhanc......The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques...... in enhancing TCP/IP performance depends on the tradeoff between frame transmission delay and residual errors after retransmissions. The paper shows how a truncated power control can be effectively applied to improve that tradeoff so that a higher transmission reliability is provided without increasing...... strategy is very effective in improving the end-to-end throughput of a TCP connection. Moreover, these improvements are higher when the traffic is more bursty, like in typical Internet data applications such as e-mail and web surfing....

  17. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 1.5 Gbps data rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Guo, Yujian; Oubei, Hassan M; Ng, Tien Khee; Liu, Guangyu; Park, Ki-Hong; Ho, Kang-Ting; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S

    2016-10-31

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (~10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  18. Performance Evaluation of Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Links in the Presence of Different Air Bubble Populations

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2017-03-16

    We experimentally evaluate the performance of underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) links in the presence of different air bubbles. Air bubbles of different sizes and densities are generated by using an air pipe in conjunction with a submersible water pump of variable flow rate that help break up large bubbles into smaller bubbles. Received signal intensity measurements show that bubbles significantly degrade the performance of UWOC links. Large bubbles completely obstruct the optical beam and cause a deep fade. However, as the bubble size decreases, the level of deep fade also decreases because the optical beam is less susceptible to complete obstruction and more light reaches the detector. We also show that beam expansion could help mitigate the performance degradation due to the deep fade caused by air bubbles scatters in the channel.

  19. 20-meter underwater wireless optical communication link with 15 Gbps data rate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2016-10-24

    The video streaming, data transmission, and remote control in underwater call for high speed (Gbps) communication link with a long channel length (∼10 meters). We present a compact and low power consumption underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) system utilizing a 450-nm laser diode (LD) and a Si avalanche photodetector. With the LD operating at a driving current of 80 mA with an optical power of 51.3 mW, we demonstrated a high-speed UWOC link offering a data rate up to 2 Gbps over a 12-meter-long, and 1.5 Gbps over a record 20-meter-long underwater channel. The measured bit-error rate (BER) are 2.8 × 10-5, and 3.0 × 10-3, respectively, which pass well the forward error correction (FEC) criterion. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Daubentonia_madaga...scariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S.png Daubentonia_madagasc...ariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  1. Procedure to measure real time latency using software defined radio in a W-band fiber-wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rico-Martínez, Mónica; Morales, Alvaro; Mehmeri, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Reducing latency is a major challenge for current telecommunications systems. 5G networks are envisioned to achieve end-to-end latencies below 1 ms, thus enabling the Internet of Things (IoT) evolution and new applications such as Tactile Internet. In this article, we present a new procedure to m...... to measure real time latency in hybrid optical-wireless links. We obtained 2 ms end to end latency using Software Defined Radio to measure latency in a physical setup. We tested the procedure on W-band fiber-wireless link and validated the results against PING over GRE tunnel....

  2. Opportunities and challenges for optical wireless: the competitive advantage of free space telecommunications links in today's crowded marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Theresa H.; Wisely, David R.

    1998-01-01

    Never before has the opportunity for terrestrial optical wireless communications links been so great. The high data rates attainable, up to OC-24, make it a very attractive and cost effective alternative to traditional fiber optic and microwave links. With today's demand for interactive multimedia-based applications, such as video conferencing and telemedicine, optical wireless products are the only ones that can provide the needed bandwidth in situations when it is too costly or impossible to install fiber optic cable. Recent developments in laser and optics technologies, in addition to auto beam tracking, permit transmission units to achieve excellent performance rates in all weather conditions.

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) Halocynthia roretzi Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochordata Halocynthia_roret...zi_L.png Halocynthia_roretzi_NL.png Halocynthia_roretzi_S.png Halocynthia_roretzi_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=N

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=11 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_L.png Diplazium_tomit...aroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carni...vora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_californi...anus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  12. CCM-R: Secure Counter Synchronization for IoT Wireless Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Upal; Yin, Jiachen; Andersen, Birger

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate a new version of the CCM mode of operation, CCM-R, which isan extended and alternate version of the original CBC-MAC with Counter Mode(CCM) that was created to address the problem of counter synchronization. While CCM is considered secure when used/implemente......In this paper we propose and evaluate a new version of the CCM mode of operation, CCM-R, which isan extended and alternate version of the original CBC-MAC with Counter Mode(CCM) that was created to address the problem of counter synchronization. While CCM is considered secure when used...... on wireless link. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, we have proposed a solution where we have embedded a secure counter synchronization approach into the original CCM mode of operation. The approach makes it immune to package loss and DoS attacks. The overhead is also kept at a minimum, making...... it suitable for low-power wireless IoT devices....

  13. Frame-Aggregated Link Adaptation Protocol for Next Generation Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Kai-Ten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of wireless networks is affected by channel conditions. Link Adaptation techniques have been proposed to improve the degraded network performance by adjusting the design parameters, for example, the modulation and coding schemes, in order to adapt to the dynamically changing channel conditions. Furthermore, due to the advancement of the IEEE 802.11n standard, the network goodput can be enhanced with the exploitation of its frame aggregation schemes. However, none of the existing link adaption algorithms are designed to consider the feasible number of aggregated frames that should be utilized for channel-changing environments. In this paper, a frame-aggregated link adaptation (FALA protocol is proposed to dynamically adjust system parameters in order to improve the network goodput under varying channel conditions. For the purpose of maximizing network goodput, both the optimal frame payload size and the modulation and coding schemes are jointly obtained according to the signal-to-noise ratio under specific channel conditions. The performance evaluation is conducted and compared to the existing link adaption protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed FALA protocol can effectively increase the goodput performance compared to other baseline schemes, especially under dynamically-changing environments.

  14. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  15. Digital Photonic Receivers for Wireless and Wireline Optical Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    This PhD thesis addresses the design and performance evaluation of digital photonic receivers in hybrid optical fiber-wireless transmission systems. The research results presented in this thesis are pioneering in two areas. First, it is shown the first experimental demonstration of automatic...... demodulation of signals with mixed modulation formats and bit rates in a single digital coherent photonic receiver. The demodulated signals were generated on baseband and optical phase-modulated (PM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems. Secondly, it is presented the first known analytical and numerical...... investigations on the performance of data-aided optical channel estimation based on constant-amplitude zero-autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequences for 112 Gb/s polarization-diversity coherent optical fiber transmission links. The benefits of introducing digital signal processing functions in optically envelope...

  16. Design and Evaluation of 10-Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Nagpal, Shaina

    2017-05-01

    Inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) systems can be chosen over existing microwave satellite systems for deploying in space in the future due to their high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost. However, the IsOWC system suffers from various attenuations due to weather conditions, turbulence or scintillations which limit its performance and decreases its availability. So, in order to improve the performance, IsOWC system using directly modulated laser source is proposed in this work. The system is designed and evaluated to be suitable for high data rate transmissions up to 10 Gbps. The performance of the system is investigated in order to reduce the cost and complexity of link and improving the quality of information signal. Further the proposed IsOWC system is analysed using BER analyser, power meter and oscilloscope Visualizer.

  17. Converged wireline and wireless signal transport over optical fibre access links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Prince, Kamau; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality.......This article reviews emerging trends in converged optical-wireless communication systems and outline the role that photonic technologies are playing in making the vision of a wireline-wireless converged signal transport network a reality....

  18. 100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link in the W-band (75–110 GHz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an 100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link by employing photonic heterodyning up-conversion of optical 12.5 Gbaud polarization multiplexed 16-QAM baseband signal with two free running lasers. Bit-error-rate performance below the FEC limit is successfully achieved...... for air transmission distances up to 120 cm....

  19. Bidirectional 3.125 Gbps downstream / 2 Gbps upstream impulse radio ultrawide-band (UWB) over combined fiber and wireless link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate bidirectional fiber and wireless transmission of impulse radio ultra-wideband at 3.125 Gbps downstream and 2 Gbps upstream. After transmission over 50 km fiber and 1.85 m wireless link both signals are recovered without errors.......We demonstrate bidirectional fiber and wireless transmission of impulse radio ultra-wideband at 3.125 Gbps downstream and 2 Gbps upstream. After transmission over 50 km fiber and 1.85 m wireless link both signals are recovered without errors....

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eu...theria/Cetacea Eubalaena_japonica_L.png Eubalaena_japonica_NL.png Eubalaena_japonica_S.png Eubalaena_japonic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_fasci...cularis_L.png Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png Macaca_fascicularis_S.png Macaca_fascicularis..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  2. Impact of Radio Link Unreliability on the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorce Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many works have been devoted to connectivity of ad hoc networks. This is an important feature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs to provide the nodes with the capability of communicating with one or several sinks. In most of these works, radio links are assumed ideal, that is, with no transmission errors. To fulfil this assumption, the reception threshold should be high enough to guarantee that radio links have a low transmission error probability. As a consequence, all unreliable links are dismissed. This approach is suboptimal concerning energy consumption because unreliable links should permit to reduce either the transmission power or the number of active nodes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the contribution of unreliable long hops to an increase of the connectivity of WSNs. In our model, each node is assumed to be connected to each other node in a probabilistic manner. Such a network is modeled as a complete random graph, that is, all edges exist. The instantaneous node degree is then defined as the number of simultaneous valid single-hop receptions of the same message, and finally the mean node degree is computed analytically in both AWGN and block-fading channels. We show the impact on connectivity of two MACs and routing parameters. The first one is the energy detection level such as the one used in carrier sense mechanisms. The second one is the reliability threshold used by the routing layer to select stable links only. Both analytic and simulation results show that using opportunistic protocols is challenging.

  3. Impact of Radio Link Unreliability on the Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Gorce

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many works have been devoted to connectivity of ad hoc networks. This is an important feature for wireless sensor networks (WSNs to provide the nodes with the capability of communicating with one or several sinks. In most of these works, radio links are assumed ideal, that is, with no transmission errors. To fulfil this assumption, the reception threshold should be high enough to guarantee that radio links have a low transmission error probability. As a consequence, all unreliable links are dismissed. This approach is suboptimal concerning energy consumption because unreliable links should permit to reduce either the transmission power or the number of active nodes. The aim of this paper is to quantify the contribution of unreliable long hops to an increase of the connectivity of WSNs. In our model, each node is assumed to be connected to each other node in a probabilistic manner. Such a network is modeled as a complete random graph, that is, all edges exist. The instantaneous node degree is then defined as the number of simultaneous valid single-hop receptions of the same message, and finally the mean node degree is computed analytically in both AWGN and block-fading channels. We show the impact on connectivity of two MACs and routing parameters. The first one is the energy detection level such as the one used in carrier sense mechanisms. The second one is the reliability threshold used by the routing layer to select stable links only. Both analytic and simulation results show that using opportunistic protocols is challenging.

  4. Space and time diversity in indoor wireless optical links achieving higher data rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Yazan A.

    2013-02-01

    Multispot diffusing configuration (MSDC) in optical wireless links provide uniform optical power needed for multiaccess and spatial dependence that can be used to allow space diversity techniques over the link. The spatial channels are furnished in MSDC through utilizing multibeam transmitter that produces spatially confined diffusing spots, and a multibranch receiver with small enough branch field-of-view (FOV) to restrict the number of diffusing spots within its FOV. Here, we study different encoding techniques that use space and time diversity to reduce the bit error rate. An improved technique, constellation rotation, is proposed for pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) to increase the Euclidian distance between signal points, and thus reduce bit error. Our study shows that when a cap is placed on the amount of power allocated per channel, the performance of the improved 4-PAM using three spatial channels and soft binary decision provide the optimal performance. When the power allocated per user is restricted, the best performance is obtained through soft binary decision and by using symbols identified by their level and spatial channel to carry 2 bits per signal level-channel.

  5. Experimental Characterization of LTE Wireless Links in High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Domínguez-Bolaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia and data-based services experienced a nonstopping growth over the last few years. People are continuously on the move using devices to access multimedia contents or other data-based services. Due to this, railway companies are showing a great interest in deploying broadband mobile wireless networks in high-speed-trains with the aim of supporting both passenger services provisioning as well as automatic train control and signaling. Nowadays, the most widely used technology for communications between trains and the railway infrastructure is GSM for Railways (GSM-R; however, it has limited capabilities to support such advanced services. Due to its success in the mass market, Long Term Evolution (LTE seems to be the best candidate to substitute GSM-R. In this paper, we experimentally characterize the downlink between an LTE Evolved NodeB (eNodeB and a high-speed train in a commercial high-speed line. We consider two links: the one between the eNodeB and the antennas placed outdoors on the train roof, and the direct link between the eNodeB and a receiver inside the train. Such a characterization consists in assessing the path loss, the Signal to Noise Ratio, the K-Factor, the Power Delay Profile, the delay spread, and the Doppler Power Spectral Density.

  6. SIMO optical wireless links with nonzero boresight pointing errors over M modeled turbulence channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.

  7. Associations with Minspeak icons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Elmarie; Alant, Erna

    2004-01-01

    Although the Minspeak approach is used on communication devices worldwide, little research has been conducted on its applicability within specific cultural contexts. The impact that users' familiarity of symbols and associations can have on learnability necessitates more systematic research. This study was an investigation into the associations which young South African adults from a tertiary education institution make with selected Minspeak icons, used in Unity software. Associations with the 12 core icons of the UniChat program were elicited from 480 able-bodied tertiary education students, using a cueing questionnaire. Each participant completed one questionnaire on one icon, so that 40 response questionnaires were obtained per icon. The responses from the questionnaires were pruned and computerised. Two analyses were done from these data: Firstly, the percentage of common associations per icon was calculated, and secondly, the elicited associations were compared to the current Unity vocabulary on a word and conceptual level. The results indicate that some of the icons and their encoded vocabulary items might be used successfully in the South African context, while others need to be adapted to be locally relevant. The results emphasize that iconic encoding systems based on commercially available graphic representational systems cannot merely be imported to South Africa due to the multicultural and multilingual nature of the context. As a result of this activity (1) the participant will be able to understand different types of associational responses based on icons used in Minspeak; (2) the participant will be able to understand the cultural relevance of some aspects of the Unity application programme; and (3) the participant will be able to identify different strategies that can be used to describe the cultural relevance o of the Unity application programme.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 Aeropyrum pernix K1 Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_L.png Aeropyrum_perni...x_K1_NL.png Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_S.png Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NL... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=S http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=215 ...

  9. 16 Gb/s QPSK Wireless-over-Fibre Link in 75-110GHz Band Employing Optical Heterodyne Generation and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of QPSK based Wireless-over-Fibre link in 75-110GHz band with a record capacity of up to 16Gb/s. Photonic wireless signal generation by heterodyne beating of free-running lasers and baud-rate digital coherent detection are employed....

  10. Asymptotic Performance Analysis of the k-th Best Link Selection over Wireless Fading Channels: An Extreme Value Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Badarneh, Yazan Hussein

    2018-01-25

    We consider a general selection-diversity (SD) scheme in which the k-th best link is selected from a number of links. We use extreme value theory (EVT) to derive simple closed-form asymptotic expressions for the average throughput, effective throughput and average bit error probability (BEP) for the k-th best link over various channel models that are widely used to characterize fading in wireless communication systems. As an application example, we consider the Weibull fading channel model and verify the accuracy of the derived asymptotic expressions through Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Buckshot Routing with Distance Vectors in Three Application Scenarios for Wireless Sensor Networks with Unstable Network Topologies and Unidirectional Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhardt Karnapke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have shown that the number of asymmetric and unidirectional links often exceeds the number of bidirectional ones, especially in the transitional area of the communication range of wireless sensor nodes. Still, most of today’s routing protocols ignore their existence or try to remove their implications. Also, links are not stable over time, and routes become unusable often, resulting in a need for new routing protocols that can handle highly dynamic links and use unidirectional links to their advantage. At SENSORCOMM' 2014, we presented BuckshotDV, a routing protocol which is resilient against link fluctuations and uses the longer reach of unidirectional links to increase its performance. Furthermore, its distance vector nature makes it scalable for large sensor networks. This paper is an extended version which adds some implementation details and the evaluation of BuckshotDV in two more application scenarios.

  12. Link and route availability for Inter-working multi-hop wireless networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salami, O

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In inter-working multi-hop wireless networks, establishing resilient connectivity between source-destination node pairs is a major issue. The issue of connectivity in multi-hop wireless networks have been studied. However, these analyses focused...

  13. THz photonic wireless links with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate THz photonic wireless communication systems with 16-QAM modulation in the 375-450 GHz band. The overall throughput reaches as high as 80 Gbit/s by exploiting four THz channels with 5 Gbaud 16-QAM baseband modulation per channel. We create a coherent optic...... signal transmitter and the THz wireless transmitter with negligible induced power penalty....

  14. Optimization of data coils in a multiband wireless link for neuroprosthetic implantable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uei-Ming Jow; Ghovanloo, M

    2010-10-01

    We have presented the design methodology along with detailed simulation and measurement results for optimizing a multiband transcutaneous wireless link for high-performance implantable neuroprosthetic devices. We have utilized three individual carrier signals and coil/antenna pairs for power transmission, forward data transmission from outside into the body, and back telemetry in the opposite direction. Power is transmitted at 13.56 MHz through a pair of printed spiral coils (PSCs) facing each other. Two different designs have been evaluated for forward data coils, both of which help to minimize power carrier interference in the received data carrier. One is a pair of perpendicular coils that are wound across the diameter of the power PSCs. The other design is a pair of planar figure-8 coils that are in the same plane as the power PSCs. We have compared the robustness of each design against horizontal misalignments and rotations in different directions. Simulation and measurements are also conducted on a miniature spiral antenna, designed to operate with impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) circuitry for back telemetry.

  15. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-10-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of the ac input voltage at its peak. We have fabricated the capacitor charging system prototype in a 0.35- μ m 4-metal 2-poly standard CMOS process in 2.1 mm 2 of chip area. It can charge four pairs of capacitors sequentially. While receiving 2.7-V peak ac input through a 2-MHz inductive link, the capacitor charging system can charge each pair of 1 μ F capacitors up to ±2 V in 420 μ s, achieving a high measured charging efficiency of 82%.

  16. Design and Iconic Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The VW Beetle, Apple, Porsche … many iconic brands have reached their status with groundbreaking designs. But what makes these designs so special? And is it really the design factor that accounts for the overall success of a brand? Dr. Walter de Silva shares with us his thoughts on iconic designs, the design process and the role of design in branding. Open your heart and mind to his extensive experience in developing designs for Volkswagen, Audi and other brands of the Volkswagen Group

  17. Classification of iconic images

    OpenAIRE

    Zrianina, Mariia; Kopf, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Iconic images represent an abstract topic and use a presentation that is intuitively understood within a certain cultural context. For example, the abstract topic “global warming” may be represented by a polar bear standing alone on an ice floe. Such images are widely used in media and their automatic classification can help to identify high-level semantic concepts. This paper presents a system for the classification of iconic images. It uses a variation of the Bag of Visual Words approach wi...

  18. Radio-frequency transparent demodulation for broadband hybrid wireless-optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Alemany, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    A novel demodulation technique which is transparent to radio-frequency (RF) carrier frequency is presented and experimentally demonstrated for multigigabit wireless signals. The presented demodulation technique employs optical single-sideband filtering, coherent detection, and baseband digital si...

  19. Data transmission techniques for short-range optical fiber and wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang

    -speed optical/wireless integration and advanced modulation formats for intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. Regarding optical/wireless integration, this thesis focuses on integration of broadband ultra-wide band (UWB) and 60-GHz band wireless systems into optical fiber access...... signals into a unified optical fiber platform. Additionally, half-cycle QAM modulation has prospects to increase SE and bit rates in high-speed short-range optical communication systems.......The research work described in this thesis is devoted to experimental investigation of techniques for cost-effective high-speed optical communications supporting both wired and wireless services. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high...

  20. Channel characterization for high-speed W-band wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss results from an experimental characterization of the W-band indoor wireless channel, including both large and small scale fading phenomena as well as corresponding channel parameters and their impact on system performance....

  1. White LED-based optical wireless link with improved transmission capacity using nonorthogonal multiamplitude phase frequency modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Yoon, Sang Min; Seo, Dongsun

    2017-06-01

    A nonorthogonal amplitude, phase, and frequency modulation (APFM) technique that can increase the transmission capacity of an optical wireless link based on white light-emitting diode (LED) is proposed. It is implemented by the simultaneous use of nonorthogonal frequency shift keying (FSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). A white LED-based wireless link using a 64-APFM scheme is constructed to experimentally verify the proposed technique, where the 64-APFM scheme is implemented by the combination of nonorthogonal 4-FSK and 16-QAM. Two more bits per symbol are transmitted using the proposed scheme with the same bandwidth of QAM. No intercarrier interference effect is observed at the 0.02-% frequency spacing (0.001 MHz) for the used RF carrier (5 MHz) because the correlation between the received 64-APFM signal and only one carrier at a time is accomplished with the help of digital signal processing. 6-Mbit/s (1-Msymbol/s) data are successfully transmitted through an optical wireless channel with a limited bandwidth of 1 MHz. This indicates that six bits per symbol can be transmitted using the proposed APFM technique at the same physical bandwidth as 16-QAM.

  2. Seamless Optical Fiber-Wireless Millimeter- Wave Transmission Link for Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental demonstration of a millimeter-wave wireless bridge in the W-band for transparent broadband fiber access in the sub-urban areas, where full fiber connections are impracticable.......This paper presents an experimental demonstration of a millimeter-wave wireless bridge in the W-band for transparent broadband fiber access in the sub-urban areas, where full fiber connections are impracticable....

  3. High-Capacity Hybrid Optical Fiber-Wireless Communications Links in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan

    techniques with both coherent and incoherent optical sources are studied and demonstrated. Employments of advanced modulation formats including phase-shift keying (PSK), M-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for high speed photonic-wireless transmission...... techniques. In conclusion, the results presented in the thesis show the feasibility of employing mm-wave signals, advanced modulation formats and spatial multiplexing technologies in next generation high capacity hybrid optical fiber-wireless access systems....

  4. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  5. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  6. Characterization of In-Body to On-Body Wireless Radio Frequency Link for Upper Limb Prostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Stango

    Full Text Available Wireless implanted devices can be used to interface patients with disabilities with the aim of restoring impaired motor functions. Implanted devices that record and transmit electromyographic (EMG signals have been applied for the control of active prostheses. This simulation study investigates the propagation losses and the absorption rate of a wireless radio frequency link for in-to-on body communication in the medical implant communication service (MICS frequency band to control myoelectric upper limb prostheses. The implanted antenna is selected and a suitable external antenna is designed. The characterization of both antennas is done by numerical simulations. A heterogeneous 3D body model and a 3D electromagnetic solver have been used to model the path loss and to characterize the specific absorption rate (SAR. The path loss parameters were extracted and the SAR was characterized, verifying the compliance with the guideline limits. The path loss model has been also used for a preliminary link budget analysis to determine the feasibility of such system compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. The resulting link margin of 11 dB confirms the feasibility of the system proposed.

  7. High capacity hybrid optical fiber-wireless links in 75–300GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    Seamless convergence of fiber-optic and the wireless networks is of great interest for enabling transparent delivery of broadband services to users in different locations, including both metropolitan and rural areas. Current demand of bandwidth by end-users, especially using mobile devices, is se...

  8. Photonics-assisted wireless link based on mm-wave reconfigurable antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliciano daCosta, Igor; Cerqueira Sodré, Arismar; Rodriguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    The authors report a novel concept for photonics-assisted and broadband optical-wireless indoor networks based on optically-controlled reconfigurable antenna arrays (OCRAAs) and photonic down conversion (PDC) techniques, operating in the 28 and 38 GHz frequency bands. The antenna bandwidth is opt...... for access networks in the mm-wave frequency range....

  9. OPS: Opportunistic pipeline scheduling in long-strip wireless sensor networks with unreliable links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jiang, He; Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Being deployed in narrow but long area, strip wireless sensor networks (SWSNs) have drawn much attention in applications such as coal mines, pipeline and structure monitoring. One of typical characteristics of SWSNs is the large hop counts, which leads to long end-to-end delivery delay in

  10. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, Tomasz; Lynggaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireles...

  11. Are icons sense data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brian P; Green, E J

    2015-12-01

    We argue that Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychon Bull Rev, this issue) have not made the case that "the language of space-time and physical objects is the wrong language for describing the true structure of the objective world." Further, we contend that, contrary to what Hoffman et al. claim, the perceptual icons posited by interface theory seem best taken to be sense data.

  12. Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 差し替えようのティラノアイコン(小)をアップしました。 ttamura 2008/11/06 17:02:45 ...

  13. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  14. Icons in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C G

    1992-09-01

    This company of surgeons, the Pacific Coast Surgical Association, has honored me greatly, and I am grateful. In a turbulent, changing world, as physicians, you are among the most important people on earth. More important, by far, than any technologic aspect of your craft, is your character. As the pen is mightier than the sword, your beliefs and values are the sustaining force that will guide you in troubled times. Icons are Everyman's "pointers of the way" in meeting the challenges of tomorrow.

  15. Constructing, Confirming, and Contesting Icons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    to their reception as they help shape and delimit the publics and discourses surrounding visual icons. This article draws on existing research on visual icons and appropriations to develop a theoretical framework for how appropriations construct, confirm and contest icons and how personification constitutes the main......This article argues that appropriations are central to both the production and reception of visual icons. Appropriations are instrumental in iconization processes as they confirm and consolidate the iconic status by recycling the image in question. At the same time, appropriations are vital...... of these appropriations, two overall modes are singled out: the appropriations either decontextualize or recontextualize the figure of Kurdi. The two next analytical cases test the limits of decontextualization and recontextualization: Chinese artist Ai Weiwei decontextualizes the Kurdi imagery in a controversial...

  16. Interoperation of an UHF RFID Reader and a TCP/IP Device via Wired and Wireless Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Soo Jin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4 interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device.

  17. Symmetric Link Key Management for Secure Neighbor Discovery in a Decentralized Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) Wireless sensor networks provide a low-signature communications system that can be used for a... serve as the basis for our research. Then, we review existing research in key management for secure neighbor discovery. A. NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY...against Common Forms of Attack Our research served as a proof-of-concept for our key management scheme as applied to neighbor discovery; however, the

  18. A Power-Efficient Wireless Capacitor Charging System Through an Inductive Link

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    A power-efficient wireless capacitor charging system for inductively powered applications has been presented. A bank of capacitors can be directly charged from an ac source by generating a current through a series charge injection capacitor and a capacitor charger circuit. The fixed charging current reduces energy loss in switches, while maximizing the charging efficiency. An adaptive capacitor tuner compensates for the resonant capacitance variations during charging to keep the amplitude of ...

  19. Iconic Prosody in Story Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Clark, Nathaniel; Falck, Marlene Johansson

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that people iconically modulate their prosody corresponding with the meaning of their utterance (e.g., Shintel et al., 2006). This article reports findings from a story reading task that expands the investigation of iconic prosody to abstract meanings in addition to concrete ones. Participants read stories that…

  20. Toolbar icons for GIS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Szczepanek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphical user interface is an important element of today software. Discussion on design aspects of toolbar icons is presented. Three concepts related to GIS applications are proposed.  Preliminary icon set gis-0.1 oriented to usability and simplicity is outlined.

  1. A Regulation-Based Security Evaluation Method for Data Link in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. Malavenda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a novel approach to the analysis of wireless sensor networks (WSN security, based on the regulations intended for wireless communication devices. Starting from the analysis and classification of attacks, countermeasures, and available protocols, we present the current state on secure communication stacks for embedded systems. The regulation analysis is based on civil EN 50150 and MIL STD-188-220, both applicable to WSN communications. Afterwards, starting from a list of known WSN attacks, we use a correspondence table to match WSN attacks with countermeasures required by regulations. This approach allows us to produce a precise security evaluation and classification methodology for WSN protocols. The results show that current protocols do not present a complete coverage of security issues. While this conclusion is already known for many WSN protocols, to the best of our knowledge this is the first time a complete methodology is proposed to base this assertion. Moreover, by using the proposed methodology, we are able to precisely identify the exposed threats for each WSN protocol under analysis.

  2. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  3. THE STROGANOV OR OLD BELIEVERS’ ICON PAINTING TRADITION IN THE WORKS OF N.S. LESKOV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Karsakova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N.S. Leskov is known to have been a collector of icons and a connoisseur of history and techniques of icon painting. In his work as a writer he made use of his visual impression of icons painted in the old believers' tradition. Unlike modern scholars, when acting as an iconographer, Leskov did not classify old believers' icon painting as a separate trend, subsuming it within the “Stroganov school”. In the 19th century, the Stroganov school icons were distinguished by the mark of the Stroganov family name on the icon's reverse side. Such icons were believed to have been painted in the workshops officially set up by the Stroganov family. “An old believers' school icon” would be the one painted by at a workshop owned by old believers for the use in their prayer rooms or churches. Leskov's opinion on the insoluble link between the Stroganov and old believers' school of icon painting well agreed with the works of I.P. Sakharov the writer was quite familiar with, as well as with the ideas old believers themselves expressed concerning the history and traditions of icon painting. Leskov knew these opinions through communication with icon painters who professed the old belief version of Orthodox Christianity.

  4. Wireless Device-to-Device (D2D) Links for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Device-to-Device (D2D) communications will play an important role in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks, by increasing the spatial reuse of spectrum resources and enabling communication links with low latency. D2D is composed of two fundamental building blocks: proximity discovery...... and direct communication between nearby users. Another emerging trend in wireless cellular systems is Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications, often characterized by fixed, low transmission rates. In this chapter we motivate the synergy between D2D and M2M, and present technologies that enable M2M-via-D2D...... communication to operate as an underlay to the ordinary cellular transmissions....

  5. Prediction and comparison of down-link electric field and uplink localised SAR values for realistic indoor wireless planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plets, David; Joseph, Wout; Aerts, Sam; Vanhecke, Kris; Vermeeren, Guenter; Martens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time a heuristic network calculator for both whole-body exposure due to indoor base station antennas or access points (down-link exposure) and localised exposure due to the mobile device (uplink exposure) in indoor wireless networks is presented. As an application, three phone call scenarios are investigated (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) macro-cell, UMTS femto-cell and WiFi voice-over-IP) and compared with respect to the electric-field strength and localised specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution. Prediction models are created and successfully validated with an accuracy of 3 dB. The benefits of the UMTS power control mechanisms are demonstrated. However, dependent on the macro-cell connection quality and on the user's average phone call connection time, also the macro-cell solution might be preferential from an exposure point of view for the considered scenario. (authors)

  6. The road to language learning is iconic: evidence from British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L; Vinson, David P; Woll, Bencie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    An arbitrary link between linguistic form and meaning is generally considered a universal feature of language. However, iconic (i.e., nonarbitrary) mappings between properties of meaning and features of linguistic form are also widely present across languages, especially signed languages. Although recent research has shown a role for sign iconicity in language processing, research on the role of iconicity in sign-language development has been mixed. In this article, we present clear evidence that iconicity plays a role in sign-language acquisition for both the comprehension and production of signs. Signed languages were taken as a starting point because they tend to encode a higher degree of iconic form-meaning mappings in their lexicons than spoken languages do, but our findings are more broadly applicable: Specifically, we hypothesize that iconicity is fundamental to all languages (signed and spoken) and that it serves to bridge the gap between linguistic form and human experience.

  7. An Interference-Aware Traffic-Priority-Based Link Scheduling Algorithm for Interference Mitigation in Multiple Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien T. T. Le

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless body area networks (WBANs are effectively used for health monitoring services. However, in cases where WBANs are densely deployed, interference among WBANs can cause serious degradation of network performance and reliability. Inter-WBAN interference can be reduced by scheduling the communication links of interfering WBANs. In this paper, we propose an interference-aware traffic-priority-based link scheduling (ITLS algorithm to overcome inter-WBAN interference in densely deployed WBANs. First, we model a network with multiple WBANs as an interference graph where node-level interference and traffic priority are taken into account. Second, we formulate link scheduling for multiple WBANs as an optimization model where the objective is to maximize the throughput of the entire network while ensuring the traffic priority of sensor nodes. Finally, we propose the ITLS algorithm for multiple WBANs on the basis of the optimization model. High spatial reuse is also achieved in the proposed ITLS algorithm. The proposed ITLS achieves high spatial reuse while considering traffic priority, packet length, and the number of interfered sensor nodes. Our simulation results show that the proposed ITLS significantly increases spatial reuse and network throughput with lower delay by mitigating inter-WBAN interference.

  8. Compressive sensing-based channel bandwidth improvement in optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing link using visible light emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yong-Yuk; Yoon, Sang Min

    2014-08-25

    A new technique, which can compensate for the lack of channel bandwidth in an optical wireless orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) link based on a light emitting diode (LED), is proposed. It uses an adaptive sampling and an inverse discrete cosine transform in order to convert an OFDM signal into a sparse waveform so that not only is the important data obtained efficiently but the redundancy one is removed. In compressive sensing (CS), a sparse signal that is sampled below the Nyquist/Shannon limit can be reconstructed successively with enough measurement. This means that the CS technique can increase the data rate of visible light communication (VLC) systems based on LEDs. It is observed that the data rate of the proposed CS-based VLC-OFDM link can be made 1.7 times greater than a conventional VLC-OFDM link (from 30.72 Mb/s to 51.2 Mb/s). We see that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) symbol is 31% (FEC limit: EVM of 32%) at a compression ratio of 40%.

  9. Generic icons – yes or no?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Bedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The information society has become increasingly dependant on programs that are subjected to frequent evolutive, basic and logical changes for a variety of reasons whereas the visual design of the program/program interface mostly remains the same or gets slightly modified. The development of technology has become to such an extent a commonplace that the use of redesigned programs implies icons that are visually acceptable although representing obsolete technologies and that are eventually hard to change due to the habits developed by the program users. The research presents a study into the personal preference as to a particular icon, “Save” for example, and into the perception of the visual identities of today's programs under the circumstance of program icons being not compliant with the technological state-of-the-art. Based on the obtained results, the survey that included students attending web design and media technician courses and ECDL course participants who come in contact with computers and programming tools for the first time should enlighten both teachers and designers of programming interfaces about the way of linking the formal knowledge with a constructivist approach to designing and redesigning programs.

  10. Iconic gesturing in bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty, Emilie; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We comment on a recent behavioral study in which we describe a human-like beckoning gesture in 2 groups of bonobos, used in combination with sexual solicitation postures. The beckoning gesture fulfils key criteria of deixis and iconicity, in that it communicates to a distant recipient the desired travel path in relation to a specific social intention, i.e., to have sex at another location. We discuss this finding in light of the fact that, despite the documented great ape capacity and obvious communicative advantage, referential gestures are still surprisingly rare in their natural communication. We address several possibilities for this peculiar underuse and are most compelled by the notion that non-human primates are generally not very motivated to share their experiences of external objects or events with others, which removes most reasons for referential signaling.

  11. Type of Iconicity Matters in the Vocabulary Development of Signing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Sümer, Beyza; Özyürek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during vocabulary development in sign language. Results from…

  12. Type of iconicity matters in the vocabulary development of signing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, G.; Sümer, B.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on signed as well as spoken language shows that the iconic features of the target language might play a role in language development. Here, we ask further whether different types of iconic depictions modulate children's preferences for certain types of sign-referent links during

  13. Bandwidth enhancement of wireless optical communication link using a near-infrared laser over turbid underwater channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, It Ee

    2017-11-30

    Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has been widely studied as a promising alternative to establish reliable short-range marine communication links. Microscopic particulates suspended in various ocean, harbor and natural waters will alter the propagation characteristics of the optical signals underwater. In this paper, we demonstrate a gigabit near-infrared (NIR)-based UWOC link using an 808-nm laser diode, to examine the feasibility of the proposed system in mitigating the particle scattering effect over turbid waters. We show that the NIR wavelengths presents greater resilience to the aqueous suspension of these micro-sized particles with a smaller scattering effect due to its longer wavelength, as evident by the smaller variations in the optical beam transmittance. It is also observed that the error performance is improved at higher concentrations albeit the significant reduction in received signal power. We further demonstrate that the overall frequency response of the system exhibits a bandwidth enhancement up to a few tens of MHz with increasing concentrations.

  14. 30 pJ/b, 67 Mbps, Centimeter-to-Meter Range Data Telemetry With an IR-UWB Wireless Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an energy-efficient, impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link operating in 3-5 GHz for data telemetry over centimeter-to-meter range distances at rates extended to tens of Mbps. The link comprises an all-digital, integrated transmitter (TX) fabricated in 90 nm 1P/9M CMOS that incorporates a waveform-synthesis pulse generator and a timing generator for on-off-keying (OOK) pulse modulation and phase scrambling. The link also incorporates an energy-detection receiver (RX) realized with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components that performs radio-frequency (RF) filtering, amplification, logarithmic power detection for data demodulation and automatic level control for robust operation in the presence of distance variations. Employing a miniaturized, UWB, chip antenna for the TX and RX, wireless transmission of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at rates up to 50 Mbps over 10 cm-1 m is shown. Further, employing a high-gain horn antenna for the RX, wireless transmission of PRBS data at rates up to 67 Mbps over 50 cm-4 m is shown with a TX energy consumption of 30 pJ/b (i.e., power consumption of 2 mW) from 1.2 V. The measured bit error rate (BER) in both cases is UWB link are also included, exhibiting excellent match with those obtained from a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link at ~433 MHz.

  15. Wireless optical transceiver design, link analisys and alignment control for mobile communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dayong

    Pointing, acquisition and tracking of a free-space optical node in a mobile network experiencing misalignment due to adverse factors including vibration, motion and atmospheric turbulence requires a different approach than traditional free-space optical transceivers. A recent fiber-bundle approach for beam steering at the transmitter was investigated to provide continuous beam coverage at the receiver without the application of mechanical devices. Utilizing multiple fibers-lenses sets at the receiver was also proposed to enhance the tolerance of optical link misalignment. In this work, both laboratory experiments and software simulation were implemented to evaluate the optical link performance for different fiber-bundle-based transceiver setups as the link parameters were varied. The performance was evaluated in terms of the coverage area at the receiver, which is a measure of misalignment tolerance and is dependent not only on wavelength but on other key parameters such as link length, transmitted power, the pattern of transmitters, beam divergence, and the receiver construction. The results showed that fiber-bindle-based transceivers reveal significant potential to maximize the up time of the link, and the results also provide guidance on the further development of the overall system. To incorporate the proposed transceiver designs, an alignment control system was developed and evaluated as well. The laboratory results show that the optical control system successfully recovered and maintained the link while the receiver was in motion and the signal coverage at the target area was enhanced significantly.

  16. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  17. Are the warning icons more attentional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin; Yafeng, Niu; Lei, Zhou

    2017-11-01

    The rapid growth of attention to visual warnings is a representation of the adaptive behavior of humans. However, the ways warning icons attract attention in the cognition context has yet to be clarified. This research aims to investigate cognitive mechanism of warning icons under various perceptual loads. The results of Experiment A, whose average attentional capture effect of the warning icons (69 ms) was significantly higher than that of the ordinary icons (35 ms), show that compared with ordinary icons, warning icons are prioritized in processing under both high and low perceptual loads. Besides, the attention capturing abilities of non-target warning icons are the same under high and low perceptual loads. To isolate the effects of salient visual features and semantics, warning icons in Experiment B are replaced with transposed icons with saliency but no semantics. The attentional capture effect of warning icons is found to be significantly smaller under high load than under low load, so the effect in Experiment A can be attributed to the semantics of warning icons. In Experiment C the icons of negative and neutral semantics without salient frames are used as interfering stimuli, and the RT to the negative icons (823 ms) was longer than both the RT to the neutral icons (780 ms) and to the no interference icons (743 ms) (P icons have stronger attention capturing ability than neutral icons. This research verifies that the semantics of icons is vital, and icons with salient visual features and negative semantics can enhance attentional capture effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmosphere characterization for simulation of the two optimal wireless terahertz digital communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandehgar, Mahboubeh; Yang, Yihong; Grischkowsky, D

    2013-09-01

    Our studies of terahertz pulse propagation in the atmosphere have identified the two most optimal communication channels. The potential of these channels is demonstrated by physically accurate linear dispersion theory calculations of digital pulse propagation, showing it is possible to have two high-performance, point-to-point digital terahertz links in the atmosphere: a direct 95 GHz, 20 km ground link at 9.5 Gb/s with power loss of 10 dB due to water vapor at RH 58% (10 g/m3) and 20°C, and a direct 250 GHz, geosynchronous satellite link at 20.8 Gb/s with a 2 km zenith path with water vapor loss of 9 dB.

  19. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .nbdc00805-001 Description of data contents Illustrations (icons) of biological species. Four different type...se image files of illustrations and also place icons on a website using URLs of the icons.... In a simple search table, you can narrow down the icons using a taxonomy tree view, located on top...ogodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_en Data acquisition method Illustrations (icons) are create...ion which were used to refine icons in original database interface. Icon (Large) File name of the large-size

  1. A High-Temporal and Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature Network In Iowa Using Wireless Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Krajewki, W. F.; Eichinger, W. E.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Cunha, L.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past year we have created an in-situ soil moisture and soil temperature network in a 200 acre agricultural plot at Ames, Iowa. This work is part of a collaborative effort between researchers at The University of Iowa, and Iowa State University. The purpose of the network is to provide high temporal and spatial resolution soil moisture and soil temperature data to validate remotely-sensed observations of the terrestrial water cycle. This is part of a larger effort by the authors and collaborators to improve the quantitative value of remotely-sensed observations of the water cycle. In addition to the soil moisture and soil temperature measurements, detailed precipitation data, and atmospheric data such as air temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and velocity, and solar radiation data are collected. The current soil moisture network consists of 10 Iowa and Iowa State stations, each equipped with seven pairs of soil moisture and soil temperature sensors. In the future, the network will be expanded to 15 stations. At each of the 10 station the sensors pairs are deployed at depths of 1.5, 4.5, 15, 30, and 60 cm to provide a vertical profile of soil moisture and soil temperature. Prior to installation we calibrated the soil temperature sensors to within 0.1 degree Celsius. The time-domain reflectometry soil moisture measurements are adjusted for local soil conditions. At each of the 10 stations, data are collected every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted wirelessly with low power radio links to a central location. The system started collecting data at the beginning of July, 2007. One of the challenges we faced is how to provide reliable solar power to the wireless nodes, since the current crop, corn, grows up to 3 m tall, and casts dense shadows. The corn also significantly attenuates the radios signals, and the radios fell far short of their advertized ranges. Consequently, we had to use high-gain antennas, and robust retransmit communication modes

  2. On the Performance of Optical Wireless Links over Random Foggy Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Esmail, Maged

    2017-02-17

    Fog and dust are used to be considered as major performance degrading factors for free space optic (FSO) communication links. Despite the number of field measurements, performed in foggy environments during the last decades, most of the proposed channel attenuation models are deterministic, i.e., assumed the channel attenuation constant over time. Stochastic behavior of the channel is still understudied. In this work, we investigate the probabilistic behavior of the FSO channel in fog and develop a new statistical model for the signal attenuation. Moreover, we derive a probability distribution function (PDF) for the channel state. Using this PDF, we study the FSO system performance considering various metrics including average signal-to-noise ratio, average bit error rate, channel capacity, and probability of outage. Closed form expressions are derived for the average SNR and outage probability. We found acceptable performance with moderate and light fog. However, under thick and dense fog, the system performance poorly deteriorates. Finally, we derived closed form expressions for the average attenuation-distance product and the link availability that will potentially be very helpful for network design and planning.

  3. Iconic hyperlinks on e-commerce websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong-In; Patterson, Patrick E

    2007-01-01

    The proper use of iconic interfaces reduces system complexity and helps users interact with systems more easily. However, due to carelessness, inadequate research, and the web's relatively short history, the icons used on web sites often are ambiguous. Because non-identifiable icons may convey meanings other than those intended, designers must consider whether icons are easily identifiable when creating web sites. In this study, visual icons used on e-business web sites were examined by population stereotypy and categorized into three groups: identifiable, medium, and vague. Representative icons from each group were tested by comparing selection performance in groups of student volunteers, with identifiable and medium icons improving performance. We found that only easily identifiable icons can reduce complexity and increase system usability.

  4. Energy-Aware Topology Evolution Model with Link and Node Deletion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex network theory, a new topological evolving model is proposed. In the evolution of the topology of sensor networks, the energy-aware mechanism is taken into account, and the phenomenon of change of the link and node in the network is discussed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are conducted to explore the topology characteristics and network performance with different node energy distribution. We find that node energy distribution has the weak effect on the degree distribution P(k that evolves into the scale-free state, nodes with more energy carry more connections, and degree correlation is nontrivial disassortative. Moreover, the results show that, when nodes energy is more heterogeneous, the network is better clustered and enjoys higher performance in terms of the network efficiency and the average path length for transmitting data.

  5. Hybrid Strategies for Link Adaptation Exploiting Several Degrees of Freedom in OFDM Based Broadband Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra S.; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, there are several degrees of freedom in time and frequency domain, such as, sub-band size, forward error control coding (FEC) rate, modulation order, power level, modulation adaptation interval, coding rate adaptation interval and powe...... of the link parameters based on the channel conditions would lead to highly complex systems with high overhead. Hybrid strategies to vary the adaptation rates to tradeoff achievable efficiency and complexity are presented in this work.......In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, there are several degrees of freedom in time and frequency domain, such as, sub-band size, forward error control coding (FEC) rate, modulation order, power level, modulation adaptation interval, coding rate adaptation interval and power...

  6. Two-user opportunistic scheduling using hierarchical modulations in wireless networks with heterogenous average link gains

    KAUST Repository

    Hossain, Md Jahangir

    2010-03-01

    Our contribution, in this paper, is two-fold. First, we analyze the performance of a hierarchical modulation-assisted two-best user opportunistic scheduling (TBS) scheme, which was proposed by the authors, in a fading environment where different users have different average link gains. Specifically, we present a new expression for the spectral efficiency (SE) of the users and using this expression, we compare the degrees of fairness (DOF) of the TBS scheme with that of classical single user opportunistic scheduling schemes, namely, absolute carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) based single-best user scheduling (SBS) and normalized CNR based proportional fair scheduling (PFS) schemes. The second contribution is that we propose a new hybrid two-user opportunistic scheduling (HTS) scheme based on our earlier proposed TBS scheme. This HTS scheme selects the first user based on the largest absolute CNR value among all the users while the second user is selected based on the ratios of the absolute CNRs to the corresponding average CNRs of the remaining users. The total transmission rate i.e., the constellation size is selected according to the absolute CNR of the first best user. The total transmission rate is then allocated among these selected users by joint consideration of their absolute CNRs and allocated number of information bit(s) are transmitted to them using hierarchical modulations. Numerical results are presented for a fading environment where different users experience independent but non-identical (i.n.d.) channel fading. These selected numerical results show that the proposed HTS scheme can considerably increase the system\\'s fairness without any degradation of the link spectral efficiency (LSE) i.e., the multiuser diversity gain compared to the classical SBS scheme. These results also show that the proposed HTS scheme has a lower fairness in comparison to the PFS scheme which suffers from a considerable degradation in LSE. © 2010 IEEE.

  7. Single- and Multiband OFDM Photonic Wireless Links in the 75−110 GHz Band Employing Optical Combs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán, M.; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    The photonic generation of electrical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated wireless signals in the 75−110 GHz band is experimentally demonstrated employing in-phase/quadrature electrooptical modulation and optical heterodyn upconversion. The wireless transmission of 16......-quadrature-amplitude-modulation OFDM signals is demonstrated with a bit error rate performance within the forward error correction limits. Signals of 19.1 Gb/s in 6.3-GHz bandwidth are transmitted over up to 1.3-m wireless distance. Optical comb generation is further employed to support different channels...

  8. Scintillation index and performance analysis of wireless optical links over non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence based on generalized atmospheric spectral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu

    2011-09-26

    Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  9. Weak beacon detection for air-to-ground optical wireless link establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaoqiang; Dang, Anhong; Tang, Junxiong; Guo, Hong

    2010-02-01

    In an air-to-ground free-space optical communication system, strong background interference seriously affects the beacon detection, which makes it difficult to establish the optical link. In this paper, we propose a correlation beacon detection scheme under strong background interference conditions. As opposed to traditional beacon detection schemes, the beacon is modulated by an m-sequence at the transmitting terminal with a digital differential matched filter (DDMF) array introduced at the receiving end to detect the modulated beacon. This scheme is capable of suppressing both strong interference and noise by correlation reception of the received image sequence. In addition, the DDMF array enables each pixel of the image sensor to have its own DDMF of the same structure to process its received image sequence in parallel, thus it makes fast beacon detection possible. Theoretical analysis and an outdoor experiment have been demonstrated and show that the proposed scheme can realize fast and effective beacon detection under strong background interference conditions. Consequently, the required beacon transmission power can also be reduced dramatically.

  10. Mapping language to the world: the role of iconicity in the sign language input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniss, Pamela; Lu, Jenny C; Morgan, Gary; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2017-03-12

    Most research on the mechanisms underlying referential mapping has assumed that learning occurs in ostensive contexts, where label and referent co-occur, and that form and meaning are linked by arbitrary convention alone. In the present study, we focus on iconicity in language, that is, resemblance relationships between form and meaning, and on non-ostensive contexts, where label and referent do not co-occur. We approach the question of language learning from the perspective of the language input. Specifically, we look at child-directed language (CDL) in British Sign Language (BSL), a language rich in iconicity due to the affordances of the visual modality. We ask whether child-directed signing exploits iconicity in the language by highlighting the similarity mapping between form and referent. We find that CDL modifications occur more often with iconic signs than with non-iconic signs. Crucially, for iconic signs, modifications are more frequent in non-ostensive contexts than in ostensive contexts. Furthermore, we find that pointing dominates in ostensive contexts, and suggest that caregivers adjust the semiotic resources recruited in CDL to context. These findings offer first evidence for a role of iconicity in the language input and suggest that iconicity may be involved in referential mapping and language learning, particularly in non-ostensive contexts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Study of Fog Characteristics using Free-Space Optical Wireless Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique for modeling the fog droplet size distributions using modified gamma distribution has been demonstrated by considering two separate radiation fog events recorded in Graz (Austria and Prague (Czech Republic. The measurement of liquid water content (LWC and the optical attenuations at visible wavelength are used to form equations to obtain the three parameters of the modified gamma distribution i.e., the slope (Λ, the intercept (N0 and the shape parameter (m. Calculated attenuation or LWC from the retrieved parameters are in excellent agreement with attenuation or LWC obtained from the measurement. Hence this method is useful in the study of fog microphysics and in modeling the fog attenuations for terrestrial FSO links in situations when our measurement data contains values of attenuations only, or liquid water content only or both at a particular location. For the two case studies, Graz and Prague, we obtained the DSD parameters Λ=3.547 ± 1.935, N0 =3.834 ± 2.239, m=6.135 ± 2.692 and Λ=5.882 ± 2.889, N0 =13.41 ± 3.875, m=5.288 ± 3.113, respectively. It is evident that the observed behavior of computed modified gamma distribution parameters for Graz and Prague is closely the same and is consistent with the previous literature for the radiation (continental fog. Moreover, we observed the variation of the computed DSD parameters at the different stages of fog (formation, maturity and dissipation phases indicating different microphysical processes at each stage.

  12. GHz wireless On-off-Keying link employing all photonic RF carrier generation and digital coherent detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, Rakesh; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Gb/s wireless signals at 82, 88 and 100 GHz carrier frequencies are successfully generated by heterodyne mixing of two optical carriers. A photonic detection technique with optical coherent receiver and digital signal processing is implemented for signal demodulation....

  13. Combined single-mode/multimode fiber link supporting simplified in-building 60-GHz gigabit wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Lebedev, Alexander; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple, cost-effective hybrid gigabit fiber-wireless system for in-building wireless access. Simplicity and cost-effectiveness are achieved in all parts of the system by utilizing direct laser modulation, optical frequency up-conversion, ......In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple, cost-effective hybrid gigabit fiber-wireless system for in-building wireless access. Simplicity and cost-effectiveness are achieved in all parts of the system by utilizing direct laser modulation, optical frequency up......-conversion, combined single mode/multimode fiber transmission and envelope detection. Error-free transmission of 2-Gbps data in 60-GHz band over a composite channel including 10-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF)/1-km multimode fiber (MMF) and 6.5-m air transmission was successfully achieved....

  14. Gigabit close-proximity wireless connections supported by 60 GHz RoF links with low carrier suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pang, Xiaodan; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    report on error free transmission over 20 km of standard single mode fiber and 1 m of wireless distance. Furthermore, the efficiency of photonic RF generation depending on the value of carrier suppression is reported. We argue that transport of RoF signals with low carrier suppression assisted...... with simplified techniques of lightwave generation, baseband data modulation, and RF downconversion might be a promising enabling technology for fiber support of close-proximity wireless terminals....

  15. What becomes an icon most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Douglas B

    2003-03-01

    Some brands become icons. Think of Nike, Apple, Harley-Davidson: They're the brands every marketer regards with awe. But they are not built according to the principles of conventional marketing, says Harvard Business School marketing professor Douglas Holt. Iconic brands beat the competition not just by delivering innovative benefits, services, or technologies but by forging a deep connection with the culture. A brand becomes an icon when it offers a compelling myth, a story that can help people resolve tensions in their lives. The deepest source of tension in modern society is the disparity between national ideology and the average citizen's reality. When ideologies shift, myths become even more important, and in America, the most potent myths are depictions of rebels. Mountain Dew has long offered a rebel myth in ads showing exciting, vital men who are far from the ideological model of success. Loyal customers drink the beverage to consume the myth. But Mountain Dew's greatest achievement is that it has retained its iconic power by creating fresh rebel myths to suit the tensions of each era: first the hillbilly, who stood in stark contrast to the organization man of the 1950s and 1960s; then the redneck, who rebelled against the investment bankers and consultants of the 1970s and 1980s; and most recently the slacker, who rejects the values and behaviors that, for the past decade, have marked the successful executive. Holt says marketers can learn from Mountain Dew and other iconic brands if they are willing to move beyond conventional brand management and acquire knowledge and skills they may not have. They must learn to target national contradictions instead of just consumer segments, create myths that make sense of confusing societal changes, and speak with a rebel's voice.

  16. Integrating Conjoint Analysis with TOPSIS Algorithm to the Visual Effect of Icon Design Based on Multiple Users' Image Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Ting-Chun; Chen, Hung-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    With the advance of mobile computing and wireless technology, a user's intent to interact with the interface of a mobile device is motivated not only by its intuitional operation, but also by the emotional perception induced by its aesthetic appeal. A graphical interface employing icons with suitable visual effect based on the users' emotional…

  17. Using icons to convey medication schedule information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, D G; Leirer, V O; Andrassy, J M

    1996-08-01

    We examined older adult comprehension and memory for medication schedules conveyed by different types of visual icons as well as text. Three icons were compared: a timeline, a pair of 12 h clocks (one for AM and one for PM hours) and a 24 h clock. In Experiment 1, older and younger participants paraphrased and then recalled schedules that were conveyed by the three icons or by text. Text and timeline schedules were paraphrased more accurately than either clock icon. Paraphrase errors suggested that subjects had trouble integrating schedule information across the two 12 h clocks. Analysis of paraphrase times showed that the text schedule was paraphrased most quickly, followed by the timeline, the 24 h clock and the 12 h clock. No differences were found for the accuracy of recalling the icon and text schedules. Experiment 2 examined free and cued recall after limited study time by older adults. Because text superiority in Experiment 1 may have reflected greater familiarity with text than with icons, recall was examined across four trials in Experiment 2. Text was recalled most accurately, followed by the timeline, the 24 h clock and the 12 h clock. Study-test trials did not influence recall. Text schedules may have been generally more effective than the icons because of their greater familiarity. The timeline may have been the most effective icon because it was more compact and familiar than the clock icons used in the study. The findings suggest that including such icons in medication instructions requires training.

  18. Improved analysis of 2.5 Gbps-inter-satellite link (ISL) in inter-satellite optical-wireless communication (IsOWC) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishal; Kumar, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    Inter-satellite optical-wireless communication systems (IsOWC), one of the important applications of FSO/WSO technology, will be deployed in space in the near future. The IsOWC systems provide a high bandwidth, small size, light weight, low power and low cost alternative to present microwave satellite systems. In this paper, we have reported the improved investigation through implementation of a square root module using OPTISYSTEM™ simulator to establish an inter-satellite link (ISL) between two satellites estranged by a distance of 1000 Km at data rate of 2.5 Gbps which is not reported in previous investigated work.

  19. High capacity wireless data links in the W-band using hybrid photonics-electronic techniques for signal generation and detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2014-01-01

    , is seeding the need to use bands located at the millimeter-wave region (30–300 GHz), mainly because of its inherent broadband nature. In our lab, we have conducted extensive research on high-speed photonic-wireless links in the V-band (50–75GHz) and the W-band (75–110GHz). In this paper, we will present our...... latest findings and experimental results on the W-band, specifically on its 81–86GHz sub-band. These include photonic generation of millimeter-wave carriers and transmission performance of broadband signals on different types of fibers and span lengths....

  20. "Never as Gods": Lessons from a Millennium of Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrame, Anton C.

    2003-01-01

    The Orthodox Christian experience with sacred art--icons--serves as a guide to the present consideration of the potential and challenges of the icon and iconic in our visual age. This article considers contemporary understandings of the icon in light of a millennium of living with icons in the Orthodox tradition. Three basic questions are asked…

  1. Malala and the politics of global iconicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The article presents a case analysis of Malala Yousafzai's transformation into a global injustice icon after she was shot in 2012 by the Pakistani Taliban for advocating for girls' right to education. The analysis focuses on the political aspects of this process and is divided into three parts. The first looks at factors that facilitated Malala's iconization as she was undergoing medical treatment and was unable to participate in her iconization. The second part starts when Malala enters the global public sphere and begins to actively contribute to the iconization process. The third part identifies de-iconizing resistance to Malala from Pakistani actors who see her iconization as a symbolic colonization in which Malala has become a vehicle of the West. Theoretically, the article is located within cultural sociology, but expands it in a political and global direction. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  2. Global Communication with Icons in Environmental Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbürger, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  3. Fallingwater: Preserving an American icon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda S. Waggoner

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater is an icon of 20th century architecture. It is undoubtedly one of the most emblematic, best known and most admired buildings in the world. The complex restoration process, which LOGGIA has the honour of including in this issue, has the added virtue that it throws new light on its design and execution. The restoration covers not only compromised structural and aesthetic aspects related to the concrete surfaces of the building but even the environmental management of the whole site, more and more endangered by the large number of visitors received.

  4. ICON: Radical Professional Development in the Conservatoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Celia

    2016-01-01

    The idea for the Innovative Conservatoire (ICON) was first proposed at the Reflective Conservatoire Conference in 2006. An international collaboration which stimulates knowledge exchange, innovation and reflective practice in conservatoires, ICON has opened up an area of work that is often carried out behind closed doors. Working via creative…

  5. ICONES ORCHIDACEARUM MALAYENSIUM: ADDIT AMENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. SMITH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A few weeks after the publication of the final instalment of the late Dr J. J. Smith's "Icones Orchidacearum Malayensium," volume 2 (Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Serie III, Supplement: Volume 3. 1949, a dozen more plates of this work were submitted to the Herbarium at Bogor (Buitenzorg from the author's estate. As inclusion in the aforementioned volume, which was definitely closed last year, appeared undersirable for technical reasons, these addi- tional plates are now issued separately from the "Icones." They still represent an undoubtedly valuable contribution to the correct understand- ing of no less than 54 species of orchids all (except one previously de- scribed by Dr Smith as new. The explanations were all prepared by the author himself. If the present plates had been incorporated in the main work (which ends with plate 176 in their proper sequence, they would have been numbered 178-189. Of plate 177 only the explanation could be found; the plate itself is missing. The species represented by it are: Liparis arcuata J. J. S., L. endertii J. J. S., L. lycopodioides J. J. S., and L. biglobulifera J.J. S.

  6. The equations icons of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, Sander

    2005-01-01

    For thousands of years mankind has tried to understand nature. Exploring the world on all scales with instruments of ever more ingenuity, we have been able to unravel some of the great mysteries that surround us. While collecting an overwhelming multitude of observational facts, we discovered fundamental laws that govern the structure and evolution of physical reality. We know that nature speaks to us in the language of mathematics. In this language most of our basic understanding of the physical world can be expressed in an unambiguous and concise way. The most artificial language turns out to be the most natural of all. The laws of nature correspond to equations. These equations are the icons of knowledge that mark crucial turning points in our thinking about the world we happen to live in. They form the symbolic representation of most of what we know, and as such constitute an important and robust part of our culture.

  7. Limited Evaluation of an 802.11b Air-to-Air Wireless Data Link (Project Have HALO II)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Volesky, Robert A; Geitgey, Jason W; Vap, Jason C; Creviston, Douglas O; Kikuchi, Morikazu

    2007-01-01

    ... and 1.58 Watt effective isotropic radiated power. The test team also demonstrated the capability of transmitting still photos, streaming video, pre-recorded video and text files across the data link...

  8. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  9. SmartMIMO: An Energy-Aware Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Radio Link Control for Next-Generation Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehaene Wim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna systems and more particularly those operating on multiple input and multiple output (MIMO channels are currently a must to improve wireless links spectrum efficiency and/or robustness. There exists a fundamental tradeoff between potential spectrum efficiency and robustness increase. However, multiantenna techniques also come with an overhead in silicon implementation area and power consumption due, at least, to the duplication of part of the transmitter and receiver radio front-ends. Although the area overhead may be acceptable in view of the performance improvement, low power consumption must be preserved for integration in nomadic devices. In this case, it is the tradeoff between performance (e.g., the net throughput on top of the medium access control layer and average power consumption that really matters. It has been shown that adaptive schemes were mandatory to avoid that multiantenna techniques hamper this system tradeoff. In this paper, we derive smartMIMO: an adaptive multiantenna approach which, next to simply adapting the modulation and code rate as traditionally considered, decides packet-per-packet, depending on the MIMO channel state, to use either space-division multiplexing (increasing spectrum efficiency, space-time coding (increasing robustness, or to stick to single-antenna transmission. Contrarily to many of such adaptive schemes, the focus is set on using multiantenna transmission to improve the link energy efficiency in real operation conditions. Based on a model calibrated on an existing reconfigurable multiantenna transceiver setup, the link energy efficiency with the proposed scheme is shown to be improved by up to 30% when compared to nonadaptive schemes. The average throughput is, on the other hand, improved by up to 50% when compared to single-antenna transmission.

  10. SmartMIMO: An Energy-Aware Adaptive MIMO-OFDM Radio Link Control for Next-Generation Wireless Local Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Dehaene

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiantenna systems and more particularly those operating on multiple input and multiple output (MIMO channels are currently a must to improve wireless links spectrum efficiency and/or robustness. There exists a fundamental tradeoff between potential spectrum efficiency and robustness increase. However, multiantenna techniques also come with an overhead in silicon implementation area and power consumption due, at least, to the duplication of part of the transmitter and receiver radio front-ends. Although the area overhead may be acceptable in view of the performance improvement, low power consumption must be preserved for integration in nomadic devices. In this case, it is the tradeoff between performance (e.g., the net throughput on top of the medium access control layer and average power consumption that really matters. It has been shown that adaptive schemes were mandatory to avoid that multiantenna techniques hamper this system tradeoff. In this paper, we derive smartMIMO: an adaptive multiantenna approach which, next to simply adapting the modulation and code rate as traditionally considered, decides packet-per-packet, depending on the MIMO channel state, to use either space-division multiplexing (increasing spectrum efficiency, space-time coding (increasing robustness, or to stick to single-antenna transmission. Contrarily to many of such adaptive schemes, the focus is set on using multiantenna transmission to improve the link energy efficiency in real operation conditions. Based on a model calibrated on an existing reconfigurable multiantenna transceiver setup, the link energy efficiency with the proposed scheme is shown to be improved by up to 30% when compared to nonadaptive schemes. The average throughput is, on the other hand, improved by up to 50% when compared to single-antenna transmission.

  11. Beam steering application for W-band data links with moving targets in 5G wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    link is evaluated in terms of real-time BER (Bit Error Rate) measurements. The receiver is situated in different positions, and the orientation of the transmitter is changed accordingly. Values below the forward error correction limit for 7% overhead are obtained over a range of 60 cm around a center...

  12. A semi-automatic semantic method for mapping SNOMED CT concepts to VCM Icons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Tsopra, Rosy; Venot, Alain; Duclos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    VCM (Visualization of Concept in Medicine) is an iconic language for representing key medical concepts by icons. However, the use of this language with reference terminologies, such as SNOMED CT, will require the mapping of its icons to the terms of these terminologies. Here, we present and evaluate a semi-automatic semantic method for the mapping of SNOMED CT concepts to VCM icons. Both SNOMED CT and VCM are compositional in nature; SNOMED CT is expressed in description logic and VCM semantics are formalized in an OWL ontology. The proposed method involves the manual mapping of a limited number of underlying concepts from the VCM ontology, followed by automatic generation of the rest of the mapping. We applied this method to the clinical findings of the SNOMED CT CORE subset, and 100 randomly-selected mappings were evaluated by three experts. The results obtained were promising, with 82 of the SNOMED CT concepts correctly linked to VCM icons according to the experts. Most of the errors were easy to fix.

  13. Representations of God in Icons. Immanence and Transcendence in Christian Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbasoiu Iulian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human desire to be in a more natural relationship with God, his Creator, caused the former to find different means of communication. In addition to the liturgical expression, materialized in prayer, another way of interaction is represented by the icon. The icon and through the icon, Heaven and earth, God and the members of the triumphant Church and the ones of the militant Church meet and communicate. The iconographic representation of God, symbols, events and holy Persons, gave rise to much controversy in history, which triggered a major conflict in the life of the Church, culminating in the eighth century iconoclastic dispute. The Seventh Ecumenical Council solved this dispute and placed the icon in its natural spiritual position. In the present study we will analyze and contrast how people have understood the freedom of representing the image of God the Father in icons, an issue which caused disputes and reactions due to exaggerations in artistic expression and misunderstandings linked to the limits of such representation. This evolution is considered historically in the Christian world, East and West, which shows either an exaggerated tolerance of representation or an extreme conservatism leading to the prohibition of painting an anthropomorphic image of the Father. We will also study the recommendations of in the textbooks of Christian erminia and we will present examples of Romanian iconographic art.

  14. A paraeducator glove for counting disabled-child behaviors that incorporates a Bluetooth Low Energy wireless link to a smart phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shiwei; Gude, Dana; Prakash, Punit; Warren, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Behavior tracking with severely disabled children can be a challenge, since dealing directly with a child's behavior is more immediately pressing than the need to record an event for tracking purposes. By the time a paraeducator (`para') is able to break away and record events, behavior counts can be forgotten. This paper presents a paraeducator glove design that can help to track behaviors with minimal distraction by allowing a paraeducator to touch their thumb to one of their other four fingers, where each finger represents a different behavior. Count data are packaged by a microcontroller board on the glove and then sent wirelessly to a smart phone via a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) link. A customized BLE profile was designed for this application to promote real-time recording. These data can be forwarded to a database for further analysis. This para glove design addresses basic needs of a wearable device that employs BLE, including local data collection, BLE data transmission, and remote data recording. More functional sensors can be added to this platform to support other wearable scenarios.

  15. Icons improve older and younger adults' comprehension of medication information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, D G; Hier, C M; Menard, W E; Leirer, V O

    1998-07-01

    We examined whether timeline icons improved older and younger adults' comprehension of medication information. In Experiment 1, comprehension of instructions with the icon (icon/text format) and without the icon (text-only format) was assessed by questions about information that was (a) implicit in the text but depicted explicitly by the icon (total dose in a 24 hour period), (b) stated and depicted in the icon/text condition (medication dose and times), and (c) stated but not depicted by the icon (e.g., side effects). In a separate task, participants also recalled medication instructions (with or without the icon) after a study period. We found that questions about dose and time information were answered more quickly and accurately when the icon was present in the instructions. Notably, icon benefits were greater for information that was implicit rather than stated in the text. This finding suggests that icons can improve older and younger adults' comprehension by reducing the need to draw some inferences. The icon also reduced effective study time (study time per item recalled). In Experiment 2, icon benefits did not occur for a less integrated version of the timeline icon that, like the text, required participants to integrate dose and time information in order to identify the total daily dose. The integrated version of the icon again improved comprehension, as in Experiment 1, as well as drawing inferences from memory. These findings show that integrated timeline icons improved comprehension primarily by aiding the integration of dose and time information. These findings are discussed in terms of a situation model approach to comprehension.

  16. Dating of ancient icons from Kiev art collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalyukh, N; van der Plicht, J; Possnert, G; Skripkin, [No Value; Chlenova, L; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    Icon painting in the Ukraine is rooted in the Byzantine culture, after the conversion to the Christian religion. During the medieval epoch, Kiev became the artistic center for highly skilled icon painters. The icons were painted on wooden boards, specially made for this purpose. Historic dating of

  17. Compact wideband CMOS receiver frontends for wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wireless communication is an integral part of our daily life, the mobile phone is an example of a very popular wireless communication device. A communication link consists of a transmitter, a receiver and the transmission medium, which air or vacuum for a wireless link. Part of the receiver

  18. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  19. Wireless telecommunication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terré, Michel; Vivier, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Wireless telecommunication systems generate a huge amount of interest. In the last two decades, these systems have experienced at least three major technological leaps, and it has become impossible to imagine how society was organized without them. In this book, we propose a macroscopic approach on wireless systems, and aim at answering key questions about power, data rates, multiple access, cellular engineering and access networks architectures.We present a series of solved problems, whose objective is to establish the main elements of a global link budget in several radiocommunicati

  20. Designing Effective In-vehicle Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    This research update provides general human factors design information relevant to the early phases of in-vehicle icon development and design. It reflects a subset of the results to date of a Federal Highway Administration project to develop a set of...

  1. Cognitive iconic grounding of reduplication in language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, O.; Michelucci, P.; Fischer, O.; Ljungberg, C.

    2011-01-01

    My aim in this paper will be to find out to what extent opaque reduplications could also be said to be (or to have been) motivated (i.e. forming iconic signs), with the further aim of exploring the possibility of a common source for all reduplicated forms. I will show by referring to the way

  2. If Kids Ruled the World: ICONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottier, Kathleen L.

    1995-01-01

    Project ICONS (International Communication and Negotiation Simulation) is a computer-assisted simulation that casts students in diplomat and policymaker roles. Thrust into a laboratory of high-powered negotiations, they grapple with solutions to real and urgent international issues: world health, human rights, and the spread of nuclear technology.…

  3. Accuracy and User Performance Evaluation of a New, Wireless-enabled Blood Glucose Monitoring System That Links to a Smart Mobile Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Timothy S; Wallace, Jane F; Pardo, Scott; Warchal-Windham, Mary Ellen; Harrison, Bern; Morin, Robert; Christiansen, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The new Contour ® Plus ONE blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) features an easy-to-use, wireless-enabled blood glucose meter that links to a smart mobile device via Bluetooth ® connectivity and can sync with the Contour ™ Diabetes app on a smartphone or tablet. The accuracy of the new BGMS was assessed in 2 studies according to ISO 15197:2013 criteria. In Study 1 (laboratory study), fingertip capillary blood samples from 100 subjects were tested in duplicate using 3 test strip lots. In Study 2 (clinical study), 134 subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes enrolled at 2 clinical sites. BGMS results and YSI analyzer (YSI) reference results were compared for fingertip blood obtained by untrained subjects' self-testing and for study staff-obtained fingertip, subject palm, and venous results. In Study 1, 99.0% (594/600) of combined results for all 3 test strip lots fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 Section 6.3 accuracy criteria. In Study 2, 99.2% (133/134) of subject-obtained capillary fingertip results, 99.2% (133/134) of study staff-obtained fingertip results, 99.2% (125/126) of subject-obtained palm results, and 100% (132/132) of study staff-obtained venous results met ISO 15197:2013 Section 8 accuracy criteria. Moreover, 95.5% (128/134) of subject-obtained fingertip self-test results were within ±10 mg/dl (±0.6 mmol/L) or ±10% of the YSI reference result. Questionnaire results showed that most subjects found the BGMS easy to use. The BGMS exceeded ISO 15197:2013 accuracy criteria both in the laboratory and in a clinical setting when used by untrained subjects with diabetes.

  4. Testing of Candidate Icons to Identify Acetaminophen-Containing Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Cotton, Helene; Jessurun, Christina; Sembower, Mark A; Pype, Steve; Phillips, Jerry

    2016-01-27

    Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults ( n = 300) were randomized to view a prescription container label or over-the-counter labels with either one or two icons. Participants saw two icon candidates, and reported their interpretation; experts judged whether these reflected critical confusions that might cause harm. Participants rated how effectively each icon communicated key messages. Icons based on abbreviations of "acetaminophen" ("Ac", "Ace", "Acm") were rated less confusing and more effective in communicating the active ingredient than icons based on "APAP" or an abstract symbol. Icons did not result in critical confusion when seen on a readable medicine label. Icon implementation on prescription labels was more effective at communicating the warning against concomitant use than implementation on over-the-counter (OTC) labels. Adding an icon to a second location on OTC labels did not consistently enhance this communication, but reduced rated effectiveness of acetaminophen ingredient communication among participants with limited health literacy. The abbreviation-based icons seem most suitable for labeling acetaminophen-containing medications to enable users to identify acetaminophen-containing products.

  5. Testing of Candidate Icons to Identify Acetaminophen-Containing Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding icons on labels of acetaminophen-containing medicines could help users identify the active ingredient and avoid concomitant use of multiple medicines containing acetaminophen. We evaluated five icons for communication effectiveness. Adults (n = 300 were randomized to view a prescription container label or over-the-counter labels with either one or two icons. Participants saw two icon candidates, and reported their interpretation; experts judged whether these reflected critical confusions that might cause harm. Participants rated how effectively each icon communicated key messages. Icons based on abbreviations of “acetaminophen” (“Ac”, “Ace”, “Acm” were rated less confusing and more effective in communicating the active ingredient than icons based on “APAP” or an abstract symbol. Icons did not result in critical confusion when seen on a readable medicine label. Icon implementation on prescription labels was more effective at communicating the warning against concomitant use than implementation on over-the-counter (OTC labels. Adding an icon to a second location on OTC labels did not consistently enhance this communication, but reduced rated effectiveness of acetaminophen ingredient communication among participants with limited health literacy. The abbreviation-based icons seem most suitable for labeling acetaminophen-containing medications to enable users to identify acetaminophen-containing products.

  6. Legibility of small icons with color combinations in small displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Miao

    2007-02-01

    The present study explored the effects of figure/ground color combinations on legibility of small icons. This experiment used a 2 (icon size) x 3 (icon hue) x 3 (icon saturation) x 3 (background hue) x 3 (background saturation) x2 (luminance contrast) factorial design. Legibility was investigated by response time of subicons with different factors t hat affect discrimination. 11 undergraduate students from the National Formosa University in Taiwan were recruited to participate in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.8 yr. (SD=3.3). Analysis also showed that Icon Size x Luminance Contrast, Background Hue x Luminance Contrast, and Background Saturation x Luminance Contrast significantly affected response time. The results suggested that the higher Luminance Contrast could promote icon legibility but not the icon chromaticity or background chromaticity.

  7. Accelerating electron tomography reconstruction algorithm ICON with GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Zihao; Zhang, Jingrong; Li, Lun; Wan, Xiaohua; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Fa

    2017-01-01

    Electron tomography (ET) plays an important role in studying in situ cell ultrastructure in three-dimensional space. Due to limited tilt angles, ET reconstruction always suffers from the "missing wedge" problem. With a validation procedure, iterative compressed-sensing optimized NUFFT reconstruction (ICON) demonstrates its power in the restoration of validated missing information for low SNR biological ET dataset. However, the huge computational demand has become a major problem for the application of ICON. In this work, we analyzed the framework of ICON and classified the operations of major steps of ICON reconstruction into three types. Accordingly, we designed parallel strategies and implemented them on graphics processing units (GPU) to generate a parallel program ICON-GPU. With high accuracy, ICON-GPU has a great acceleration compared to its CPU version, up to 83.7×, greatly relieving ICON's dependence on computing resource.

  8. Material aspects of icons. A review on physicochemical studies of Greek icons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Sophia; Sister Daniilia

    2010-06-15

    Holy icons created in the Byzantine era are a vital entity in Orthodox Christianity, a living tradition unbroken over more than 1500 years. The importance of these symbolic representations has inspired interdisciplinary studies to better understand the materials and process of their construction. Researchers from a variety of fields are working together to place icons in their proper historical and cultural framework, as well as to develop long-term conservation strategies. In this Account, we review very recent analytical results of the materials and painting methods used in the production of Byzantine iconography. The care of icons requires particular attention because of their function; icons are objects of veneration and, for the most part, still stand in today's churches to serve ritual practices. Accordingly, they are affected by random, fluctuating environmental conditions aggravated by public access. Because of the holiness of the icons, the typical tradition of the church is to periodically restore the depicted scenes, either by retouching any defects or by partial or complete overpainting. These interventions greatly increase the complexity of the paint stratigraphy. To reveal the extent and quality of the original painting under several historical overpaintings or dirt overlays on the icon, researchers usually pursue a manifold approach, combining complementary multispectral imaging and spectroscopic techniques nondestructively. Unfortunately, a visual and exhaustive spectroscopic examination of a minimum number of cross-sectional microsamples is almost always necessary to clarify the structure of the paint layers and map the constituent materials identified therein. A full understanding of these details is critical for assessing the painting methods, stylistic conventions, and compositional concepts that render the different iconographic details. Cross-sectional micro-Raman spectroscopy, although time-consuming, now affords the direct identification of

  9. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  10. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  11. On the Understandability of Public Domain Icons: Effects of Gender and Age

    OpenAIRE

    Berget, Gerd; Sandnes, Frode Eika

    2015-01-01

    Icons and symbols are often deployed in graphical user interfaces. It is commonly believed that icons add to the user friendliness of products. Devel‐ opers have great trust in icon libraries and they are likely to use icons they under‐ stand themselves without verifying users’ understanding. Interfaces relying on icons that are misinterpreted can lead to erroneous operation. In this study a set of icons in the public domain was interpreted by 64 participants to assess how well general icons ...

  12. Introduction to wireless sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Forster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Explores real-world wireless sensor network development, deployment, and applications. The book begins with an introduction to wireless sensor networks and their fundamental concepts. Hardware components, operating systems, protocols, and algorithms that make up the anatomy of a sensor node are described in chapter two. Properties of wireless communications, medium access protocols, wireless links, and link estimation protocols are described in chapter three and chapter four. Routing basics and metrics, clustering techniques, time synchronization and localization protocols, as well as sensing techniques are introduced in chapter five to nine. The concluding chapter summarizes the learnt methods and shows how to use them to deploy real-world sensor networks in a structured way.

  13. Microwave materials for wireless applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cruickshank, David B

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource offers you an in-depth, up-to-date understanding of the use of microwave magnetic materials for cutting-edge wireless applications. The book discusses device applications used in wireless infrastructure base stations, point-to-point radio links, and a range of more specialized microwave systems. You find detailed discussions on the attributes of each family of magnetic materials with respect to specific wireless applications. Moreover, the book addresses two of the hottest topics in the field today - insertion loss and intermodulation. This comprehensive reference also

  14. Affixes, Austronesian and iconicity in Malay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Benjamin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Explanations are offered for the puzzling differences between the forms and meanings of the Malay affixes and those of the broader Austronesian affixal system from which they derive. Oral-gesture iconicity is involved in the encoding of meanings that have both language-internal and social significance. The various verbal prefixes can be analysed both historically and iconically as different combinations of (1 a labial series (m , b , p indicating ‘source orientation’ with (2 r ‘iterative’ and (3 ( N ‘process marker’. The full range of forms becomes apparent only if a sufficiently wide range of Malay and Malayic speech-varieties, both ancient and modern, are brought to bear on the discussion. The different meanings and functions associated with the various prefixes are motivated by the different semantic concerns engendered by the social and cultural circumstances peculiar to each of the speech-varieties.

  15. Iconic cuisines, marketing and place promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at how food and drink narratives are utilised to promote and create place identities. By exploring the concepts of heritage branding and constructed historical narratives, it illustrates how iconic cuisines are being employed to promote place and attract consumers. It argues that the marketing process is more than utilising established aspects of heritage cuisines and historical truths, as it is often about creating narratives to meet the evolving needs of destinations and ...

  16. Visualizing Risks: Icons for Information Attack Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    designed for “poets, managers, and other mathematically adverse people, ” as well as protocols graphics by Catherine Meadows ,15 Bruce Schneier,16...for “theft ” came from the extensive IMSI Vector Graphics Collection, and the icon for “earthquake ” was inspired by the weekly EarthWatch column from...Inc., 1996. 14 Graff, Jon, Crypto 101, KPMG, 1998. 15 Meadows , Catherine, Fundamental Questions About Formal Methods: Introduction to Panel

  17. THE ICON OR THE THERAPY THROUGH IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRINA-LAURA IONIŢĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In traditional thinking, human existence was conceived like a fall from a state of grace in consequence of the original sin. Thus, life did not have any other purpose, but to recovering the initial state by healing off the disease of being in becoming and ephemeral. Holy places or objects have always mediated the contact between the human being and the absolute, perceived like the only true reality. As an expression of the “sacred”, the icon becomes a way of spiritual healing, implicitly a way to heal the soul. Therefore, all the levels at which it can be deciphered do not have another purpose but to justify this function. From a formal perspective of the elements that make up the image, the sacred is suggested by some geometrical forms with colors having a symbolic value or by relations considered to be perfect - relations and proportions that are to be found again in the intimate structure of the whole universe and of the human being itself. That is why the contemplation of an icon determines the resonance with its enciphered rhythms meeting the need for the sacred, and it harmonizes the human being. From a phenomenological point of view, the icon proves to be a place of presence, of meeting. It is the part of transition to the transcendental horizon. The look of the bystander crosses the visible and the objective in order to meet a prototype, which is not an original or a second visible beyond the first one, but it is a second look that penetrates the materiality of the icon. This second look is a commanding authority to the perceiver. It is the light of the invisible divine eye, which lightens and purifies the spirit of the one contemplating it.

  18. 100-GHz Wireless-Over-Fiber Links With Up to 16-Gb/s QPSK Modulation Using Optical Heterodyne Generation and Digital Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, a novel technique for direct conversion of an optical baseband quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal to a millimeter-wave wireless signal and subsequent signal demodulation is reported. Optical heterodyne mixing of the optical baseband QPSK signal with a free-running unmodul...

  19. Global Communication with Icons : Hotel Safety as an Environmental Context

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbürger, Anneli; Khanom, Sukanya

    2015-01-01

    Icons are small signs with fixed meanings. Icons are usually context specific. For example in the context of a hotel, the client can often find icons in hotel room books and safety guides. Scandic Hotel chain, for example, currently provides the manual for its safety system in 14 languages. There are at least two major shortcomings of this system: (1) in emergency or panic situations, it is very difficult to find your own language from the leaflet, and (2) there are no Asian ...

  20. Underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  1. The Iconic Chora: A Space of Kenotic Presence and Void

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isar, Nicoletta

    2000-01-01

    and a cognitive theory that have proved incapable of explaining the endurance of the Byzantine scheme of the icon and of its oxymoronic (paradoxical) definition, except through an appeal to primitivism. I will attempt to put forward an alternative reading of the iconic space and show how vision itself...... is transfigured through participation. My thesis is that the icon belongs to another order of cognitive apprehension. It resists Kantian logic or any other categories of modern cognition. The paradoxical play between presence and absence in the definition of the iconic space is founded on a theology of kenôsis...

  2. What makes icons appealing? The role of processing fluency in predicting icon appeal in different task contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Siné; Reppa, Irene; Kulik, Jozef; Taylor, Alisdair

    2016-07-01

    Although icons appear on almost all interfaces, there is a paucity of research examining the determinants of icon appeal. The experiments reported here examined the icon characteristics determining appeal and the extent to which processing fluency - the subjective ease with which individuals process information - was used as a heuristic to guide appeal evaluations. Participants searched for, and identified, icons in displays. The initial appeal of icons was held constant while ease of processing was manipulated by systematically varying the complexity and familiarity of the icons presented and the type of task participants were asked to carry out. Processing fluency reliably influenced users' appeal ratings and appeared to be based on users' unconscious awareness of the ease with which they carried out experimental tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards Ultrahigh Speed Impulse Radio THz Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Galili, Michael; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    THz impulse radio technologies promise a new paradigm of fast wireless access with simplified wireless reception. However, huge loss of propagating broad bandwidth THz impulse radio signals limits THz wireless transmission distance and reduces the achievable link data rates. In this paper, we...

  4. Subsurface Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, J. J.; Davies, J. L.; Kruger, A.

    2008-12-01

    Conventional thinking holds that underground- and underwater radio communication is not possible, except at very low frequencies employing very long antennas and high transmit power. However, researchers at The University of Iowa have demonstrated that using inexpensive, low-power radios, it is in fact possible to achieve reliable underground radio communication over distances of several meters. This allows for creating underground wireless sensor networks. A proof-of-concept network was established at The University of Iowa, where nodes that measure soil moisture content are buried over a 20×20 m area (up to 1 m deep). The nodes organize themselves into a wireless sensor network, reconfigure routes as radio link quality waxes and wanes, cooperate in routing data packets to a surface base station, and so on. In an agricultural research setting, an advantage of such buried wireless sensor networks is that, if nodes were buried deep enough, they may be left in place during agricultural field work. Power consumption is an important issue in wireless sensor networks. This is especially true in a buried network where battery replacement is a major undertaking. The focus of continuing research is developing methods of inductively recharging buried sensor batteries.

  5. Technical Challenges Hindering Development of Robust Wireless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... quality. Digital audio broadcasting is also quite popular everywhere. Wireless communications. Network operators have made significant investments in ... distributed control systems, with remote devices, sensors, and actuators linked together via wireless communication channels. Such networks are ...

  6. ICON-ART-ISO: Water isotopologues implemented in the chemistry- transport model ICON-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Johannes; Ruhnke, Roland; Reinert, Daniel; Pfahl, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotopes of water can help to understand processes that have influenced the distribution of water in the atmosphere. Isotope enabled models, capable of simulating the distribution of HDO and H218O, can be a very useful tool for understanding these processes and the distribution of isotope ratios which are observed. We present ICON-ART-ISO, the implementation of water isotopes into the chemistry-transport model ICON-ART. The core of this global model is the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) modelling framework (Zaengl et al, 2015 (Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.)), a joint development of the German Weather Service (DWD) and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model system ICON-ART (Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases, Rieger et al, 2015 (GMD)) is a two-way coupled extension to ICON, which allows to study the influence of aerosols, trace gases and their chemistry on the atmosphere. We set up ICON-ART-ISO within this framework, profitting from the model infrastructure. We follow the implementation of COSMOiso (Pfahl et al., 2012 (ACP)), the isotope-enabled version of the COSMO model, the predecessor of ICON. In order to include the isotopes in the model, the water cycle is doubled diagnostically for each isotope. By the choice of physical parameters, these modelled isotopes are set to HDO and H218O, but the simulation of a purely diagnostic H2O is also possible. Fractionation, i.e. the change of the isotope ratio changes during phase changes, is considered in evaporation, grid-scale precipitation and convection. For the source of evaporation, a constant isotope ratio is currently used. To consider grid scale precipitation, the processes in the two-moment microphysical scheme by Seifert and Beheng, 2005 (Meteorol. Atmos. Phys.) are diagnostically applied to the isotopes. For convection, the Tiedtke-Bechtold scheme (Bechtold et al., 2013 (JAS)) is used. We present the current status of the model system. All processes have been implemented and we show first

  7. The Shroud of Turin: Relic or icon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, W.S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Shroud of Turin, a linen cloth on which appear the imprints of the front and back of a crucified man, can be historically traced to ca. 1354 A.D. Many believe it to be a true relic of the Passion of Christ. Many others regard it as a fake. This paper suggests a third alternative, that it is an icon dating from the 11th century. If future scientific tests, of which radiocarbon dating will be the most important, support this theory, the Shroud of Turin may well be recognized as one of the masterpieces of Christian art. (orig.)

  8. Recognition of the smart card iconic numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xue Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual way of recognizing and inputting the smart card iconic numbers leads to much time consuming, high resources consuming and low accuracy. This paper presents a new automatic method based on the technology of computer vision, including Harr operator for face detection, Fast operator for number location, image binarization, character segmentation and BP neural network for number recognition. Experimental results on 100 ID cards show that by adjusting the parameters of the BP neural network properly, the recognition accuracy is more than 99%, and the recognition time for each ID card is within 0.05 seconds.

  9. Beyond 100 Gbit/s wireless connectivity enabled by THz photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Beyond 100Gbit/s wireless connectivity is appreciated in many scenarios, such as big data wireless cloud, ultrafast wireless download, large volume data transfer, etc. In this paper, we will present our recent achievements on beyond 100Gbit/s ultrafast terahertz (THz) wireless links enabled by TH...... photonics....

  10. Beyond 100 Gbit/s wireless connectivity enabled by THz photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    Beyond 100Gbit/s wireless connectivity is appreciated in many scenarios, such as big data wireless cloud, ultrafast wireless download, large volume data transfer, etc. In this paper, we will present our recent achievements on beyond 100Gbit/s ultrafast terahertz (THz) wireless links enabled by THz...

  11. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsif Ali Jatoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configurations, improved transmitter efficiency, increased receiver responsivity and various multiple access techniques for improved quality. Errors are caused because of background light, which causes degradation overall system performance. Error correction techniques are used to remove the errors caused during transmission. This study provides a brief account on field theory used for error correction in wireless infrared systems. The results are produced in terms of bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for various bit lengths to show the ability of encoding and decoding algorithms.

  12. Matching performance of vehicle icons in graphical and textual formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Dewi, Ratna Sari

    2014-07-01

    The current research classified 82 vehicle icons into seven categories (image-related, concept-related, semi-abstract, arbitrary, abbreviation, word, and combined) for their matching accuracy, matching sequence, and matching time. These data can be compared and used as a framework for future icon development. Forty participants, all with a university degree, took part in this experiment. Half of the participants had intensive driving experience, while the other half never driven a car. The results indicated that on average, word icons had a significantly greater matching accuracy than the other icon formats; ranging from 4.7 to 20.8% difference. Regarding the matching sequence, participants matched image-related icons before other icon formats. Arbitrary and combined icons took significantly longer to match than other icon formats by 1.4-6.2 s. Based on the high matching accuracy (86.3%) and high ratings on subjective design features, word format can be used for functions describable using simple English for users with English reading ability. Confusion matrices showed that 63.2% of the misunderstandings were caused by similarity in format or function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Validating Fall Prevention Icons to Support Patient-Centered Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Yin; Adelman, Jason; Bates, David W; Businger, Alexandra; Dykes, John S; Ergai, Awatef; Hurley, Ann; Katsulis, Zachary; Khorasani, Sarah; Scanlan, Maureen; Schenkel, Laura; Rai, Amisha; Dykes, Patricia C

    2017-02-22

    Falls with injury are the most prevalent hospital adverse event. The objective of this project was to refine fall risk and prevention icons for a patient-centric bedside toolkit to promote patient and nurse engagement in accurately assessing fall risks and developing a tailored fall prevention plan. Eighty-eight patients and 60 nurses from 2 academic medical centers participated in 4 iterations of testing to refine 6 fall risk and 10 fall prevention icons. During individual interviews, participants rated their satisfaction with the degree to which that icon represented the concept on a 4-point Likert scale, enabling computation of a Content Validity Index (CVI), and provided comments and suggestions for improvement. After reviewing CVI scores and feedback, the research team consulted with the illustrator to revise the icons. Content Validity Index scores improved after icon modifications. Icons that depicted multiple concepts required further iterations to be acceptable. Using icons to depict an accurate and easy-to-interpret fall risk assessment and intervention plan for all care team members including patients and family to follow should lead to improved adherence with that plan and decreased falls. All 16 icons were refined and used to form the basis for a bedside fall prevention toolkit.

  14. Iconic Gestures as Undervalued Representations during Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Shien; Lee, Yew-Jin; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Iconic gestures that are ubiquitous in speech are integral to human meaning-making. However, few studies have attempted to map out the role of these gestures in science teaching. This paper provides a review of existing literature in everyday communication and education to articulate potential contributions of iconic gestures for science teaching.…

  15. Treatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon (Resin Infiltration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled T reatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon ( Resin ... Resin Infiltration) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Treatment of White Spot lesions with Icon ( Resin In filtration) 7. FUNDING

  16. SAMI3_ICON: Model of the Ionosphere/Plasmasphere System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J. D.; Maute, A.; Crowley, G.

    2017-10-01

    The NRL ionosphere/plasmasphere model SAMI3 has been modified to support the NASA ICON mission. Specifically, SAMI3_ICON has been modified to import the thermospheric composition, temperature, and winds from TIEGCM-ICON and the high-latitude potential from AMIE data. The codes will be run on a daily basis during the ICON mission to provide ionosphere and thermosphere properties to the science community. SAMI3_ICON will provide ionospheric and plasmaspheric parameters such as the electron and ion densities, temperatures, and velocities, as well as the total electron content (TEC), peak ionospheric electron density (NmF2) and height of the F layer at NmF2 (hmF2).

  17. A Taxonomy of Representation Strategies in Iconic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Carlos; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Predicting whether the intended audience will be able to recognize the meaning of an icon or pictograph is not an easy task. Many icon recognition studies have been conducted in the past. However, their findings cannot be generalized to other icons that were not included in the study, which, we argue, is their main limitation. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of icons that is intended to enable the generalization of the findings of recognition studies. To accomplish this, we analyzed a sample of more than eight hundred icons according to three axes: lexical category, semantic category, and representation strategy. Three basic representation strategies were identified: visual similarity; semantic association; and arbitrary convention. These representation strategies are in agreement with the strategies identified in previous taxonomies. However, a greater number of subcategories of these strategies were identified. Our results also indicate that the lexical and semantic attributes of a concept influence the choice of representation strategy. PMID:22754274

  18. Cross-Layer Wireless Resource Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berry, Randall A; Yeh, Edmund M

    2005-01-01

    .... This bit pipe is a simple abstraction of the underlying physical and data link layers. There is growing awareness that this simple bit-pipe view is inadequate, particularly in the context of modern wireless data networks...

  19. VT Wireless Internet Service Providers 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VT Wireless Internet Service Provider (ISP) dataset (WISP2007) includes polygons depicting the extent of Vermont's WISP broadband system as of...

  20. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems.

  1. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Database Description - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cription Taxonomy Icon is a collection of icons (illustrations) of biological spe...cies that is free to use and distribute. More than 200 icons of various species including Bacteria, Fungi, P...rotista, Plantae and Animalia are available. Features and manner of utilization of database You can use the icons

  3. Effects of Iconicity and Semantic Relatedness on Lexical Access in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than…

  4. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  5. Design and implementation of a topology control scheme for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudali, P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) backbone is usually comprised of stationary nodes but the transient nature of wireless links results in changing network topologies. Topology Control (TC) aims to preserve network connectivity in ad hoc and mesh...

  6. Network preservation through a topology control algorithm for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aron, FO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) is becoming a promising new technology for extending coverage to farflung rural areas. This it achieves by linking the various wireless LANS (WLANs) in distant locations thus providing a vital mode complimentary...

  7. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  8. Complexity of visual icons studied via signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repperger, Daniel W; Aleva, Denise L; Thomas, Gina; Miller, Janet E; Fullenkamp, Stephen C

    2007-08-01

    Two investigations on how humans perceive information from visually rendered complex objects, such as military icons (glyphs) were conducted. A signal detection theory framework was employed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of human subject performance. The 6 adults tested showed that as complexity increased, their accuracy in performance decreased. Study 1 showed that complex dimensions (features) could not be assigned arbitrarily. Study 2 developed a rank ordering for features of an iconic object.

  9. AN ICON IN THE PROSE OF V. F. ODOEVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya N. Sytina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An icon appears in some works of V. F. Odoevsky: “Ball”, “Princess Zizi”, “The Witness”, “Unforgettable house”, “An Orphan”. It is never referred to just as a part of the interior or the Russian color. An icon is invariably the centre of Holiness, heroes always pray in front of it. Not only doesn’t Odoevsky describe icons, he doesn’t name them either, because icons have a  sacral nature that cannot be shown in a secular writing. In “The Witness” the writer talks about imperfection of the language and failure to put into words sacred thoughts and senses. But this idea, having come to the main character’s mind in the Church, gives a  special religious connotation to the unexpressed. Remarkably, Odoevsky never uses the word icon referring to Western European art. He considers images of Madonna and Saint Cecilia to be paintings and puts them in the context of everyday life. According to modern researchers this kind of perception is typical for Russian writers and Orthodox consciousness in general. The analysis of an icon in the prose of Odoevsky demonstrates the depth of his religious searching and the importance of Orthodoxy in his philosophy and aesthetics.

  10. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  11. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially with the d...... and to the discruption caused by the user mobility during the session. Voice over IP in Wireless Hetetrogeneous Networks thus investigates and proposes cross-layer techniques for realizing time-efficient control mechanisms for VoIP: signaling, mobility and security.......The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially...... with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality Vo...

  12. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Wireless Biological Electronic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2017-10-09

    The development of wireless biological electronic sensors could open up significant advances for both fundamental studies and practical applications in a variety of areas, including medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and defense applications. One of the major challenges in the development of wireless bioelectronic sensors is the successful integration of biosensing units and wireless signal transducers. In recent years, there are a few types of wireless communication systems that have been integrated with biosensing systems to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors. To successfully construct wireless biological electronic sensors, there are several interesting questions: What types of biosensing transducers can be used in wireless bioelectronic sensors? What types of wireless systems can be integrated with biosensing transducers to construct wireless bioelectronic sensors? How are the electrical sensing signals generated and transmitted? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions in the development of wireless biological electronic sensors.

  14. Implanted Antennas in Medical Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Balanis, Constantine

    2006-01-01

    Implanted Antennas in Medical Wireless Communications summarizes the results of recent research activities on the subject of implanted antennas for medical wireless communication systems. It is anticipated that in the near future sophisticated medical devices will be implanted inside the human body for medical telemetry and telemedicine. To establish effective and efficient wireless links with these devices, it is pivotal to give special attention to antenna designs that are low profile, small, safe, and cost effective. In this book, authors Yahya Rahmat-Samii and Jaehoon Kim demonstrate how a

  15. Wireless Security Within Hastily Formed Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Layer 3, creates an IPSec tunnel , much like a VPN , to protect the wireless point to point link as shown above independent of the wireless...2006) say the two most popular VPN implementations, IPSec (IP Security) and SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), each have their own strengths and weaknesses...Protocol (L2TP) Layer 3 (Network Layer) • Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) • IP Security ( IPSec ) Layer 7 (Applications Layer) • Secure

  16. Blocks, ovals, or people? Icon type affects risk perceptions and recall of pictographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Witteman, Holly O; Dickson, Mark; Fuhrel-Forbis, Andrea; Kahn, Valerie C; Exe, Nicole L; Valerio, Melissa; Holtzman, Lisa G; Scherer, Laura D; Fagerlin, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that icon arrays (also called "pictographs") are an effective method of communicating risk statistics and appear particularly useful to less numerate and less graphically literate people. Yet research is very limited regarding whether icon type affects how people interpret and remember these graphs. 1502 people age 35-75 from a demographically diverse online panel completed a cardiovascular risk calculator based on Framingham data using their actual age, weight, and other health data. Participants received their risk estimate in an icon array graphic that used 1 of 6 types of icons: rectangular blocks, filled ovals, smile/frown faces, an outline of a person's head and shoulders, male/female "restroom" person icons (gender matched), or actual head-and-shoulder photographs of people of varied races (gender matched). In each icon array, blue icons represented cardiovascular events and gray icons represented those who would not experience an event. We measured perceived risk magnitude, approximate recall, and opinions about the icon arrays, as well as subjective numeracy and an abbreviated measure of graphical literacy. Risk recall was significantly higher with more anthropomorphic icons (restroom icons, head outlines, and photos) than with other icon types, and participants rated restroom icons as most preferred. However, while restroom icons resulted in the highest correlations between perceived and actual risk among more numerate/graphically literate participants, they performed no better than other icon types among less numerate/graphically literate participants. Icon type influences both risk perceptions and risk recall, with restroom icons in particular resulting in improved outcomes. However, optimal icon types may depend on numeracy and/or graphical literacy skills.

  17. Optical Wireless Communications and Autonomous Beam Control Moving User Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    TANGTRONGBENCHASIL, Charoen; HAMADA, Yoichi; KATO, Toshihiro; NONAKA, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Optical wireless communications is a research topic of extreme interest since it offers high data rate (Gbps data rate), security, and RF interference immunity. However, optical wireless communications places severe restrictions on the communications paths; they must be direct beam connections. To increase the number of users and link robustness, optical wireless communications must be able to operate even when obstacles are placed between transmitters and receivers, so optical micro-cell (OM...

  18. Transition Icons for Time-Series Visualization and Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Paul V; Baharloo, Raheleh; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Manini, Todd M; Tighe, Patrick J; Rashidi, Parisa

    2018-03-01

    The modern healthcare landscape has seen the rapid emergence of techniques and devices that temporally monitor and record physiological signals. The prevalence of time-series data within the healthcare field necessitates the development of methods that can analyze the data in order to draw meaningful conclusions. Time-series behavior is notoriously difficult to intuitively understand due to its intrinsic high-dimensionality, which is compounded in the case of analyzing groups of time series collected from different patients. Our framework, which we call transition icons, renders common patterns in a visual format useful for understanding the shared behavior within groups of time series. Transition icons are adept at detecting and displaying subtle differences and similarities, e.g., between measurements taken from patients receiving different treatment strategies or stratified by demographics. We introduce various methods that collectively allow for exploratory analysis of groups of time series, while being free of distribution assumptions and including simple heuristics for parameter determination. Our technique extracts discrete transition patterns from symbolic aggregate approXimation representations, and compiles transition frequencies into a bag of patterns constructed for each group. These transition frequencies are normalized and aligned in icon form to intuitively display the underlying patterns. We demonstrate the transition icon technique for two time-series datasets-postoperative pain scores, and hip-worn accelerometer activity counts. We believe transition icons can be an important tool for researchers approaching time-series data, as they give rich and intuitive information about collective time-series behaviors.

  19. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...

  20. An underwater optical wireless communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shlomi

    2009-08-01

    The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

  1. Semantic distance as a critical factor in icon design for in-car infotainment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvennoinen, Johanna M; Kujala, Tuomo; Jokinen, Jussi P P

    2017-11-01

    In-car infotainment systems require icons that enable fluent cognitive information processing and safe interaction while driving. An important issue is how to find an optimised set of icons for different functions in terms of semantic distance. In an optimised icon set, every icon needs to be semantically as close as possible to the function it visually represents and semantically as far as possible from the other functions represented concurrently. In three experiments (N = 21 each), semantic distances of 19 icons to four menu functions were studied with preference rankings, verbal protocols, and the primed product comparisons method. The results show that the primed product comparisons method can be efficiently utilised for finding an optimised set of icons for time-critical applications out of a larger set of icons. The findings indicate the benefits of the novel methodological perspective into the icon design for safety-critical contexts in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  3. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  4. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  5. Image-word: the iconicity of writing in Milton Hatoum’s "Relato de um certo oriente"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Carneiro Pimentel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to demonstrate that Milton Hatoum’s novel Relato de um Certo Oriente (1989 explains the affinity between the acts of reading and seeing, such affinity dates back to the iconic origins of writing. Despite not presenting any material image in yours pages or exploiting the graphic dimension of letters in which is composed, the work in question reestablishes the links between the verbal and the visual by reference to arabic alphabet, coffee grounds reading, Soraya Ângela’s expressive forms and comet written/drawn by Dorner. Thus, Hatoum’s novel, when addressing the writing iconicity, not only suggests the similarity between the gesture of writers and visual artists but also confirms the critique of “alphabet-centrism”, which, selon Roland Barthes (2004, neglects the cryptographic, ritualistic and symbolic aspect that characterizes the writing practice.

  6. ICON: An artificial intelligence approach to radiologic differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swett, H.A.; Miller, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    ICON is a computer system, developed using artificial intelligence techniques, that is designed to help radiologists manage the large body of knowledge needed to perform differential diagnosis in radiology. The system's domain is lung disease in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. The radiologist proposes a diagnostic hypothesis which he or she thinks explains the known clinical and chest radiographic findings. ICON responds with an English-language prose critique that discusses how and why the proposed diagnosis is or is not supported by the clinical literature and suggests further findings or clinical information that might make the diagnosis more secure

  7. The Far Ultra-Violet Imager on the Icon Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Rider, K.; Chou, C.; Harris, S. E.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; England, S. L.; Wilkins, C.; Craig, W.; Immel, T. J.; Turin, P.; Darling, N.; Loicq, J.; Blain, P.; Syrstad, E.; Thompson, B.; Burt, R.; Champagne, J.; Sevilla, P.; Ellis, S.

    2017-10-01

    ICON Far UltraViolet (FUV) imager contributes to the ICON science objectives by providing remote sensing measurements of the daytime and nighttime atmosphere/ionosphere. During sunlit atmospheric conditions, ICON FUV images the limb altitude profile in the shortwave (SW) band at 135.6 nm and the longwave (LW) band at 157 nm perpendicular to the satellite motion to retrieve the atmospheric O/N2 ratio. In conditions of atmospheric darkness, ICON FUV measures the 135.6 nm recombination emission of O+ ions used to compute the nighttime ionospheric altitude distribution. ICON Far UltraViolet (FUV) imager is a Czerny-Turner design Spectrographic Imager with two exit slits and corresponding back imager cameras that produce two independent images in separate wavelength bands on two detectors. All observations will be processed as limb altitude profiles. In addition, the ionospheric 135.6 nm data will be processed as longitude and latitude spatial maps to obtain images of ion distributions around regions of equatorial spread F. The ICON FUV optic axis is pointed 20 degrees below local horizontal and has a steering mirror that allows the field of view to be steered up to 30 degrees forward and aft, to keep the local magnetic meridian in the field of view. The detectors are micro channel plate (MCP) intensified FUV tubes with the phosphor fiber-optically coupled to Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). The dual stack MCP-s amplify the photoelectron signals to overcome the CCD noise and the rapidly scanned frames are co-added to digitally create 12-second integrated images. Digital on-board signal processing is used to compensate for geometric distortion and satellite motion and to achieve data compression. The instrument was originally aligned in visible light by using a special grating and visible cameras. Final alignment, functional and environmental testing and calibration were performed in a large vacuum chamber with a UV source. The test and calibration program showed that ICON

  8. Fundamental Analysis of Extremely Fast Photonic THz Wireless Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Zhang, Xianmin

    This talk will review the recent progress on developing THz communication systems for high speed wireless access, and fundamentally analyze the realistic throughput and accessible wireless range of a THz impulse radio communication link by employing a uni-travelling photodiode (UTC-PD) as emitter...

  9. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many wireless technologies are already available for sensor applications. It is inevitable that many non-interoperable wireless technologies between 400 MHz and 5.8...

  10. Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us Taxonomy Icon Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2013/06/19 Taxonomy Icon ...About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Dreams of an iconic mosque : Spatial and temporal entanglements of a converted church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.T.; Tamimi Arab, Pooyan

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the making of iconicity through religious architecture in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Examining the Fatih Mosque housed in a former Catholic church in the city center, we show in what ways the efforts at making this mosque iconic are shaped by the building’s iconic field, by

  12. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    following a common strategy. Wireless devices share their resources (i.e. radio link, antenna, battery, processing unit, etc.) during cooperation using the short-range technology as the underlying communication platform. The amount of data exchanged over the short-range link diers from application......, quality of service, and so on....... to application. In some situations the short-range communication is not used at all in case all mobile devices have a predefined mutual understanding of their cooperativeness. The main reason of cooperation is threefold: first, the limit capability of wireless devices can be virtually enhanced by cooperation...

  13. Characterizing Deficiencies of Path-Based Routing for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    how effective routing is for reliably and efficiently delivering data in a wireless network. With the emergence of the Internet of Things , there is a...But with the advent of the Internet of Things , the number of wireless networked devices is expected to reach into the billions [1–3]. To support this...of the wireless environ- ment inherently make link-based routing unsuitable for wireless networking. Requirements for the future Internet of Things are

  14. Validation of the ICON-S staging for HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma using a pre-defined treatment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porceddu, Sandro V; Milne, Rob; Brown, Elizabeth; Bernard, Anne; Rahbari, Reza; Cartmill, Bena; Foote, Matthew; McGrath, Margaret; Coward, Jermaine; Panizza, Benedict

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the International Collaboration on Oropharyngeal cancer Network for Staging (ICON-S) for HPV associated oropharyngeal carcinoma (HPV+OPC) is a better discriminator of overall survival (OS), compared with the 7th edition (7th Ed) AJCC/UICC TNM staging following curative radiotherapy (RT). The 5-year OS for all patients with non-metastatic (M0) p16-confirmed OPC treated between 2005 and 2015 was determined and grouped based on the 7th Ed AJCC/UICC TNM and ICON-S staging. A total of 279 patients met the inclusion criteria. The 5-year OS with the 7th Ed TNM classification were Stage I/II 88.9% (95% CI; 70.6-100%), Stage III 93.8% (95% CI; 85.9-100%), Stage IVa 86.4% (95% CI; 81.6-91.5%) and Stage IVb 62.3% (95% CI; 46.8-82.8%). On multivariate Cox regression analysis there was no statistically significant OS difference when comparing Stage I/II with, Stage III (p=0.98, HR=0.97, 95% CI; 0.11-8.64), IVa (p=0.67, HR=1.56, 95% CI; 0.2-11.94) and IVb (p=0.11, HR=5.54, 95% CI; 0.69-44.52), respectively. The 5-year OS with ICON-S staging were Stage I 93.6% (95% CI; 89.4-98.0%), Stage II 81.9% (95% CI; 73.7-91.1%) and Stage III 69.1% (95%; 57.9-82.6%). There was a consistent decrease of OS with increasing stage. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, when compared to Stage I, OS was significantly lower for stage II (p=0.007, HR=2.84, 95% CI; 1.33-6.05) and stage III (p<0.001, HR=3.78, 95% CI; 1.81-7.92), respectively. The ICON-S staging provides better OS stratification for HPV+OPC following RT compared with the 7th Ed TNM staging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wireless Communication Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Communication Technologies. Since 1999, the wireless LAN has experienced a tremendous growth. Reasons: Adoption of industry standards. Interoperability testing. The progress of wireless equipments to higher data rates. Rapid decrease in product ...

  16. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  17. Spectroscopic study of an icon painted on wooden panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sofija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian icon painted on wooden panel analyzed in this work is interesting for art historians because there is no precise information in which workshops it was made or who the author was. Similar icons are often found in churches and monasteries in our region. In order to obtain information about materials used for creation of investigated icon two micro-analytical techniques were used: Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Obtained results confirmed presence of following materials: lead-white, vermilion, minium, ultramarine, brown and green earth pigments and silver in combination with yellow organic varnish, which served to an iconographer for gilding. Ground layer was made of calcite. Blue pigment ultramarine was probably used for blue colour as well as for obtaining particulars hues in several parts of the paint layer. This can be important information for further research concerning particular workshop in which the icon was made. Identified materials are typical for Russian iconography of the 19th century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 177021 i OI 177012

  18. Avengers Assemble! Using Pop-Culture Icons to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, E. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Engaging communication of complex scientific concepts with the general public requires more than simplification. Compelling, relevant, and timely points of linkage between scientific concepts and the experiences and interests of the general public are needed. Pop-culture icons such as superheroes can represent excellent opportunities for exploring…

  19. How different iconic gestures add to the communication of PWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nispen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gestures can convey information in addition to speech (Beattie et al., 1999). In the absence of conventions on their meaning (McNeill, 2000), people probably rely on iconicity, the mapping between form and meaning, to construct and derive meaning from gesture (Perniss et al., 2010).

  20. Expertise Reversal for Iconic Representations in Science Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Bruce D.; Plass, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prior knowledge and cognitive development on the effectiveness of iconic representations in science visualizations was examined. Middle and high school students (N = 186) were given narrated visualizations of two chemistry topics: Kinetic Molecular Theory (Day 1) and Ideal Gas Laws (Day 2). For half of the visualizations, iconic…

  1. The Seventh Ecumenical Council and the veneration of icons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Orthodox Christian tradition, icons are not regarded as works of art; they are rather a visual gospel and windows into the spiritual realm. They are intended to assist believers to be more contemplative and prayerful. They guide believers into a life of prayer. There are, however, those who consider them to be idolatrous.

  2. The Appropriateness of Icon Representations for Taiwanese Computer Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Feng

    2010-01-01

    This experiment investigated how two factors which relate to icon representations affected Taiwanese computer users. These were: alphabetic or non alphabetic representations and cultural or standard imagery. Alphabetic representations are representations which show Chinese characters or English words/letters. Non alphabetic representations are…

  3. Do iconic gestures pave the way for children's early verbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçalışkan, Seyda; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Children produce a deictic gesture for a particular object (point at dog) approximately three months before they produce the verbal label for that object ("dog") (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). Gesture thus paves the way for children's early nouns. We ask here whether the same pattern-gesture preceding and predicting speech-holds for iconic gestures-that is, do gestures that depict actions precede and predict early verbs? We observed spontaneous speech and gestures produced by 40 children (22 girls, 18 boys) from age 14 to 34 months. Children produced their first iconic gestures 6 months later than they produced their first verbs. Thus, unlike the onset of deictic gestures, the onset of iconic gestures conveying action meanings followed, rather than preceded, children's first verbs. However, iconic gestures increased in frequency at the same time as verbs did and, at that time, began to convey meanings not yet expressed in speech. Our findings suggest that children can use gesture to expand their repertoire of action meanings, but only after they have begun to acquire the verb system underlying their language.

  4. Learning Neuroscience: An Interactive Case-Based Online Network (ICON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, James J.; Pasquale, Susan; Cerva, Barbara; Lester, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interactive, case-based online network (ICON) that provides a learning environment that integrates student thinking across different concentration tracks and allows students to get away from interpreting vast amounts of available information, move toward selecting useful information, recognize discriminating findings, and build a…

  5. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  6. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  7. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  8. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  9. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  10. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  11. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  12. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  13. Iconicity in English and Spanish and Its Relation to Lexical Category and Age of Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Signed languages exhibit iconicity (resemblance between form and meaning) across their vocabulary, and many non-Indo-European spoken languages feature sizable classes of iconic words known as ideophones. In comparison, Indo-European languages like English and Spanish are believed to be arbitrary outside of a small number of onomatopoeic words. In three experiments with English and two with Spanish, we asked native speakers to rate the iconicity of ~600 words from the English and Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories. We found that iconicity in the words of both languages varied in a theoretically meaningful way with lexical category. In both languages, adjectives were rated as more iconic than nouns and function words, and corresponding to typological differences between English and Spanish in verb semantics, English verbs were rated as relatively iconic compared to Spanish verbs. We also found that both languages exhibited a negative relationship between iconicity ratings and age of acquisition. Words learned earlier tended to be more iconic, suggesting that iconicity in early vocabulary may aid word learning. Altogether these findings show that iconicity is a graded quality that pervades vocabularies of even the most “arbitrary” spoken languages. The findings provide compelling evidence that iconicity is an important property of all languages, signed and spoken, including Indo-European languages. PMID:26340349

  14. Scheduling and congestion control for wireless internet

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    This brief proposes that the keys to internet cross-layer optimization are the development of non-standard implicit primal-dual solvers for underlying optimization problems, and design of jointly optimal network protocols as decomposition of such solvers. Relying on this novel design-space oriented approach, the author develops joint TCP congestion control and wireless-link scheduling schemes for wireless applications over Internet with centralized and distributed (multi-hop) wireless links. Different from the existing solutions, the proposed schemes can be asynchronously implemented without message passing among network nodes; thus they are readily deployed with current infrastructure. Moreover, global convergence/stability of the proposed schemes to optimal equilibrium is established using the Lyapunov method in the network fluid model. Simulation results are provided to evaluate the proposed schemes in practical networks.

  15. Capacity analysis for high-speed terahertz wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s.......We report on the analytical capacity analysis of terahertz wireless communications supporting 275–325 GHz frequency band. Our goal in this paper is to provide design guidelines for close proximity links with transmission capacity beyond 100 Gbit/s....

  16. Photonic techniques for sub-Terahertz wireless data transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA.......Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA....

  17. How to model wireless mesh networks topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanni, M L; Hashim, A A; Anwar, F; Ali, S; Ahmed, G S M

    2013-01-01

    The specification of network connectivity model or topology is the beginning of design and analysis in Computer Network researches. Wireless Mesh Networks is an autonomic network that is dynamically self-organised, self-configured while the mesh nodes establish automatic connectivity with the adjacent nodes in the relay network of wireless backbone routers. Researches in Wireless Mesh Networks range from node deployment to internetworking issues with sensor, Internet and cellular networks. These researches require modelling of relationships and interactions among nodes including technical characteristics of the links while satisfying the architectural requirements of the physical network. However, the existing topology generators model geographic topologies which constitute different architectures, thus may not be suitable in Wireless Mesh Networks scenarios. The existing methods of topology generation are explored, analysed and parameters for their characterisation are identified. Furthermore, an algorithm for the design of Wireless Mesh Networks topology based on square grid model is proposed in this paper. The performance of the topology generated is also evaluated. This research is particularly important in the generation of a close-to-real topology for ensuring relevance of design to the intended network and validity of results obtained in Wireless Mesh Networks researches

  18. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LACHHMAN DAS DHOMEJA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity, Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared, etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth from what the server has (e.g. WiFi, connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange, L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol, RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities

  19. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  20. Analysis and Testing of Mobile Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Evenson, Darin; Rundquist, Victor; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Wireless networks are being used to connect mobile computing elements in more applications as the technology matures. There are now many products (such as 802.11 and 802.11b) which ran in the ISM frequency band and comply with wireless network standards. They are being used increasingly to link mobile Intranet into Wired networks. Standard methods of analyzing and testing their performance and compatibility are needed to determine the limits of the technology. This paper presents analytical and experimental methods of determining network throughput, range and coverage, and interference sources. Both radio frequency (BE) domain and network domain analysis have been applied to determine wireless network throughput and range in the outdoor environment- Comparison of field test data taken under optimal conditions, with performance predicted from RF analysis, yielded quantitative results applicable to future designs. Layering multiple wireless network- sooners can increase performance. Wireless network components can be set to different radio frequency-hopping sequences or spreading functions, allowing more than one sooner to coexist. Therefore, we ran multiple 802.11-compliant systems concurrently in the same geographical area to determine interference effects and scalability, The results can be used to design of more robust networks which have multiple layers of wireless data communication paths and provide increased throughput overall.

  1. Energy Aware Computing in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the unreliable wireless link. Principles of multi–processor energy aware task scheduling are used exploiting performance scalable technologies such as Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS). We introduce a novel mechanism referred to as D2VS and here it is shown by means of simulation that savings of 40% can be achieved....

  2. Mimological Reveries? Disconfirming the Hypothesis of Phono-Emotional Iconicity in Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxenberger, Maria; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The present study retested previously reported empirical evidence suggesting an iconic relation between sound and emotional meaning in poetry. To this end, we analyzed the frequency of certain phoneme classes in 48 German poems and correlated them with ratings for emotional classification. Our analyses provide evidence for a link between the emotional classification of poems (joyful vs. sad) and the perception of tonal contrast as reflected in the attribution of phenomenological sound qualia (bright vs. dark). However, we could not confirm any of the previous hypotheses and findings regarding either a connection between the frequencies of occurrence of specific vowel classes and the perception of tonal contrast, or a relation between the frequencies of occurrence of consonant classes and emotional classification.

  3. Indonesia and Africa: questioning the origins of some of Africa’s most famous icons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dick-Read

    2006-04-01

    Madagascar was only ever of secondary importance to Indonesians compared with mineral-rich Africa. But for centuries the Austronesian-speaking, Afro-Indonesian people of Madagascar maintained regular contact with the mainland giving rise to mixed societies, particularly in the Mozambique-Zimbabwe region. He believes the ancient Zimbabwe culture was in several ways linked with that of Madagascar, and that the vast ruin area of Nyanga was also connected. These cross-channel associations were gradually eclipsed by the domination of Arab-Shirazi colonisation down the East African Coast. There is a wealth of evidence that Indonesians rounded the Cape and sailed to West Africa. Several elements of Nigerian culture generally attributed to East-West overland movements or trans-Saharan Arab traders, are more likely to have reached the lower Niger regions by sea from Indonesia. Among these was the technology enabling the iconic ‘bronze’ artwork for which Nigeria is famous.

  4. Adaptive Wavelet Coding Applied in a Wireless Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Felipe O. S.; O. Salazar, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Wireless control systems can sense, control and act on the information exchanged between the wireless sensor nodes in a control loop. However, the exchanged information becomes susceptible to the degenerative effects produced by the multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects characteristic of wireless channels, several techniques have been investigated recently. Among them, wavelet coding is a good alternative for wireless communications for its robustness to the effects of multipath and its low computational complexity. This work proposes an adaptive wavelet coding whose parameters of code rate and signal constellation can vary according to the fading level and evaluates the use of this transmission system in a control loop implemented by wireless sensor nodes. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER) versus Eb/N0 and spectral efficiency, considering a time-varying channel with flat Rayleigh fading, and in terms of processing overhead on a control system with wireless communication. The results obtained through computational simulations and experimental tests show performance gains obtained by insertion of the adaptive wavelet coding in a control loop with nodes interconnected by wireless link. These results enable the use of this technique in a wireless link control loop. PMID:29236048

  5. Adaptive Wavelet Coding Applied in a Wireless Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O. S. Gama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless control systems can sense, control and act on the information exchanged between the wireless sensor nodes in a control loop. However, the exchanged information becomes susceptible to the degenerative effects produced by the multipath propagation. In order to minimize the destructive effects characteristic of wireless channels, several techniques have been investigated recently. Among them, wavelet coding is a good alternative for wireless communications for its robustness to the effects of multipath and its low computational complexity. This work proposes an adaptive wavelet coding whose parameters of code rate and signal constellation can vary according to the fading level and evaluates the use of this transmission system in a control loop implemented by wireless sensor nodes. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated in terms of bit error rate (BER versus E b / N 0 and spectral efficiency, considering a time-varying channel with flat Rayleigh fading, and in terms of processing overhead on a control system with wireless communication. The results obtained through computational simulations and experimental tests show performance gains obtained by insertion of the adaptive wavelet coding in a control loop with nodes interconnected by wireless link. These results enable the use of this technique in a wireless link control loop.

  6. Icons for health effects of cigarette smoke: a test of semiotic type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Schmidt, Annie; Vu, Huyen; Byron, M Justin; Peters, Ellen; Boynton, Marcella H; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-08-01

    We sought to identify icons to effectively communicate health harms of chemicals in cigarette smoke. Participants were a convenience sample of 701 U.S. adults. A within-subjects online experiment explored the effects of icon semiotic type: symbolic (arbitrary, most abstract), indexical, and iconic (representative, most concrete). Outcomes were perceived representation, affect toward smoking, elaboration, perceived severity, and perceived effectiveness. For not-easy-to-visualize harms of cancer and addiction, symbolic icons received the highest ratings (all p < .001). For easy-to-visualize symptoms of heart attack/stroke, indexical icons received the highest ratings (all p < .001). For easy-to-visualize harm of reproductive organ damage, the iconic image did best (all p < .001). Icon type often had a larger impact among participants with higher health literacy. Symbolic icons may be most effective for health effects not easily visualized. Iconic or indexical icons may be more effective for health effects attributable to specific body parts or symptoms.

  7. Visualization of the NASA ICON mission in 3d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, R. A., Jr.; Immel, T. J.; Miller, N.

    2016-12-01

    The ICON Explorer mission (http://icon.ssl.berkeley.edu) will provide several data products for the atmosphere and ionosphere after its launch in 2017. This project will support the mission by investigating the capability of these tools for visualization of current and predicted observatory characteristics and data acquisition. Visualization of this mission can be accomplished using tools like Google Earth or CesiumJS, as well assistance from Java or Python. Ideally we will bring this visualization into the homes of people without the need of additional software. The path of launching a standalone website, building this environment, and a full toolkit will be discussed. Eventually, the initial work could lead to the addition of a downloadable visualization packages for mission demonstration or science visualization.

  8. Wireless physical layer security

    OpenAIRE

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2016-01-01

    Security is a very important issue in the design and use of wireless networks. Traditional methods of providing security in such networks are impractical for some emerging types of wireless networks due to the light computational abilities of some wireless devices [such as radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, certain sensors, etc.] or to the very large scale or loose organizational structure of some networks. Physical layer security has the potential to address these concerns by taking...

  9. Connecting icons, logos and slogans in graphic trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrožič, Maja

    2016-01-01

    In the public eye the organization is always considered or fully represented by its corporate identity that includes the size of the organization, annual payments, organizational structure, organizational culture, systems owned by the organization, premises, organizational culture, organizational strategy, mission, vision, number of employees etc. Graphic designer when designing graphic trademark by connecting graphic elements (logo, slogan and icon) must take in to consideration all abovemen...

  10. Development and Comparison of TACAMO Icon Design Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Wilhelm Von Leibniz (1646-1716) planted the seeds of symbolic logic and computer design (Kreiling, 1968, p. 100). Leibniz ’ dream was that someday a...outlined in Appendix B.2. C. PICTORIAL SYMBOLS AND INITIAL MMPS ICON DESIGNS Over 300 years ago, the German philosopher and mathematician Baron Gottfried ...Annual Meeting 1988, 357-361, Santa Monica, CA: Human Factors Society. Kreiling, Frederick C. " Leibniz ," Scientific American, 1968, 220, 95-100. Laurel

  11. Daytime Ionosphere Retrieval Algorithm for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer (ICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew W.; Korpela, Eric J.; Sirk, Martin M.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Ionospheric Connection Explorer Extreme Ultraviolet spectrograph, ICON EUV, will measure altitude profiles of the daytime extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) OII emission near 83.4 and 61.7 nm that are used to determine density profiles and state parameters of the ionosphere. This paper describes the algorithm concept and approach to inverting these measured OII emission profiles to derive the associated O+ density profile from 150-450 km as a proxy for the electron content in the F-region of the ionosphere. The algorithm incorporates a bias evaluation and feedback step, developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory using data from the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager (SSULI) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) missions, that is able to effectively mitigate the effects of systematic instrument calibration errors and inaccuracies in the original photon source within the forward model. Results are presented from end-to-end simulations that convolved simulated airglow profiles with the expected instrument measurement response to produce profiles that were inverted with the algorithm to return data products for comparison to truth. Simulations of measurements over a representative ICON orbit show the algorithm is able to reproduce hmF2 values to better than 5 km accuracy, and NmF2 to better than 12% accuracy over a 12-second integration, and demonstrate that the ICON EUV instrument and daytime ionosphere algorithm can meet the ICON science objectives which require 20 km vertical resolution in hmF2 and 18% precision in NmF2.

  12. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  13. BAROQUE AND ICONIC ECPHRASIS IN GOGOL'S "TARAS BULBA"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Viktorovna Kozlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the tools verbalization European Baroque painting techniques and Old icons in the Gogol's story  "Taras Bulba". Narrative functions of implicit ecphrasis investigated in connection problem relatedness Catholicism and Orthodoxy in the minds of Gogol at the beginning of the 1840s.The purpose of the article analyzes the ways of verbalization and features of non-attributed implicit ecphrasis in the second edition of Gogol's "Taras Bulba" reproducing Caravaggio painting style and Old icons.Method or the methodology of work: Among research material are Gogol's "Taras Bulba" in two editions, the European Baroque paintings and ancient Russian icons. Were applied structural-typological, structural, intertextual, hermeneutical methods.Results: We describe the correlation of ecphrasis in Gogol with referents: the paintings of Caravaggio and Honthorst , and Old Russian iconography . Found that ecphrasis descriptions that appear only in the edition of 1842 are not local segments of the text and form the entire text layers, actively organizing narrative, operating plot and composition. Hidden emplisit ecphrasis is the artistic code, extending the semantic space of the text , the text translation tool of religious and philosophical ideas of the author. Valuable contraposition of baroque and iconic ecphrasis in the story reflects not only the author's reflection on the problem of beauty , inner and outer, but also a reflection of their own style.Application area: The results of our study can be used for lectures on the history of Russian literature of the XIX century, the history of Russian and European culture, cultural studies, specialized courses and electives in the problem of interaction between different kinds of art, as well as material for interdisciplinary humanities research, including in school practice teaching literature and art history.

  14. The Pricing Effects of Heritage at an Iconic Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford T. Hudson

    2015-01-01

    Historic hotels are a recognized product type in the lodging industry and may be found in significant numbers throughout the globe. The purpose of this article is to validate the notion that heritage can be an important element of the consumer value proposition for older hotels, by demonstrating that an iconic hotel with a distinct historical identity is able to attain a price premium over newer hotels with comparable operating characteristics. This exploratory study is based on qualitative f...

  15. Wireless security in mobile health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmuyiwa, Olufolabi; Ulusoy, Ali Hakan

    2012-12-01

    Mobile health (m-health) is an extremely broad term that embraces mobile communication in the health sector and data packaging. The four broad categories of wireless networks are wireless personal area network, wireless metropolitan area network, wireless wide area network, and wireless local area network. Wireless local area network is the most notable of the wireless networking tools obtainable in the health sector. Transfer of delicate and critical information on radio frequencies should be secure, and the right to use must be meticulous. This article covers the business opportunities in m-health, threats faced by wireless networks in hospitals, and methods of mitigating these threats.

  16. Wireless Emulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Wireless Emulation Laboratory (WEL) is a researchtest bed used to investigate fundamental issues in networkscience. It is a research infrastructure that emulates...

  17. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  18. The ICON model hierarchy: towards cloud resolving scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Hohenegger, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    Convection permitting simulations for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km) are performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model, jointly developed by MPI-M and DWD. The motivation is: a.) better physical process understanding of cloud, convection and circulation (via connecting the small and large scales), b.) support of observational campaigns (mission and flight planning via providing a virtual test-best), in turn c.) use the corresponding observational data for modal evaluation and d.) thereby integrating research communities from measurements and modeling. Short forecast simulations of 36 hours are performed for over 60 days accompanying the NARVAL observations campaign in Dec 2013 and Aug 2016 using a grid spacing of 2.5 km and a 1.2 km in a nested domain. This data further serves to drive a second set of simulations in context to the HD(CP)2 project using 600, 300 and 150 m grid spacing. The model setups are related NWP setup of ICON, but the kilometer scale simulations explicitly treat convection and the sub-kilometer simulations are further using the 3D Smagorinsky turbulence parameterization (ICON-Large Eddy Model). As deep convection is a key process in tropical and subtropical regions, the explicit evolution of convection across a wide range of horizontal scales produces rich interactions with their environment and neighboring convective cells, producing emergent phenomena like cold pools, gravity waves, convective self-aggregation and even hurricanes.

  19. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  20. Bluetooth low energy: wireless connectivity for medical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omre, Alf Helge

    2010-03-01

    Electronic wireless sensors could cut medical costs by enabling physicians to remotely monitor vital signs such as blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood oxygenation while patients remain at home. According to the IDC report "Worldwide Bluetooth Semiconductor 2008-2012 Forecast," published November 2008, a forthcoming radio frequency communication ("wireless connectivity") standard, Bluetooth low energy, will link wireless sensors via radio signals to the 70% of cell phones and computers likely to be fitted with the next generation of Bluetooth wireless technology, leveraging a ready-built infrastructure for data transmission. Analysis of trends indicated by this data can help physicians better manage diseases such as diabetes. The technology also addresses the concerns of cost, compatibility, and interoperability that have previously stalled widespread adoption of wireless technology in medical applications. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Towards Controlling Latency in Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2017-04-24

    Wireless networks are undergoing an unprecedented revolution in the last decade. With the explosion of delay-sensitive applications in the Internet (i.e., online gaming and VoIP), latency becomes a major issue for the development of wireless technology. Taking advantage of the significant decline in memory prices, industrialists equip the network devices with larger buffering capacities to improve the network throughput by limiting packets drops. Over-buffering results in increasing the time that packets spend in the queues and, thus, introducing more latency in networks. This phenomenon is known as “bufferbloat”. While throughput is the dominant performance metric, latency also has a huge impact on user experience not only for real-time applications but also for common applications like web browsing, which is sensitive to latencies in order of hundreds of milliseconds. Concerns have arisen about designing sophisticated queue management schemes to mitigate the effects of such phenomenon. My thesis research aims to solve bufferbloat problem in both traditional half-duplex and cutting-edge full-duplex wireless systems by reducing delay while maximizing wireless links utilization and fairness. Our work shed lights on buffer management algorithms behavior in wireless networks and their ability to reduce latency resulting from excessive queuing delays inside oversized static network buffers without a significant loss in other network metrics. First of all, we address the problem of buffer management in wireless full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. Compared to the default case, our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases. In the second part of this thesis

  2. Wireless Heart Patients and the Quantified Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grew, Julie Christina; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2017-01-01

    Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients links patients wirelessly to the clinic via a box in their bedroom. The box transmits data from the ICD to a remote database accessible to clinicians without patient involvement. Data travel across time and space; clinicians...... can monitor patients from a distance and instantly know about cardiac events. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in two Danish hospitals, this article explores the configuration of the wireless ICD patient by following a number of patients through hospitalisation, implantation, in-clinic follow......-up, and remote monitoring. Wireless therapy, we argue, scripts the patient as data. In high-tech clinical encounters, data are enacted as extensions and copies of the patient, and even proxies that, in patients’ experiences, may turn into identity thieves. In illuminating the multiple positions that data take...

  3. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    results from this paper are important for the lunar wireless system link margin analysis in order to determine the limits on the reliable communication range, achievable data rate and RF coverage performance at planned lunar base work sites.

  4. Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model for the Ionospheric Connection Explorer: TIEGCM-ICON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, Astrid

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Ionospheric Connection explorer (ICON) will study the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere at low- and mid-latitudes by measuring the key parameters. The ICON mission will also employ numerical modeling to support the interpretation of the observations, and examine the importance of different vertical coupling mechanisms by conducting numerical experiments. One of these models is the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model-ICON (TIEGCM-ICON) which will be driven by tidal perturbations derived from ICON observations using the Hough Mode Extension method (HME) and at high latitude by ion convection and auroral particle precipitation patterns from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE). The TIEGCM-ICON will simulate the thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) system during the period of the ICON mission. In this report the TIEGCM-ICON is introduced, and the focus is on examining the effect of the lower boundary on the TI-system to provide some guidance for interpreting future ICON model results.

  5. Wireless mobile Internet security

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, Man Young

    2013-01-01

      The mobile industry for wireless cellular services has grown at a rapid pace over the past decade. Similarly, Internet service technology has also made dramatic growth through the World Wide Web with a wire line infrastructure. Realization for complete wired/wireless mobile Internet technologies will become the future objectives for convergence of these technologies thr

  6. Ultra Secure High Reliability Wireless Radiation Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be used for classified data

  7. ULTRA SECURE HIGH RELIABILITY WIRELESS RADIATION MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.; Shull, D.; Farrar, M.; Reeves, G.

    2011-08-03

    Radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities is essential to safe operation of the equipment as well as protecting personnel. In specific, typical air monitoring of radioactive gases or particulate involves complex systems of valves, pumps, piping and electronics. The challenge is to measure a representative sample in areas that are radioactively contaminated. Running cables and piping to these locations is very expensive due to the containment requirements. Penetration into and out of an airborne or containment area is complex and costly. The process rooms are built with thick rebar-enforced concrete walls with glove box containment chambers inside. Figure 1 shows high temperature radiation resistance cabling entering the top of a typical glove box. In some case, the entire processing area must be contained in a 'hot cell' where the only access into the chamber is via manipulators. An example is shown in Figure 2. A short range wireless network provides an ideal communication link for transmitting the data from the radiation sensor to a 'clean area', or area absent of any radiation fields or radioactive contamination. Radiation monitoring systems that protect personnel and equipment must meet stringent codes and standards due to the consequences of failure. At first glance a wired system would seem more desirable. Concerns with wireless communication include latency, jamming, spoofing, man in the middle attacks, and hacking. The Department of Energy's Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a prototype wireless radiation air monitoring system that address many of the concerns with wireless and allows quick deployment in radiation and contamination areas. It is stand alone and only requires a standard 120 VAC, 60 Hz power source. It is designed to be mounted or portable. The wireless link uses a National Security Agency (NSA) Suite B compliant wireless network from Fortress Technologies that is considered robust enough to be

  8. Feasibility of retroreflective transdermal optical wireless communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Yotam; Rotter, Nadav; Arnon, Shlomi

    2012-06-20

    There is an increasing demand for transdermal high-data-rate communication for use with in-body devices, such as pacemakers, smart prostheses, neural signals processors at the brain interface, and cameras acting as artificial eyes as well as for collecting signals generated within the human body. Prominent requirements of these communication systems include (1) wireless modality, (2) noise immunity and (3) ultra-low-power consumption for the in-body device. Today, the common wireless methods for transdermal communication are based on communication at radio frequencies, electrical induction, or acoustic waves. In this paper, we will explore another alternative to these methods--optical wireless communication (OWC)--for which modulated light carries the information. The main advantages of OWC in transdermal communication, by comparison to the other methods, are the high data rates and immunity to external interference availed, which combine to make it a promising technology for next-generation systems. In this paper, we present a mathematical model and experimental results of measurements from direct link and retroreflection link configurations with Gallus gallus domesticus derma as the transdermal channel. The main conclusion from this work is that an OWC link is an attractive communication solution in medical applications. For a modulating retroreflective link to become a competitive solution in comparison with a direct link, low-energy-consumption modulating retroreflectors should be developed.

  9. LinkMind: Link Optimization in Swarming Mobile Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2012-01-01

    of the most advantageous properties of the swarming wireless sensor network is that mobile nodes can work cooperatively to organize an ad-hoc network and optimize the network link capacity to maximize the transmission of gathered data from a source to a target. This paper describes a new method of link...

  10. Demonstration of 4Gbit/s Duobinary Ka-Band Hybrid Photonic-Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Yi, Lilin; Shi, Mengyue

    We demonstrate transmission of a 4Gbit/s duobinary signal over a Ka-band hybrid photonic-wireless link consisting of 12.5km SMF and 2m wireless distance, using RF carrier frequencies aligned with the Ka-band spectrum allocations for mobile communications.......We demonstrate transmission of a 4Gbit/s duobinary signal over a Ka-band hybrid photonic-wireless link consisting of 12.5km SMF and 2m wireless distance, using RF carrier frequencies aligned with the Ka-band spectrum allocations for mobile communications....

  11. Effects of wireless packet loss in industrial process control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongkang; Candell, Richard; Moayeri, Nader

    2017-05-01

    Timely and reliable sensing and actuation control are essential in networked control. This depends on not only the precision/quality of the sensors and actuators used but also on how well the communications links between the field instruments and the controller have been designed. Wireless networking offers simple deployment, reconfigurability, scalability, and reduced operational expenditure, and is easier to upgrade than wired solutions. However, the adoption of wireless networking has been slow in industrial process control due to the stochastic and less than 100% reliable nature of wireless communications and lack of a model to evaluate the effects of such communications imperfections on the overall control performance. In this paper, we study how control performance is affected by wireless link quality, which in turn is adversely affected by severe propagation loss in harsh industrial environments, co-channel interference, and unintended interference from other devices. We select the Tennessee Eastman Challenge Model (TE) for our study. A decentralized process control system, first proposed by N. Ricker, is adopted that employs 41 sensors and 12 actuators to manage the production process in the TE plant. We consider the scenario where wireless links are used to periodically transmit essential sensor measurement data, such as pressure, temperature and chemical composition to the controller as well as control commands to manipulate the actuators according to predetermined setpoints. We consider two models for packet loss in the wireless links, namely, an independent and identically distributed (IID) packet loss model and the two-state Gilbert-Elliot (GE) channel model. While the former is a random loss model, the latter can model bursty losses. With each channel model, the performance of the simulated decentralized controller using wireless links is compared with the one using wired links providing instant and 100% reliable communications. The sensitivity of the

  12. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  13. Optical wireless connected objects for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumieux, Pascal; Chevalier, Ludovic; Sahuguède, Stéphanie; Julien-Vergonjanne, Anne

    2015-10-01

    In this Letter the authors explore the communication capabilities of optical wireless technology for a wearable device dedicated to healthcare application. In an indoor environment sensible to electromagnetic perturbations such as a hospital, the use of optical wireless links can permit reducing the amount of radio frequencies in the patient environment. Moreover, this technology presents the advantage to be secure, low-cost and easy to deploy. On the basis of commercially available components, a custom-made wearable device is presented, which allows optical wireless transmission of accelerometer data in the context of physical activity supervision of post-stroke patients in hospital. Considering patient mobility, the experimental performance is established in terms of packet loss as a function of the number of receivers fixed to the ceiling. The results permit to conclude that optical wireless links can be used to perform such mobile remote monitoring applications. Moreover, based on the measurements obtained with one receiver, it is possible to theoretically determine the performance according to the number of receivers to be deployed.

  14. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  15. Nonlinear distortion in wireless systems modeling and simulation with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gharaibeh, Khaled M

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in wireless communication systems with MATLAB simulations and techniques In this book, the author describes the principles of modeling and simulation of nonlinear distortion in single and multichannel wireless communication systems using both deterministic and stochastic signals. Models and simulation methods of nonlinear amplifiers explain in detail how to analyze and evaluate the performance of data communication links under nonlinear amplification. The book addresses the analysis of nonlinear systems

  16. Design and implementation of the wireless high voltage control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, A.; Pandey, H.K.; Thakur, S.K.; Pandit, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the implementation of the wireless link for controlling and monitoring the serial data between control PC and the interface card (general DAQ card), by replacing existing RS232 based remote control system for controlling and monitoring High Voltage Power Supply (120kV/50mA). The enhancement in the reliability is achieved by replacing old RS232 based control system with wireless system by isolating ground loop. (author)

  17. Small Worlds in the Tree Topologies of Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Li; Lingguo, Cui; Baihai, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the characteristics of small worlds are investigated in the context of the tree topologies of wireless sensor networks. Tree topologies, which construct spatial graphs with larger characteristic path lengths than random graphs and small clustering coefficients, are ubiquitous...... in wireless sensor networks. Suffering from the link rewiring or the link addition, the characteristic path length of the tree topology reduces rapidly and the clustering coefficient increases greatly. The variety of characteristic path length influences the time synchronization characteristics of wireless...... sensor networks greatly. With the increase of the link rewiring or the link addition probability, the time synchronization error decreases drastically. Two novel protocols named LEACH-SW and TREEPSI-SW are proposed to improve the performances of the sensor networks, in which the small world...

  18. Beyond Meaning: Globalization and the Icons of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Galina

    2007-12-01

    As the nature of symbolic mechanisms has been reconsidered, shared meaning in healing rituals can no longer be unproblematically assumed. Globalization processes challenge the idea of local worlds of meaning as foundational for healing. Discussing two episodes of healing in 'global assemblages', the paper questions the centrality of meaning in the healing encounter. In search for alternatives, it turns to the ethical phenomenology of Levinas. It is suggested that in the core of healing encounter lies 'the healing gesture' of the Other seen as an icon of power.

  19. Polar exponential sensor arrays unify iconic and Hough space representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1990-01-01

    The log-polar coordinate system, inherent in both polar exponential sensor arrays and log-polar remapped video imagery, is identical to the coordinate system of its corresponding Hough transform parameter space. The resulting unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computation for line recognition and eliminates the slope quantization problems inherent in the classical Cartesian Hough transform. The geometric organization of the algorithm is more amenable to massively parallel architectures than that of the Cartesian version. The neural architecture of the human visual cortex meets the geometric requirements to execute 'in-place' log-Hough algorithms of the kind described here.

  20. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  1. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Taxonomy Icon License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/3/21 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Taxon...ative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database,

  2. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John

    2001-01-01

    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  3. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  4. Wireless network pricing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Today's wireless communications and networking practices are tightly coupled with economic considerations, to the extent that it is almost impossible to make a sound technology choice without understanding the corresponding economic implications. This book aims at providing a foundational introduction on how microeconomics, and pricing theory in particular, can help us to understand and build better wireless networks. The book can be used as lecture notes for a course in the field of network economics, or a reference book for wireless engineers and applied economists to understand how pricing

  5. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  6. Optical and wireless technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Manish; Singh, Ghanshyam; Minzioni, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents selected papers from 1st International Conference on Optical and Wireless Technologies, providing insights into the analytical, experimental, and developmental aspects of systems, techniques, and devices in these spheres. It explores the combined use of various optical and wireless technologies in next-generation networking applications, and discusses the latest developments in applications such as photonics, high-speed communication systems and networks, visible light communication, nanophotonics, and wireless and multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The book will serve as a valuable reference resource for academics and researchers across the globe.

  7. The Effects of Weather on the Life Time of Wireless Sensor Networks Using FSO/RF Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nadeem

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in long lasting wireless sensor networks motivates to use Free Space Optics (FSO link along with radio frequency (RF link for communication. Earlier results show that RF/FSO wireless sensor networks have life time twice as long as RF only wireless sensor networks. However, for terrestrial applications, the effect of weather conditions such as fog, rain or snow on optical wireless communication link is major concern, that should be taken into account in the performance analysis. In this paper, life time performance of hybrid wireless sensor networks is compared to wireless sensor networks using RF only for terrestrial applications and weather effects of fog, rain and snow. The results show that combined hybrid network with three threshold scheme can provide efficient power consumption of 6548 seconds, 2118 seconds and 360 seconds for measured fog, snow and rain events respectively resulting in approximately twice of the life time with only RF link.

  8. Cultural Interpretations of the Visual Meaning of Icons and Images Used in North American Web Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Eliot; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines cross-cultural interpretations of icons and images drawn from US academic websites. Participants from Morocco, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and the USA responded to an online questionnaire containing 18 icons and images representing online functions and information types common on US academic websites. Participants supplied meanings for…

  9. 75 FR 5637 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Architecture as Icon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Determinations: ``Architecture as Icon: Perception and Representation of Architecture in Byzantine Art'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Architecture as Icon: Perception and Representation of Architecture in Byzantine Art,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of...

  10. Local and global icons of Mary: An ethnographic study of a powerful symbol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notermans, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    This ethnographic study focuses on the relationship between ailing Dutch pilgrims going to Lourdes and their favorite Marian icons. Based on an iconographic elicitation method, it explores how and why people select from and respond to different Marian icons and what personal meanings they attach to

  11. High Fidelity Simulations of Large-Scale Wireless Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onunkwo, Uzoma [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benz, Zachary [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The worldwide proliferation of wireless connected devices continues to accelerate. There are 10s of billions of wireless links across the planet with an additional explosion of new wireless usage anticipated as the Internet of Things develops. Wireless technologies do not only provide convenience for mobile applications, but are also extremely cost-effective to deploy. Thus, this trend towards wireless connectivity will only continue and Sandia must develop the necessary simulation technology to proactively analyze the associated emerging vulnerabilities. Wireless networks are marked by mobility and proximity-based connectivity. The de facto standard for exploratory studies of wireless networks is discrete event simulations (DES). However, the simulation of large-scale wireless networks is extremely difficult due to prohibitively large turnaround time. A path forward is to expedite simulations with parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) techniques. The mobility and distance-based connectivity associated with wireless simulations, however, typically doom PDES and fail to scale (e.g., OPNET and ns-3 simulators). We propose a PDES-based tool aimed at reducing the communication overhead between processors. The proposed solution will use light-weight processes to dynamically distribute computation workload while mitigating communication overhead associated with synchronizations. This work is vital to the analytics and validation capabilities of simulation and emulation at Sandia. We have years of experience in Sandia’s simulation and emulation projects (e.g., MINIMEGA and FIREWHEEL). Sandia’s current highly-regarded capabilities in large-scale emulations have focused on wired networks, where two assumptions prevent scalable wireless studies: (a) the connections between objects are mostly static and (b) the nodes have fixed locations.

  12. The icon of the Holy Virgin Vatopedini with a portrait of Voevoda Ioan Radul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašnić Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author discusses iconography and stylistic characteristic of the icon featuring the Virgin Vatopedini with the Hungarian-Wallachian Voevoda loan Radul. The icon is treasured in the cathedral church of the Holy martyr Demetrios in Bitola. In more recent times, a new layer was painted over the icon, but not so long ago the icon was restored to its original condition. The inscriptions on the icon reveal that the Voevoda was a "new ktetor" of Vatopedi and also testify the painting was completed on November 28, 1502. The representation of the enthroned Virgin with the infant Christ sitting in her lap, flanked by St John Prodromes and the founder, belongs to the iconography of Deesis. Its stylistic features indicate that in most probability it was the work by a Cretan painter from the Ritzos family.

  13. Combined dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating of six Russian icons from the 15th-17th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, A. V.; Matskovsky, V. V.; Voronin, K. V.; Solomina, O. N.

    2017-06-01

    The results of dendrochronological and radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of six medieval icons, originating from northern European Russia and painted on wooden panels made from Scots pine, dated to the 15th to 17th centuries are presented. The panels of each icon were studied using dendrochronology. Five to six AMS dates were obtained for four icons. Although five icons were dendro-dated successfully, one failed to be reliably cross-dated with the existing master tree-ring chronologies and it was dated by radiocarbon wiggle-matching. Dendrochronological dating and wiggle-matching of radiocarbon dates allowed us to determine the narrow chronological intervals of icon creation.

  14. Iconic Gestures for Robot Avatars, Recognition and Integration with Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Adam Bremner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-verbal gestures are an important part of human communication, improving its efficiency and efficacy for information conveyance. One possible means by which such multi-modal communication might be realised remotely is through the use of a tele-operated humanoid robot avatar. Such avatars have been previously shown to enhance social presence and operator salience. We present a motion tracking based tele-operation system for the NAO robot platform that allows direct transmission of speech and gestures produced by the operator. To assess the capabilities of this system for transmitting multi-modal communication, we have conducted a user study that investigated if robot-produced iconic gestures are comprehensible, and are integrated with speech. Robot performed gesture outcomes were compared directly to those for gestures produced by a human actor, using a within participant experimental design. We show that iconic gestures produced by a tele-operated robot are understood by participants when presented alone, almost as well as when produced by a human. More importantly, we show that gestures are integrated with speech when presented as part of a multi-modal communication equally well for human and robot performances.

  15. NPY2-receptor variation modulates iconic memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Kloster, Eugen; Epplen, Jörg T; Beste, Christian

    2014-08-01

    Sensory memory systems are modality-specific buffers that comprise information about external stimuli, which represent the earliest stage of information processing. While these systems have been the subject of cognitive neuroscience research for decades, little is known about the neurobiological basis of sensory memory. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system and systems influencing glutamatergic neural transmission are important. In the current study we examine if functional promoter variations in neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptor gene NPY2R affect iconic memory processes using a partial report paradigm. We found that iconic memory decayed much faster in individuals carrying the rare promoter NPY2R G allele which is associated with increased expression of the Y2 receptor. Possibly this effect is due to altered presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release, known to be modulated by Y2 receptors. Altogether, our results provide evidence that the functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NPY2R promoter gene affect circumscribed processes of early sensory processing, i.e. only the stability of information in sensory memory buffers. This leads us to suggest that especially the stability of information in sensory memory buffers depends on glutamatergic neural transmission and factors modulating glutamatergic turnover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. A glittering icon of Fascist femininity: Trebisonda "Ondina" Valla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G

    2001-01-01

    This essay focuses on the second decade of the Italian Fascist regime through its emblematic symbol, Trebisonda 'Ondina' Valla. Valla gained first place in the 80 metre hurdles at the Berlin Olympics of 1936, and became the first world-class female athlete in Italian history, in spite of the generally backward condition of Italian women. In those years, a paternalistic and conservative society deeply discriminated against female participation in not only sport but also other cultural activities. The Catholic Church, medical expertise, eugenics theories and the fascist regime were all opposed to female competitive sport. The Church demanded female morality, modesty and domesticity while, the medical profession recommend only basic physical exercise for female health and motherhood. While promoting the myth of the New Italy as a modern nation, Fascism wished it to be inhabited by a traditional womanhood. Paradoxically, however, Mussolini supported Valla because she epitomized a dynamic fascism and brought Italian Fascism international visibility. The serendipitous value of Valla was that she encouraged young women to attempt to force open the bars of their political cage, and at the same time forced the fascist ideology to reconsider and reconstruct fascist principles in the interest of international propaganda. Thus while Valla was a political instrument of fascist purpose, she was also an agent of female emancipation. She was a political icon that also became a gender icon. In both roles she became a symbol of congratulation but also of confrontation, contradiction and paradox.

  17. Study protocol: The Intensive Care Outcome Network ('ICON' study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber Vicki S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extended follow-up of survivors of ICU treatment has shown many patients suffer long-term physical and psychological consequences that affect their health-related quality of life. The current lack of rigorous longitudinal studies means that the true prevalence of these physical and psychological problems remains undetermined. Methods/Design The ICON (Intensive Care Outcome Network study is a multi-centre, longitudinal study of survivors of critical illness. Patients will be recruited prior to hospital discharge from 20–30 ICUs in the UK and will be assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months following ICU discharge for health-related quality of life as measured by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 and the EuroQoL (EQ-5D; anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms as measured by the PTSD Civilian Checklist (PCL-C. Postal questionnaires will be used. Discussion The ICON study will create a valuable UK database detailing the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity experienced by patients as they recover from critical illness. Knowledge of the prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity in ICU survivors is important because research to generate models of causality, prognosis and treatment effects is dependent on accurate determination of prevalence. The results will also inform economic modelling of the long-term burden of critical illness. Trial Registration ISRCTN69112866

  18. Iconic Gestures for Robot Avatars, Recognition and Integration with Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, Paul; Leonards, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Co-verbal gestures are an important part of human communication, improving its efficiency and efficacy for information conveyance. One possible means by which such multi-modal communication might be realized remotely is through the use of a tele-operated humanoid robot avatar. Such avatars have been previously shown to enhance social presence and operator salience. We present a motion tracking based tele-operation system for the NAO robot platform that allows direct transmission of speech and gestures produced by the operator. To assess the capabilities of this system for transmitting multi-modal communication, we have conducted a user study that investigated if robot-produced iconic gestures are comprehensible, and are integrated with speech. Robot performed gesture outcomes were compared directly to those for gestures produced by a human actor, using a within participant experimental design. We show that iconic gestures produced by a tele-operated robot are understood by participants when presented alone, almost as well as when produced by a human. More importantly, we show that gestures are integrated with speech when presented as part of a multi-modal communication equally well for human and robot performances. PMID:26925010

  19. Reward associations impact both iconic and visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infanti, Elisa; Hickey, Clayton; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-02-01

    Reward plays a fundamental role in human behavior. A growing number of studies have shown that stimuli associated with reward become salient and attract attention. The aim of the present study was to extend these results into the investigation of iconic memory and visual working memory. In two experiments we asked participants to perform a visual-search task where different colors of the target stimuli were paired with high or low reward. We then tested whether the pre-established feature-reward association affected performance on a subsequent visual memory task, in which no reward was provided. In this test phase participants viewed arrays of 8 objects, one of which had unique color that could match the color associated with reward during the previous visual-search task. A probe appeared at varying intervals after stimulus offset to identify the to-be-reported item. Our results suggest that reward biases the encoding of visual information such that items characterized by a reward-associated feature interfere with mnemonic representations of other items in the test display. These results extend current knowledge regarding the influence of reward on early cognitive processes, suggesting that feature-reward associations automatically interact with the encoding and storage of visual information, both in iconic memory and visual working memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wireless capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddan, Gavriel; Meron, Gavriel; Glukhovsky, Arkady; Swain, Paul

    2000-05-01

    We have developed a new type of endoscopy, which for the first time allows painless endoscopic imaging of the whole of the small bowel. This procedure involves a wireless capsule endoscope and we describe here its successful testing in humans.

  1. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  2. Age-Related Changes in Preschoolers' Ability to Communicate Using Iconic Gestures in the Absence of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasc, Dermina; Miclea, Mircea

    2018-01-01

    Iconic gestures illustrate complex meanings and clarify and enrich the speech they accompany. Little is known, however, about how children use iconic gestures in the absence of speech. In this study, we used a cross-sectional design to investigate how 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 51) communicate using pantomime iconic gestures. Children…

  3. Improving access to clinical practice guidelines with an interactive graphical interface using an iconic language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines are useful for physicians, and guidelines are available on the Internet from various websites such as Vidal Recos. However, these guidelines are long and difficult to read, especially during consultation. Similar difficulties have been encountered with drug summaries of product characteristics. In a previous work, we have proposed an iconic language (called VCM, for Visualization of Concepts in Medicine) for representing patient conditions, treatments and laboratory tests, and we have used these icons to design a user interface that graphically indexes summaries of product characteristics. In the current study, our objective was to design and evaluate an iconic user interface for the consultation of clinical practice guidelines by physicians. Methods Focus groups of physicians were set up to identify the difficulties encountered when reading guidelines. Icons were integrated into Vidal Recos, taking human factors into account. The resulting interface includes a graphical summary and an iconic indexation of the guideline. The new interface was evaluated. We compared the response times and the number of errors recorded when physicians answered questions about two clinical scenarios using the interactive iconic interface or a textual interface. Users’ perceived usability was evaluated with the System Usability Scale. Results The main difficulties encountered by physicians when reading guidelines were obtaining an overview and finding recommendations for patients corresponding to “particular cases”. We designed a graphical interface for guideline consultation, using icons to identify particular cases and providing a graphical summary of the icons organized by anatomy and etiology. The evaluation showed that physicians gave clinical responses more rapidly with the iconic interface than the textual interface (25.2 seconds versus 45.6, p iconic interface can provide physicians with an overview of clinical practice guidelines

  4. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  5. Wireless Networks Security

    OpenAIRE

    Jenko, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we deal with security, penetration testing and different types of attacks on wireless networks. We theoretically familiarize with the field of wireless networks, security mechanisms and the most used security standards. Then we systematically overview the field of penetration testing. We divide the penetration testing on types and different methodologies. We explain the tasks of the provider and the subscriber in penetration testing. Description of the process of conducting the...

  6. Reactor building indoor wireless network channel quality estimation using RSSI measurement of wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merat, S.

    2008-01-01

    Expanding wireless communication network reception inside reactor buildings (RB) and service wings (SW) has always been a technical challenge for operations service team. This is driven by the volume of metal equipment inside the Reactor Buildings (RB) that blocks and somehow shields the signal throughout the link. In this study, to improve wireless reception inside the Reactor Building (RB), an experimental model using indoor localization mesh based on IEEE 802.15 is developed to implement a wireless sensor network. This experimental model estimates the distance between different nodes by measuring the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator). Then by using triangulation and RSSI measurement, the validity of the estimation techniques is verified to simulate the physical environmental obstacles, which block the signal transmission. (author)

  7. Wireless Networks: New Meaning to Ubiquitous Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Wilfred, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the use of wireless technology in academic libraries. Topics include wireless networks; standards (IEEE 802.11); wired versus wireless; why libraries implement wireless technology; wireless local area networks (WLANs); WLAN security; examples of wireless use at Indiana State University and Morrisville College (New York); and useful…

  8. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xu-Tao; Xu Jin; Zhang Zai-Chen

    2013-01-01

    The distributed wireless quantum communication network (DWQCN) has a distributed network topology and transmits information by quantum states. In this paper, we present the concept of the DWQCN and propose a system scheme to transfer quantum states in the DWQCN. The system scheme for transmitting information between any two nodes in the DWQCN includes a routing protocol and a scheme for transferring quantum states. The routing protocol is on-demand and the routing metric is selected based on the number of entangled particle pairs. After setting up a route, quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping are used for transferring quantum states. Entanglement swapping is achieved along with the process of routing set up and the acknowledgment packet transmission. The measurement results of each entanglement swapping are piggybacked with route reply packets or acknowledgment packets. After entanglement swapping, a direct quantum link between source and destination is set up and quantum states are transferred by quantum teleportation. Adopting this scheme, the measurement results of entanglement swapping do not need to be transmitted specially, which decreases the wireless transmission cost and transmission delay. (general)

  9. A wireless implantable switched-capacitor based optogenetic stimulating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Kwon, Ki-Yong; Li, Wen; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a power-efficient implantable optogenetic interface using a wireless switched-capacitor based stimulating (SCS) system. The SCS efficiently charges storage capacitors directly from an inductive link and periodically discharges them into an array of micro-LEDs, providing high instantaneous power without affecting wireless link and system supply voltage. A custom-designed computer interface in LabVIEW environment wirelessly controls stimulation parameters through the inductive link, and an optrode array enables simultaneous neural recording along with optical stimulation. The 4-channel SCS system prototype has been implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process and combined with the optrode array. In vivo experiments involving light-induced local field potentials verified the efficacy of the SCS system. An implantable version of the SCS system with flexible hermetic sealing is under development for chronic experiments.

  10. A Wireless Implantable Switched-Capacitor Based Optogenetic Stimulating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Kwon, Ki-Yong; Li, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a power-efficient implantable optogenetic interface using a wireless switched-capacitor based stimulating (SCS) system. The SCS efficiently charges storage capacitors directly from an inductive link and periodically discharges them into an array of micro-LEDs, providing high instantaneous power without affecting wireless link and system supply voltage. A custom-designed computer interface in LabVIEW environment wirelessly controls stimulation parameters through the inductive link, and an optrode array enables simultaneous neural recording along with optical stimulation. The 4-channel SCS system prototype has been implemented in a 0.35-μm CMOS process and combined with the optrode array. In vivo experiments involving light-induced local field potentials verified the efficacy of the SCS system. An implantable version of the SCS system with flexible hermetic sealing is under development for chronic experiments. PMID:25570099

  11. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    to model the propagation of a system in a "deployed" configuration versus a "stowed" configuration. The differences in relative field strength provide valuable information about the distribution of the field that can be used to engineer RF links with optimal radiated power and antenna configuration that accomplish the intended system reliability. Such modeling will be necessary in subsequent studies for managing multipath propagation characteristics inside a main cabin and to understand more complex environments, such as the inside wings, landing gear bays, cargo bays, avionics bays, etc. The results of the short research effort are described in the present document. The team puts forth a set of recommendations with the intention of informing the project and program leadership of the future work that, in the opinion of the EWAIC team, would assist the ECON team reach the intended goal of developing an all-wireless aircraft.

  12. How Acceptable Is A Wireless Pill Bottle That Monitors and Texts In Response To Missed Doses: Focus Groups With Young African American MSM Living With HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Mark; Panchal, Palak; Jimenez, Antonio; Garofalo, Robert; Haberer, Jessica E; Wiebel, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background African American MSM (AAMSM) living with HIV are less likely to have viral suppression than other racial groups. Wisepill, a wireless pill bottle, transmits a cellular signal to a server when opened and is designed to measure antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. The objective of this study was to explore the acceptability of a proposed intervention in these young AAMSM using the Wisepill device opening data to trigger a real-time text alert that ART may not have been taken during a planned time to either the user, a trusted social contact, or a healthcare worker, depending on the duration of consecutively missed doses (1 dose, 3 doses, 7 doses, respectively). Methods From December 2016 – May 2017, AAMSM living with HIV age 18–34 years (N = 25) participated in a study that included five focus groups (n = 23) and one on one interviews (n = 2). We performed theory-based discussion grounded in the Technology Acceptance Model. Specifically, we explored usefulness, convenience, concerns, and intention to use. Results Fifty-two percent missed at least one dose in the 4 days prior to the focus group meeting. Almost all participants (94%) favored the idea of a wireless pill bottle monitor and linked text message notification that ART may have been missed. The device was considered convenient for use at home or in a backpack, but too large for a pocket. Stigma and privacy were common concerns. For example, participants did not want to carry the device with them if the pills would “sound like a walking pharmacy” and did not want a text message that said, “You missed your HIV meds.” They preferred text message notifications that ranged from emoji icons to cryptic short texts and wanted to receive an email as a backup plan. Most believed that the device appearance would not gain unwanted attention. Thirty percent of the participants identified a partner as a social contact to whom the 3-day missed dose reminders would be sent whereas others

  13. Terahertz (THz) Wireless Systems for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; deSilva, Kanishka B.; Jih, Cindy T.

    2013-01-01

    NASA has been leading the Terahertz (THz) technology development for the sensors and instruments in astronomy in the past 20 years. THz technologies are expanding into much broader applications in recent years. Due to the vast available multiple gigahertz (GHz) broad bandwidths, THz radios offer the possibility for wireless transmission of high data rates. Multi-Gigabits per second (MGbps) broadband wireless access based on THz waves are closer to reality. The THz signal high atmosphere attenuation could significantly decrease the communication ranges and transmittable data rates for the ground systems. Contrary to the THz applications on the ground, the space applications in the atmosphere free environment do not suffer the atmosphere attenuation. The manufacturing technologies for the THz electronic components are advancing and maturing. There is great potential for the NASA future high data wireless applications in environments with difficult cabling and size/weight constraints. In this study, the THz wireless systems for potential space applications were investigated. The applicability of THz systems for space applications was analyzed. The link analysis indicates that MGbps data rates are achievable with compact sized high gain antennas.

  14. Iconicity in the development of picture skills: typical development and implications for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The iconicity of graphic symbols and the iconicity hypothesis are theoretical concepts that have had an impact on the use of augmentative and alternative communication strategies for people with severe intellectual disabilities. This article reviews some of the recent literature on the impact of iconicity on symbol recognition and use by typically developing children and relates those findings to people with severe disability. It seems that although iconicity may have some impact on symbol learning, there are other variables that are likely to be much more important. It is likely that iconicity is not helpful to those learning graphic symbols who have little or no comprehension of spoken language.

  15. Impact of wireless communication on multimedia application performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin A.

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia applications and specifically voice and video conferencing tools are widely used in business communications, and are quickly being discovered by the consumer market as well. At the same time, wireless communication services such as PCS voice and cellular data are becoming very popular, leading to the desire to deploy multimedia applications in the wireless environment. Wireless links, however, exhibit several characteristics which are different from traditional wired networks. These include: dynamically changing bandwidth due to mobile host movement in and out of cell where bandwidth is shared, high rates of packet corruption and subsequent loss, and frequent are lengthy disconnections due to obstacles, fading, and movement between cells. In addition, these effects are short-lived and difficult to reproduce, leading to a lack of adequate testing and analysis for applications used in wireless environments.

  16. Collaboration in a Wireless Grid Innovation Testbed by Virtual Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph; Ramnarine-Rieks, Angela; McKnight, Lee

    This paper describes the formation of the Wireless Grid Innovation Testbed (WGiT) coordinated by a virtual consortium involving academic and non-academic entities. Syracuse University and Virginia Tech are primary university partners with several other academic, government, and corporate partners. Objectives include: 1) coordinating knowledge sharing, 2) defining key parameters for wireless grids network applications, 3) dynamically connecting wired and wireless devices, content and users, 4) linking to VT-CORNET, Virginia Tech Cognitive Radio Network Testbed, 5) forming ad hoc networks or grids of mobile and fixed devices without a dedicated server, 6) deepening understanding of wireless grid application, device, network, user and market behavior through academic, trade and popular publications including online media, 7) identifying policy that may enable evaluated innovations to enter US and international markets and 8) implementation and evaluation of the international virtual collaborative process.

  17. Awareness of Emerging Wireless Technologies: Ad-hoc and Personal Area Networks Standards and Emerging Technologies (Sensibilisation a l'emergence des technologies sans fil: technologies emergeantes et normes de reseaux personnels et ad-hoc)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stassinopoulos, George; Boucher, L; Churavy, M; Plesse, T; Marquart, D; Kyriazakos, S; Papaoulakis, N; Nikitopoulos, D; Maseng, T

    2007-01-01

    .... The report starts with ad-hoc networking concepts and maturing technological solutions. Ad-hoc networking is a necessary companion to wireless communication, due to the inherent lack of reliability of any wireless based link level protocol...

  18. Towards iconic language for patient records, drug monographs, guidelines and medical search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Hamek, Saliha; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Kerdelhué, Gaetan; Darmoni, Stefan; Favre, Madeleine; Falcoff, Hector; Simon, Christian; Pereira, Suzanne; Serrot, Elisabeth; Mitouard, Thierry; Hardouin, Etienne; Kergosien, Yannick; Venot, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Practicing physicians have limited time for consulting medical knowledge and records. We have previously shown that using icons instead of text to present drug monographs may allow contraindications and adverse effects to be identified more rapidly and more accurately. These findings were based on the use of an iconic language designed for drug knowledge, providing icons for many medical concepts, including diseases, antecedents, drug classes and tests. In this paper, we describe a new project aimed at extending this iconic language, and exploring the possible applications of these icons in medicine. Based on evaluators' comments, focus groups of physicians and opinions of academic, industrial and associative partners, we propose iconic applications related to patient records, for example summarizing patient conditions, searching for specific clinical documents and helping to code structured data. Other applications involve the presentation of clinical practice guidelines and improving the interface of medical search engines. These new applications could use the same iconic language that was designed for drug knowledge, with a few additional items that respect the logic of the language.

  19. Cough once for danger: icons versus abstract warnings as informative alerts in civil aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nathan C; Stevens, Catherine J; Wiggins, Mark W; Howell, Clare E

    2007-12-01

    An experiment investigated the efficacy of auditory icons as warning signals in an aviation context. Iconic signals, such as a cough to signal dangerous levels of carbon monoxide, convey information about the nature of an incident and alert the operator that there is a problem, whereas signals that are arbitrarily associated with a critical incident provide relatively less information. Warning recognition speed and accuracy are likely to be influenced by modality of presentation (visual, auditory, auditory + visual) and task demand (low, high). The 172 participants completed a computer-based training session and test task that involved responding to abstract or iconic auditory (1 s), visual, or auditory + visual warnings associated with seven critical incidents while performing low- and high-demand concurrent tasks. Significantly fewer training trials were required to learn iconic warnings than abstract warnings. An advantage for iconic warnings persisted into the test phase, evident most consistently as greater warning recognition accuracy. The effect was observed in both high- and low-demand conditions. Auditory abstract warnings, in particular, elicited slow reaction times and poor accuracy. Associations between a small number of meaningful environmental sounds and critical incidents can be learned with ease relative to more abstract associations, although training is required and response times are relatively slow. Sets of distinctive auditory iconic warnings can be designed to alert and inform pilots about non-time-pressured events. Potential applications of language-neutral icons as informative warnings include civil, commercial, and defense aircraft.

  20. Choosing colors for map display icons using models of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Joshua; Francis, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    We show how to choose colors for icons on maps to minimize search time using predictions of a model of visual search. The model analyzes digital images of a search target (an icon on a map) and a search display (the map containing the icon) and predicts search time as a function of target-distractor color distinctiveness and target eccentricity. We parameterized the model using data from a visual search task and performed a series of optimization tasks to test the model's ability to choose colors for icons to minimize search time across icons. Map display designs made by this procedure were tested experimentally. In a follow-up experiment, we examined the model's flexibility to assign colors in novel search situations. The model fits human performance, performs well on the optimization tasks, and can choose colors for icons on maps with novel stimuli to minimize search time without requiring additional model parameter fitting. Models of visual search can suggest color choices that produce search time reductions for display icons. Designers should consider constructing visual search models as a low-cost method of evaluating color assignments.