WorldWideScience

Sample records for wireless alarm transmission

  1. The research of nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Fang Fang

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces based on monolithic integrated circuit's nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device's software and hardware design. The system by G-M tube, high-pressured module, signal conditioning circuit, power source module, monolithic integrated circuit and wireless transmission module is composed. The device has low power consumption, high performance, high accuracy detection, easy maintenance, small size, simple operation, and other features, and has a broad application prospects. (authors)

  2. Wireless data signal transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver.......The present invention relates to a method for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission, a system for providing a radio frequency signal for transmission and a method for wireless data transmission between a transmitter and a receiver....

  3. Wireless transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been proven by researchers that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to data have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with litter attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. It is the intent of this research to determine if the Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagated with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission

  4. Low Power Wireless Smoke Alarm System in Home Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aponte Luis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel sensing device for fire detection in domestic environments is presented. The fire detector uses a combination of several sensors that not only detect smoke, but discriminate between different types of smoke. This feature avoids false alarms and warns of different situations. Power consumption is optimized both in terms of hardware and software, providing a high degree of autonomy of almost five years. Data gathered from the device are transmitted through a wireless communication to a base station. The low cost and compact design provides wide application prospects.

  5. Development of electric power transmission line anomaly approaching alarm system. Sodensen ijo sekkin keiho sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusaba, Masaro; Tabata, Takatoshi; Miyazaki, Shusuke [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1989-03-30

    In order to plan preventive measures from the occurrence of electric power transmission line accident, a power transmission line anomaly approaching alarm system was developed to automatically alarm the operators and surveillants. The surveillance system, composed of camera, surveillance unit proper and alarm receiving portion, generates alarm and indicate hazard to the operators, when animal invades a hazardous area designated on the monitor. Wireless telegraph for the alarm transmission use used frequency around a 322MHz band with the Radio Ray law and preventive measures from noise, taken into consideration. The prototype is characterized by unnecessary ancillary fitting to the surveillance object, rare erroneous operations and high reliability. While the hazardous area can be simply designated, changed and released, as made by volume on the control panel. It is moreover easy to designate, as done by confirming the surveillance object on the display. It is also possible in multidimensional surveillance and easy to use on site. 7 figs.

  6. Intelligent Smoke Alarm System with Wireless Sensor Network Using ZigBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflagration of fire is still a serious problem caused by humans, and houses are at a high risk of fire. Recently, people have used smoke alarms which only have one sensor to detect fire. Smoke is emitted in several forms in daily life. A single sensor is not a reliable way to detect fire. With the rapid advancement in Internet technology, people can monitor their houses remotely to determine the current condition of the house. This paper introduces an intelligent smoke alarm system that uses ZigBee transmission technology to build a wireless network, uses random forest to identify smoke, and uses E-charts for data visualization. By combining the real-time dynamic changes of various environmental factors, compared to the traditional smoke alarm, the accuracy and controllability of the fire warning are increased, and the visualization of the data enables users to monitor the room environment more intuitively. The proposed system consists of a smoke detection module, a wireless communication module, and intelligent identification and data visualization module. At present, the collected environmental data can be classified into four statuses, that is, normal air, water mist, kitchen cooking, and fire smoke. Reducing the frequency of miscalculations also means improving the safety of the person and property of the user.

  7. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  8. Wireless transmission: state of research, applications, trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century Nikola Tesla started his work in the field of wireless energy transmission. More than 100 years after Tesla, the progress in modern semiconductor technology offer developers the possibility to realize highly efficient systems and have led to a revival of wireless energy transmission. The application ranges from the transmission of a few milliwatts in biomedical applications, over a few watts for the charging of mobile phones, to hundreds of kilowatts in the automotive sector. Depending on the used method, the possible transmission distances vary between a few centimeters up to thousands of kilometers. The physical basis of these technologies is the transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves. State-of-the-art systems use wavelengths ranging from radio waves to microwaves, to ultraviolet light. Current research focuses on optimizing transmission efficiency, increasing the possible transmission distance between transmitter and receiver, and improving spatial freedom of movement. This lecture gives an overview of the different approaches of wireless energy transmission and their physical background, the established industrial standards and the current state of research. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods are illustrated by selected commercial and scientific applications. (rössner) [de

  9. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  10. Wireless autonomous device data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, Jr., David W. (Inventor); Cain, James T. (Inventor); Mickle, Marlin H. (Inventor); Mi, Minhong (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of communicating information from a wireless autonomous device (WAD) to a base station. The WAD has a data element having a predetermined profile having a total number of sequenced possible data element combinations. The method includes receiving at the WAD an RF profile transmitted by the base station that includes a triggering portion having a number of pulses, wherein the number is at least equal to the total number of possible data element combinations. The method further includes keeping a count of received pulses and wirelessly transmitting a piece of data, preferably one bit, to the base station when the count reaches a value equal to the stored data element's particular number in the sequence. Finally, the method includes receiving the piece of data at the base station and using the receipt thereof to determine which of the possible data element combinations the stored data element is.

  11. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  12. Wireless data transmission from inside electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José Ignacio; Barraza, Roberto; Echeverry, Julian Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes analytical and experimental work developed to evaluate the effects of the electromagnetic fields produced by high-voltage lines (400 kV) on wireless data transmission at the 900MHz band. In this work the source of the data transmission is located inside the electromagnetic field and the reception station is located at different distances from the power lines. Different atmospheric conditions are considered.

  13. Priority image transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, M.; Helali, A.; Sghaier, H.; Maaref, H.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging technology during the last years allowed the development of new sensors equipped with wireless communication which can be organized into a cooperative autonomous network. Some application areas for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are home automations, health care services, military domain, and environment monitoring. The required constraints are limited capacity of processing, limited storage capability, and especially these nodes are limited in energy. In addition, such networks are tiny battery powered which their lifetime is very limited. During image processing and transmission to the destination, the lifetime of sensor network is decreased quickly due to battery and processing power constraints. Therefore, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Based on a wavelet image compression, we propose a novel, robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Priority Image Transmission (PIT) in WSN by providing various priority levels during image transmissions. Different priorities in the compressed image are considered. The information for the significant wavelet coeffcients are transmitted with higher quality assurance, whereas relatively less important coefficients are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme prolongs the system lifetime and achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN with an acceptable compromise on the image quality.

  14. Wireless power transmission for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chris; Li, Siqi; Nguyen, Trong-Duy; Wang, Junhua; Li, Jiangui; Li, Weihan; Xu, Jun

    2016-11-15

    A wireless power transmission system is provided for high power applications. The power transmission system is comprised generally of a charging unit configured to generate an alternating electromagnetic field and a receive unit configured to receive the alternating electromagnetic field from the charging unit. The charging unit includes a power source; an input rectifier; an inverter; and a transmit coil. The transmit coil has a spirangle arrangement segmented into n coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments. The receive unit includes a receive coil and an output rectifier. The receive coil also has a spirangle arrangement segmented into m coil segments with capacitors interconnecting adjacent coil segments.

  15. mm-Wave Hybrid Photonic Wireless Links for Ultra-High Speed Wireless Transmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Hybrid photonic-wireless transmission schemes in the mm-wave frequency range are promising candidates to enable the multi-gigabit per second data communications required from wireless and mobile networks of the 5th and future generations. Large FCC spectrum allocations for wireless transmission...

  16. Transmission Power Control for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsien Hsia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks can be widely applied for a security system or a smart home system. Since some of the wireless remote sensor nodes may be powered by energy storage devices such as batteries, it is a very important issue to transmit signals at lower power with the consideration of the communication effectiveness. In this paper, we will provide a fuzzy controller with two inputs and one output for received signal strength indicator (RSSI and link quality indicator (LQI to adjust transmission power suitably in order to maintaining a certain communication level with a reduced energy consumption. And we will divide the sampling period of a sensor node into four intervals so that the sensor node radio device does not in receiving or transmission status all the time. Hence the sensor node can adjust transmission power automatically and reduce sensor node power consumption. Experimental results show that the battery life can be extended to about 10 times for the designed sensor node comparing to a normal node.

  17. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K; Paget, C

    2011-01-01

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  18. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  19. Wireless power transmission using ultrasonic guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kural, A; Pullin, R; Featherston, C; Holford, K [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 2AA (United Kingdom); Paget, C, E-mail: kurala@cardiff.ac.uk [Airbus Operations Ltd, New Filton Road, BS99 7AR Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-19

    The unavailability of suitable power supply at desired locations is currently an important obstacle in the development of distributed, wireless sensor networks for applications such as structural health monitoring of aircraft. Proposed solutions range from improved batteries to energy harvesting from vibration, temperature gradients and other sources. A novel approach is being investigated at Cardiff University School of Engineering in cooperation with Airbus. It aims to utilise ultrasonic guided Lamb waves to transmit energy through the aircraft skin. A vibration generator is to be placed in a location where electricity supply is readily available. Ultrasonic waves generated by this device will travel through the aircraft structure to a receiver in a remote wireless sensor node. The receiver will convert the mechanical vibration of the ultrasonic waves back to electricity, which will be used to power the sensor node. This paper describes the measurement and modelling of the interference pattern which emerges when Lamb waves are transmitted continuously as in this power transmission application. The discovered features of the pattern, such as a large signal amplitude variation and a relatively high frequency, are presented and their importance for the development of a power transmission system is discussed.

  20. Measurements on wireless transmission of ECG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Lax, I.

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this research is to design an electronic prototype, an operative system as a proof of concept, to transmit and receive biological parameters, in particular electrocardiogram signals, through dedicated wireless circuits. The apparatus features microelectronics chips that were developed for more general biomedical applications, here adapted to deal with cardiac signals. The paper mainly focuses on the electronic aspects, as in this study we do not face medical or clinical aspects of the system. The transmitter circuit uses a commercial instrumentation amplifier and the receiver has been equipped with wide-band amplifiers along with made-in-the-lab band-pass filters centered at the carrier. We have been able to mount the entire system prototype into a preliminary data acquisition chain that reads out the electrocardiogram signal. The prototype allows acquiring the waveform, converting it to a digital pattern and open the transmission through a series of high-frequency packets exploiting the Ultra Wide Band protocol. The sensor value is embedded in the transmission through the rate of the digital packets. In fact, these are sent wireless at a specific packet-frequency that depends on the sensor amplitude and are detected into a receiver circuit that recovers the information.

  1. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    channeled to the battery or power plant. Figure 2. WPT System Block Diagram for Battery Charging. Source : [2]. Wireless power transfer has gained...EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION by Sean X. Hong September 2016 Thesis Advisor: David Jenn Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PHASED ARRAY EXCITATIONS FOR EFFICIENT NEAR-FIELD WIRELESS POWER TRANSMISSION 5

  2. [Review of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Yang, Ming

    2009-11-01

    This paper sums up the fundamental structure of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart, and compares the key parameters and performance of some representative systems. After that, it is discussed that the future development trend of wireless energy transmission system for total artificial heart.

  3. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongseog

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment

  4. Study for wireless power transmission of nuclear robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongseog [Central Research Institute of Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Gasoline engine or electric motor is generally used for driving power of working. Gasoline tank is uncomfortable to carry. Battery capacity does not sustain long time working. Frequent moving back of robot to power charger or refueling tank is inconvenient. Long power cable connection occur winding problem if there are complex structures in walking way. We need some solution for continuous supply of robot energy at the free moving condition of robot. 'Wireless power transmission' is one of the solutions. Some experiment result to transmit wireless power to moving robot is described herein. To find possible wireless power transmission method for nuclear robot, wireless power transmission tests were performed. As result of these tests, it was confirmed that wireless power transmission by using dipole and mat type magnetic induction were possible. As result of flying robot experiment, it was realized that development of light weight core for receiver and wave reflection device for high directional transmitter are necessary for practical use of the dipole type wireless power transmission. Small size core and high directional transmitter will be next target. Mat type wireless power transmission is regarded as useful for robot power charging station in the inside containment.

  5. Wireless data transmission for high energy physics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Brenner, Richard; Dancila, Dragos; Dehos, Cedric; De Lurgio, Patrick; Djurcic, Zelimir; Drake, Gary; Gonzalez Gimenez, Jose Luis; Gustafsson, Leif; Kim, Do-Won; Locci, Elizabeth; Pfeiffer, Ullrich; Röhrich, Dieter; Rydberg, Anders; Schöning, André; Siligaris, Alexandre; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Ullaland, Kjetil; Vincent, Pierre; Rodriguez Vazquez, Pedro; Wiedner, Dirk; Yang, Shiming

    2017-08-01

    Silicon tracking detectors operated at high luminosity collider experiments pose a challenge for current and future readout systems regarding bandwidth, radiation, space and power constraints. With the latest developments in wireless communications, wireless readout systems might be an attractive alternative to commonly used wired optical and copper based readout architectures. The WADAPT group (Wireless Allowing Data and Power Transmission) has been formed to study the feasibility of wireless data transmission for future tracking detectors. These proceedings cover current developments focused on communication in the 60 GHz band. This frequency band offers a high bandwidth, a small form factor and an already mature technology. Motivation for wireless data transmission for high energy physics application and the developments towards a demonstrator prototype are summarized. Feasibility studies concerning the construction and operation of a wireless transceiver system have been performed. Data transmission tests with a transceiver prototype operating at even higher frequencies in the 240 GHz band are described. Data transmission at rates up to 10 Gb/s have been obtained successfully using binary phase shift keying.

  6. Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Transmission Power Control (TPC) techniques are employed. The existing TPC schemes adjust the transmission power mostly reacting to changes at link quality between communicating nodes. Proactive TPC has been proposed in the recent past

  7. 60 Gbit/s 400 GHz Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 400 GHz carrier wireless transmission system with real-time capable detection and demonstrate transmission of a 60 Gbit/s signal derived from optical Nyquist channels in a 12.5 GHz ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UD-WDM) grid and carrying QPSK...

  8. Electrodynamic Wireless Power Transmission to Rotating Magnet Receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Jimenez, J D; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) using a synchronously rotating magnet located in a 3.2 cm 3 receiver. We demonstrate wireless power transmission up to 99 mW (power density equal to 31 mW/cm 3 ) over a 5-cm distance and 5 mW over a 20-cm distance. The maximum operational frequency, and hence maximal output power, is constrained by the magnetic field amplitude. A quadratic relationship is found between the maximal output power and the magnetic field. We also demonstrate simultaneous, power transmission to multiple receivers positioned at different locations

  9. Design of wireless data transmission system for spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jue; Wang Fuquan; Liu Huaili

    2010-01-01

    A new wireless data transmission scheme based on UWB was proposed after studying the structure and character of spiral CT transmission system, the system was designed and validated. Using UWB device as wireless module to realize wireless data transmission. Using FPGA as main controller to meet the requirement of timing control for system module. Using two pieces of SDRAM in pingpang operation to realize large capacity storage mechanism. Using USB 2.0 interface to realize high-speed connection with UWB module. The results show that the transmission speed of the system arrival at 16.87 M bit ps within 3 meters, and the precision is 100%, it can be used for line-array spiral CT. (authors)

  10. An 802.11 n wireless local area network transmission scheme for wireless telemedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C F; Hung, S I; Chiang, I H

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, an 802.11 n transmission scheme is proposed for wireless telemedicine applications. IEEE 802.11n standards, a power assignment strategy, space-time block coding (STBC), and an object composition Petri net (OCPN) model are adopted. With the proposed wireless system, G.729 audio bit streams, Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 (JPEG 2000) clinical images, and Moving Picture Experts Group 4 (MPEG-4) video bit streams achieve a transmission bit error rate (BER) of 10-7, 10-4, and 103 simultaneously. The proposed system meets the requirements prescribed for wireless telemedicine applications. An essential feature of this proposed transmission scheme is that clinical information that requires a high quality of service (QoS) is transmitted at a high power transmission rate with significant error protection. For maximizing resource utilization and minimizing the total transmission power, STBC and adaptive modulation techniques are used in the proposed 802.11 n wireless telemedicine system. Further, low power, direct mapping (DM), low-error protection scheme, and high-level modulation are adopted for messages that can tolerate a high BER. With the proposed transmission scheme, the required reliability of communication can be achieved. Our simulation results have shown that the proposed 802.11 n transmission scheme can be used for developing effective wireless telemedicine systems.

  11. Transmission Delay Based Control over Networks with Wireless Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the mobility of computers during communication, the TCP connections between fixed host and mobile host may often traverse wired and wireless networks, and the recovery of losses due to wireless transmission error is much different from congestion control. The paper analyzes the side effect of RTT estimation while making the TCP source to handle congestion and wireless error losses properly. Then present a strategy using information feedback by the last hop acknowledgement and monitoring the queuing level of the wired bottleneck link by calculating the changes in transmission delay along the path. With the identification of the early stage of congestion, it can respond to wired congestion quickly while keeping wireless link more reliable, and make TCP react to the different packets losses more appropriately.

  12. Transmission Range Assignment with Balancing Connectivity in Clustered Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Abd Ali

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the main challenge for researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks is associated with reducing the energy consumption as much as possible to increase the lifetime of the nodes and improve the performance of the network. Furthermore, delivery of data to its destination is also an important key issue that represents throughput of the network. On the other hand, transmission range assignment in clustered wireless networks is the bottleneck of the balance between energy con...

  13. Unpowered wireless transmission of ultrasound signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H; Paramo, D; Deshmukh, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasound sensing system that uses frequency conversion to convert the ultrasound signal to a microwave signal and transmit it directly without digitization. Constructed from a few passive microwave components, the sensor is able to sense, modulate, and transmit the full waveform of ultrasound signals wirelessly without requiring any local power source. The principle of operation of the unpowered wireless ultrasound sensor is described first, and this is followed by a detailed description of the implementation of the sensor and the sensor interrogation unit using commercially available antennas and microwave components. Validation of the sensing system using an ultrasound pitch–catch system and the power analysis model of the system are also presented

  14. The optimization of wireless power transmission: design and realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Liu, Hua; Wang, Zhiwu; Jiang, Pingping; Shi, Yu

    2012-09-01

    A wireless power transmission system is regarded as a practical way of solving power-shortage problems in multifunctional active capsule endoscopes. The uniformity of magnetic flux density, frequency stability and orientation stability are used to evaluate power transmission stability, taking into consideration size and safety constraints. Magnetic field safety and temperature rise are also considered. Test benches are designed to measure the relevent parameters. Finally, a mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed to improve transmission efficiency. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, various systems for a wireless active capsule endoscope are designed and evaluated. The optimal power transmission system has the capability to supply continuously at least 500 mW of power with a transmission efficiency of 4.08%. The example validates the feasibility of the proposed method. Introduction of novel designs enables further improvement of this method. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Statistical performance evaluation of ECG transmission using wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhatreh, Walid; Gharaibeh, Khaled; Al-Zaben, Awad

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents simulation of the transmission of biomedical signals (using ECG signal as an example) over wireless networks. Investigation of the effect of channel impairments including SNR, pathloss exponent, path delay and network impairments such as packet loss probability; on the diagnosability of the received ECG signal are presented. The ECG signal is transmitted through a wireless network system composed of two communication protocols; an 802.15.4- ZigBee protocol and an 802.11b protocol. The performance of the transmission is evaluated using higher order statistics parameters such as kurtosis and Negative Entropy in addition to the common techniques such as the PRD, RMS and Cross Correlation.

  16. Development and Application of Wireless Power Transmission Systems for Wireless ECG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the variations in the magnetic field distribution and power transmission efficiency, resulting from changes in the relative positions of the transmitting and receiving coils, for electromagnetic induction-type wireless power transmission using an elliptical receive coil. Results of simulations using a high-frequency structure simulator were compared to actual measurement results. The simulations showed that the transmission efficiency could be maintained relatively stable even if the alignment between the transmitting and receiving coils was changed to some extent. When the centre of the receiving coil was perfectly aligned with the centre of the transmitting coil, the transmission efficiency was in the maximum; however, the degree of decrease in the transmission efficiency was small even if the centre of the receiving coil moved by ±10 mm from the centre of the transmitting coil. Therefore, it is expected that the performance of the wireless power transmission system will not be degraded significantly even if perfect alignment is not maintained. Animal experiments confirmed good ECG signals for the simulation conditions. The results suggested a standardized application method of wireless transmission in the utilization of wireless power for implantable sensors.

  17. Wireless cardiac action potential transmission with ultrasonically inserted silicon microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C J; Ramkumar, A; Lal, A; Gilmour, R F Jr

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the integration of ultrasonically inserted horn-shaped cardiac probes with wireless transmission of 3D cardiac action potential measurement for applications in ex vivo preparations such as monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ultrasonically inserted silicon horn probes permit reduced penetration force during insertion, allowing silicon, a brittle material, to penetrate cardiac tissue. The probes also allow recording from multiple sites that are lithographically defined. An application-specific integrated circuit has been designed with a 40 dB amplifying stage and a frequency modulating oscillator at 95 MHz to wirelessly transmit the recorded action potentials. This ultrasonically inserted microprobe wireless system demonstrates the initial results in wireless monitoring of 3D action potential propagation, and the extraction of parameters of interest including the action potential duration and diastolic interval

  18. Parameters optimization for magnetic resonance coupling wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changsheng; Zhang, He; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Taking maximum power transmission and power stable transmission as research objectives, optimal design for the wireless power transmission system based on magnetic resonance coupling is carried out in this paper. Firstly, based on the mutual coupling model, mathematical expressions of optimal coupling coefficients for the maximum power transmission target are deduced. Whereafter, methods of enhancing power transmission stability based on parameters optimal design are investigated. It is found that the sensitivity of the load power to the transmission parameters can be reduced and the power transmission stability can be enhanced by improving the system resonance frequency or coupling coefficient between the driving/pick-up coil and the transmission/receiving coil. Experiment results are well conformed to the theoretical analysis conclusions.

  19. Portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Bingquan, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Wireless power transmission is considered a practical way of overcoming the power shortage of wireless capsule endoscopy (VCE). However, most patients cannot tolerate the long hours of lying in a fixed transmitting coil during diagnosis. To develop a portable wireless power transmission system for VCE, a compact transmitting coil and a portable inverter circuit driven by rechargeable batteries are proposed. The couple coils, optimized considering the stability and safety conditions, are 28 turns of transmitting coil and six strands of receiving coil. The driven circuit is designed according to the portable principle. Experiments show that the integrated system could continuously supply power to a dual-head VCE for more than 8 h at a frame rate of 30 frames per second with resolution of 320 × 240. The portable VCE exhibits potential for clinical applications, but requires further improvement and tests.

  20. Wireless OAM transmission system based on elliptical microstrip patch antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia Jia; Lu, Qian Nan; Dong, Fei Fei; Yang, Jing Jing; Huang, Ming

    2016-05-30

    The multiplexing transmission has always been a focus of attention for communication technology. In this paper, the radiation characteristics of circular microstrip patch antenna was firstly analyzed based on cavity model theory, and then spiral beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) were generated, using elliptical microstrip patch antenna, with a single feed probe instead of a standard circular patch with two feedpoints. Moreover, by combining the proposed elliptic microstrip patch antenna with Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), a wireless OAM transmission system was established and the real-time transmission of text, image and video in a real channel environment was realized. Since the wireless OAM transmission has the advantage of good safety and high spectrum utilization efficiency, this work has theoretical significance and potential application.

  1. A Novel Oscillating Rectenna for Wireless Microwave Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, J. O.; Dickinson, R. M.; Fan, L.; Chang, K.

    1998-01-01

    A new concept for solid state wireless microwave power transmission is presented. A 2.45 GHz rectenna element that was designed for over 85% RF to dc power conversion efficiency has been used to oscillate at 3.3 GHz with an approximate 1% dc to RF conversion efficiency.

  2. Laser Energy Transmission for a Wireless Energy Supply to Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Nobuki; Takeda, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    We can find a lot of robot applications in construction activities, where it is very difficult or dangerous for a man to access and only robots can work. The time will come soon when the actual use of those robots is extensively realized and the wireless energy transmission technology using laser is a unique means to supply energy to those robots.

  3. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  4. Wireless Transmission of Big Data: A Transmission Time Analysis over Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wen-Jing

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission time of a large amount of data over fading wireless channel with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC). Unlike traditional transmission systems, where the transmission time of a fixed amount of data is typically regarded as a constant, the transmission time with AMC becomes a random variable, as the transmission rate varies with the fading channel condition. To facilitate the design and optimization of wireless transmission schemes for big data applications, we present an analytical framework to determine statistical characterizations for the transmission time of big data with AMC. In particular, we derive the exact statistics of transmission time over block fading channels. The probability mass function (PMF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of transmission time are obtained for both slow and fast fading scenarios. We further extend our analysis to Markov channel, where transmission time becomes the sum of a sequence of exponentially distributed time slots. Analytical expression for the probability density function (PDF) of transmission time is derived for both fast fading and slow fading scenarios. These analytical results are essential to the optimal design and performance analysis of future wireless transmission systems for big data applications.

  5. Electrodynamic wireless power transmission to a torsional receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, K M; Arnold, D P

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless power transmission (WPT) concept that uses electrodynamic coupling and torsional motion of a permanent magnet in the receiver. The system is shown to transfer an average power of 3.09 mW (power density equal to 143 μW/cm 3 ) over a distance of 1 cm, an average power of 1.98 mW over a distance of 2 cm, and an average power of 126 μW over a distance of 7 cm. We also demonstrate unaltered power transmission through conductive media, including a human hand and an aluminum plate, highlighting a key advantage of the electrodynamic wireless power transmission approach

  6. Wireless Communications for Monitoring Nuclear Material Processes Part 2: Wireless In-plant Data Transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braina, F.; Goncalves, J.M.C.; Versino, C.; Heppleston, M.; Ottesen, C.; Schoeneman, B.; Tolk, K.

    2008-01-01

    The wireless transmission of data from sensors, monitoring both static and dynamic safeguards processes, is highly appealing for the simple fact that there are no wires. In a nuclear safeguards regime, this has the implied benefits of low-cost installations, versatile configurations, and the elimination of conduits to inspect. However, with the implied solutions of wireless, we are presented with a new set of problems for system implementation and operation management, in particular (1) Radio Frequency (RF) interference and (2) security in information transmission. These problems are addressable. This paper looks at the clear benefits of wireless technologies and the cautions regarding the possible pitfalls of poorly applied technology, discusses the integration of radio frequency in existing and new facilities, provides high-level considerations for information security, and reviews prospects for the future

  7. Energy Efficient Data Transmission for Sensors with Wireless Charging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaolin; Luo, Junzhou; Wu, Weiwei; Gao, Hong

    2018-02-08

    This paper studies the problem of maximizing the energy utilization for data transmission in sensors with periodical wireless charging process while taking into account the thermal effect. Two classes of problems are analyzed: one is the case that wireless charging can process for only a limited period of time, and the other is the case that wireless charging can process for a long enough time. Algorithms are proposed to solve the problems and analysis of these algorithms are also provided. For the first problem, three subproblems are studied, and, for the general problem, we give an algorithm that can derive a performance bound of ( 1 - 1 2 m ) ( O P T - E ) compared to an optimal solution. In addition, for the second problem, we provide an algorithm with 2 m 2 m - 1 O P T + 1 performance bound for the general problem. Simulations confirm the analysis of the algorithms.

  8. Interference-Robust Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Seok; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2016-11-14

    Low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) operating in unlicensed spectrum bands may seriously suffer from interference from other coexisting radio systems, such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks. In this paper, we consider the improvement of the transmission performance of low-power WSNs by adjusting the transmission rate and the payload size in response to the change of co-channel interference. We estimate the probability of transmission failure and the data throughput and then determine the payload size to maximize the throughput performance. We investigate that the transmission time maximizing the normalized throughput is not much affected by the transmission rate, but rather by the interference condition. We adjust the transmission rate and the transmission time in response to the change of the channel and interference condition, respectively. Finally, we verify the performance of the proposed scheme by computer simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly improves data throughput compared with conventional schemes while preserving energy efficiency even in the presence of interference.

  9. Prediction of transmission distortion for wireless video communication: analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifeng; Wu, Dapeng

    2012-03-01

    Transmitting video over wireless is a challenging problem since video may be seriously distorted due to packet errors caused by wireless channels. The capability of predicting transmission distortion (i.e., video distortion caused by packet errors) can assist in designing video encoding and transmission schemes that achieve maximum video quality or minimum end-to-end video distortion. This paper is aimed at deriving formulas for predicting transmission distortion. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we identify the governing law that describes how the transmission distortion process evolves over time and analytically derive the transmission distortion formula as a closed-form function of video frame statistics, channel error statistics, and system parameters. Second, we identify, for the first time, two important properties of transmission distortion. The first property is that the clipping noise, which is produced by nonlinear clipping, causes decay of propagated error. The second property is that the correlation between motion-vector concealment error and propagated error is negative and has dominant impact on transmission distortion, compared with other correlations. Due to these two properties and elegant error/distortion decomposition, our formula provides not only more accurate prediction but also lower complexity than the existing methods.

  10. Communication protocol in chassis detecting wireless transmission system based on WiFi

    Science.gov (United States)

    In chassis detecting wireless transmission system, the wireless network communication protocol plays a key role in the information exchange and synchronization between the host and chassis PDA. This paper presents a wireless network transmission protocol based on TCP/IP which makes the rules of info...

  11. A stable wireless energy transmission system for gastrointestinal microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, W H; Yan, G Z; Wang, W X

    2010-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system using a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a 3-dimensional secondary coil inside the body is introduced. It is designed to transmit stable power to a gastrointestinal microsystem regardless of its position and orientation when working in the gastric tract. Up to 310 mW of usable DC power can be delivered under worst-case geometrical conditions. Measured data of the system performance are presented and evaluated.

  12. Electromagnetic Interference Issues of A Wireless Power Transmission Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Haji Bashi, Mazaher; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2018-01-01

    field and the leakage current flowing through stray capacitors. In this paper, the EMI of wireless power transmission technology is highlighted and for the first time evaluated from a new perspective. The possible parasitic paths are identified simply. Additionally, effective high-frequency models......Many recent studies have focused on the inductive charging to transfer electrical power from a source to batteries without any electrical interface. The main problem with them is that inductive charging technologies may have electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues caused by the leakage magnetic...... for each part of the inductive charger are presented. At the first, the lowest EMI technology for wireless charging is chosen and simulated. To overcome the EMI and leakage current problems, this paper also suggests using a new passive EMI filter topology. Simulation results show the necessity...

  13. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  14. Watt-level wireless power transmission to multiple compact receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garraud, A; Munzer, D J; Althar, M; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) system using a low-frequency (300 Hz) magnetic field to transmit watt-scale power levels to multiple compact receivers. As compared to inductively or resonantly coupled coils, EWPT facilitates transmission to multiple non-interacting receivers with little restriction on their orientation. A single 3.0 cm 3 receiver achieves 1.25 W power transmission with 8% efficiency at a distance of 1 cm (350 mW/cm 3 power density) from the transmitter. The same prototype achieves 9 mW at a distance of 9 cm. Moreover, we demonstrate simultaneous recharge of two wearable devices, using two receivers located in arbitrary positions and orientations. (paper)

  15. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    Generally, federal agencies tasked to oversee power grid reliability are dependent on data from grid infrastructure owners and operators in order to obtain a basic level of situational awareness. Since there are many owners and operators involved in the day-to-day functioning of the power grid, the task of accessing, aggregating and analyzing grid information from these sources is not a trivial one. Seemingly basic tasks such as synchronizing data timestamps between many different data providers and sources can be difficult as evidenced during the post-event analysis of the August 2003 blackout. In this project we investigate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of deploying a network of wireless power line monitoring devices as a method of independently monitoring key parts of the power grid as a complement to the data which is currently available to federal agencies from grid system operators. Such a network is modeled on proprietary power line monitoring technologies and networks invented, developed and deployed by Genscape, a Louisville, Kentucky based real-time energy information provider. Genscape measures transmission line power flow using measurements of electromagnetic fields under overhead high voltage transmission power lines in the United States and Europe. Opportunities for optimization of the commercial power line monitoring technology were investigated in this project to enable lower power consumption, lower cost and improvements to measurement methodologies. These optimizations were performed in order to better enable the use of wireless transmission line monitors in large network deployments (perhaps covering several thousand power lines) for federal situational awareness needs. Power consumption and cost reduction were addressed by developing a power line monitor using a low power, low cost wireless telemetry platform known as the ''Mote''. Motes were first developed as smart sensor nodes in wireless mesh networking applications

  16. Enhanced Wireless Power Transmission Using Strong Paramagnetic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-03-01

    A method of quasi-static magnetic resonant coupling has been presented for improving the power transmission efficiency (PTE) in near-field wireless power transmission, which improves upon the state of the art. The traditional source resonator on the transmitter side is equipped with an additional resonator with a resonance frequency that is tuned substantially higher than the magnetic field excitation frequency. This additional resonator enhances the magnetic dipole moment and the effective permeability of the power transmitter, owing to a phenomenon known as the strong paramagnetic response. Both theoretical calculations and experimental results show increased PTE due to amplification of the effective permeability. In measurements, the PTE was improved from 57.8% to 64.2% at the nominal distance of 15 cm when the effective permeability was 2.6. The power delivered to load was also improved significantly, with the same 10 V excitation voltage, from 0.38 to 5.26 W.

  17. Simulation Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Wei, Zhiqiang; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Cong, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, more and more implantable medical devices have been used in the medical field. Some of these devices, such as brain pacemakers, require long-term power support. The WPT(wireless power transmission) technology which is more convenient and economical than replacing the battery by surgery, has become the first choice of many patients. In this paper, we design a WPT system that can be used in implantable medical devices, simulate the transmission efficiency of the system in the air and in the head model, and simulate the SAR value when the system working in the head model. The results show that when implantation depth of the secondary coil is 3 mm, the efficiency of the system can reach 45%, and the maximum average SAR value is 2.19 W / kg, slightly higher than the standard of IEEE.

  18. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  19. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission using solar based power satellite technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M; Nasir, M Nauman

    2013-01-01

    In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc, alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern. Wireless electricity (Power) transmission (WET) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this paper, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 – 75% efficient. We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This paper tells us the benefits of using WET technology specially by using Solar based Power satellites (SBPS) and also focuses that how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized. Moreover, attempts are made to highlight future issues so as to index some emerging solutions.

  20. Low-complexity JPEG-based progressive video codec for wireless video transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann; Forchhammer, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of video codec enhancement for wireless video transmission of high definition video data taking into account constraints on memory and complexity. Starting from parameter adjustment for JPEG2000 compression algorithm used for wireless transmission and achieving...

  1. Distortion-Based Link Adaptation for Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nix

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local area networks (WLANs such as IEEE 802.11a/g utilise numerous transmission modes, each providing different throughputs and reliability levels. Most link adaptation algorithms proposed in the literature (i maximise the error-free data throughput, (ii do not take into account the content of the data stream, and (iii rely strongly on the use of ARQ. Low-latency applications, such as real-time video transmission, do not permit large numbers of retransmission. In this paper, a novel link adaptation scheme is presented that improves the quality of service (QoS for video transmission. Rather than maximising the error-free throughput, our scheme minimises the video distortion of the received sequence. With the use of simple and local rate distortion measures and end-to-end distortion models at the video encoder, the proposed scheme estimates the received video distortion at the current transmission rate, as well as on the adjacent lower and higher rates. This allows the system to select the link-speed which offers the lowest distortion and to adapt to the channel conditions. Simulation results are presented using the MPEG-4/AVC H.264 video compression standard over IEEE 802.11g. The results show that the proposed system closely follows the optimum theoretic solution.

  2. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  3. Application of wireless power transmission systems in wireless capsule endoscopy: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2014-06-19

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is a promising technology for direct diagnosis of the entire small bowel to detect lethal diseases, including cancer and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). To improve the quality of diagnosis, some vital specifications of WCE such as image resolution, frame rate and working time need to be improved. Additionally, future multi-functioning robotic capsule endoscopy (RCE) units may utilize advanced features such as active system control over capsule motion, drug delivery systems, semi-surgical tools and biopsy. However, the inclusion of the above advanced features demands additional power that make conventional power source methods impractical. In this regards, wireless power transmission (WPT) system has received attention among researchers to overcome this problem. Systematic reviews on techniques of using WPT for WCE are limited, especially when involving the recent technological advancements. This paper aims to fill that gap by providing a systematic review with emphasis on the aspects related to the amount of transmitted power, the power transmission efficiency, the system stability and patient safety. It is noted that, thus far the development of WPT system for this WCE application is still in initial stage and there is room for improvements, especially involving system efficiency, stability, and the patient safety aspects.

  4. Design and implementation on wireless transmission platform of area radiation monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dan; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Ren Yong; Liu Huijun; Wang Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    To solve data transmission problems of radiation area monitoring system, Wireless transmission platform is built based on ZigBee module, thus wireless transmission between the radiation area central node and the monitoring points is achieved. It introduces the framework of ZigBee protocol, APL applications between FFD and RFD module, FFD, module and central node host, and RFD module and monitoring equipment, are developed using simplified protocol stack. Wireless network is set up using a FFD module and two RFD modules, the results show that RSSI are above 50, and the data communication is normal for the transmission distance of 60 m. (authors)

  5. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  6. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  7. A portable wireless power transmission system for video capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transmission (WPT) technology can solve the energy shortage problem of the video capsule endoscope (VCE) powered by button batteries, but the fixed platform limited its clinical application. This paper presents a portable WPT system for VCE. Besides portability, power transfer efficiency and stability are considered as the main indexes of optimization design of the system, which consists of the transmitting coil structure, portable control box, operating frequency, magnetic core and winding of receiving coil. Upon the above principles, the correlation parameters are measured, compared and chosen. Finally, through experiments on the platform, the methods are tested and evaluated. In the gastrointestinal tract of small pig, the VCE is supplied with sufficient energy by the WPT system, and the energy conversion efficiency is 2.8%. The video obtained is clear with a resolution of 320×240 and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. The experiments verify the feasibility of design scheme, and further improvement direction is discussed.

  8. Miniaturized module for the wireless transmission of measurements with Bluetooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, H; Schwaibold, M; Moor, C; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    The wiring of patients for obtaining medical measurements has many disadvantages. In order to limit these, a miniaturized module was developed which digitalizes analog signals and sends the signal wirelessly to the receiver using Bluetooth. Bluetooth is especially suitable for this application because distances of up to 10 m are possible with low power consumption and robust transmission with encryption. The module consists of a Bluetooth chip, which is initialized in such a way by a microcontroller that connections from other bluetooth receivers can be accepted. The signals are then transmitted to the distant end. The maximum bit rate of the 23 mm x 30 mm module is 73.5 kBit/s. At 4.7 kBit/s, the current consumption is 12 mA.

  9. Study on frequency characteristics of wireless power transmission system based on magnetic coupling resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L. H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Hou, Y. J.; Zeng, H.; Yue, Z. K.; Cui, S.

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the frequency characteristics of the wireless energy transmission system based on the magnetic coupling resonance, a circuit model based on the magnetic coupling resonant wireless energy transmission system is established. The influence of the load on the frequency characteristics of the wireless power transmission system is analysed. The circuit coupling theory is used to derive the minimum load required to suppress frequency splitting. Simulation and experimental results verify that when the load size is lower than a certain value, the system will appear frequency splitting, increasing the load size can effectively suppress the frequency splitting phenomenon. The power regulation scheme of the wireless charging system based on magnetic coupling resonance is given. This study provides a theoretical basis for load selection and power regulation of wireless power transmission systems.

  10. MEMSWear - Biomonitoring - Incorporating sensors into smart shirt for wireless sentinel medical detection and alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Dagang, Guo; Hapipi, Mohammad Dzulkifli Bin Mohyi; Hock, Francis Tay Eng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of using a body-distributed smart sensor platform for continuous detection of vital physiological signs in a body area network (BAN) system. An overview of the approach utilising predefined sentinel vital sign events is mentioned in order to optimise the platform in both hardware and software level. A BAN system consisting of smart sensor platform with short range ISM transmission will be used to communicate with a communication gateway. This communication gateway will encode and send the signals via Bluetooth to designated devices to inform caregivers, family members or transmit information to internet server

  11. MEMSWear - Biomonitoring - Incorporating sensors into smart shirt for wireless sentinel medical detection and alarm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Dagang, Guo; Hapipi, Mohammad Dzulkifli Bin Mohyi; Hock, Francis Tay Eng [Mechanical Engineering National University Of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 Singapore (Singapore)

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a method of using a body-distributed smart sensor platform for continuous detection of vital physiological signs in a body area network (BAN) system. An overview of the approach utilising predefined sentinel vital sign events is mentioned in order to optimise the platform in both hardware and software level. A BAN system consisting of smart sensor platform with short range ISM transmission will be used to communicate with a communication gateway. This communication gateway will encode and send the signals via Bluetooth to designated devices to inform caregivers, family members or transmit information to internet server.

  12. Error Concealment using Data Hiding in Wireless Image Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of image/video over unreliable medium like wireless networks generally results in receiving a damaged image/video. In this paper, a novel image error concealment scheme based on the idea of data hiding and Set Partitioning In Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT coding is investigated. In the encoder side, the coefficients of wavelet decomposed image are partitioned into “perfect trees”. The SPIHT coder is applied to encode each per-fect tree independently and generate an efficiently compressed reference code. This code is then embedded into the coefficients of another perfect tree which is located in a different place, using a robust data hiding scheme based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM. In the decoder side, if a part of the image is lost, the algorithm extracts the embedded code for reference trees related to this part to reconstruct the lost information. Performance results show that for an error prone transmission, the proposed technique is promising to efficiently conceal the lost areas of the transmitted image.

  13. Interference Cancellation for Coexisting Wireless Data and Power Transmission in the Same Frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Keita; Sugiyama, Yusuke; Saruwatari, Shunsuke; Kawahara, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Combining wireless transmission of data and power signals enables wireless sensor networks to drive perpetually without changing batteries. To achieve the simultaneous data and power transmission, the present paper proposes power signal interference cancellation for wireless data and power transmission at the same time in the same frequency. We evaluate the performance of the proposed power signal interference cancellation using Universal Software Radio Peripheral N200 (USRP N200) software defined radio. Evaluations show that the proposed interference cancellation is feasible to receive data while transmitting power

  14. Batteryless wireless transmission system for electronic drum uses piezoelectric generator for play signal and power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, H; Yoshimi, A; Takemura, K; Tanaka, A; Douseki, T

    2015-01-01

    A batteryless self-powered wireless transmission system has been developed that sends a signal from a drum pad to a synthesizer. The power generated by a piezoelectric generator functions both as the “Play” signal for the synthesizer and as the power source for the transmitter. An FM transmitter, which theoretically operates with zero latency, and a receiver with quick-response squelch of the received signal were developed for wireless transmission with a minimum system delay. Experimental results for an electronic drum without any connecting wires fully demonstrated the feasibility of self-powered wireless transmission with a latency of 900 μs. (paper)

  15. Analysis of mobile fronthaul bandwidth and wireless transmission performance in split-PHY processing architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun; Otaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-25

    We analyze the mobile fronthaul (MFH) bandwidth and the wireless transmission performance in the split-PHY processing (SPP) architecture, which redefines the functional split of centralized/cloud RAN (C-RAN) while preserving high wireless coordinated multi-point (CoMP) transmission/reception performance. The SPP architecture splits the base stations (BS) functions between wireless channel coding/decoding and wireless modulation/demodulation, and employs its own CoMP joint transmission and reception schemes. Simulation results show that the SPP architecture reduces the MFH bandwidth by up to 97% from conventional C-RAN while matching the wireless bit error rate (BER) performance of conventional C-RAN in uplink joint reception with only 2-dB signal to noise ratio (SNR) penalty.

  16. Using digital watermarking to enhance security in wireless medical image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, Aggeliki; Perakis, Konstantinos; Banitsas, Konstantinos; Giokas, Konstantinos; Tachakra, Sapal; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2010-04-01

    During the last few years, wireless networks have been increasingly used both inside hospitals and in patients' homes to transmit medical information. In general, wireless networks suffer from decreased security. However, digital watermarking can be used to secure medical information. In this study, we focused on combining wireless transmission and digital watermarking technologies to better secure the transmission of medical images within and outside the hospital. We utilized an integrated system comprising the wireless network and the digital watermarking module to conduct a series of tests. The test results were evaluated by medical consultants. They concluded that the images suffered no visible quality degradation and maintained their diagnostic integrity. The proposed integrated system presented reasonable stability, and its performance was comparable to that of a fixed network. This system can enhance security during the transmission of medical images through a wireless channel.

  17. [Study on a wireless energy transmission system for the noninvasive examination micro system inside alimentary tracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiu; Yan, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Fu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A wireless energy transmission system for the MEMS system inside alimentary tracts is reported here in the paper. It consists of an automatic frequency tracking circuit of phase lock loop and phase shift PWM control circuit. Experimental results show that the energy transmission system is capable of automatic frequency-tracking and transmission power-adjusting and has stable received energy.

  18. Full standard triple wireless transmission over 50m large core diameter graded index POF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Morant, M.; Tangdiongga, E.; Llorente, R.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time a successful radio-over-1mm core diameter plastic optical fibre transmission of three simultaneous full standard wireless signals. Up to 50-m long transmission distance employing an eye-safe vertical cavity surface emitting laser has been achieved. The transmission

  19. The Design of Wireless Data Acquisition and Remote Transmission Interface in Micro-seismic Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan BIAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The micro-seismic signal acquisition and transmission is an important key part in geological prospecting. This paper describes a bran-new solution of micro-seismic signal acquisition and remote transmission using Zigbee technique and wireless data transmission technique. The hardware such as front-end data acquisition interface made up by Zigbee wireless networking technique, remote data transmission solution composed of general packet radio service (or GPRS for short technique and interface between Zigbee and GPRS is designed in detail. Meanwhile the corresponding software of the system is given out. The solution solves the numerous practical problems nagged by complex and terrible environment faced using micro-seismic prospecting. The experimental results demonstrate that the method using Zigbee wireless network communication technique GPRS wireless packet switching technique is efficient, reliable and flexible.

  20. Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Davis, Dean; Born, Martin; Bayer, Martin; Howell, Joe; Mankins, John

    2008-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In the long term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even further distances in space. In the near term, we can beam power over more moderate distances, but still stretch the limits of today s technology. In recent studies, a 100 kWe-class "Power Plug" Satellite and a 10 kWe-class Lunar Polar Solar Power outpost have been considered as the first steps in using these WPT options for SSP. Our current assessments include consideration of orbits, wavelengths, and structural designs to meet commercial, civilian government, and military needs. Notional transmitter and receiver sizes are considered for use in supplying 5 to 40 MW of power. In the longer term, lunar or asteroidal material can be used. By using SSP and WPT technology for near-term missions, we gain experience needed for sound decisions in designing and developing larger systems to send power from space to Earth.

  1. QoE-based transmission strategies for multi-user wireless information and power transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehun Jung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One solution to the problem of supplying energy to wireless networks is wireless power transfer. One such technology–electromagnetic radiation enabled wireless power transfer–will change traditional wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate a transmission strategy for multi-user wireless information and power transfer. We consider a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channel that includes one base station (BS and two user terminals (UT consisting of one energy harvesting (EH receiver and one information decoding (ID receiver. Our system provides transmission strategies that can be executed and implemented in practical scenarios. The paper then analyzes the rate–energy (R–E pair of our strategies and compares them to those of the theoretical optimal strategy. We furthermore propose a QoE-based mode selection algorithm by mapping the R–E pair to the utility functions.

  2. [Design and optimization of wireless power and data transmission for visual prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xuping; Wu, Kaijie; Zhao, Lei; Chai, Xinyu

    2013-11-01

    Boosting spatial resolution of visual prostheses is an effective method to improve implant subjects' visual perception. However, power consumption of visual implants greatly rises with the increasing number of implanted electrodes. In respond to this trend, visual prostheses need to develop high-efficiency wireless power transmission and high-speed data transmission. This paper presents a review of current research progress on wireless power and data transmission for visual prostheses, analyzes relative principles and requirement, and introduces design methods of power and data transmission.

  3. A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Jen; Lin, Che-Yu; Wan, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-06

    A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system consisting of one broadband light source (BLS), two optical interleavers (ILs), one intensity modulator, and one phase modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The downstream light is optically promoted from 10Gbps/25GHz microwave (MW) data signal to 10Gbps/100GHz and 10Gbps/50GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) data signals in fiber-wireless convergence, and intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal. For up-link transmission, the downstream light is phase-remodulated with 10Gbps/25GHz MW data signal in fiber-wireless convergence. Over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport, bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed to perform well in such full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission systems. This full-duplex 100-GHz/50-GHz/25-GHz/550-MHz lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative. This transmission system not only presents its advancement in the integration of fiber backbone and CATV/wireless feeder networks, but also it provides the advantages of a communication channel for higher data rates and bandwidth.

  4. Seamless Translation of Optical Fiber PolMux-OFDM into a 2x2 MIMO Wireless Transmission Enabled by Digital Training-Based Fiber-Wireless Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless over fiber transmission system. Seamless translation of two orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals on dual optical polarization states into wireless MIMO transmission at 795.5 Mbit/s net data rate...

  5. Wireless (Power Transfer Transmission of Electrical Energy (Electricity Intended for Consumer Purposes up to 50 W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Piri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project deals with Power Semiconductor Systems PSS for wireless transmission of electricity to the power of 50~W with regard to the distance and transmission efficiency. We decided to use electromagnetic resonance for electrical energy transmission. For experimental verification, we have wound two coils of identical dimensions. At a given power transmission solutions, we obtain the highest efficiency η = 70% at a distance of 5 cm, where the transmitted power was 48 W.

  6. Expected Transmission Energy Route Metric for Wireless Mesh Senor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanLiang Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh is a network topology that achieves high throughput and stable intercommunication. With great potential, it is expected to be the key architecture of future networks. Wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year. The overall performance of a WSN highly depends on the energy consumption of the network. This paper designs a new routing metric for wireless mesh sensor networks. Results from simulation experiments reveal that the new metric algorithm improves the energy balance of the whole network and extends the lifetime of wireless mesh sensor networks (WMSNs.

  7. Wireless Power Transmission via Sheet Medium Using Automatic Phase Adjustment of Multiple Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takashi; Oota, Toshifumi; Kado, Youiti; Zhang, Bing

    The wireless power transmission via sheet medium is a novel physical form of communication that utilizes the surface as a medium to provide both data and power transmission services. To efficiently transmit a relatively-large amount of electric power (several watts), we have developed a wireless power transmission system via sheet medium that concentrates the electric power on a specific spot by using phase control of multiple inputs. However, to find the optimal phases of the multiple inputs making the microwave converge on a specific spot in the sheet medium, the prior knowledge of the device's position, and the pre-experiment measuring the output power, are needed. In wireless communication area, it is known that the retrodirective array scheme can efficiently transmit the power in a self-phasing manner, which uses the pilot signals sent by the client devices. In this paper, we apply the retrodirective array scheme to the wireless power transmission system via sheet medium, and propose a power transmission scheme using the phase-adjustment of multiple inputs. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposal scheme, we evaluate its performance by computer simulation and realistic measurement. Both results show that the proposal scheme can achieve the retrodirectivity over the wireless power transmission via sheet medium.

  8. Wireless Power Transmission to Organic Light Emitting Diode Lighting Panel with Magnetically Coupled Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hae; Han, Jun-Han; Kang, Seung-Youl; Cheon, Sanghoon; Lee, Myung-Lae; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Zyung, Taehyoung; Lee, Jeong-Ik; Moon, Jaehyun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2012-09-01

    We are successful to lit the organic light emitting diode (OLED) lighting panel through the magnetically coupled wireless power transmission technology. For the wireless power transmission, we used the operation frequency 932 kHz, specially designed double spiral type transmitter, small and thin receiver on the four layered printed circuit board, and schottky diodes for the full bridge rectifier. Our white OLED is a hybrid type, in which phosphorescent and fluorescent organics are used together to generate stable white color. The total efficiency of power transmission is around 72%.

  9. Reliable low-power wireless networks over unstable transmission power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Internet of Things promises large scale interconnected sensing and actuation capabilities in domains, areas, applications and activities never accessed before by Internet. Besides other technical barriers, wireless network node lifetime impedes its applicability. To reduce the energy cost incurred

  10. Coordinated Transmissions to Direct and Relayed Users in Wireless Cellular Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar; Kaneko, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    The ideas of wireless network coding at the physical layer promise high throughput gains in wireless systems with relays and multi–way traffic flows. This gain can be ascribed to two principles: (1) joint transmission of multiple communication flows and (2) usage of a priori information to cancel...... the interference. In this paper we use these principles to devise new transmission schemes in wireless cellular systems that feature both users served directly by the base stations (direct users) and users served through relays (relayed users). We present four different schemes for coordinated transmission...... of uplink and downlink traffic in which one direct and one relayed user are served. These schemes are then used as building blocks in multi–user scenarios, where we present several schemes for scheduling pairs of users for coordinated transmissions. The optimal scheme involves exhaustive search of the best...

  11. A study on the wireless transmission characteristic in the deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Hisashi; Okutsu, Kazuo; Sugahara, Norihisa; Torata, Shinichiro; Ohuchi, Jin

    2006-01-01

    A wireless transmission technology uses a low frequency electromagnetic wave (100[Hz] - 10[kHz]) as a carrier wave to transmit signals in the deep underground geological condition. However, this electromagnetic wave has not been used so much, because the transmission capacity is less than a high frequency electromagnetic wave, which is used to televisions and cellular phones. On the other hand, the wireless transmission technology that doesn't use the cable is considered to be useful in the radioactive waste disposal repository from the viewpoint of decreasing the influence on the barrier. This paper shows the characteristics of the wireless transmission in the granite on the basis of the in situ testing implemented in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory of SKB. (author)

  12. Photonic techniques for sub-Terahertz wireless data transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA.......Wireless data communication links with capacities beyond 100 Gbit/s will require operating at sub-Terahertz frequencies using a large bandpass bandwidth facing new engineering challenges. We review several implementation aspects by using photonic technologies. © 2015 OSA....

  13. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  14. Doubling transmission capacity in optical wireless system by antenna horizontal- and vertical-polarization multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Junwen; Dong, Ze; Chi, Nan

    2013-06-15

    We experimentally demonstrate 2×56 Gb/s two-channel polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal delivery over 80 km single-mode fiber-28 and 2 m Q-band (33-50 GHz) wireless link, adopting antenna horizontal- (H-) and vertical-polarization (V-polarization) multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, classic constant-modulus-algorithm equalization based on digital signal processing can realize polarization demultiplexing and remove the crosstalk at the same antenna polarization. By adopting antenna polarization multiplexing, the signal baud rate and performance requirements for optical and wireless devices can be reduced but at the cost of double antennas and devices, while wireless transmission capacity can also be increased but at the cost of stricter requirements for V-polarization. The isolation is only about 19 dB when V-polarization deviation approaches 10°, which will affect high-speed (>50 Gb/s) wireless delivery.

  15. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Rodriguez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Santos, Victor; Iglesias, Roberto; Regueiro, Carlos V

    2015-04-30

    In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter's power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110) working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1) comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2) integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time.

  16. Mobile Robot Positioning with 433-MHz Wireless Motes with Varying Transmission Powers and a Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Canedo-Rodriguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In wireless positioning systems, the transmitter’s power is usually fixed. In this paper, we explore the use of varying transmission powers to increase the performance of a wireless localization system. To this extent, we have designed a robot positioning system based on wireless motes. Our motes use an inexpensive, low-power sub-1-GHz system-on-chip (CC1110 working in the 433-MHz ISM band. Our localization algorithm is based on a particle filter and infers the robot position by: (1 comparing the power received with the expected one; and (2 integrating the robot displacement. We demonstrate that the use of transmitters that vary their transmission power over time improves the performance of the wireless positioning system significantly, with respect to a system that uses fixed power transmitters. This opens the door for applications where the robot can localize itself actively by requesting the transmitters to change their power in real time.

  17. Characteristic of wireless power transmission S-Parameter for a superconductor coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Jung, Byung Ik; Choi, Hyo Sang

    2015-01-01

    Many studies are being conducted to implement wireless charging, for example, for cellular phones or electronic tooth brushes, via wireless power transmission technique. However, the magnetic induction method had a very short transmission distance. To solve this problem, the team of Professor Marin Soljacic proposed a magnetic resonance system that used two resonance coils with the same resonance frequency. It had an approximately 40% efficiency at a 2m distance. The system improved the low efficiency and short distance problems of the existing systems. So it could also widen the application range of wireless power transmission. Many studies on the subject are underway. In this paper, the superconductor coil was used to improve the efficiency of magnetic resonance wireless power transmission. The resonance wireless power transmission system had a source coil, a load coil, and resonance coils (a transmitter and a receiver). The efficiency and distance depended on the characteristics of the transmitter and receiver coils that had the same resonance frequency. Therefore, two resonance coils were fabricated by superconductors. The current density of the superconductor was higher than that of the normal conductor coil. Accordingly, it had a high quality-factor and improved efficiency

  18. Characteristic of wireless power transmission S-Parameter for a superconductor coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Jung, Byung Ik; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Many studies are being conducted to implement wireless charging, for example, for cellular phones or electronic tooth brushes, via wireless power transmission technique. However, the magnetic induction method had a very short transmission distance. To solve this problem, the team of Professor Marin Soljacic proposed a magnetic resonance system that used two resonance coils with the same resonance frequency. It had an approximately 40% efficiency at a 2m distance. The system improved the low efficiency and short distance problems of the existing systems. So it could also widen the application range of wireless power transmission. Many studies on the subject are underway. In this paper, the superconductor coil was used to improve the efficiency of magnetic resonance wireless power transmission. The resonance wireless power transmission system had a source coil, a load coil, and resonance coils (a transmitter and a receiver). The efficiency and distance depended on the characteristics of the transmitter and receiver coils that had the same resonance frequency. Therefore, two resonance coils were fabricated by superconductors. The current density of the superconductor was higher than that of the normal conductor coil. Accordingly, it had a high quality-factor and improved efficiency.

  19. Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jin-Chul; Kim, Beomjoon; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Kim, Dae-Kwang; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2017-12-14

    Prolonged monitoring by cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors is useful for patients with emergency heart conditions. However, implant monitoring systems are limited by lack of tissue biocompatibility. Here, we developed an implantable ECG sensor for real-time monitoring of ventricular fibrillation and evaluated its biocompatibility using an animal model. The implantable sensor comprised transplant sensors with two electrodes, a wireless power transmission system, and a monitoring system. The sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area and operated for 1 h/day for 5 days using a wireless power system. Importantly, the sensor was encapsulated by subcutaneous tissue and induced angiogenesis, inflammation, and phagocytosis. In addition, we observed that the levels of inflammation-related markers increased with wireless-powered transmission via the ECG sensor; in particular, levels of the Th-1 cytokine interleukin-12 were significantly increased. The results showed that induced tissue damage was associated with the use of wireless-powered sensors. We also investigated research strategies for the prevention of adverse effects caused by lack of tissue biocompatibility of a wireless-powered ECG monitoring system and provided information on the clinical applications of inflammatory reactions in implant treatment using the wireless-powered transmission system.

  20. Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chul Heo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged monitoring by cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG sensors is useful for patients with emergency heart conditions. However, implant monitoring systems are limited by lack of tissue biocompatibility. Here, we developed an implantable ECG sensor for real-time monitoring of ventricular fibrillation and evaluated its biocompatibility using an animal model. The implantable sensor comprised transplant sensors with two electrodes, a wireless power transmission system, and a monitoring system. The sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area and operated for 1 h/day for 5 days using a wireless power system. Importantly, the sensor was encapsulated by subcutaneous tissue and induced angiogenesis, inflammation, and phagocytosis. In addition, we observed that the levels of inflammation-related markers increased with wireless-powered transmission via the ECG sensor; in particular, levels of the Th-1 cytokine interleukin-12 were significantly increased. The results showed that induced tissue damage was associated with the use of wireless-powered sensors. We also investigated research strategies for the prevention of adverse effects caused by lack of tissue biocompatibility of a wireless-powered ECG monitoring system and provided information on the clinical applications of inflammatory reactions in implant treatment using the wireless-powered transmission system.

  1. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  2. Development of Wireless Techniques in Data and Power Transmission - Application for Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, E.; Dehos, C.; De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Gimenez, J. L. Gonzalez; Gustafsson, L.; Kim, D.W.; Roehrich, D.; Schoening, A.; Siligaris, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Ullaland, K.; Vincent, P.; Wiednert, D.; Yang, S.; Brenner, R.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and using them for data and power transmission in particle physics detectors is not science- fiction any more. During the last years several research groups have independently thought of making it a reality. Wireless techniques became a mature field for research and new developments might have impact on future particle physics experiments. The Instrumentation Frontier was set up as a part of the SnowMass 2013 Community Summer Study [1] to examine the instrumentation R&D for the particle physics research over the coming decades: {\\guillemotleft} To succeed we need to make technical and scientific innovation a priority in the field {\\guillemotright}. Wireless data transmission was identified as one of the innovations that could revolutionize the transmission of data out of the detector. Power delivery was another challenge mentioned in the same report. We propose a collaboration to identify the specific needs of different projects that m...

  3. A wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope for colon inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Shi, Yu; Zhu, Bingquan

    2012-07-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes (ACE) have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a double-layer solenoid pair primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. At least 500 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions and the safety restraints in a volume of Φ13 × 13 mm. The wireless power transmission system is integrated to an ACE and applied in animal experiments. The designed wireless power transmission is proved to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application.

  4. Bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission system based on an OEO-based BLS and a RSOA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Ting-Chien; Wu, Chang-Jen; Chu, Chien-An; Shiva, Ajay; Mochii, Takao

    2016-02-01

    A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-visible-laser-light-communication (VLLC) transmission system based on an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO)-based broadband light source (BLS) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Through an in-depth observation of such bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission systems, good bit error rate performances are obtained over a 40 km single-mode fiber and a 10 m RF/optical wireless transport. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-VLLC transmission system is an attractive option for providing broadband integrated services.

  5. Coordinated Direct and Relay Transmission with Interference Cancelation in Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Chan; Popovski, Petar

    2011-01-01

    Two-way relaying schemes in wireless systems obtain throughput gain by utilizing two features (1) jointly serve two communication flows, thus implementing network coding and (2) use of information that is a priori known to cancel interference and obtain the desired signal. Based on these principles......, we propose other schemes that bring throughput gains in wireless cellular systems, where relayed and direct transmissions are carried out in coordinated way. The results show that the coordinated transmission exhibit throughput improvement similar to the two–way relaying schemes....

  6. Transmission power control for wireless home and building automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacchiani, C.

    2015-01-01

    Home and building automation can provide significant improvements in comfort and energy efficiency of buildings. However, its diffusion is hindered by the complexity of installation and maintenance. Wireless connectivity can simplify this process, reducing installation time and cost, but it requires

  7. Power requirements and battery life measurement for wireless transmission between two nodes in different mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radouane Karli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of the wireless sensor networks (WSN is to avoid wiring costs, be self-sustainable and be able to function for several years. However, due to the slow progress in battery technology, power continues to be a limited resource in wireless sensor communication and electric energy storage remains to be an important issue. On the other hand, if batteries must be replaced often, many remote sensing applications may become impractical. Therefore, batteries with long life on the order of several years are needed. This paper is an extension of work originally presented in The 5th International Conference on Electronic Devices, Systems and Applications to investigate further the power requirements for wireless data transfer between two nodes using batteries with different capacities (55 mAh, 550 mAh and 5500 mAh. In particular, the effect of a propagation medium such as air, distilled water and engine oil on the wireless communication inside a one meter long metallic pipe was investigated. Our first result shows a successful transmission of wireless signal through air, distilled water and oil medium with very low transmission losses. The second result shows that an increase in the battery capacity will increase the two-node wireless sensor operation time even in different propagation medium. This result can be used to determine the required battery capacity for extending the WSN operation time.

  8. [An implantable micro-device using wireless power transmission for measuring aortic aneurysm sac pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xudong; Ge, Bin; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-08-01

    In order to detect endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), we developed an implantable micro-device based on wireless power transmission to measure aortic aneurysm sac pressure. The implantable micro-device is composed of a miniature wireless pressure sensor, an energy transmitting coil, a data recorder and a data processing platform. Power transmission without interconnecting wires is performed by a transmitting coil and a receiving coil. The coupling efficiency of wireless power transmission depends on the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil. With theoretical analysis and experimental study, we optimized the geometry of the receiving coil to increase the coupling coefficient. In order to keep efficiency balance and satisfy the maximizing conditions, we designed a closed loop power transmission circuit, including a receiving voltage feedback module based on wireless communication. The closed loop improved the stability and reliability of transmission energy. The prototype of the micro-device has been developed and the experiment has been performed. The experiments showed that the micro-device was feasible and valid. For normal operation, the distance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is smaller than 8cm. Besides, the distance between the micro-device and the data recorder is within 50cm.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF WIRELESS TECHNIQUES IN DATA AND POWER TRANSMISSION APPLICATION FOR PARTICLE-PHYSICS DETECTORS

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, R; Dehos, C; De Lurgio, P; Djurcic, Z; Drake, G; Gonzales Gimenez, JL; Gustafsson, L; Kim, DW; Locci, E; Pfeiffer, U; Röhrich, D; Rydberg, D; Schöning, A; Siligaris, A; Soltveit, HK; Ullaland, K; Vincent, P; Vasquez, PR; Wiedner, D; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    In the WADAPT project described in this Letter of Intent, we propose to develop wireless techniques for data and power transmission in particle-physics detectors. Wireless techniques have developed extremely fast over the last decade and are now mature for being considered as a promising alternative to cables and optical links that would revolutionize the detector design. The WADAPT consortium has been formed to identify the specific needs of different projects that might benefit from wireless techniques with the objective of providing a common platform for research and development in order to optimize effectiveness and cost. The proposed R&D will aim at designing and testing wireless demonstrators for large instrumentation systems.

  10. The remote transmission test of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takashi; Fujiwara, Shigeo; Takahashi, Saburo; Nemoto, Tadayuki; Sato, Takashi; Kuniyasu, Kazufusa; Hiruta, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    JAEA has developed and demonstrated the Remote Monitoring (RM) technology on the safeguards equipment at the storage area in PFPF to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity. JAEA is considering the expansion of the RM technology to the safeguards equipment in the process area to improve the efficiency of the inspection activity under the integrated safeguards. JAEA considers that the cabling cost and work in the facility will be reduced to apply the wireless LAN to the RM technology. JAEA performed the confirmatory testing of the performance of the Glove box Unattended Assay and Monitoring system (GUAM) and the remote transmission of the GUAM measurement data by the wireless LAN in cooperation with Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited. In this test, JAEA confirmed it's possible to establish the wireless LAN networking in the process area. This paper reports the applicability of the wireless LAN to the RM technology based on the results of the confirmatory testing. (author)

  11. 160 Gbit/s photonics wireless transmission in the 300-500 GHz band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To accommodate the ever increasing wireless traffic in the access networks, considerable efforts have been recently invested in developing photonics-assisted wireless communication systems with very high data rates. Superior to photonic millimeter-wave systems, terahertz (THz band (300 GHz-10 THz provides a much larger bandwidth and thus promises an extremely high capacity. However, the capacity potential of THz wireless systems has by no means been achieved yet. Here, we successfully demonstrate 160 Gbit/s wireless transmission by using a single THz emitter and modulating 25 GHz spaced 8 channels (20 Gbps per channel in the 300-500 GHz band, which is the highest bitrate in the frequency band above 300 GHz, to the best of our knowledge.

  12. Multi-carrier transmission for hybrid radio frequency with optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Nguyen, Tien M.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency (RF) wireless communication is reaching its capacity to support large data rate transmissions due to hardware constraints (e.g., silicon processes), software strategies (e.g., information theory), and consumer desire for timely large file exchanges (e.g., big data and mobile cloud computing). A high transmission rate performance must keep pace with the generated huge volumes of data for real-time processing. Integrated RF and optical wireless communications (RF/OWC) could be the next generation transmission technology to satisfy both the increased data rate exchange and the communications constraints. However, with the promising benefits of RF/OWC, challenges remain to fully develop hybrid RF with wireless optical communications such as uniform waveform design for information transmission and detection. In this paper, an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission scheme, which widely employed in RF communications, is developed for optical communications. The traditional high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in OFDM is reduced to improve system performance. The proposed multi-carrier waveform is evaluated with a frequency-selective fading channel. The results demonstrate that bit error rate (BER) performance of our proposed optical OFDM transmission technique outperforms the traditional OWC on-off keying (OOK) transmission scheme.

  13. Investigation of interference in multiple-input multiple-output wireless transmission at W band for an optical wireless integration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Zhang, Junwen; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the interference in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless transmission by adjusting the relative locations of horn antennas (HAs) in a 100 GHz optical wireless integration system, which can deliver a 50 Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying signal over 80 km single-mode fiber-28 and a 2×2 MIMO wireless link. For the parallel 2×2 MIMO wireless link, each receiver HA can only get wireless power from the corresponding transmitter HA, while for the crossover ones, the receiver HA can get wireless power from two transmitter HAs. At the wireless receiver, polarization demultiplexing is realized by the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) in the digital-signal-processing part. Compared to the parallel case, wireless interference causes about 2 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty at a bit-error ratio (BER) of 3.8×10(-3) for the crossover cases if similar CMA taps are employed. The increase in CMA tap length can reduce wireless interference and improve BER performance. Furthermore, more CMA taps should be adopted to overcome the severe wireless interference when two pairs of transmitter and receiver HAs have different wireless distances.

  14. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  15. An asymmetric resonant coupling wireless power transmission link for Micro-Ball Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianjia; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Gu, Yingke; Deng, Yangdong; Wang, Ziqiang; Wang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and optimization of a wireless power transmission link targeting Micro-Ball Endoscopy applications. A novel asymmetric resonant coupling structure is proposed to deliver power to an endoscopic Micro-Ball system for image read-out after it is excreted. Such a technology enables many key medical applications with stringent requirements for small system volume and high power delivery efficiency. A prototyping power transmission sub-system of the Micro-Ball system was implemented. It consists of primary coil, middle resonant coil, and cube-like full-direction secondary receiving coils. Our experimental results proved that 200mW of power can be successfully delivered. Such a wireless power transmission capability could satisfy the requirements of the Micro-Ball based endoscopy application. The transmission efficiency is in the range of 41% (worst working condition) to 53% (best working condition). Comparing to conventional structures, Asymmetric Resonant Coupling Structure improves power efficiency by 13%.

  16. Resource-Constrained Low-Complexity Video Coding for Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ukhanova, Ann

    of video quality. We proposed a new metric for objective quality assessment that considers frame rate. As many applications deal with wireless video transmission, we performed an analysis of compression and transmission systems with a focus on power-distortion trade-off. We proposed an approach...... for ratedistortion-complexity optimization of upcoming video compression standard HEVC. We also provided a new method allowing decrease of power consumption on mobile devices in 3G networks. Finally, we proposed low-delay and low-power approaches for video transmission over wireless personal area networks, including......Constrained resources like memory, power, bandwidth and delay requirements in many mobile systems pose limitations for video applications. Standard approaches for video compression and transmission do not always satisfy system requirements. In this thesis we have shown that it is possible to modify...

  17. RObust header compression (ROHC) performance for multimedia transmission over 3G/4G wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Rein, S.; Seeling, P.

    2005-01-01

    Robust Header Compression (ROHC) has recently been proposed to reduce the large protocol header overhead when transmitting voice and other continuous meadi over IP based control stacks in wireless networks. In this paper we evaluate the real-time transmission of GSM encoded voice and H. 26L encod...

  18. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz; Svensson, Tommy; Buisman, Koen; Perez, Joaquin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage

  19. Wireless high-speed data transmission with phosphorescent white-light LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubor, J.; Lee, S.C.J.; Langer, K-D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Walewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless transmission exceeding 100 Mbit/s is demonstrated using a phosphorescent white-light LED in a lighting-like scenario. The data rate was achieved by detecting the blue part of the optical spectrum and applying discrete multi-tone modulation.

  20. Data driven transmission power control for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    kotian, Roshan; Exarchakos, Georgios; Liotta, Antonio; Di Fatta, G.; Fortino, G.; Li, W.; Pathan, M.; Stahl, F.; Guerrieri, A.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission Power Control (TPC) is employed in the sensor nodes with the main objective of minimizing transmission power consumption. However, major drawbacks with well-known TPC are time consuming and energy inefficient initialization phase. Moreover, they employ Received Signal Strength Indicator

  1. 4 Gbps Impulse Radio (IR) Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Transmission over 100 Meters Multi Mode Fiber with 4 Meters Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We present experimental demonstrations of in-building impulse radio (IR) ultra-wideband (UWB) link consisting of 100 m multi mode fiber (MMF) and 4 m wireless transmission at a record 4 Gbps, and a record 8 m wireless transmission at 2.5 Gbps. A directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting...... laser (VCSEL) was used for the generation of the optical signal. 8 m at 2.5 Gbps corresponds to a bit rate - distance product of 20; the highest yet reported for wireless IR-UWB transmission...

  2. Simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband carrier suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Shiu, Run-Kai; Peng, Peng-Chun; Wang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Yan-Ming

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated simultaneous transmission of wired and wireless signals based on double sideband optical carrier suppression. By properly adjusting the bias point of the dual-output mach-zehnder modulator (MZM), a central carrier in one output port and a pair of first-order sidebands in another output port are generated. The pair of first-order sidebands are fed into a second MZM to generate second-order order sidebands. A wired signal is embedded on the central carrier while a wireless signal is embedded on the second-order sidebands. Unlike other schemes, we did not use optical filter to separate the carrier from the optical sidebands. The measured bit error rate (BER) and eye-diagrams after a 25 km single-mode-fiber (SMF) transmission proved that the proposed scheme is successful for both wired and wireless signals transmission. Moreover, the power penalty at the BER of 10-9 is 0.3 and 0.7 dB for wired and wireless signals, respectively.

  3. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier.

  5. An applicable 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming to Project Loon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jun Ahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent, Google proposed the Project Loon being developed with the mission of providing internet access to rural and remote areas using high-altitude balloons. In this paper, we describe an applicable prototype of 5.8 GHz wireless power transmission system with rough beamforming method to Project Loon. From the measurement results, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can transmit power more efficiently compared to a horn antenna and array antenna without beamforming with increasing the transmission distance. For the transmission distance of 1000 mm, transmit beamforming phased array antenna can obtain higher received power about 1.46 times compared to array antenna without transmit beamforming.

  6. Collaborative Image Coding and Transmission over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Therefore, processing and coding of image data collected in a sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image coding and transmission scheme to minimize the energy for data transmission. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap to exploit the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A lightweight and efficient background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. The whole image can then be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target images as well as their spatial locations. Experimental results show that the energy for image transmission can indeed be greatly reduced with collaborative image coding and transmission.

  7. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils.

  8. Efficiency optimization of wireless power transmission systems for active capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiwei, Jia; Guozheng, Yan; Jiangpingping; Zhiwu, Wang; Hua, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Multipurpose active capsule endoscopes have drawn considerable attention in recent years, but these devices continue to suffer from energy limitations. A wireless power supply system is regarded as a practical way to overcome the power shortage problem in such devices. This paper focuses on the efficiency optimization of a wireless energy supply system with size and safety constraints. A mathematical programming model in which these constraints are considered is proposed for transmission efficiency, optimal frequency and current, and overall system effectiveness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, we use a wireless active capsule endoscope as an illustrative example. The achieved efficiency can be regarded as an index for evaluating the system, and the proposed approach can be used to direct the design of transmitting and receiving coils

  9. 40-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal transmission over 160-m wireless distance at W-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long

    2015-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a W-band optical-wireless transmission system over 160-m wireless distance with a bit rate up to 40 Gb/s. The optical-wireless transmission system adopts optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) reception and antenna polarization diversity. Using this system, we experimentally demonstrate the 2×2 MIMO wireless delivery of 20- and 40-Gb/s PDM quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signals over 640- and 160-m wireless links, respectively. The bit-error ratios (BERs) of these transmission systems are both less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  10. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Magnus; Alcalde, Miguel; Bartlett, Philip N; De Lacey, Antonio L; Gorton, Lo; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Cristina; Haddad, Raoudha; Kilburn, Jeremy; Leech, Dónal; Ludwig, Roland; Magner, Edmond; Mate, Diana M; Conghaile, Peter Ó; Ortiz, Roberto; Pita, Marcos; Pöller, Sascha; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Sebelius, Fredrik; Shao, Minling; Stoica, Leonard; Sygmund, Cristoph; Tilly, Jonas; Toscano, Miguel D; Vivekananthan, Jeevanthi; Wright, Emma; Shleev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered) biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration) and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor), and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  11. Self-powered wireless carbohydrate/oxygen sensitive biodevice based on radio signal transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Falk

    Full Text Available Here for the first time, we detail self-contained (wireless and self-powered biodevices with wireless signal transmission. Specifically, we demonstrate the operation of self-sustained carbohydrate and oxygen sensitive biodevices, consisting of a wireless electronic unit, radio transmitter and separate sensing bioelectrodes, supplied with electrical energy from a combined multi-enzyme fuel cell generating sufficient current at required voltage to power the electronics. A carbohydrate/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell was assembled by comparing the performance of a range of different bioelectrodes followed by selection of the most suitable, stable combination. Carbohydrates (viz. lactose for the demonstration and oxygen were also chosen as bioanalytes, being important biomarkers, to demonstrate the operation of the self-contained biosensing device, employing enzyme-modified bioelectrodes to enable the actual sensing. A wireless electronic unit, consisting of a micropotentiostat, an energy harvesting module (voltage amplifier together with a capacitor, and a radio microchip, were designed to enable the biofuel cell to be used as a power supply for managing the sensing devices and for wireless data transmission. The electronic system used required current and voltages greater than 44 µA and 0.57 V, respectively to operate; which the biofuel cell was capable of providing, when placed in a carbohydrate and oxygen containing buffer. In addition, a USB based receiver and computer software were employed for proof-of concept tests of the developed biodevices. Operation of bench-top prototypes was demonstrated in buffers containing different concentrations of the analytes, showcasing that the variation in response of both carbohydrate and oxygen biosensors could be monitored wirelessly in real-time as analyte concentrations in buffers were changed, using only an enzymatic fuel cell as a power supply.

  12. Hybrid wireless-over-fiber transmission system based on multiple injection-locked FP LDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Chu, Chien-An; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Ting-Chien; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-07-27

    A hybrid wireless-over-fiber (WoF) transmission system based on multiple injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes (FP LDs) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike the traditional hybrid WoF transmission systems that require multiple distributed feedback (DFB) LDs to support different kinds of services, the proposed system employs multiple injection-locked FP LDs to provide different kinds of applications. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system delivers downstream intensity-modulated 20-GHz microwave (MW)/60-GHz millimeter-wave (MMW)/550-MHz cable television (CATV) signals and upstream phase-remodulated 20-GHz MW signal. Excellent bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 4-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport. Such a hybrid WoF transmission system has practical applications for fiber-wireless convergence to provide broadband integrated services, including telecommunication, data communication, and CATV services.

  13. Secure and Efficient Data Transmission over Body Sensor and Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Sikri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the transmission of medical and context-aware data from mobile patients to healthcare centers over heterogeneous wireless networks. A handheld device, called personal wireless hub (PWH, of each mobile patient first gathers and aggregates the vital sign and context-aware data for various telemedicine applications. PWH transmits the aggregated data to the remote healthcare center over multiple wireless interfaces such as cellular, WLAN, and WiMAX. The aggregated data contain both periodic data and those nonperiodic unpredictable emergency messages that are sporadic and delayintolerant. This paper addresses the problem of providing QoS (e.g., minimum delay, sufficient data rate, acceptable blocking, and/or dropping rate by designing a packet scheduling and channel/network allocation algorithm over wireless networks. The proposed resource-efficient QoS mechanism is simple and collaborates with an adaptive security algorithm. The QoS and security are achieved mainly with the collaboration of differentiator, delay monitor, data classifier, and scheduler modules within the PWH. This paper also discusses secure data transmission over body sensor networks by introducing key establishment and management algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed framework achieves low-blocking probability, meets delay requirements, and provides energy-efficient secure communication for the combination of vital signs and context-aware data.

  14. Secure and Efficient Data Transmission over Body Sensor and Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challa Narasimha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the transmission of medical and context-aware data from mobile patients to healthcare centers over heterogeneous wireless networks. A handheld device, called personal wireless hub (PWH, of each mobile patient first gathers and aggregates the vital sign and context-aware data for various telemedicine applications. PWH transmits the aggregated data to the remote healthcare center over multiple wireless interfaces such as cellular, WLAN, and WiMAX. The aggregated data contain both periodic data and those nonperiodic unpredictable emergency messages that are sporadic and delayintolerant. This paper addresses the problem of providing QoS (e.g., minimum delay, sufficient data rate, acceptable blocking, and/or dropping rate by designing a packet scheduling and channel/network allocation algorithm over wireless networks. The proposed resource-efficient QoS mechanism is simple and collaborates with an adaptive security algorithm. The QoS and security are achieved mainly with the collaboration of differentiator, delay monitor, data classifier, and scheduler modules within the PWH. This paper also discusses secure data transmission over body sensor networks by introducing key establishment and management algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed framework achieves low-blocking probability, meets delay requirements, and provides energy-efficient secure communication for the combination of vital signs and context-aware data.

  15. A reliable transmission protocol for ZigBee-based wireless patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyr-Kuen; Kao, Tsair; Chan, Chia-Tai; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Lai, Chin-Yu; Tung, Tse-Hua; Wang, Pi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multihop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this paper, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning, and ECG monitoring. When the triaxial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.

  16. Optimization of output power and transmission efficiency of magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongge; Guo, Xiaoting; Cao, Shaoqing; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Magnetically coupled resonance (MCR) wireless power transfer (WPT) system is a promising technology in electric energy transmission. But, if its system parameters are designed unreasonably, output power and transmission efficiency will be low. Therefore, optimized parameters design of MCR WPT has important research value. In the MCR WPT system with designated coil structure, the main parameters affecting output power and transmission efficiency are the distance between the coils, the resonance frequency and the resistance of the load. Based on the established mathematical model and the differential evolution algorithm, the change of output power and transmission efficiency with parameters can be simulated. From the simulation results, it can be seen that output power and transmission efficiency of the two-coil MCR WPT system and four-coil one with designated coil structure are improved. The simulation results confirm the validity of the optimization method for MCR WPT system with designated coil structure.

  17. Architecture Analysis of Wireless Power Transmission for Lunar Outposts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    continuous supply of electrical power would be required. The primary research was to determine if it is feasible to provide power to a lunar polar...space exploration business wish to go beyond the Moon, to Mars and to the asteroids , the technology for these ventures is not yet adequate for the task...klystron, both 16 developed during World War II, that the use of microwaves became available for effective transmission of energy. However, the

  18. An adaptive secret key-directed cryptographic scheme for secure transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Jan, Z.; Khan, Z

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are memory and bandwidth limited networks whose main goals are to maximize the network lifetime and minimize the energy consumption and transmission cost. To achieve these goals, different techniques of compression and clustering have been used. However, security is an open and major issue in WSNs for which different approaches are used, both in centralized and distributed WSNs' environments. This paper presents an adaptive cryptographic scheme for secure transmission of various sensitive parameters, sensed by wireless sensors to the fusion center for further processing in WSNs such as military networks. The proposed method encrypts the sensitive captured data of sensor nodes using various encryption procedures (bitxor operation, bits shuffling, and secret key based encryption) and then sends it to the fusion center. At the fusion center, the received encrypted data is decrypted for taking further necessary actions. The experimental results with complexity analysis, validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method in terms of security in WSNs. (author)

  19. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  20. LSコイルを用いたWireless Power Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    吉川, 隆; 更谷, 翔太

    2014-01-01

    The wireless power transmission is widely studied for many kinds of application, for example, power supply for cell phone or power source of EV. The supplying power of those applications is always over mW. But it is impossible to transmit for longer distance under the index of regulation of protection from radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Then many of such applications are considered with restriction of narrow area. Then we have surveyed low power demanding application the suitable appl...

  1. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zhiwei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-01-01

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system

  2. Secure and Time-Aware Communication of Wireless Sensors Monitoring Overhead Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Katarzyna; Wydra, Michal; Ksiezopolski, Bogdan

    2017-07-11

    Existing transmission power grids suffer from high maintenance costs and scalability issues along with a lack of effective and secure system monitoring. To address these problems, we propose to use Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a technology to achieve energy efficient, reliable, and low-cost remote monitoring of transmission grids. With WSNs, smart grid enables both utilities and customers to monitor, predict and manage energy usage effectively and react to possible power grid disturbances in a timely manner. However, the increased application of WSNs also introduces new security challenges, especially related to privacy, connectivity, and security management, repeatedly causing unpredicted expenditures. Monitoring the status of the power system, a large amount of sensors generates massive amount of sensitive data. In order to build an effective Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for a smart grid, we focus on designing a methodology of efficient and secure delivery of the data measured on transmission lines. We perform a set of simulations, in which we examine different routing algorithms, security mechanisms and WSN deployments in order to select the parameters that will not affect the delivery time but fulfill their role and ensure security at the same time. Furthermore, we analyze the optimal placement of direct wireless links, aiming at minimizing time delays, balancing network performance and decreasing deployment costs.

  3. Design of a telemetry system based on wireless power transmission for physiological parameter monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Zhiwei, E-mail: jiayege@hotmail.com [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan [820 Institute, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-04-15

    An implanted telemetry system for experimental animals with or without anaesthesia can be used to continuously monitor physiological parameters. This system is significant not only in the study of organisms but also in the evaluation of drug efficacy, artificial organs, and auxiliary devices. The system is composed of a miniature electronic capsule, a wireless power transmission module, a data-recording device, and a processing module. An electrocardiograph, a temperature sensor, and a pressure sensor are integrated in the miniature electronic capsule, in which the signals are transmitted in vitro by wireless communication after filtering, amplification, and A/D sampling. To overcome the power shortage of batteries, a wireless power transmission module based on electromagnetic induction was designed. The transmitting coil of a rectangular-section solenoid and a 3D receiving coil are proposed according to stability and safety constraints. Experiments show that at least 150 mW of power could pick up on the load in a volume of Φ10.5 mm × 11 mm, with a transmission efficiency of 2.56%. Vivisection experiments verified the feasibility of the integrated radio-telemetry system.

  4. Digital Photonic Receivers for Wireless and Wireline Optical Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    services. The experimental demonstration supported the following transmissions systems: a baseband, 5 Gbps, intensity modulation system employing a directly modulated vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a baseband 20 Gbps non-return-to-zero quadrature phase-shift keying (NRZ-QPSK) system...... receivers in hybrid wireless and wireline optical fiber transmission links. Furthermore, the digital signal processing framework presented in this thesis can be extended to design probabilistic-based digital photonic receivers that can find applications in cognitive heterogeneous reconfigurable optical...

  5. Up to 35 Gbps Ultra-Wideband Wireless Data Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    For the first time Ultra-Wideband record data transmission rates up to 35.1 Gbps and 21.6 Gbps are achieved, compliant with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee......, respectively. To achieve these record bit rates, the multi-band approach of Carrierless Amplitude Phase modulation scheme was employed. Wireless transmissions were achieved with a BER below the 7% FEC threshold of 3.8·10-3 ....

  6. How coupling affects closely packed rectenna arrays used for wireless power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Deidra; Choi, Sang H.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Geddis, Demetris; Song, Kyo D.

    2017-04-01

    The development of power transmission by microwave beam power harvesting attracts manufactures for use of wireless power transmission. Optimizing maximum conversion efficiency is affected by many design parameters, and has been mainly focused previously. Combining several rectennas in one array potentially aides in the amount of microwave energy that can be harvested for energy conversion. Closely packed rectenna arrays is the result of the demand to minimize size and weight for flexibility. This paper specifically focuses on the coupling effects on power; mutual coupling, comparing sparameters and gain total while varying effective parameters. This paper investigates how coupling between each dipole positively and negatively affects the microwave energy, harvesting, and the design limitations.

  7. [Mobile phone-computer wireless interactive graphics transmission technology and its medical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuo; Liu, Jing

    2010-05-01

    Application of clinical digital medical imaging has raised many tough issues to tackle, such as data storage, management, and information sharing. Here we investigated a mobile phone based medical image management system which is capable of achieving personal medical imaging information storage, management and comprehensive health information analysis. The technologies related to the management system spanning the wireless transmission technology, the technical capabilities of phone in mobile health care and management of mobile medical database were discussed. Taking medical infrared images transmission between phone and computer as an example, the working principle of the present system was demonstrated.

  8. Micro-intestinal robot with wireless power transmission: design, analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Yan, Guozheng; Chen, Wenwen; Zhu, Bingquan

    2015-11-01

    Video capsule endoscopy is a useful tool for noninvasive intestinal detection, but it is not capable of active movement; wireless power is an effective solution to this problem. The research in this paper consists of two parts: the mechanical structure which enables the robot to move smoothly inside the intestinal tract, and the wireless power supply which ensures efficiency. First, an intestinal robot with leg architectures was developed based on the Archimedes spiral, which mimics the movement of an inchworm. The spiral legs were capable of unfolding to an angle of approximately 155°, which guaranteed stability of clamping, consistency of surface pressure, and avoided the risk of puncturing the intestinal tract. Secondly, the necessary power to operate the robot was far beyond the capacity of button batteries, so a wireless power transmission (WPT) platform was developed. The design of the platform focused on power transfer efficiency and frequency stability. In addition, the safety of human tissue in the alternating electromagnetic field was also taken into consideration. Finally, the assembled robot was tested and verified with the use of the WPT platform. In the isolated intestine, the robot system successfully traveled along the intestine with an average speed of 23 mm per minute. The obtained videos displayed a resolution of 320 × 240 and a transmission rate of 30 frames per second. The WPT platform supplied up to 500 mW of energy to the robot, and achieved a power transfer efficiency of 12%. It has been experimentally verified that the intestinal robot is safe and effective as an endoscopy tool, for which wireless power is feasible. Proposals for further improving the robot and wireless power supply are provided later in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yuanfu; Yu, Dexin; Song, Jun; Zheng, Kun; Guo, Yajuan

    2015-01-01

    In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames) produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  10. DRDT: distributed and reliable data transmission with cooperative nodes for lossy wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaewan; Kim, Moonseong; Hur, In; Choi, Wook; Choo, Hyunseung

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in realistic wireless sensor network environments links are extremely unreliable. To recover from corrupted packets, most routing schemes with an assumption of ideal radio environments use a retransmission mechanism, which may cause unnecessary retransmissions. Therefore, guaranteeing energy-efficient reliable data transmission is a fundamental routing issue in wireless sensor networks. However, it is not encouraged to propose a new reliable routing scheme in the sense that every existing routing scheme cannot be replaced with the new one. This paper proposes a Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission (DRDT) scheme with a goal to efficiently guarantee reliable data transmission. In particular, this is based on a pluggable modular approach so that it can be extended to existing routing schemes. DRDT offers reliable data transmission using neighbor nodes, i.e., helper nodes. A helper node is selected among the neighbor nodes of the receiver node which overhear the data packet in a distributed manner. DRDT effectively reduces the number of retransmissions by delegating the retransmission task from the sender node to the helper node that has higher link quality to the receiver node when the data packet reception fails due to the low link quality between the sender and the receiver nodes. Comprehensive simulation results show that DRDT improves end-to-end transmission cost by up to about 45% and reduces its delay by about 40% compared to existing schemes.

  11. DRDT: Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission with Cooperative Nodes for LossyWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewan Seo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that in realistic wireless sensor network environments links are extremely unreliable. To recover from corrupted packets, most routing schemes with an assumption of ideal radio environments use a retransmission mechanism, which may cause unnecessary retransmissions. Therefore, guaranteeing energy-efficient reliable data transmission is a fundamental routing issue in wireless sensor networks. However, it is not encouraged to propose a new reliable routing scheme in the sense that every existing routing scheme cannot be replaced with the new one. This paper proposes a Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission (DRDT scheme with a goal to efficiently guarantee reliable data transmission. In particular, this is based on a pluggable modular approach so that it can be extended to existing routing schemes. DRDT offers reliable data transmission using neighbor nodes, i.e., helper nodes. A helper node is selected among the neighbor nodes of the receiver node which overhear the data packet in a distributed manner. DRDT effectively reduces the number of retransmissions by delegating the retransmission task from the sender node to the helper node that has higher link quality to the receiver node when the data packet reception fails due to the low link quality between the sender and the receiver nodes. Comprehensive simulation results show that DRDT improves end-to-end transmission cost by up to about 45% and reduces its delay by about 40% compared to existing schemes.

  12. A Beacon Transmission Power Control Algorithm Based on Wireless Channel Load Forecasting in VANETs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfu Mo

    Full Text Available In a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET, the periodic exchange of single-hop status information broadcasts (beacon frames produces channel loading, which causes channel congestion and induces information conflict problems. To guarantee fairness in beacon transmissions from each node and maximum network connectivity, adjustment of the beacon transmission power is an effective method for reducing and preventing channel congestion. In this study, the primary factors that influence wireless channel loading are selected to construct the KF-BCLF, which is a channel load forecasting algorithm based on a recursive Kalman filter and employs multiple regression equation. By pre-adjusting the transmission power based on the forecasted channel load, the channel load was kept within a predefined range; therefore, channel congestion was prevented. Based on this method, the CLF-BTPC, which is a transmission power control algorithm, is proposed. To verify KF-BCLF algorithm, a traffic survey method that involved the collection of floating car data along a major traffic road in Changchun City is employed. By comparing this forecast with the measured channel loads, the proposed KF-BCLF algorithm was proven to be effective. In addition, the CLF-BTPC algorithm is verified by simulating a section of eight-lane highway and a signal-controlled urban intersection. The results of the two verification process indicate that this distributed CLF-BTPC algorithm can effectively control channel load, prevent channel congestion, and enhance the stability and robustness of wireless beacon transmission in a vehicular network.

  13. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  14. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Rate Adaptive Selective Segment Assignment for Reliable Wireless Video Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable video communication system is proposed based on data partitioning feature of H.264/AVC, used to create a layered stream, and LT codes for erasure protection. The proposed scheme termed rate adaptive selective segment assignment (RASSA is an adaptive low-complexity solution to varying channel conditions. The comparison of the results of the proposed scheme is also provided for slice-partitioned H.264/AVC data. Simulation results show competitiveness of the proposed scheme compared to optimized unequal and equal error protection solutions. The simulation results also demonstrate that a high visual quality video transmission can be maintained despite the adverse effect of varying channel conditions and the number of decoding failures can be reduced.

  16. Wireless transmission of monitoring data out of the Hades underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.J.; Hart, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. For the monitoring of geological waste disposal in the post-closure phase, data acquired by the underground monitoring system inside the repository need to be transmitted wirelessly through the underground to the surface. Low frequency magneto-induction techniques as applied in mine communication and rescue can potentially be used for the wireless transmission of data from the repository to the surface. However, the propagation of magnetic fields through porous argillaceous rocks like the Boom Clay is hindered by the high electrical conductivity of the rock. As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and staged closure, NRG is conducting tests on the wireless transmission of monitoring data under conditions representative for a generic Dutch disposal in Boom Clay. This should help to judge the general feasibility of long-term wireless data transmission from an underground repository through the enclosing host rock and the overlying geosphere to the surface. Experimental work As contribution to the MoDeRn Work Package 3, In-situ demonstration of innovative monitoring techniques, NRG conducts tests on the wireless transmission of signals and data. The wireless data transmission experiments of NRG are being performed at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Mol, Belgium, situated at 225 m depth in a 100 m thick layer of Boom Clay. The main objective of the contribution is to quantify and optimise the energy efficiency of the transmission technique used. Because the Boom Clay and the overlying aquifers attenuate the magnetic fields more strongly than other host rocks, it is assumed that transmission experiments performed in the HADES give a more realistic picture on field propagation than experiments performed e.g. in granite, salt rock or Opalinus clay. Although the generic depth for the Dutch disposal design is 500 m, the experiments

  17. Optical-wireless-optical full link for polarization multiplexing quadrature amplitude/phase modulation signal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless integration system at the Q-band, in which up to 40 Gb/s polarization multiplexing multilevel quadrature amplitude/phase modulation (PM-QAM) signal can be first transmitted over 20 km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28), then delivered over a 2 m 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link, and finally transmitted over another 20 km SMF-28. The PM-QAM modulated wireless millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal at 40 GHz is generated based on the remote heterodyning technique, and demodulated by the radio-frequency transparent photonic technique based on homodyne coherent detection and baseband digital signal processing. The classic constant modulus algorithm equalization is used at the receiver to realize polarization demultiplexing of the PM-QAM signal. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we realize the conversion of the PM-QAM modulated wireless mm-wave signal to the optical signal as well as 20 km fiber transmission of the converted optical signal.

  18. A New Fractal Multiband Antenna for Wireless Power Transmission Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Benyetho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microwave Power Transmission (MPT is the possibility of feeding a system without contact by using microwave energy. The challenge of such system is to increase the efficiency of transmitted energy from the emitter to the load. This can be achieved by rectifying the microwave energy using a rectenna system composed of an antenna of a significant gain associated with a rectifier with a good input impedance matching. In this paper, a new multiband antenna using the microstrip technology and fractal geometry is developed. The fractal antenna is validated into simulation and measurement in the ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical band at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz and it presents a wide aperture angle with an acceptable gain for both bands. The final antenna is printed over an FR4 substrate with a dimension of 60 × 30 mm2. These characteristics make the antenna suitable for a multiband rectenna circuit use.

  19. Feasibility of Frequency-Modulated Wireless Transmission for a Multi-Purpose MEMS-Based Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sabato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors’ low sensitivity and accuracy—especially at very low frequencies—have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor’s analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC. In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline.

  20. Feasibility of frequency-modulated wireless transmission for a multi-purpose MEMS-based accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, Alessandro; Feng, Maria Q

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology have made wireless MEMS accelerometers an attractive tool for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of civil engineering structures. To date, sensors' low sensitivity and accuracy--especially at very low frequencies--have imposed serious limitations for their application in monitoring large-sized structures. Conventionally, the MEMS sensor's analog signals are converted to digital signals before radio-frequency (RF) wireless transmission. The conversion can cause a low sensitivity to the important low-frequency and low-amplitude signals. To overcome this difficulty, the authors have developed a MEMS accelerometer system, which converts the sensor output voltage to a frequency-modulated signal before RF transmission. This is achieved by using a Voltage to Frequency Conversion (V/F) instead of the conventional Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC). In this paper, a prototype MEMS accelerometer system is presented, which consists of a transmitter and receiver circuit boards. The former is equipped with a MEMS accelerometer, a V/F converter and a wireless RF transmitter, while the latter contains an RF receiver and a F/V converter for demodulating the signal. The efficacy of the MEMS accelerometer system in measuring low-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic responses is demonstrated through extensive laboratory tests and experiments on a flow-loop pipeline.

  1. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  2. SVANET: A smart vehicular ad hoc network for efficient data transmission with wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-11-25

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency.

  3. Auction-Based Resource Allocation for Cooperative Video Transmission Protocols over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Han

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative transmission has been proposed as a novel transmission strategy that takes advantage of broadcast nature of wireless networks, forms virtual MIMO system, and provides diversity gains. In this paper, wireless video transmission protocols are proposed, in which the spectrum resources are first allocated for the source side to broadcast video packets to the relay and destination, and then for the relay side to transmit side information generated from the received packets. The proposed protocols are optimized to minimize the end-to-end expected distortion via choosing bandwidth/power allocation, configuration of side information, subject to bandwidth and power constraints. For multiuser cases, most of current resource allocation approaches cannot be naturally extended and applied to the networks with relay nodes for video transmission. This paper extends the share auction approach into the cooperative video communication scenarios and provides a near-optimal solution for resource allocation. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach has significant advantage of up to 4 dB gain in single user case and 1.3 dB gain in multiuser case over the reference systems in terms of peak-to-signal-noise ratio. In addition, it reduces the formidable computational complexity of the optimal solution to linear complexity with performance degradation of less than 0.3 dB.

  4. Study on explosion field temperature testing system based on wireless data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinling; Sun Yunqiang

    2011-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the transient temperature value produced by explosive blasting may provide the basis for distinguishing the types of the explosive, the power contrast of the explosive and the performance evaluation in the weapons research process. To solve the problems of the Universal Test System emplaced inconveniently and the stored testing system need to be recycled, it has designed the explosion field application in wireless sensor system of temperature measurement. The system based on PIC16F877A micro controller, CPLD complex programmable logic devices and nRF24L01 wireless transmission chip sensor. The system adopts the Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouple as the temperature sensor, DS600 temperature sensor for cold temperature compensation. This system has arrangement convenient, high-speed data acquisition, trigger and working parameters of adjustable characteristics, has been successfully applied in a test system. (authors)

  5. THz Wireless Transmission Systems Based on Photonic Generation of Highly Pure Beat-Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Yu, Xianbin; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a terahertz (THz) wireless communication system at 400 GHz with various modulation formats [on–off keying (OOK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM), and 32-quadrature amplitude modulation (32-QAM)] is experimentally demonstrated based...... noise of photonically generated THz beat-notes when phase correlation of two optical comb tones is damaged due to their path-length difference. In addition, we demonstrate THz wireless transmission of various modulation formats, including OOK, QPSK, 16-QAM, and 32-QAM at beyond 10 Gb/s in such a system......, and the measured bit error rate (BER) performance for all the signals after 0.5 m free-space delivery is below the hard decision forward error correction threshold of 3.8 × 10–3. Furthermore, the influence of THz carrier purity on the system performance is experimentally analyzed with respect to the BER of the THz...

  6. Three-phase receiving coil of wireless power transmission system for gastrointestinal robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. W.; Jiang, T.; Liu, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Power shortage is the bottleneck for the wide application of gastrointestinal (GI) robot. Owing to the limited volume and free change of orientation of the receiving set in GI trace, the optimal of receiving set is the key point to promote the transmission efficiency of wireless power transmission system. A new type of receiving set, similar to the winding of three-phase asynchronous motor, is presented and compared with the original three-dimensional orthogonal coil. Considering the given volume and the space utilization ratio, the three-phase and the three-orthogonal ones are the parameters which are optimized and compared. Both the transmission efficiency and stability are analyzed and verified by in vitro experiments. Animal experiments show that the new one could provide at least 420 mW power in volume of Φ11 × 13mm with a uniformity of 78.3% for the GI robot.

  7. An efficient transmission power control scheme for temperature variation in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungwook; Chung, Kwangsue

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  8. An Efficient Transmission Power Control Scheme for Temperature Variation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungwook Lee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks collect data from several nodes dispersed at remote sites. Sensor nodes can be installed in harsh environments such as deserts, cities, and indoors, where the link quality changes considerably over time. Particularly, changes in transmission power may be caused by temperature, humidity, and other factors. In order to compensate for link quality changes, existing schemes detect the link quality changes between nodes and control transmission power through a series of feedback processes, but these approaches can cause heavy overhead with the additional control packets needed. In this paper, the change of the link quality according to temperature is examined through empirical experimentation. A new power control scheme combining both temperature-aware link quality compensation and a closed-loop feedback process to adapt to link quality changes is proposed. We prove that the proposed scheme effectively adapts the transmission power to the changing link quality with less control overhead and energy consumption.

  9. TD-LTE Wireless Private Network QoS Transmission Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Cheng, Chao; Wu, Zanhong

    With the commencement of construction of the smart grid, the demand power business for reliability and security continues to improve, the reliability transmission of power TD-LTE Wireless Private Network are more and more attention. For TD-LTE power private network, it can provide different QoS services according to the user's business type, to protect the reliable transmission of business. This article describes in detail the AF module of PCC in the EPC network, specifically introduces set up AF module station and QoS mechanisms in the EPS load, fully considers the business characteristics of the special power network, establishing a suitable architecture for mapping QoS parameters, ensuring the implementation of each QoS business. Through using radio bearer management, we can achieve the reliable transmission of each business on physical channel.

  10. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  11. Frame Transmission Efficiency-Based Cross-Layer Congestion Notification Scheme in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaguang; Li, Taoshen; Feng, Luting; Ye, Jin

    2017-07-15

    Different from the traditional wired network, the fundamental cause of transmission congestion in wireless ad hoc networks is medium contention. How to utilize the congestion state from the MAC (Media Access Control) layer to adjust the transmission rate is core work for transport protocol design. However, recent works have shown that the existing cross-layer congestion detection solutions are too complex to be deployed or not able to characterize the congestion accurately. We first propose a new congestion metric called frame transmission efficiency (i.e., the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay), which describes the medium contention in a fast and accurate manner. We further present the design and implementation of RECN (ECN and the ratio of successful transmission delay to the frame service delay in the MAC layer, namely, the frame transmission efficiency), a general supporting scheme that adjusts the transport sending rate through a standard ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) signaling method. Our method can be deployed on commodity switches with small firmware updates, while making no modification on end hosts. We integrate RECN transparently (i.e., without modification) with TCP on NS2 simulation. The experimental results show that RECN remarkably improves network goodput across multiple concurrent TCP flows.

  12. Power consumption analysis of constant bit rate data transmission over 3G mobile wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Le; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the power consumption of data transmission with constant bit rate over 3G mobile wireless networks. Our work includes the description of the transition state machine in 3G networks, followed by the detailed energy consumption analysis and measurement results...... of the radio link power consumption. Based on these description and analysis, we propose power consumption model. The power model was evaluated on the smartphone Nokia N900, which follows a 3GPP Release 5 and 6 supporting HSDPA/HSPA data bearers. Further we propose method of parameters selection for 3GPP...... transition state machine that allows to decrease power consumption on the mobile device....

  13. Wireless Energy and Information Transmission in FSO and RF-FSO Links

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2017-09-22

    We propose and analyze a wireless energy and information transmission scheme in free-space optical (FSO) links. The results are presented for both quasi-static and fast-fading conditions. We derive closed-form expressions for throughput, outage probability and optimal power allocation optimizing the system throughput/outage probability. Finally, we complement the FSO link with an additional radio frequency (RF) link to create a hybrid RF-FSO system and reduce the system outage probability. The results show that joint implementation of the RF and FSO links leads to considerable performance improvement, compared to the cases with only FSO-based communication.

  14. Low-complexity video encoding method for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a low-complexity video encoding method applicable for wireless image transmission in capsule endoscopes. This encoding method is based on Wyner-Ziv theory, in which side information available at a transmitter is treated as side information at its receiver. Therefore complex processes in video encoding, such as estimation of the motion vector, are moved to the receiver side, which has a larger-capacity battery. As a result, the encoding process is only to decimate coded original data through channel coding. We provide a performance evaluation for a low-density parity check (LDPC) coding method in the AWGN channel.

  15. Research on Matrix-type Packet Loss Compensation Scheme for Wireless Video Transmission on Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Qing-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the mainstream wireless LAN technology, Wi-Fi can achieve fast data transfer. With the subway moving in a high speed, video data transmission between the metro and the ground is achieved through Wi-Fi technology. This paper aims at solving the Caton problem caused by switching packet loss in the process of playing real-time video on the train terminal, and proposes matrix-type packet loss compensation scheme. Finally, the feasibility of the scheme is verified by experiments.

  16. Optimization of high-definition video coding and hybrid fiber-wireless transmission in the 60 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedev, Alexander; Pham, Tien Thang; Beltrán, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of distribution of highdefinition video over fiber-wireless networks. The physical layer architecture with the low complexity envelope detection solution is investigated. We present both experimental studies and simulation of high quality high-definition compressed...... video transmission over 60 GHz fiberwireless link. Using advanced video coding we satisfy low complexity and low delay constraints, meanwhile preserving the superb video quality after significantly extended wireless distance. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  17. A New Energy-Efficient Data Transmission Scheme Based on DSC and Virtual MIMO for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liwen; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency in wireless sensor network (WSN) is one of the primary performance parameters. For improving the energy efficiency of WSN, we introduce distributed source coding (DSC) and virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) into wireless sensor network and then propose a new data transmission scheme called DSC-MIMO. DSC-MIMO compresses the source data using distributed source coding before transmitting, which is different from the existing communication schemes. Data compression c...

  18. Alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses working in the Neuro-Intensive Care Unit at Aarhus University Hospital lack the tools to prepare children for the alarming atmosphere they will enter when visiting a hospitalised relative. The complex soundscape dominated by alarms and sounds from equipment is mentioned as the main stressor...

  19. Wireless sensor and data transmission needs and technologies for patient monitoring in the operating room and intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksuniemi, M; Sorvoja, H; Alasaarela, E; Myllyla, R

    2005-01-01

    In the intensive care unit, or during anesthesia, patients are attached to monitors by cables. These cables obstruct nursing staff and hinder the patients from moving freely in the hospital. However, rapidly developing wireless technologies are expected to solve these problems. To this end, this study revealed problem areas in current patient monitoring and established the most important medical parameters to monitor. In addition, usable wireless techniques for short-range data transmission were explored and currently employed wireless applications in the hospital environment were studied. The most important parameters measured of the patient include blood pressures, electrocardiography, respiration rate, heart rate and temperature. Currently used wireless techniques in hospitals are based on the WMTS and WLAN standards. There are no viable solutions for short-range data transmission from patient sensors to patient monitors, but potentially usable techniques in the future are based on the WPAN standards. These techniques include Bluetooth, ZigBee and UWB. Other suitable techniques might be based on capacitive or inductive coupling. The establishing of wireless techniques depends on ensuring the reliability of data transmission, eliminating disturbance by other wireless devices, ensuring patient data security and patient safety, and lowering the power consumption and price.

  20. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J; Hansen, Bryan J; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  1. A wireless transmission neural interface system for unconstrained non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A.; Parajuli, Arun; Franklin, Robert; Sorenson, Michael; Felleman, Daniel J.; Hansen, Bryan J.; Hu, Ming; Dragoi, Valentin

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. Approach. To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull. Broadband neural signals are amplified, multiplexed, and continuously transmitted as TCP/IP data at a sustained rate of 24 Mbps. A Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA assembles the digital signals into serial data frames for transmission at 20 kHz though an 802.11n wireless data link on a frequency-shift key-modulated signal at 5.7-5.8 GHz to a receiver up to 10 m away. The system is powered by two CR123A, 3 V batteries for 2 h of operation. Main results. We implanted a multi-electrode array in visual area V4 of one anesthetized monkey (Macaca fascicularis) and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) of a freely moving monkey (Macaca mulatta). The implanted recording arrays were electrically stable and delivered broadband neural data over a year of testing. For the first time, we compared dlPFC neuronal responses to the same set of stimuli (food reward) in restrained and freely moving conditions. Although we did not find differences in neuronal responses as a function of reward type in the restrained and unrestrained conditions, there were significant differences in correlated activity. This demonstrates that measuring neural responses in freely moving animals can capture phenomena that are absent in the traditional head-fixed paradigm. Significance. We implemented a wireless neural interface for multi-electrode recordings in freely moving non-human primates, which can potentially move systems neuroscience to a new direction by allowing one to record neural signals while animals interact with their environment.

  2. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  3. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kideok Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  4. A Mixed Transmission Strategy to Achieve Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Tao; Jin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of energy balanced data collection in wireless sensor networks, aiming to balance energy consumption among all sensor nodes during the data propagation process. Energy balanced data collection can potentially save energy consumption and prolong network...... lifetime, and hence, it has many practical implications for sensor network design and deployment. The traditional hop-by-hop transmission model allows a sensor node to propagate its packets in a hop-by-hop manner toward the sink, resulting in poor energy balancing for the entire network. To address...... the problem, we apply a slice-based energy model, and divide the problem into inter-slice and intra-slice energy balancing problems. We then propose a probability-based strategy named inter-slice mixed transmission protocol and an intra-slice forwarding technique to address each of the problems. We propose...

  5. Adaptive control of the packet transmission period with solar energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-04-24

    A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  6. A Low-Jitter Wireless Transmission Based on Buffer Management in Coding-Aware Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbo Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is significant to reduce packet jitter for real-time applications in a wireless network. Existing coding-aware routing algorithms use the opportunistic network coding (ONC scheme in a packet coding algorithm. The ONC scheme never delays packets to wait for the arrival of a future coding opportunity. The loss of some potential coding opportunities may degrade the contribution of network coding to jitter performance. In addition, most of the existing coding-aware routing algorithms assume that all flows participating in the network have equal rate. This is unrealistic, since multi-rate environments often appear. To overcome the above problem and expand coding-aware routing to multi-rate scenarios, from the view of data transmission, we present a low-jitter wireless transmission algorithm based on buffer management (BLJCAR, which decides packets in coding node according to the queue-length based threshold policy instead of the regular ONC policy as used in existing coding-aware routing algorithms. BLJCAR is a unified framework to merge the single rate case and multiple rate case. Simulations results show that the BLJCAR algorithm embedded in coding-aware routing outperforms the traditional ONC policy in terms of jitter, packet delivery delay, packet loss ratio and network throughput in network congestion in any traffic rates.

  7. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  8. Study of a wireless power transmission system for an active capsule endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxin

    2010-03-01

    An active capsule endoscope (ACE) will consume much more energy than can be power by batteries. Its orientation and position are always undetermined when it continues the natural way down the gastrointestinal track. In order to deliver stable and sufficient energy to ACE safely, a wireless power transmission system based on inductive coupling is presented. The system consists of a Helmholtz primary coil outside and a multiple secondary coils inside the body. The Helmholtz primary coil is driven to generate a uniform alternating magnetic field covering the whole of the alimentary tract, and the multiple secondary coils receive energy regardless of the ACE's position and orientation relative to the generated magnetic field. The human tissue safety of the electromagnetic field generated by transmitting coil was evaluated, based on a high-resolution realistic human model. At least 310 mW usable power can be transmitted under the worst geometrical conditions. Outer dimensions of the power receiver, 10 mm diameter x 12 mm; transmitting power, 25 W; resonant frequency, 400 kHz. The maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density of human tissues are 0.329 W/kg and 3.82 A/m(2), respectively, under the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The designed wireless power transmission is shown to be feasible and potentially safe in a future application. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current.

  10. Ultracompact Implantable Design With Integrated Wireless Power Transfer and RF Transmission Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guilin; Muneer, Badar; Li, Ying; Zhu, Qi

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an ultracompact design of biomedical implantable devices with integrated wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF transmission capabilities for implantable medical applications. By reusing the spiral coil in an implantable device, both RF transmission and WPT are realized without the performance degradation of both functions in ultracompact size. The complete theory of WPT based on magnetic resonant coupling is discussed and the design methodology of an integrated structure is presented in detail, which can guide the design effectively. A system with an external power transmitter and implantable structure is fabricated to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the implantable structure can receive power wirelessly at 39.86 MHz with power transfer efficiency of 47.2% and can also simultaneously radiate at 2.45 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 10.8% and a gain of -15.71 dBi in the desired direction. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses are carried out with the help of experiment and simulation. The results reveal that the system has strong tolerance to the nonideal conditions. Additionally, the specific absorption rate distribution is evaluated in the light of strict IEEE standards. The results reveal that the implantable structure can receive up to 115 mW power from an external transmitter and radiate 6.4 dB·m of power safely.

  11. Miniaturized Human Insertable Cardiac Monitoring System with Wireless Power Transmission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ha Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged monitoring is more likely to diagnose atrial fibrillation accurately than intermittent or short-term monitoring. In this study, an implantable electrocardiograph (ECG sensor to monitor atrial fibrillation patients in real time was developed. The implantable sensor is composed of a micro controller unit, an analog-to-digital converter, a signal transmitter, an antenna, and two electrodes. The sensor detects ECG signals from the two electrodes and transmits these to an external receiver carried by the patient. Because the sensor continuously transmits signals, its battery consumption rate is extremely high; therefore, the sensor includes a wireless power transmission module that allows it to charge wirelessly from an external power source. The integrated sensor has the approximate dimensions 3 mm × 4 mm × 14 mm, which is small enough to be inserted into a patient without the need for major surgery. The signal and power transmission data sampling rate and frequency of the unit are 300 samples/s and 430 Hz, respectively. To validate the developed sensor, experiments were conducted on small animals.

  12. Experimental and simulation analysis of the W-band SC-FDMA hybrid optical-wireless transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of the W-band hybrid optical-wireless SC-FDMA with 1.49 Gbit/s transmission over up to 2.3 m of air propagation. Provided simulation performance analysis proves a potential to reach 12.1 Gbit/s.......We report on the experimental demonstration of the W-band hybrid optical-wireless SC-FDMA with 1.49 Gbit/s transmission over up to 2.3 m of air propagation. Provided simulation performance analysis proves a potential to reach 12.1 Gbit/s....

  13. A fully integrated wireless system for intracranial direct cortical stimulation, real-time electrocorticography data transmission, and smart cage for wireless battery recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piangerelli, Marco; Ciavarro, Marco; Paris, Antonino; Marchetti, Stefano; Cristiani, Paolo; Puttilli, Cosimo; Torres, Napoleon; Benabid, Alim Louis; Romanelli, Pantaleo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless transmission of cortical signals is an essential step to improve the safety of epilepsy procedures requiring seizure focus localization and to provide chronic recording of brain activity for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. Our group developed a fully implantable and externally rechargeable device, able to provide wireless electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording and cortical stimulation (CS). The first prototype of a wireless multi-channel very low power ECoG system was custom-designed to be implanted on non-human primates. The device, named ECOGIW-16E, is housed in a compact hermetically sealed Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) enclosure, allowing seamless battery recharge. ECOGIW-16E is recharged in a wireless fashion using a special cage designed to facilitate the recharge process in monkeys and developed in accordance with guidelines for accommodation of animals by Council of Europe (ETS123). The inductively recharging cage is made up of nylon and provides a thoroughly novel experimental setting on freely moving animals. The combination of wireless cable-free ECoG and external seamless battery recharge solves the problems and shortcomings caused by the presence of cables leaving the skull, providing a safer and easier way to monitor patients and to perform ECoG recording on primates. Data transmission exploits the newly available Medical Implant Communication Service band (MICS): 402-405 MHz. ECOGIW-16E was implanted over the left sensorimotor cortex of a macaca fascicularis to assess the feasibility of wireless ECoG monitoring and brain mapping through CS. With this device, we were able to record the everyday life ECoG signal from a monkey and to deliver focal brain stimulation with movement elicitation.

  14. Gait-Cycle-Driven Transmission Power Control Scheme for a Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Weilin; Li, Ye

    2018-05-01

    In a wireless body area network (WBAN), walking movements can result in rapid channel fluctuations, which severely degrade the performance of transmission power control (TPC) schemes. On the other hand, these channel fluctuations are often periodic and are time-synchronized with the user's gait cycle, since they are all driven from the walking movements. In this paper, we propose a novel gait-cycle-driven transmission power control (G-TPC) for a WBAN. The proposed G-TPC scheme reinforces the existing TPC scheme by exploiting the periodic channel fluctuation in the walking scenario. In the proposed scheme, the user's gait cycle information acquired by an accelerometer is used as beacons for arranging the transmissions at the time points with the ideal channel state. The specific transmission power is then determined by using received signal strength indication (RSSI). An experiment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and reliability of the proposed G-TPC based on a CC2420 platform. The results reveal that compared to the original RSSI/link-quality-indication-based TPC, G-TPC reduces energy consumption by 25% on the sensor node and reduce the packet loss rate by 65%.

  15. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  16. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems.

  17. Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances.

  18. Exploring Relay Cooperation for Secure and Reliable Transmission in Two-HopWireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Shen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the problem of secure and reliable information transmission via relay cooperation in two-hop relay wireless networks without the information of both eavesdropper channels and locations. While previous work on this problem mainly studied infinite networks and their asymptotic behavior and scaling law results, this papers focuses on a more practical network with finite number of system nodes and explores the corresponding exact result on the number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure desired secrecy and reliability. We first study the scenario where path-loss is equal between all pairs of nodes and consider two transmission protocols there, one adopts an optimal but complex relay selection process with less load balance capacity while the other adopts a random but simple relay selection process with good load balance capacity. Theoretical analysis and numerical results are then provided to determine the maximum number of eavesdroppers one network can tolerate to ensure a desired performance in terms of the secrecy outage probability and transmission outage probability. We further extend our study to the more general scenario where path-loss between each pair of nodes also depends on the distance between them, for which a new transmission protocol with both preferable relay selection and good load balance as well as the corresponding theoretical analysis and numerical results are presented.

  19. Data Transmission Scheme Using Mobile Sink in Static Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multihop communication in wireless sensor network (WSN brings new challenges in reliable data transmission. Recent work shows that data collection from sensor nodes using mobile sink minimizes multihop data transmission and improves energy efficiency. However, due to continuous movements, mobile sink has limited communication time to collect data from sensor nodes, which results in rapid depletion of node’s energy. Therefore, we propose a data transmission scheme that addresses the aforementioned constraints. The proposed scheme first finds out the group based region on the basis of localization information of the sensor nodes and predefined trajectory information of a mobile sink. After determining the group region in the network, selection of master nodes is made. The master nodes directly transmit their data to the mobile sink upon its arrival at their group region through restricted flooding scheme. In addition, the agent node concept is introduced for swapping of the role of the master nodes in each group region. The master node when consuming energy up to a certain threshold, neighboring node with second highest residual energy is selected as an agent node. The mathematical analysis shows that the selection of agent node maximizes the throughput while minimizing transmission delay in the network.

  20. Study on electromagnetic characteristics of the magnetic coupling resonant coil for the wireless power transmission system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxian; Liu, Yiping; Wei, Yonggeng; Song, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The resonant coil design is taken as the core technology in the magnetic coupling resonant wireless power transmission system, which achieves energy transmission by the coupling of the resonant coil. This paper studies the effect of the resonant coil on energy transmission and the efficiency of the system. Combining a two-coil with a three-coil system, the optimum design method for the resonant coil is given to propose a novel coil structure. First, the co-simulation methods of Pspice and Maxwell are used. When the coupling coefficient of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between system transmission efficiency, output power, and frequency is analyzed. When the self-inductance of the resonant coil is different, the relationship between the performance and frequency of the system transmission is analyzed. Then, two-coil and three-coil structure models are built, and the parameters of the magnetic field of the coils are calculated and analyzed using the finite element method. In the end, a dual E-type simulation circuit model is used to optimize the design of the novel resonance coil. The co-simulation results show that the coupling coefficients of the two-coil, three-coil, and novel coil systems are 0.017, 0.17 and 0.0126, respectively. The power loss of the novel coil is 16.4 mW. There is an obvious improvement in the three-coil system, which shows that the magnetic leakage of the field and the energy coupling are relatively small. The new structure coil has better performance, and the load loss is lower; it can improve the system output power and transmission efficiency.

  1. Effectiveness of compressed sensing and transmission in wireless sensor networks for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahiro; Uchiito, Haruki; Tokairin, Tomoya; Kawai, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-01

    Regarding Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) for seismic acceleration, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a promising tool for low-cost monitoring. Compressed sensing and transmission schemes have been drawing attention to achieve effective data collection in WSN. Especially, SHM systems installing massive nodes of WSN require efficient data transmission due to restricted communications capability. The dominant frequency band of seismic acceleration is occupied within 100 Hz or less. In addition, the response motions on upper floors of a structure are activated at a natural frequency, resulting in induced shaking at the specified narrow band. Focusing on the vibration characteristics of structures, we introduce data compression techniques for seismic acceleration monitoring in order to reduce the amount of transmission data. We carry out a compressed sensing and transmission scheme by band pass filtering for seismic acceleration data. The algorithm executes the discrete Fourier transform for the frequency domain and band path filtering for the compressed transmission. Assuming that the compressed data is transmitted through computer networks, restoration of the data is performed by the inverse Fourier transform in the receiving node. This paper discusses the evaluation of the compressed sensing for seismic acceleration by way of an average error. The results present the average error was 0.06 or less for the horizontal acceleration, in conditions where the acceleration was compressed into 1/32. Especially, the average error on the 4th floor achieved a small error of 0.02. Those results indicate that compressed sensing and transmission technique is effective to reduce the amount of data with maintaining the small average error.

  2. 400-GHz wireless transmission of 60-Gb/s nyquist-QPSK signals using UTC-PD and heterodyne mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optical network compatible high-speed optoelectronics THz wireless transmission system operating at 400-GHz band. In the experiment, optical Nyquist quadrature phase-shift keying signals in a 12.5-GHz ultradense wavelength-division multiplexing grid is converted...... to the THz wireless radiation by photomixing in an antenna integrated unitravelling photodiode. The photomixing is transparent to optical modulation formats. We also demonstrate in the experiment the scalability of our system by applying single to four channels, as well as mixed three channels. Wireless...... transmission of a capacity of 60 Gb/s for four channels (15 Gb/s per channel) at 400-GHz band is successfully achieved, which pushes the data rates enabled by optoelectronics approach beyond the envelope in the frequency range above 300 GHz. Besides those, this study also validates the potential of bridging...

  3. Robust Wireless Power Transmission to mm-Sized Free-Floating Distributed Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively. We have built several FFI prototypes to conduct accurate measurements and to characterize the performance of the proposed WPT method. Measurement results on 1-mm receivers operating at 60 MHz show power transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load at 2.4% and 1.3 mW, respectively, within 14-18 mm of Tx-Rx separation and 7 cm 2 of brain surface.

  4. A wireless transmission system powered by an enzyme biofuel cell implanted in an orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVittie, Kevin; Conlon, Tyler; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-12-01

    A biofuel cell composed of catalytic electrodes made of "buckypaper" modified with PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and FAD-dependent fructose dehydrogenase on the anode and with laccase on the cathode was used to activate a wireless information transmission system. The cathode/anode pair was implanted in orange pulp extracting power from its content (glucose and fructose in the juice). The open circuit voltage, Voc, short circuit current density, jsc, and maximum power produced by the biofuel cell, Pmax, were found as ca. 0.6 V, ca. 0.33 mA·cm(-2) and 670 μW, respectively. The voltage produced by the biofuel cell was amplified with an energy harvesting circuit and applied to a wireless transmitter. The present study continues the research line where different implantable biofuel cells are used for the activation of electronic devices. The study emphasizes the biosensor and environmental monitoring applications of implantable biofuel cells harvesting power from natural sources, rather than their biomedical use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  6. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  7. 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission with an MMF access and an indoor optical wireless link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission, over a 4.4-km multimode fiber (MMF) in combination with an indoor optical wireless (OW) link, which could provide limited mobility. Due to MMF's advantages, such as lower installation costs and easy maintenance, it is

  8. Analysis of transmission properties in an indoor wireless sensor network based on a full-factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christmann, Dennis; Martinovic, Ivan; Schmitt, Jens B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigate different factors and their effects on the wireless transmission properties using a full-factorial experimental design of a wireless sensor network in a real-world indoor environment. We quantify the impact of primary factors such as the wireless channel, physical position, transmission power and line of sight, as well as their interactions on the received signal strength (RSS). While some of our results support conventional assumptions, this study also shows that there are several properties which are in contrast to existing findings. For example, there is no significant correlation in the measured RSS between differently located but equally distant transmitters, yet the correlation coefficient for the two directions of a single link between two transmitters is above 94%, leading to very symmetric links that differ only in a few dBm for the two directions. Further analysis reveals the strong interaction of transmission frequency and physical position, while the transmission power has only an isolated, non-interacting effect on the RSS. Since the analyzed network consists of commodity motes utilizing TI's well-known IEEE 802.15.4 compliant CC2420 transceiver, the results of this experimental analysis can serve as valuable insights in planning and deploying wireless sensor networks in different application scenarios

  9. Wireless transmission of power and information through one high frequency resonant AC link inverter for robot manipulator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Atsuo; Ishioka, Kazuaki; Hirai, Junji.

    1995-01-01

    A contact-less decentralized power supply is proposed with communication capability through only one transformer. A prototype of wireless transmission system of power and information (WTPI system) was built, and the two axis position control for servo motors was achieved by transferring the power and signal through one rotatable high frequency transformer. The proposed concept can be applied for robotics and NC machines

  10. Low cost Polymer Optical Fibre based transmission system for feeding integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Khoe, G.D.; Visser, D. Taco; Lenstra, Daan; Schouten, F. Hugo

    2002-01-01

    A bi-directional transmission system using low cost Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) to feed the required large number of radio access points in next-generation integrated broadband wireless in-house LANs is proposed. Results from simulations and experiments show that, by tuning system parameters, a

  11. Layered ACO-OFDM for intensity-modulated direct-detection optical wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qian, Chen; Guo, Xuhan; Wang, Zhaocheng; Cunningham, David G; White, Ian H

    2015-05-04

    Layered asymmetrically clipped optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ACO-OFDM) with high spectral efficiency is proposed in this paper for optical wireless transmission employing intensity modulation with direct detection. In contrast to the conventional ACO-OFDM, which only utilizes odd subcarriers for modulation, leading to an obvious spectral efficiency loss, in layered ACO-OFDM, the subcarriers are divided into different layers and modulated by different kinds of ACO-OFDM, which are combined for simultaneous transmission. In this way, more subcarriers are used for data transmission and the spectral efficiency is improved. An iterative receiver is also proposed for layered ACO-OFDM, where the negative clipping distortion of each layer is subtracted once it is detected so that the signals from different layers can be recovered. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed scheme can improve the spectral efficiency by up to 2 times compared with conventional ACO-OFDM approaches with the same modulation order. Meanwhile, simulation results confirm a considerable signal-to-noise ratio gain over ACO-OFDM at the same spectral efficiency.

  12. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications: Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power technology offers unique benefits for near-term NASA space science missions, which can mature this technology for other future applications. "Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transmission" (Laser-PV WPT) is a technology that uses a laser to beam power to a photovoltaic receiver, which converts the laser's light into electricity. Future Laser-PV WPT systems may beam power from Earth to satellites or large Space Solar Power satellites may beam power to Earth, perhaps supplementing terrestrial solar photo-voltaic receivers. In a near-term scientific mission to the moon, Laser-PV WPT can enable robotic operations in permanently shadowed lunar polar craters, which may contain ice. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding, to mature the technology for this initial application, in the moon's polar regions.

  13. Evaluation of a microwave high-power reception-conversion array for wireless power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Initial performance tests of a 24-sq m area array of rectenna elements are presented. The array is used as the receiving portion of a wireless microwave power transmission engineering verification test system. The transmitting antenna was located at a range of 1.54 km. Output dc voltage and power, input RF power, efficiency, and operating temperatures were obtained for a variety of dc load and RF incident power levels at 2388 MHz. Incident peak RF intensities of up to 170 mW/sq cm yielded up to 30.4 kW of dc output power. The highest derived collection-conversion efficiency of the array was greater than 80 percent.

  14. Design of a Wireless Sensor Module for Monitoring Conductor Galloping of Transmission Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinbo; Zhao, Long; Chen, Guimin

    2016-10-09

    Conductor galloping may cause flashovers and even tower collapses. The available conductor galloping monitoring methods often employ acceleration sensors to measure the conductor translations without considering the conductor twist. In this paper, a new sensor for monitoring conductor galloping of transmission lines based on an inertial measurement unit and wireless communication is proposed. An inertial measurement unit is used for collecting the accelerations and angular rates of a conductor, which are further transformed into the corresponding geographic coordinate frame using a quaternion transformation to reconstruct the galloping of the conductor. Both the hardware design and the software design are described in details. The corresponding test platforms are established, and the experiments show the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed monitoring sensor. The field operation of the proposed sensor in a conductor spanning 734 m also shows its effectiveness.

  15. Design of an effective energy receiving adapter for microwave wireless power transmission application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of an energy receiving adapter in a 8×8 array form with high power reception efficiency with the resonator of artificial electromagnetic absorber being used as the element. Unlike the conventional reported rectifying antenna resonators, both the size of the element and the separations between the elements are electrically small in our design. The energy collecting process is explained with an equivalent circuit model, and a RF combining network is designed to combine the captured AC power from each element to one main terminal for AC-to-DC conversion. The energy receiving adapter yields a total reception efficiency of 67% (including the wave capture efficiency of 86% and the AC-to-DC conversion efficiency of 78%, which is quite promising for microwave wireless power transmission.

  16. Adaptive multi-node multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission for mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-10-02

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase.

  17. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate.

  18. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-02-09

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  19. False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanatorn Tanantong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring.

  20. Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Cao, Zizheng; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Tao, Li

    2012-10-22

    We experimentally demonstrated the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100 GHz by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which make up a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on microwave polarization multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance.

  1. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  2. Performance evaluation of power transmission coils for powering endoscopic wireless capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Md Rubel; Ahmad, Mohd Yazed; Cho, Jongman; Ibrahim, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of H-field generated by a simple solenoid, pair of solenoids, pair of double-layer solenoids, segmented-solenoid, and Helmholtz power transmission coils (PTCs) to power an endoscopic wireless capsule (WC). The H-fields were computed using finite element analysis based on partial differential equations. Three parameters were considered in the analysis: i) the maximum level of H-field (Hmax) to which the patient's body would be exposed, ii) the minimum level of H-field (Hmin) effective for power transmission, and iii) uniformity of H-field. We validated our analysis by comparing the computed data with data measured from a fabricated Helmholtz PTC. This analysis disclosed that at the same excitation power, all the PTCs are able to transfer same amount of minimum usable power since they generated almost equal value of Hmin. The level of electromagnetic exposure and power transfer stability across all the PTCs would vary significantly which is mainly due to the different level of Hmax and H-field uniformity. The segmented solenoid PTC would cause the lowest exposure and this PTC can transfer the maximum amount of power. The Helmholtz PTC would be able to transfer the most stable power with a moderate level of exposure.

  3. Optimal resonance configuration for ultrasonic wireless power transmission to millimeter-sized biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao Meng; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions, ultrasonic WPT links have recently been proposed. Operating both transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) ultrasonic transducers at their resonance frequency (fr) is key in improving power transmission efficiency (PTE). In this paper, different resonance configurations for Tx and Rx transducers, including series and parallel resonance, have been studied to help the designers of ultrasonic WPT links to choose the optimal resonance configuration for Tx and Rx that maximizes PTE. The geometries for disk-shaped transducers of four different sets of links, operating at series-series, series-parallel, parallel-series, and parallel-parallel resonance configurations in Tx and Rx, have been found through finite-element method (FEM) simulation tools for operation at fr of 1.4 MHz. Our simulation results suggest that operating the Tx transducer with parallel resonance increases PTE, while the resonance configuration of the mm-sized Rx transducer highly depends on the load resistance, Rl. For applications that involve large Rl in the order of tens of kΩ, a parallel resonance for a mm-sized Rx leads to higher PTE, while series resonance is preferred for Rl in the order of several kΩ and below.

  4. Wireless power and data transmission strategies for next-generation capsule endoscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puers, R; Carta, R; Thoné, J

    2011-01-01

    Capsular endoscopy is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to traditional gastro-intestinal (GI) examination techniques. However, the breakthrough of these devices is hindered by the limited amount of power that can be stored in a tiny pill. Most commercial devices use two watch batteries that can only provide an average power of 25 mW for about 6 h, certainly not sufficient for advanced robotic features. A dedicated inductive powering system, operating at 1 MHz to limit the human body absorption, has been developed which was proven to support the transfer of over 300 mW. The system relies on a condensed set of orthogonal ferrite coils, embedded in the capsule, and an external unit based on a Helmholtz coil driven by a class E amplifier. Control data can be sent through the inductive link by modulating the power carrier, whereas a dedicated high data rate RF link is used to transfer the images from the capsule to the base station. Besides evaluating the compatibility with radio transmission, several demonstrators were assembled combining the wireless powering system with various locomotion strategies and LED illumination. This paper describes the design and implementation of the inductive powering system, its combination with data transmission techniques and the testing activity with other capsule-dedicated modules

  5. A Provably-Secure Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omala, Anyembe Andrew; Robert, Niyifasha; Li, Fagen

    2016-11-01

    Wireless body area network (WBANs) is composed of sensors that collect and transmit a person's physiological data to health-care providers in real-time. In order to guarantee security of this data over open networks, a secure data transmission mechanism between WBAN and application provider's servers is of necessity. Modified medical data does not provide a true reflection of an individuals state of health and its subsequent use for diagnosis could lead to an irreversible medical condition. In this paper, we propose a lightweight certificateless signcryption scheme for secure transmission of data between WBAN and servers. Our proposed scheme not only provides confidentiality of data and authentication in a single logical step, it is lightweight and resistant to key escrow attacks. We further provide security proof that our scheme provides indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack and unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attack in random oracle model. Compared with two other Diffie-Hellman based signcryption schemes proposed by Barbosa and Farshim (BF) and another by Yin and Liang (YL), our scheme consumes 46 % and 8 % less energy during signcryption than BF and YL scheme respectively.

  6. Flexible Transmission Scheme for 4G Wireless Systems with Multiple Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horlin François

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New air interfaces are currently being developed to meet the high requirements of the emerging wireless communication systems. In this context, the combinations of the multicarrier (MC and spread-spectrum (SS technologies are promising candidates. In this paper, we propose a generic transmission scheme that allows to instantiate all the combinations of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM and cyclic-prefixed single-carrier (SC modulations with direct-sequence code-division multiple access (DS-CDMA. The generic transmission scheme is extended to integrate the space-division multiplexing (SDM and the orthogonal space-time block coding (STBC. Based on a generalized matrix model, the linear frequency-domain minimum mean square error (MMSE joint detector is derived. A mode selection strategy for up- and downlink is advised that efficiently trades off the cost of the mobile terminal and the achieved performance of a high-mobility cellular system. It is demonstrated that an adaptive transceiver that supports the proposed communication modes is necessary to track the changing communication conditions.

  7. Code-Hopping Based Transmission Scheme for Wireless Physical-Layer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuguo Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the broadcast and time-varying natures of wireless channels, traditional communication systems that provide data encryption at the application layer suffer many challenges such as error diffusion. In this paper, we propose a code-hopping based secrecy transmission scheme that uses dynamic nonsystematic low-density parity-check (LDPC codes and automatic repeat-request (ARQ mechanism to jointly encode and encrypt source messages at the physical layer. In this scheme, secret keys at the transmitter and the legitimate receiver are generated dynamically upon the source messages that have been transmitted successfully. During the transmission, each source message is jointly encoded and encrypted by a parity-check matrix, which is dynamically selected from a set of LDPC matrices based on the shared dynamic secret key. As for the eavesdropper (Eve, the uncorrectable decoding errors prevent her from generating the same secret key as the legitimate parties. Thus she cannot select the correct LDPC matrix to recover the source message. We demonstrate that our scheme can be compatible with traditional cryptosystems and enhance the security without sacrificing the error-correction performance. Numerical results show that the bit error rate (BER of Eve approaches 0.5 as the number of transmitted source messages increases and the security gap of the system is small.

  8. Low-crosstalk full-duplex all-optical indoor wireless transmission with carrier recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, C.W.; Cao, Z.; Mekonnen, K.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel bi-directional free-space (FS) optical wireless communication system for indoor wireless networks. A 2-D infrared beam-steered system supporting full-duplex communication of at least 10 Gb/s capacity per wireless terminal with simple NRZ-OOK modulation format is

  9. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Barrado, José Ramón Ramos; Jeon, Dong-Keun

    2016-06-27

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  10. Two time-delay dynamic model on the transmission of malicious signals in wireless sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshri, Neha; Mishra, Bimal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of time delay to reduce the adversary effect in WSN is explored. • Model with two time delays is proposed to analyse spread of malicious signal in WSN. • Dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown. • Threshold condition for switch of stability are obtained analytically. • Relation between stability and the two time delays is also explored. - Abstract: Deployed in a hostile environment, motes of a Wireless sensor network (WSN) could be easily compromised by the attackers because of several constraints such as limited processing capabilities, memory space, and limited battery life time etc. While transmitting the data to their neighbour motes within the network, motes are easily compromised due to resource constraints. Here time delay can play an efficient role to reduce the adversary effect on motes. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model SEIR (Susceptible–Exposed–Infectious–Recovered) with two time delays to describe the transmission dynamics of malicious signals in wireless sensor network. The first delay accounts for an exposed (latent) period while the second delay is for the temporary immunity period due to multiple worm outbreaks. The dynamical behaviour of worm-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is shown from the point of stability which switches under some threshold condition specified by the basic reproduction number. Our results show that the global properties of equilibria also depends on the threshold condition and that latent and temporary immunity period in a mote does not affect the stability, but they play a positive role to control malicious attack. Moreover, numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical analysis

  11. Time and Energy Efficient Relay Transmission for Multi-Hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is widely recognized as one of the most successful enabling technologies for short range low rate wireless communications and it is used in IoT applications. It covers all the details related to the MAC and PHY layers of the IoT protocol stack. Due to the nature of IoT, the wireless sensor networks are autonomously self-organized networks without infrastructure support. One of the issues in IoT is the network scalability. To address this issue, it is necessary to support the multi-hop topology. The IEEE 802.15.4 network can support a star, peer-to-peer, or cluster-tree topology. One of the IEEE 802.15.4 topologies suited for the high predictability of performance guarantees and energy efficient behavior is a cluster-tree topology where sensor nodes can switch off their transceivers and go into a sleep state to save energy. However, the IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree topology may not be able to provide sufficient bandwidth for the increased traffic load and the additional information may not be delivered successfully. The common drawback of the existing approaches is that they do not address the poor bandwidth utilization problem in IEEE 802.15.4 cluster-tree networks, so it is difficult to increase the network performance. Therefore, to solve this problem in this paper we study a relay transmission protocol based on the standard protocol in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In the proposed scheme, the coordinators can relay data frames to their parent devices or their children devices without contention and can provide bandwidth for the increased traffic load or the number of devices. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the reliability, the end-to-end delay, and the energy consumption.

  12. Hybrid digital-analog video transmission in wireless multicast and multiple-input multiple-output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Lin, Xiaocheng; Fan, Nianfei; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless video multicast has become one of the key technologies in wireless applications. But the main challenge of conventional wireless video multicast, i.e., the cliff effect, remains unsolved. To overcome the cliff effect, a hybrid digital-analog (HDA) video transmission framework based on SoftCast, which transmits the digital bitstream with the quantization residuals, is proposed. With an effective power allocation algorithm and appropriate parameter settings, the residual gains can be maximized; meanwhile, the digital bitstream can assure transmission of a basic video to the multicast receiver group. In the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, since nonuniform noise interference on different antennas can be regarded as the cliff effect problem, ParCast, which is a variation of SoftCast, is also applied to video transmission to solve it. The HDA scheme with corresponding power allocation algorithms is also applied to improve video performance. Simulations show that the proposed HDA scheme can overcome the cliff effect completely with the transmission of residuals. What is more, it outperforms the compared WSVC scheme by more than 2 dB when transmitting under the same bandwidth, and it can further improve performance by nearly 8 dB in MIMO when compared with the ParCast scheme.

  13. 38.2-Gb/s Optical-Wireless Transmission in 75-110 GHz Based on Electrical OFDM with Optical Comb Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....

  14. Monitoring in the post-closure phase. Development of wireless techniques for data transmission from the repository to the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Thomas J.; Rosca-Bocancea, Ecaterina; Hart, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    When the in-situ monitoring in a geological disposal facility is continued during the post-closure phase, monitoring data need to be transmitted wirelessly from the repository to the surface. Wireless data transmission is used today in many applications, but the large attenuation by the geologic medium between the disposal facility and the surface makes the application of high-frequency based techniques impractical. As part of the EURATOM FP-7 project MoDeRn (Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and staged closure), NRG has investigated the feasibility of wireless data transmission through an argillaceous host rock (Boom Clay), making use of low frequency magnetic fields. The main focus of the contribution was to analyze and optimize the energy efficiency of this technique. Therefore, a mathematical model description has been developed that allows to estimate the expected signal strength on the earth's surface on basis of the most relevant characteristics of transmitter, receiver and transmission path. The model is used to analyze the complex interactions of different system parameters, and is applied to design an optimized set-up for through-the-earth data transmission and to estimate minimum energy demands for signal transmission. To demonstrate the potentials of this technique, experiments were performed in the 225 m deep underground research facility HADES in Mol, Belgium. Signal propagation and attenuation by the geologic medium between the HADES and the surface has been measured, and the site-specific magnetic background noise at the surface in Mol has been characterized. Based on the results, optimum conditions for signal transmission have been derived and data transmission experiments have been performed. Results show that despite large local interferences on the surface in Mol, wireless data transmission through 225 m of a geological medium is possible. Data transmission rates up to 100 bit/s has been successfully tested. The

  15. Monitoring in the post-closure phase. Development of wireless techniques for data transmission from the repository to the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Thomas J.; Rosca-Bocancea, Ecaterina; Hart, Jaap [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    When the in-situ monitoring in a geological disposal facility is continued during the post-closure phase, monitoring data need to be transmitted wirelessly from the repository to the surface. Wireless data transmission is used today in many applications, but the large attenuation by the geologic medium between the disposal facility and the surface makes the application of high-frequency based techniques impractical. As part of the EURATOM FP-7 project MoDeRn (Monitoring Developments for safe Repository operation and staged closure), NRG has investigated the feasibility of wireless data transmission through an argillaceous host rock (Boom Clay), making use of low frequency magnetic fields. The main focus of the contribution was to analyze and optimize the energy efficiency of this technique. Therefore, a mathematical model description has been developed that allows to estimate the expected signal strength on the earth's surface on basis of the most relevant characteristics of transmitter, receiver and transmission path. The model is used to analyze the complex interactions of different system parameters, and is applied to design an optimized set-up for through-the-earth data transmission and to estimate minimum energy demands for signal transmission. To demonstrate the potentials of this technique, experiments were performed in the 225 m deep underground research facility HADES in Mol, Belgium. Signal propagation and attenuation by the geologic medium between the HADES and the surface has been measured, and the site-specific magnetic background noise at the surface in Mol has been characterized. Based on the results, optimum conditions for signal transmission have been derived and data transmission experiments have been performed. Results show that despite large local interferences on the surface in Mol, wireless data transmission through 225 m of a geological medium is possible. Data transmission rates up to 100 bit/s has been successfully tested. The

  16. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  17. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Hadi S; Abbaspour, Maghsoud; Moghadam, Mohsen Ebrahimi; Samei, Yasaman

    2008-08-04

    Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN). With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture). This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  18. A transmission power optimization with a minimum node degree for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks with full-reachability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-03-20

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments.

  19. A Transmission Power Optimization with a Minimum Node Degree for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks with Full-Reachability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments. PMID:23519351

  20. An optimized compression algorithm for real-time ECG data transmission in wireless network of medical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Gyoun-Yon; Lee, Seo-Joon; Lee, Tae-Ro

    2015-01-01

    Recent medical information systems are striving towards real-time monitoring models to care patients anytime and anywhere through ECG signals. However, there are several limitations such as data distortion and limited bandwidth in wireless communications. In order to overcome such limitations, this research focuses on compression. Few researches have been made to develop a specialized compression algorithm for ECG data transmission in real-time monitoring wireless network. Not only that, recent researches' algorithm is not appropriate for ECG signals. Therefore this paper presents a more developed algorithm EDLZW for efficient ECG data transmission. Results actually showed that the EDLZW compression ratio was 8.66, which was a performance that was 4 times better than any other recent compression method widely used today.

  1. Optical true-time-delay microwave beam-steering with 1 Gb/s wireless transmission for in-building networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Li, F.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    An optical true time delay based microwave beam-steering (OTTD-MBS) scheme integrated with a radio-over-fibre system is demonstrated. Properties of 1Gb/s data wireless transmission with OTTD-MBS are studied.

  2. Design and Optimization of a 3-Coil Inductive Link for Efficient Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Jow, Uei-Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-07-14

    Inductive power transmission is widely used to energize implantable microelectronic devices (IMDs), recharge batteries, and energy harvesters. Power transfer efficiency (PTE) and power delivered to the load (PDL) are two key parameters in wireless links, which affect the energy source specifications, heat dissipation, power transmission range, and interference with other devices. To improve the PTE, a 4-coil inductive link has been recently proposed. Through a comprehensive circuit based analysis that can guide a design and optimization scheme, we have shown that despite achieving high PTE at larger coil separations, the 4-coil inductive links fail to achieve a high PDL. Instead, we have proposed a 3-coil inductive power transfer link with comparable PTE over its 4-coil counterpart at large coupling distances, which can also achieve high PDL. We have also devised an iterative design methodology that provides the optimal coil geometries in a 3-coil inductive power transfer link. Design examples of 2-, 3-, and 4-coil inductive links have been presented, and optimized for 13.56 MHz carrier frequency and 12 cm coupling distance, showing PTEs of 15%, 37%, and 35%, respectively. At this distance, the PDL of the proposed 3-coil inductive link is 1.5 and 59 times higher than its equivalent 2- and 4-coil links, respectively. For short coupling distances, however, 2-coil links remain the optimal choice when a high PDL is required, while 4-coil links are preferred when the driver has large output resistance or small power is needed. These results have been verified through simulations and measurements.

  3. Design and Optimization of Ultrasonic Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Miao; Kiani, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound has been recently proposed as an alternative modality for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions. This paper presents the theory and design methodology of ultrasonic WPT links that involve mm-sized receivers (Rx). For given load (R L ) and powering distance (d), the optimal geometries of transmitter (Tx) and Rx ultrasonic transducers, including their diameter and thickness, as well as the optimal operation frequency (f c ) are found through a recursive design procedure to maximize the power transmission efficiency (PTE). First, a range of realistic f c s is found based on the Rx thickness constrain. For a chosen f c within the range, the diameter and thickness of the Rx transducer are then swept together to maximize PTE. Then, the diameter and thickness of the Tx transducer are optimized to maximize PTE. Finally, this procedure is repeated for different f c s to find the optimal f c and its corresponding transducer geometries that maximize PTE. A design example of ultrasonic link has been presented and optimized for WPT to a 1 mm 3 implant, including a disk-shaped piezoelectric transducer on a silicon die. In simulations, a PTE of 2.11% at f c of 1.8 MHz was achieved for R L of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. In order to validate our simulations, an ultrasonic link was optimized for a 1 mm 3 piezoelectric transducer mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB), which led to simulated and measured PTEs of 0.65% and 0.66% at f c of 1.1 MHz for R L of 2.5 [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text], respectively.

  4. Wireless power transmission to an electromechanical receiver using low-frequency magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challa, Vinod R; Arnold, David P; Mur-Miranda, Jose Oscar

    2012-01-01

    A near-field, electrodynamically coupled wireless power transmission system is presented that delivers electrical power from a transmitter coil to a compact electromechanical receiver. The system integrates electromechanical energy conversion and mechanical resonance to deliver power over a range of distances using low-amplitude, low-frequency magnetic fields. Two different receiver orientations are investigated that rely on either the force or the torque induced on the receiver magnet at separation distances ranging from 2.2 to 10.2 cm. Theoretical models for each mode compare the predicted performance with the experimental results. For a 7.1 mA pk sinusoidal current supplied to a transmitter coil with a 100 cm diameter, the torque mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 150 μW (efficiency of 12%) at 2.2 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.4 Hz. For the same input current to the transmitter, the force mode receiver orientation has a maximum power transfer of 37 μW (efficiency of 4.1%) at 3.1 cm at its resonance frequency of 38.9 Hz. (paper)

  5. A wearable wireless ECG monitoring system with dynamic transmission power control for long-term homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a wearable wireless ECG monitoring system based on novel 3-Lead electrode placements for long-term homecare. The experiment for novel 3-Lead electrode placements is carried out, and the results show that the distance between limb electrodes can be significantly reduced. Based on the new electrode position, a small size sensor node, which is powered by a rechargeable battery, is designed to detect, amplify, filter and transmit the ECG signals. The coordinator receives the data and sends it to PC. Finally the signals are displayed on the GUI. In order to control the power consumption of sensor node, a dynamic power adjustment method is applied to automatically adjust the transmission power of the sensor node according to the received signal strength indicator (RSSI), which is related to the distance and obstacle between sensor node and coordinator. The system is evaluated when the user, who wears the sensor, is walking and running. A promising performance is achieved even under body motion. The power consumption can be significantly reduced with this dynamic power adjustment method.

  6. The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-09-01

    Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor ( Q ) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory.

  7. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz.

  8. Nash Equilibrium of an Energy Saving Strategy with Dual Rate Transmission in Wireless Regional Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanqiang Huo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless regional area network (WRAN adopts centralized network architecture and is currently one of the most typical cognitive radio networks. In order to reduce the energy consumption of the communication networks with the constraint of spectrum resource utilization, a working sleep mechanism is introduced into the base station (BS, and a novel energy saving strategy with dual rate transmission is proposed. Combining the multiple-vacation queue and priority queue, using the quasi-birth-death process and the matrix-geometric solution method, we assess the average latency and the forced termination probability of secondary user packets, as well as the energy saving ratio and the channel utilization of system. Based on the revenue-expenditure structure, a profit function is built, and then the Nash equilibrium behavior and the socially optimal behavior are investigated. With the help of the particle swarm optimization, an intelligent optimization algorithm to search the socially optimal arrival rate of secondary user packets is presented. In order to unify the arrival rates of secondary user packets with Nash equilibrium and social optimization, a reasonable pricing policy is formulated. In addition, system experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the energy saving strategy and the rationality of the pricing policy.

  9. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2015-12-04

    The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN). A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal) or event-driven (emergency). Traditional media access control (MAC) protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  10. An On-Demand Emergency Packet Transmission Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshaddique Al Ameen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid developments of sensor devices that can actively monitor human activities have given rise to a new field called wireless body area network (BAN. A BAN can manage devices in, on and around the human body. Major requirements of such a network are energy efficiency, long lifetime, low delay, security, etc. Traffic in a BAN can be scheduled (normal or event-driven (emergency. Traditional media access control (MAC protocols use duty cycling to improve performance. A sleep-wake up cycle is employed to save energy. However, this mechanism lacks features to handle emergency traffic in a prompt and immediate manner. To deliver an emergency packet, a node has to wait until the receiver is awake. It also suffers from overheads, such as idle listening, overhearing and control packet handshakes. An external radio-triggered wake up mechanism is proposed to handle prompt communication. It can reduce the overheads and improve the performance through an on-demand scheme. In this work, we present a simple-to-implement on-demand packet transmission scheme by taking into considerations the requirements of a BAN. The major concern is handling the event-based emergency traffic. The performance analysis of the proposed scheme is presented. The results showed significant improvements in the overall performance of a BAN compared to state-of-the-art protocols in terms of energy consumption, delay and lifetime.

  11. High speed optical wireless data transmission system for particle sensors in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, W.; Corsini, R.; Ciaramella, E.; Dell'Orso, R.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.

    2015-08-01

    High speed optical fiber or copper wire communication systems are frequently deployed for readout data links used in particle physics detectors. Future detector upgrades will need more bandwidth for data transfer, but routing requirements for new cables or optical fiber will be challenging due to space limitations. Optical wireless communication (OWC) can provide high bandwidth connectivity with an advantage of reduced material budget and complexity of cable installation and management. In a collaborative effort, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna and INFN Pisa are pursuing the development of a free-space optical link that could be installed in a future particle physics detector or upgrade. We describe initial studies of an OWC link using the inner tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector as a reference architecture. The results of two experiments are described: the first to verify that the laser source transmission wavelength of 1550 nm will not introduce fake signals in silicon strip sensors while the second was to study the source beam diameter and its tolerance to misalignment. For data rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s over a 10 cm working distance it was observed that a tolerance limit of ±0.25 mm to ±0.8 mm can be obtained for misaligned systems with source beam diameters of 0.38 mm to 3.5 mm, respectively.

  12. Capacity of Heterogeneous Mobile Wireless Networks with D-Delay Transmission Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Zhu, Jiang; Xi, Zhipeng; Gao, Kai

    2016-03-25

    This paper investigates the capacity problem of heterogeneous wireless networks in mobility scenarios. A heterogeneous network model which consists of n normal nodes and m helping nodes is proposed. Moreover, we propose a D-delay transmission strategy to ensure that every packet can be delivered to its destination nodes with limited delay. Different from most existing network schemes, our network model has a novel two-tier architecture. The existence of helping nodes greatly improves the network capacity. Four types of mobile networks are studied in this paper: i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in two-dimensional space, i.i.d. fast mobility model and slow mobility model in three-dimensional space. Using the virtual channel model, we present an intuitive analysis of the capacity of two-dimensional mobile networks and three-dimensional mobile networks, respectively. Given a delay constraint D, we derive the asymptotic expressions for the capacity of the four types of mobile networks. Furthermore, the impact of D and m to the capacity of the whole network is analyzed. Our findings provide great guidance for the future design of the next generation of networks.

  13. Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of Wireless Ultrasonic Vibration Energy Transmission Channels through Planar and Curved Metal Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DingXin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ultrasonic vibration energy transmission systems through metal barriers based on piezoelectric transducers have drawn a lot of focus due to the advantage of nonpenetration of the barriers, thus maintaining the integrity of sealed structures. It is meaningful to investigate appropriate modeling methods and to characterize such wireless ultrasonic energy transmission channels with different geometric shapes. In this paper, equivalent circuit modeling and finite element modeling methods are applied to the planar metal barrier channel, and a 3-dimensional finite element modeling method is applied to the cylindrical metallic barrier channel. Meanwhile, the experimental setup is established and measurements are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the corresponding modeling methods. The results show that Leach’s equivalent circuit modeling method and finite element modeling method are nearly similarly effective in characterizing the planar metal barrier channel. But for a cylindrical metal barrier, only the three-dimensional finite element modeling method is effective. Furthermore, we found that, for the planar barrier, the effect of standing waves on the efficiency of wireless energy transmission is dominated. But for the curved barrier, only the resonant phenomenon of the piezoelectric transducer exists.

  14. New wireless data transmission system based on high frequency radio communication: design, development and testing results under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sineriz, J.L.; Barcena, I.; Espada, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Mayor, J.C.; Barnichon, J.D.; Dick, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. According to the starting basis of the MoDeRn project (FP7 232598), the design and development of a system capable of transmitting the evolution of the physical parameters inside a repository will be a challenging task due to the harsh working conditions imposed by both the element itself to be monitored (for instance the canister enclosing radioactive waste), the engineered barriers into which they will be embedded and the host rock that contains everything. The measuring devices will work exposed to high pressures, high temperatures, high humidity degrees, presence of radiation, etc., during an expected lifetime of several decades without any possibility of either being powered from any external source or being replaced in case of malfunction, as the operating area will be sealed and inaccessible. Therefore, a main objective of AITEMIN and ENRESA contribution to MoDeRn was focused on the design, development and test under 'real conditions' of a new wireless system, based on high frequency radio transmission (HF), capable of monitoring the physical parameters inside a repository cell independently of the host rock type. In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives and to obtain a suitable monitoring system for the target application, the following key points have been addressed: 1. Data transmission technology (transmission media); 2. Communication protocols; 3. Available power sources; 4. Expected environmental conditions; 5. Suitable sensors. The activities carried out for the development of the HF wireless system were structured in three steps: 1. Laboratory work, to select the best solutions under controlled environment. 2. Field testing, to validate under more realistic conditions the solutions selected at lab. 3. Demonstration: long-term evaluation of the real performance of the solutions proved to be applicable during the field testing Obtained results were as follows: 1. A suitable radio communication

  15. Optical frequency upconversion technique for transmission of wireless MIMO-type signals over optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M

    2014-01-01

    The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.

  16. Transmission History Based Distributed Adaptive Contention Window Adjustment Algorithm Cooperating with Automatic Rate Fallback for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi; Nishimori, Kentaro; Takaya, Kazuhiro; Murakawa, Kazuo

    This paper proposes and investigates a distributed adaptive contention window adjustment algorithm based on the transmission history for wireless LANs called the transmission-history-based distributed adaptive contention window adjustment (THAW) algorithm. The objective of this paper is to reduce the transmission delay and improve the channel throughput compared to conventional algorithms. The feature of THAW is that it adaptively adjusts the initial contention window (CWinit) size in the binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm used in the IEEE 802.11 standard according to the transmission history and the automatic rate fallback (ARF) algorithm, which is the most basic algorithm in automatic rate controls. This effect is to keep CWinit at a high value in a congested state. Simulation results show that the THAW algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the channel throughput and delay, even if the timer in the ARF is changed.

  17. 160 Gbit/s photonics wireless transmission in the 300-500 GHz band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Jia, S.; Hu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    To accommodate the ever increasing wireless traffic in the access networks, considerable efforts have been recently invested in developing photonics-assisted wireless communication systems with very high data rates. Superior to photonic millimeter-wave systems, terahertz (THz) band (300 GHz-10 THz...

  18. Data transmission techniques for short-range optical fiber and wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang

    The research work described in this thesis is devoted to experimental investigation of techniques for cost-effective high-speed optical communications supporting both wired and wireless services. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high......-speed optical/wireless integration and advanced modulation formats for intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. Regarding optical/wireless integration, this thesis focuses on integration of broadband ultra-wide band (UWB) and 60-GHz band wireless systems into optical fiber access...... networks to distribute wireless services in personal area networks (PANs). Photonic technologies to generate and distribute gigabit UWB and 60-GHz-band signals are proposed and demonstrated. Two novel methods are proposed and demonstrated to optically generate Federal Communications Commission (FCC...

  19. Alarm filtering and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  20. An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Luca; Menna, Costantino; Angrisani, Leopoldo; Asprone, Domenico; Moriello, Rosario Schiano Lo; Bonavolontà, Francesco; Fabbrocino, Francesco

    2017-11-07

    Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC) structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively. Moreover, most of the proposed solutions can only be implemented by means of manual activation, making the monitoring very inefficient and then poorly supported. This paper proposes a structural health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN) that enables the automatic monitoring of a complete structure. The network includes wireless distributed sensors embedded in the structure itself, and follows the monitoring-based maintenance (MBM) approach, with its ABCDE paradigm, namely: accuracy, benefit, compactness, durability, and easiness of operations. The system is structured in a node level and has a network architecture that enables all the node data to converge in a central unit. Human control is completely unnecessary until the periodic evaluation of the collected data. Several tests are conducted in order to characterize the system from a metrological point of view and assess its performance and effectiveness in real RC conditions.

  1. An Embedded Wireless Sensor Network with Wireless Power Transmission Capability for the Structural Health Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Gallucci

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance strategies based on structural health monitoring can provide effective support in the optimization of scheduled repair of existing structures, thus enabling their lifetime to be extended. With specific regard to reinforced concrete (RC structures, the state of the art seems to still be lacking an efficient and cost-effective technique capable of monitoring material properties continuously over the lifetime of a structure. Current solutions can typically only measure the required mechanical variables in an indirect, but economic, manner, or directly, but expensively. Moreover, most of the proposed solutions can only be implemented by means of manual activation, making the monitoring very inefficient and then poorly supported. This paper proposes a structural health monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network (WSN that enables the automatic monitoring of a complete structure. The network includes wireless distributed sensors embedded in the structure itself, and follows the monitoring-based maintenance (MBM approach, with its ABCDE paradigm, namely: accuracy, benefit, compactness, durability, and easiness of operations. The system is structured in a node level and has a network architecture that enables all the node data to converge in a central unit. Human control is completely unnecessary until the periodic evaluation of the collected data. Several tests are conducted in order to characterize the system from a metrological point of view and assess its performance and effectiveness in real RC conditions.

  2. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  3. A novel power efficient location-based cooperative routing with transmission power-upper-limit for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-05-15

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate.

  4. A Novel Power Efficient Location-Based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-Upper-Limit for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Juanfei; Calveras, Anna; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The extensive usage of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has led to the development of many power- and energy-efficient routing protocols. Cooperative routing in WSNs can improve performance in these types of networks. In this paper we discuss the existing proposals and we propose a routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks called Power Efficient Location-based Cooperative Routing with Transmission Power-upper-limit (PELCR-TP). The algorithm is based on the principle of minimum link power and aims to take advantage of nodes cooperation to make the link work well in WSNs with a low transmission power. In the proposed scheme, with a determined transmission power upper limit, nodes find the most appropriate next nodes and single-relay nodes with the proposed algorithm. Moreover, this proposal subtly avoids non-working nodes, because we add a Bad nodes Avoidance Strategy (BAS). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with BAS can significantly improve the performance in reducing the overall link power, enhancing the transmission success rate and decreasing the retransmission rate. PMID:23676625

  5. 1KW Power Transmission Using Wireless Acoustic-Electric Feed-Through (WAEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Badescu, M.; Aldrich, J.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Biederman, W.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of space applications require the delivery of power into sealed structures. Since the structural integrity can be degraded by holes for cabling we present an alternative method of delivering power and information using stress waves to the internal space of a sealed structure. One particular application of this technology is in sample return missions where it is critical to preserve the sample integrity and to prevent earth contamination. Therefore, the container has to be hermetically sealed and the integrity of the seal must be monitored in order to insure to a high degree of reliability the integrity of the sample return vessel. In this study we investigated the use of piezoelectric acoustic-electric power feed-through devices to transfer electric power wirelessly through a solid wall by using elastic or acoustic waves. The technology is applicable to a range of space and terrestrial applications where power is required by electronic equipment inside sealed containers, vacuum or pressure vessels, etc., where holes in the wall are prohibitive or may result in significant structural performance degradation or unnecessarily complex designs. To meet requirements of higher power applications, the feasibility to transfer kilowatts level power was investigated. Pre-stressed longitudinal piezoelectric feed-through devices were analyzed by finite element models and an equivalent circuit model was developed to predict the power transfer characteristics to different electric loads. Based on the results of the analysis a prototype device was designed, fabricated and a demonstration of the transmission of electric power up to 1.068-kW was successfully conducted. Efficiencies in the 80-90% range were also demonstrated and methods to increase the efficiency further are currently being considered.

  6. An elementary research on wireless transmission of holographic 3D moving pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Sato, Koki; Endo, Takaya; Asano, Hiroaki; Fukuzawa, Atsuo; Asai, Kikuo

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, a transmitting process of a sequence of holograms describing 3D moving objects over the communicating wireless-network system is presented. A sequence of holograms involves holograms is transformed into a bit stream data, and then it is transmitted over the wireless LAN and Bluetooth. It is shown that applying this technique, holographic data of 3D moving object is transmitted in high quality and a relatively good reconstruction of holographic images is performed.

  7. Remote multi-function fire alarm system based on internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Zhao, Shuai; Huang, Jianqing; Ji, Jianyu

    2018-05-01

    This project uses MCU STC15W408AS (stable, energy saving, high speed), temperature sensor DS18B20 (cheap, high efficiency, stable), MQ2 resistance type semiconductor smog sensor (high stability, fast response and economy) and NRF24L01 wireless transmitting and receiving module (energy saving, small volume, reliable) as the main body to achieve concentration temperature data presentation, intelligent voice alarming and short distance wireless transmission. The whole system is safe, reliable, cheap, quick reaction and good performance. This project uses the MCU STM32F103RCT6 as the main control chip, and use WIFI module ESP8266, wireless module NRF24L01 to make the gateway. Users can remotely check and control the related devices in real-time on smartphones or computers. We can also realize the functions of intelligent fire monitoring, remote fire extinguishing, cloud data storage through the third party server Big IOT.

  8. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...... the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee, achieving a BER below the limit for a 7% overhead FEC of 3.8 · 10−3 up to respective wireless distances of 3.5m and 2m....

  9. On the Security of Data Collection and Transmission from Wireless Sensor Networks in the Context of Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hong; He, Jingsha; Liu, Ruohong; Ji, Dajie

    2013-01-01

    In the context of Internet of Things (IoT), multiple cooperative nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be used to monitor an event, jointly generate a report and then send it to one or more Internet nodes for further processing. A primary security requirement in such applications is that every event data report be authenticated to intended Internet users and effectively filtered on its way to the Internet users to realize the security of data collection and transmission from the WSN. H...

  10. Analysis and Optimization of Three-Resonator Wireless Power Transfer System for Predetermined-Goals Wireless Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-resonator wireless power transfer (WPT systems have been proposed to improve the power transfer efficiency (PTE and power delivered to the load (PDL in recent years. However, analysis formulas of a three-resonator WPT system are complicated, and the parameters for clarifying the transfer characteristics of this system are difficult to extract. In this paper, concise formulas for analyzing PTE and PDL of the three-resonator system are derived by introducing three factors. Diagram discriminance based on the derived formulas is proposed to obtain the frequency splitting criterions of PTE and PDL in this system. Further, at the transfer distances, where the PTE and PDL are low at original frequency due to frequency splitting phenomenon, the two predetermined-goals of maximizing PTE and PDL are achieved by optimizing coupling strength between the three resonators. The third predetermined-goal of obtaining a constant amount of PDL transfer at maximum PTE is also implemented based on basic algorithms in numerical software. Finally, Simulation and measurement results verify the correctness of analyzing the transfer characteristics of three-resonator WPT system using the presented concise formulas and discriminance. Moreover, effectiveness of realizing the three predetermined-goals via the proposed optimization method is confirmed with experiments.

  11. A Survey on Sensor Coverage and Visual Data Capturing/Processing/Transmission in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence G. H. Yap

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs where camera-equipped sensor nodes can capture, process and transmit image/video information have become an important new research area. As compared to the traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs that can only transmit scalar information (e.g., temperature, the visual data in WVSNs enable much wider applications, such as visual security surveillance and visual wildlife monitoring. However, as compared to the scalar data in WSNs, visual data is much bigger and more complicated so intelligent schemes are required to capture/process/ transmit visual data in limited resources (hardware capability and bandwidth WVSNs. WVSNs introduce new multi-disciplinary research opportunities of topics that include visual sensor hardware, image and multimedia capture and processing, wireless communication and networking. In this paper, we survey existing research efforts on the visual sensor hardware, visual sensor coverage/deployment, and visual data capture/ processing/transmission issues in WVSNs. We conclude that WVSN research is still in an early age and there are still many open issues that have not been fully addressed. More new novel multi-disciplinary, cross-layered, distributed and collaborative solutions should be devised to tackle these challenging issues in WVSNs.

  12. Fiber-wireless transmission system of 108  Gb/sdata over 80 km fiber and 2×2multiple-input multiple-output wireless links at 100 GHz W-band frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Dong, Ze; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Shao, Yufeng; Chang, G K

    2012-12-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a seamlessly integrated fiber-wireless system that delivers a 108  Gb/s signal through 80 km fiber and 1 m wireless transport over free space at 100 GHz adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation and heterodyning coherent detection. The X- and Y-polarization components of the optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously upconverted to 100 GHz wireless carrier by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which form a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output wireless link. At the wireless receiver, two-stage downconversion is performed firstly in the analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency signal, and then in the digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization demultiplexing is realized by the constant modulus algorithm in the DSP part at the receiver. The bit-error ratio for the 108  Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal is less than the pre-forward-error-correction threshold of 3.8×10(-3) after both 1 m wireless delivery at 100 GHz and 80 km single-mode fiber-28 transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration to realize 100  Gb/s signal delivery through both fiber and wireless links at 100 GHz.

  13. An Implementation of Wireless Body Area Networks for Improving Priority Data Transmission Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Köksal; Çalhan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    The rapid growth of wireless sensor networks has enabled the human health monitoring of patients using body sensor nodes that gather and evaluate human body parameters and movements. This study describes both simulation model and implementation of a new traffic sensitive wireless body area network by using non-preemptive priority queue discipline. A wireless body area network implementation employing TDMA is designed with three different priorities of data traffics. Besides, a coordinator node having the non-preemptive priority queue is performed in this study. We have also developed, modeled and simulated example network scenarios by using the Riverbed Modeler simulation software with the purpose of verifying the implementation results. The simulation results obtained under various network load conditions are consistent with the implementation results.

  14. Experimental demonstration of 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber system over 40-GHz mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Li, Fan; Li, Xinying

    2013-11-04

    We propose and demonstrate a novel CAP-ROF system based on multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) 64QAM with high spectrum efficiency for mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission. The performance of novel CAP modulation with high order QAM, for the first time, is investigated in the mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission system. One I/Q modulator is used for mm-wave generation and base-band signal modulation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) and intensity modulation. Finally, we demonstrated a 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber (ROF) system over 40-km stand single-mode-fiber (SMMF) and 1.5-m 38-GHz wireless transmission. The system operation factors are also experimentally investigated.

  15. Full-duplex bidirectional transmission of 10-Gb/s millimeter-wave QPSK signal in E-band optical wireless link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan

    2014-01-27

    We experimentally demonstrated full-duplex bidirectional transmission of 10-Gb/s millimeter-wave (mm-wave) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signal in E-band (71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz) optical wireless link. Single-mode fibers (SMF) are connected at both sides of the antenna for uplink and downlink which realize 40-km SMF and 2-m wireless link for bidirectional transmission simultaneously. We utilized multi-level modulation format and coherent detection in such E-band optical wireless link for the first time. Mm-wave QPSK signal is generated by photonic technique to increase spectrum efficiency and received signal is coherently detected to improve receiver sensitivity. After the coherent detection, digital signal processing is utilized to compensate impairments of devices and transmission link.

  16. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  17. Fiber-FSO/wireless convergent systems based on dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Hong; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Yun-Chieh; Chang, Jen-Chieh; Jheng, Yu-Bo; Tsai, Wen-Shing

    2018-06-01

    A bidirectional fiber-free-space optical (FSO)/wireless convergent system that uses dual-polarization and one optical sideband transmission schemes for hybrid vestigial sideband (VSB)–four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4)/millimeter-wave signal transmission is proposed and demonstrated. Using a dual-polarization scheme, one optical sideband that is modulated by a 56 Gb s‑1 VSB–PAM4 signal (x-polarization) and another optical sideband that is modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) are separated and polarized orthogonally. One optical sideband modulated by a 10 Gbps data stream (y-polarization) is delivered to efficaciously suppress the dispersion-induced limitation due to a span of 40 km single-mode fiber (SMF) and the distortion due to the beating among multiple sidebands. The proposed bidirectional fiber-FSO/wireless convergent system is a prominent one for providing broadband integrated services, such as the Internet, telecommunication, and 5G mobile networks.

  18. Fully roll-to-roll gravure printed rectenna on plastic foils for wireless power transmission at 13.56 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Kang, Hwiwon; Lee, Yonggil; Park, Yongsu; Noh, Jinsoo; Cho, Gyoujin

    2012-08-31

    Wireless power transmission to inexpensive and disposable smart electronic devices is one of the key issues for the realization of a ubiquitous society where sensor networks such as RFID tags, price tags, smart logos, signage and sensors could be fully interconnected and utilized by DC power of less than 0.3 W. This DC power can be provided by inductively coupled AC from a 13.56 MHz power transmitter through a rectenna, consisting of an antenna, a diode and a capacitor, which would be cheap to integrate with inexpensive smart electronic devices. To integrate the rectenna with a minimum cost, a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing process has been considered to print the rectenna on plastic foils. In this paper, R2R gravure printing systems including printing condition and four different nanoparticle based inks will be reported to print the rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor) on plastic foils at a printing speed of 8 m min(-1) and more than 90% device yield for a wireless power transmission of 0.3 W using a standard 13.56 MHz power transmitter.

  19. A Lifetime Optimization Algorithm Limited by Data Transmission Delay and Hops for Mobile Sink-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the lifetime of mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks and considering that data transmission delay and hops are limited in actual system, a lifetime optimization algorithm limited by data transmission delay and hops (LOA_DH for mobile sink-based wireless sensor networks is proposed. In LOA_DH, some constraints are analyzed, and an optimization model is proposed. Maximum capacity path routing algorithm is used to calculate the energy consumption of communication. Improved genetic algorithm which modifies individuals to meet all constraints is used to solve the optimization model. The optimal solution of sink node’s sojourn grid centers and sojourn times which maximizes network lifetime is obtained. Simulation results show that, in three node distribution scenes, LOA_DH can find the movement solution of sink node which covers all sensor nodes. Compared with MCP_RAND, MCP_GMRE, and EASR, the solution improves network lifetime and reduces average amount of node discarded data and average energy consumption of nodes.

  20. Radio frequency energy harvesting and low power data transmission for autonomous wireless sensor nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Mansano, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Since the Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to be the new technology to drive the semiconductor industry, significant research efforts have been made to develop new circuit and system techniques for autonomous/very low-power operation of wireless sensor nodes. Very low-power consumption of

  1. Front end power dissipation minimization and optimal transmission rate for wireless receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.H.C.; Wu, Y.; Baltus, P.G.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Most wireless battery-operated devices spend more energy receiving than transmitting. Hence, minimizing the power dissipation in the receiver front end, which, in many cases, is the prominent power consuming part of the receiver, is an important challenge. This paper addresses this challenge by

  2. Using Pulse Width Modulation for Wireless Transmission of Neural Signals in Multichannel Neural Recording Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    We have used a well-known technique in wireless communication, pulse width modulation (PWM) of time division multiplexed (TDM) signals, within the architecture of a novel wireless integrated neural recording (WINeR) system. We have evaluated the performance of the PWM-based architecture and indicated its accuracy and potential sources of error through detailed theoretical analysis, simulations, and measurements on a setup consisting of a 15-channel WINeR prototype as the transmitter and two types of receivers; an Agilent 89600 vector signal analyzer and a custom wideband receiver, with 36 and 75 MHz of maximum bandwidth, respectively. Furthermore, we present simulation results from a realistic MATLAB-Simulink model of the entire WINeR system to observe the system behavior in response to changes in various parameters. We have concluded that the 15-ch WINeR prototype, which is fabricated in a 0.5-μm standard CMOS process and consumes 4.5 mW from ±1.5 V supplies, can acquire and wirelessly transmit up to 320 k-samples/s to a 75-MHz receiver with 8.4 bits of resolution, which is equivalent to a wireless data rate of ~ 2.26 Mb/s. PMID:19497823

  3. 25 Gbit/s QPSK Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Transmission in the W-Band (75–110 GHz) With Remote Antenna Unit for In-Building Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a photonic up-converted 25 Gbit/s fiber-wireless quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) data transmission link at the W-band (75–110 GHz). By launching two free-running lasers spaced at 87.5 GHz into a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) at the central office, a W...

  4. Bilevel alarm monitoring multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes the operation of the Bilevel Alarm Monitoring Multiplexer used in the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to transfer and control alarm signals being sent to the Nova 2 computer, the Memory Controlled Data Processor, and its own integral Display Panel. The multiplexer can handle 48 alarm channels and format the alarms into binary formats compatible with the destination of the alarm data

  5. Development of Radiation-Resistant In-Water Wireless Transmission System Using Light Emitting Diodes and Photo Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T.; Shibata, H.; Otsuka, N.; Uehara, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Shibagaki, T.; Komanome, H.

    2016-10-01

    Several kinds of commercially available light emitting diodes (LED) and photo diodes (PD) were irradiated with 60Co gamma ray up to 1 MGy for development of a radiation-resistant in-water wireless transmission system using visible light. The lens parts of the LEDs turned brown by the irradiation and their colors became dark with the absorbed dose. The total luminous fluxes decreased with the absorbed dose and the LED with shorter emission wavelength had the higher decrease rate. Meanwhile, the current-voltage characteristics hardly changed. These results indicate that the decreases of the total luminous flux of the LEDs were mainly caused not by the degradation of the semiconductor parts but by the coloring of the lens parts by the irradiation. On the other hand, the light sensitivities of the PDs decreased with the absorbed dose. The PDs with the window part which turned a darker color had the higher decrease rate. These results indicate that the decreases of light sensitivities of the PDs were also mainly caused by the coloring of the resin parts by the irradiation. If the wireless transmission is performed using the candidate LED and PD between 5 meters in water, using a few LEDs and PDs, the PD's output current generated by the emission light of the LED is estimated to be detectable even considering the effects of the absorption of the light in water and the increased dark current by the irradiation. Therefore, a radiation resistant in-water transmission system can be constructed using commercially available LEDs and PDs in principle.

  6. Bio-Inspired Distributed Transmission Power Control Considering QoS Fairness in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Jae; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2017-10-14

    Recently, the development of wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) has accelerated due to the rapid development of wireless technology. In the WBASN environment, many WBASNs coexist where communication ranges overlap with each other, resulting in the possibility of interference. Although nodes in a WBASN typically operate at a low power level, to avoid adversely affecting the human body, high transmission rates may be required to support some applications. In addition to this, since many varieties of applications exist in the WBASN environment, each prospective user may have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. Hence, the following issues should be considered in the WBASN environment: (1) interference between adjacent WBASNs, which influences the performance of a specific system, and (2) the degree of satisfaction on the QoS of each user, i.e., the required QoS such as user throughput should be considered to ensure that all users in the network are provided with a fair QoS satisfaction. Thus, in this paper, we propose a transmission power adjustment algorithm that addresses interference problems and guarantees QoS fairness between users. First, we use a new utility function to measure the degree of the satisfaction on the QoS for each user. Then, the transmission power of each sensor node is calculated using the Cucker-Smale model, and the QoS satisfaction of each user is synchronized dispersively. The results of simulations show that the proposed algorithm performs better than existing algorithms, with respect to QoS fairness and energy efficiency.

  7. LBMR: Load-Balanced Multipath Routing for Wireless Data-Intensive Transmission in Real-Time Medical Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chinyang Henry

    2016-05-31

    In wireless networks, low-power Zigbee is an excellent network solution for wireless medical monitoring systems. Medical monitoring generally involves transmission of a large amount of data and easily causes bottleneck problems. Although Zigbee's AODV mesh routing provides extensible multi-hop data transmission to extend network coverage, it originally does not, and needs to support some form of load balancing mechanism to avoid bottlenecks. To guarantee a more reliable multi-hop data transmission for life-critical medical applications, we have developed a multipath solution, called Load-Balanced Multipath Routing (LBMR) to replace Zigbee's routing mechanism. LBMR consists of three main parts: Layer Routing Construction (LRC), a Load Estimation Algorithm (LEA), and a Route Maintenance (RM) mechanism. LRC assigns nodes into different layers based on the node's distance to the medical data gateway. Nodes can have multiple next-hops delivering medical data toward the gateway. All neighboring layer-nodes exchange flow information containing current load, which is the used by the LEA to estimate future load of next-hops to the gateway. With LBMR, nodes can choose the neighbors with the least load as the next-hops and thus can achieve load balancing and avoid bottlenecks. Furthermore, RM can detect route failures in real-time and perform route redirection to ensure routing robustness. Since LRC and LEA prevent bottlenecks while RM ensures routing fault tolerance, LBMR provides a highly reliable routing service for medical monitoring. To evaluate these accomplishments, we compare LBMR with Zigbee's AODV and another multipath protocol, AOMDV. The simulation results demonstrate LBMR achieves better load balancing, less unreachable nodes, and better packet delivery ratio than either AODV or AOMDV.

  8. A multi-channel low-power system-on-chip for single-unit recording and narrowband wireless transmission of neural signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, A; Ceravolo, M; Zambra, G; Gusmeroli, R; Spinelli, A S; Lacaita, A L; Angotzi, G N; Baranauskas, G; Fadiga, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a multi-channel neural recording system-on-chip (SoC) with digital data compression and wireless telemetry. The circuit consists of a 16 amplifiers, an analog time division multiplexer, an 8-bit SAR AD converter, a digital signal processor (DSP) and a wireless narrowband 400-MHz binary FSK transmitter. Even though only 16 amplifiers are present in our current die version, the whole system is designed to work with 64 channels demonstrating the feasibility of a digital processing and narrowband wireless transmission of 64 neural recording channels. A digital data compression, based on the detection of action potentials and storage of correspondent waveforms, allows the use of a 1.25-Mbit/s binary FSK wireless transmission. This moderate bit-rate and a low frequency deviation, Manchester-coded modulation are crucial for exploiting a narrowband wireless link and an efficient embeddable antenna. The chip is realized in a 0.35- εm CMOS process with a power consumption of 105 εW per channel (269 εW per channel with an extended transmission range of 4 m) and an area of 3.1 × 2.7 mm(2). The transmitted signal is captured by a digital TV tuner and demodulated by a wideband phase-locked loop (PLL), and then sent to a PC via an FPGA module. The system has been tested for electrical specifications and its functionality verified in in-vivo neural recording experiments.

  9. Low-current solutions for wireless point-to-point sensor data transmission for long-term applications; Stromsparende Loesungen fuer drahtlose Punkt-zu-Punkt-Sensordatenuebertragung fuer langjaehrigen Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosiu, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Integrierte Schaltungen IIS, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Choosing wireless standard such as Bluetooth or Zigbee, the customer can find numerous low-cost chip sets. In particular applications proprietary solutions are superior to wireless standard solutions, especially for transmission of small data amounts from point to point. The complex transmission protocol of a wireless standard forms a inflexible precondition for the user and may exclude the choice of a wireless standard. In addition, a relatively high energy consumption disables battery-operated low-maintenance applications. Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS in Erlangen now offers a solution to that problem. This article would like to show the benefits of low-current proprietary wireless systems. An implementation of a lowcurrent wireless system using BiCMOS technology for wireless sensor networks is presented. (orig.)

  10. Energy-Efficient Data Gathering Scheme Based on Broadcast Transmissions in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobin Lee

    2013-01-01

    previous works have proposed ideas that reduce the energy consumption of the network by exploiting the spatial correlation between sensed information. In this paper, we propose a distributed data compression framework that exploits the broadcasting characteristic of the wireless medium to improve energy efficiency. We analyze the performance of the proposed framework numerically and compare it with the performance of previous works using simulation. The proposed scheme performs better when the sensing information is correlated.

  11. Modular high-voltage bias generator powered by dual-looped self-adaptive wireless power transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Huang, An-Feng; Li, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Shi-Zhong; Zhang, Han-Lu

    2015-04-01

    We proposed a modular high-voltage (HV) bias generator powered by a novel transmitter-sharing inductive coupled wireless power transmission technology, aimed to extend the generator's flexibility and configurability. To solve the problems caused through an uncertain number of modules, a dual-looped self-adaptive control method is proposed that is capable of tracking resonance frequency while maintaining a relatively stable induction voltage for each HV module. The method combines a phase-locked loop and a current feedback loop, which ensures an accurate resonance state and a relatively constant boost ratio for each module, simplifying the architecture of the boost stage and improving the total efficiency. The prototype was built and tested. The input voltage drop of each module is less than 14% if the module number varies from 3 to 10; resonance tracking is completed within 60 ms. The efficiency of the coupling structure reaches up to 95%, whereas the total efficiency approaches 73% for a rated output. Furthermore, this technology can be used in various multi-load wireless power supply applications.

  12. Interactive Video Coding and Transmission over Heterogeneous Wired-to-Wireless IP Networks Using an Edge Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modestino James W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital video delivered over wired-to-wireless networks is expected to suffer quality degradation from both packet loss and bit errors in the payload. In this paper, the quality degradation due to packet loss and bit errors in the payload are quantitatively evaluated and their effects are assessed. We propose the use of a concatenated forward error correction (FEC coding scheme employing Reed-Solomon (RS codes and rate-compatible punctured convolutional (RCPC codes to protect the video data from packet loss and bit errors, respectively. Furthermore, the performance of a joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach employing this concatenated FEC coding scheme for video transmission is studied. Finally, we describe an improved end-to-end architecture using an edge proxy in a mobile support station to implement differential error protection for the corresponding channel impairments expected on the two networks. Results indicate that with an appropriate JSCC approach and the use of an edge proxy, FEC-based error-control techniques together with passive error-recovery techniques can significantly improve the effective video throughput and lead to acceptable video delivery quality over time-varying heterogeneous wired-to-wireless IP networks.

  13. Experimental Performance Comparison of 60 GHz DCM OFDM and Impulse BPSK Ultra-Wideband with Combined Optical Fibre and Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán, Marta; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Yu, Xianbin

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental performance comparison of 1.44Gbps dual-carrier modulation OFDM and BPSK impulse-radio ultra-wideband in the 60GHz band with combined fibre, up to 40km, and 5m wireless transmission. Impulse-radio exhibits better dispersion tolerance requiring lower optical power....

  14. A 30 Gb/s full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chanjuan; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan; Tian, Yumin; Zhang, Junwen

    2014-01-13

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band (75-100 GHz) with the speed up to 15 Gb/s for both 95.4 GHz link and 88.6 GHz link for the first time. The generation of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless signal is based on the photonic technique by heterodyne mixing of an optical quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal with a free-running light at different wavelength. After 20 km fiber transmission, up to 30 Gb/s mm-wave signal is delivered over 2 m wireless link, and then converted to the optical signal for another 20 km fiber transmission. At the wireless receiver, coherent detection and advanced digital signal processing (DSP) are introduced to improve receiver sensitivity and system performance. With the OSNR of 15 dB, the bit error ratios (BERs) for 10 Gb/s signal transmission at 95.4 GHz and 88.6 GHz are below the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) whether post filter is used or not, while the BER for 15 Gb/s QPSK signal employing post filter in the link of 95.4 GHz is 2.9 × 10(-3).

  15. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  16. Design and simulation of printed spiral coil used in wireless power transmission systems for implant medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Fang, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Printed Spiral Coil (PSC) is a coil antenna for near-field wireless power transmission to the next generation implant medical devices. PSC for implant medical device should be power efficient and low electromagnetic radiation to human tissues. We utilized a physical model of printed spiral coil and applied our algorithm to design PSC operating at 13.56 MHz. Numerical and electromagnetic simulation of power transfer efficiency of PSC in air medium is 77.5% and 71.1%, respectively. The simulation results show that the printed spiral coil which is optimized for air will keep 15.2% power transfer efficiency in human subcutaneous tissues. In addition, the Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) for this coil antenna in subcutaneous at 13.56 MHz is below 1.6 W/Kg, which suggests this coil is implantable safe based on IEEE C95.1 safety guideline.

  17. Evaluation of SAR in a human body model due to wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tsuchida, Shogo; Hirata, Akimasa; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses a computational method for calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) due to a wireless power transmission system in the 10 MHz frequency band. A two-step quasi-static method comprised of the method of moments and the scalar potential finite-difference method are proposed. The applicability of the quasi-static approximation for localized exposure in this frequency band is discussed by comparing the SAR in a lossy dielectric cylinder computed with a full-wave electromagnetic analysis and the quasi-static approximation. From the computational results, the input impedance of the resonant coils was affected by the existence of the cylinder. On the other hand, the magnetic field distribution in free space and considering the cylinder and an impedance matching circuit were in good agreement; the maximum difference in the amplitude of the magnetic field was 4.8%. For a cylinder–coil distance of 10 mm, the difference between the peak 10 g averaged SAR in the cylinder computed with the full-wave electromagnetic method and our quasi-static method was 7.8%. These results suggest that the quasi-static approach is applicable for conducting the dosimetry of wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band. With our two-step quasi-static method, the SAR in the anatomically based model was computed for different exposure scenarios. From those computations, the allowable input power satisfying the limit of a peak 10 g averaged SAR of 2.0 W kg −1 was 830 W in the worst case exposure scenario with a coil positioned at a distance of 30 mm from the chest. (paper)

  18. Evaluation of SAR in a human body model due to wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Tsuchida, Shogo; Hirata, Akimasa; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    2012-08-07

    This study discusses a computational method for calculating the specific absorption rate (SAR) due to a wireless power transmission system in the 10 MHz frequency band. A two-step quasi-static method comprised of the method of moments and the scalar potential finite-difference method are proposed. The applicability of the quasi-static approximation for localized exposure in this frequency band is discussed by comparing the SAR in a lossy dielectric cylinder computed with a full-wave electromagnetic analysis and the quasi-static approximation. From the computational results, the input impedance of the resonant coils was affected by the existence of the cylinder. On the other hand, the magnetic field distribution in free space and considering the cylinder and an impedance matching circuit were in good agreement; the maximum difference in the amplitude of the magnetic field was 4.8%. For a cylinder-coil distance of 10 mm, the difference between the peak 10 g averaged SAR in the cylinder computed with the full-wave electromagnetic method and our quasi-static method was 7.8%. These results suggest that the quasi-static approach is applicable for conducting the dosimetry of wireless power transmission in the 10 MHz band. With our two-step quasi-static method, the SAR in the anatomically based model was computed for different exposure scenarios. From those computations, the allowable input power satisfying the limit of a peak 10 g averaged SAR of 2.0 W kg(-1) was 830 W in the worst case exposure scenario with a coil positioned at a distance of 30 mm from the chest.

  19. Multi-standard transmission of converged wired and wireless services over 100m plastic optical fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Visani, D.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Shi, Y.; Tartarini, G.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The first multi-standard transmission consisting of 6 Gbit/s DMT baseband and 200 Mbit/s MB-OFDM UWB radio signals over 100m perfluorinated graded-index plastic optical fibre is demonstrated. Transmission performance indicates BER <10-5 and EVM <-22dB respectively.

  20. Optimal Alarm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  1. Development of personal dose monitoring system using wireless data transmission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Daisuke; Nakashima, Sadao

    2008-01-01

    Radiation workers working in radiation controlled area in nuclear power plants etc., are required to carry a dosimeters by regulation law. The workers are controlled daily on personal exposure dose by reading out the exposure dose information of the dosimeters with an area access control gate installed at the entrance of the radiation controlled area. This type of personal dose monitoring system has a problem that each worker can get his personal dose data only at the entrance of the radiation controlled area several times a day. We developed a system to get the real-time acquisition of personal dose data especially for workers working in a high dose area. This system is generally composed of a dosimeter with a wireless attachment, relay station, and monitor. Some relay stations set in main work places in the radiation controlled area can collect real-time personal dose data of each dosimeter carried by workers at the work place with the relay stations, and transmit it to the monitor to get personal dose data of individual workers. A wireless communication system between dosimeters and relay stations is applied to collect efficiently all personal dose data in the work place. (author)

  2. A wireless power transmission system for implantable devices in freely moving rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Kyungsik; Jeong, Joonsoo; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Jinhyung; Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Sung Eun; Kim, Sung June

    2014-08-01

    Reliable wireless power delivery for implantable devices in animals is highly desired for safe and effective experimental use. Batteries require frequent replacement; wired connections are inconvenient and unsafe, and short-distance inductive coupling requires the attachment of an exterior transmitter to the animal's body. In this article, we propose a solution by which animals with implantable devices can move freely without attachments. Power is transmitted using coils attached to the animal's cage and is received by a receiver coil implanted in the animal. For a three-dimensionally uniform delivery of power, we designed a columnar dual-transmitter coil configuration. A resonator-based inductive link was adopted for efficient long-range power delivery, and we used a novel biocompatible liquid crystal polymer substrate as the implantable receiver device. Using this wireless power delivery system, we obtain an average power transfer efficiency of 15.2% (minimum efficiency of 10% and a standard deviation of 2.6) within a cage of 15×20×15 cm3.

  3. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  4. Novel technical solutions for wireless ECG transmission & analysis in the age of the internet cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zaiti, Salah S; Shusterman, Vladimir; Carey, Mary G

    2013-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend early reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within 90 min of first medical encounter. Telecardiology entails the use of advanced communication technologies to transmit the prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to offsite cardiologists for early triage to the cath lab; which has been shown to dramatically reduce door-to-balloon time and total mortality. However, hospitals often find adopting ECG transmission technologies very challenging. The current review identifies seven major technical challenges of prehospital ECG transmission, including: paramedics inconvenience and transport delay; signal noise and interpretation errors; equipment malfunction and transmission failure; reliability of mobile phone networks; lack of compliance with the standards of digital ECG formats; poor integration with electronic medical records; and costly hardware and software pre-requisite installation. Current and potential solutions to address each of these technical challenges are discussed in details and include: automated ECG transmission protocols; annotatable waveform-based ECGs; optimal routing solutions; and the use of cloud computing systems rather than vendor-specific processing stations. Nevertheless, strategies to monitor transmission effectiveness and patient outcomes are essential to sustain initial gains of implementing ECG transmission technologies. © 2013.

  5. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-01-01

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation. PMID:26404292

  6. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  7. Energy-Efficient Transmissions for Remote Wireless Sensor Networks: An Integrated HAP/Satellite Architecture for Emergency Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Feihong; Li, Hongjun; Gong, Xiangwu; Liu, Quan; Wang, Jingchao

    2015-09-03

    A typical application scenario of remote wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is identified as an emergency scenario. One of the greatest design challenges for communications in emergency scenarios is energy-efficient transmission, due to scarce electrical energy in large-scale natural and man-made disasters. Integrated high altitude platform (HAP)/satellite networks are expected to optimally meet emergency communication requirements. In this paper, a novel integrated HAP/satellite (IHS) architecture is proposed, and three segments of the architecture are investigated in detail. The concept of link-state advertisement (LSA) is designed in a slow flat Rician fading channel. The LSA is received and processed by the terminal to estimate the link state information, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption at the terminal end. Furthermore, the transmission power requirements of the HAPs and terminals are derived using the gradient descent and differential equation methods. The energy consumption is modeled at both the source and system level. An innovative and adaptive algorithm is given for the energy-efficient path selection. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive algorithm. It is shown that the proposed adaptive algorithm can significantly improve energy efficiency when combined with the LSA and the energy consumption estimation.

  8. High-power microwave LDMOS transistors for wireless data transmission technologies (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E. V.; Shemyakin, A. V.

    2010-01-01

    The fields of the application, structure, fabrication, and packaging technology of high-power microwave LDMOS transistors and the main advantages of these devices were analyzed. Basic physical parameters and some technology factors were matched for optimum device operation. Solid-state microwave electronics has been actively developed for the last 10-15 years. Simultaneously with improvement of old devices, new devices and structures are actively being adopted and developed and new semiconductor materials are being commercialized. Microwave LDMOS technology is in demand in such fields as avionics, civil and military radars, repeaters, base stations of cellular communication systems, television and broadcasting transmitters, and transceivers for high-speed wireless computer networks (promising Wi-Fi and Wi-Max standards).

  9. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  10. Improvement of wireless power transmission efficiency of implantable subcutaneous devices by closed magnetic circuit mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Eun; Joung, Sanghoon; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Induction coils were fabricated based on flexible printed circuit board for inductive transcutaneous power transmission. The coil had closed magnetic circuit (CMC) structure consisting of inner and outer magnetic core. The power transmission efficiency of the fabricated device was measured in the air and in vivo condition. It was confirmed that the CMC coil had higher transmission efficiency than typical air-core coil. The power transmission efficiency during a misalignment between primary coil and implanted secondary coil was also evaluated. The decrease of mutual inductance between the two coils caused by the misalignment led to a low efficiency of the inductive link. Therefore, it is important to properly align the primary coil and implanted secondary coil for effective power transmission. To align the coils, a feedback coil was proposed. This was integrated on the backside of the primary coil and enabled the detection of a misalignment of the primary and secondary coils. As a result of using the feedback coil, the primary and secondary coils could be aligned without knowledge of the position of the implanted secondary coil.

  11. Autonomous transmission power adaptation for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in WMNs. Previous studies have emphasized through- put maximization in such systems as the main design challenge and transmission power control treated as a secondary issue...

  12. Autonomous transmission power adaptation for multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-Radio Multi-Channel (MRMC) systems are key to power control problems in WMNs. Previous studies have emphasized throughput maximization in such systems as the main design challenge and transmission power control treated as a secondary issue...

  13. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  14. Optimal Design of a Resonance-Based Voltage Boosting Rectifier for Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Lee, Byunghun; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the design procedure for a new multi-cycle resonance-based voltage boosting rectifier (MCRR) capable of delivering a desired amount of power to the load (PDL) at a designated high voltage (HV) through a loosely-coupled inductive link. This is achieved by shorting the receiver (Rx) LC-tank for several cycles to harvest and accumulate the wireless energy in the RX inductor before boosting the voltage by breaking the loop and transferring the energy to the load in a quarter cycle. By optimizing the geometries of the transmitter (Tx) and Rx coils and the number of cycles, N , for energy harvesting, through an iterative design procedure, the MCRR can achieve the highest PDL under a given set of design constraints. Governing equations in the MCRR operation are derived to identify key specifications and the design guidelines. Using an exemplary set of specs, the optimized MCRR was able to generate 20.9 V DC across a 100 kΩ load from a 1.8 V p , 6.78 MHz sinusoid input in the ISM-band at a Tx/Rx coil separation of 1.3 cm, power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 2.2%, and N = 9 cycles. At the same coil distance and loading, coils optimized for a conventional half-wave rectifier (CHWR) were able to reach only 13.6 V DC from the same source.

  15. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang; Chung, Dong Chul

    2017-01-01

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils

  16. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2018-04-02

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  17. Analysis of reflection-coefficient by wireless power transmission using superconducting coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, In Sung; Choi, Hyo Sang [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dong Chul [Korea Institute of Carbon Convergence Technology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The use of electronic devices such as mobile phones and tablet PCs has increased of late. However, the power which is supplied through wires has a limitation of the free use of devices and portability. Magnetic-resonance wireless power transfer (WPT) can achieve increased transfer distance and efficiency compared to the existing electromagnetic inductive coupling. A superconducting coil can be applied to increase the efficiency and distance of magnetic-resonance WPT. As superconducting coils have lower resistance than copper coils, they can increase the quality factor (Q-factor) and can overcome the limitations of magnetic-resonance WPT. In this study, copper coils were made from ordinary copper under the same condition as the superconducting coils for a comparison experiment. Superconducting coils use liquid nitrogen to keep the critical temperature. As there is a difference of medium between liquid nitrogen and air, liquid nitrogen was also used in the normal conductor coil to compare the experiment with under the same condition. It was confirmed that superconducting coils have a lower reflection-coefficient(S11) than the normal conductor coils.

  18. Evaluation of a Novel Wireless Transmission System for Trauma Ultrasound Examinations From Moving Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchel, Herman; Ogedegbe, Chinwe; Chaplin, William; Cheney, Brianna; Zakharchenko, Svetlana; Misch, David; Schwartz, Matthew; Feldman, Joseph; Kaul, Sanjeev

    2018-03-01

    To determine if physicians trained in ultrasound interpretation perceive a difference in image quality and usefulness between Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography ultrasound examinations performed at bedside in a hospital vs. by emergency medical technicians minimally trained in medical ultrasound on a moving ambulance and transmitted to the hospital via a novel wireless system. In particular, we sought to demonstrate that useful images could be obtained from patients in less than optimal imaging conditions; that is, while they were in transport. Emergency medical technicians performed the examinations during transport of blunt trauma patients. Upon patient arrival at the hospital, a bedside Extended Focused Assessment with Sonography examination was performed by a physician. Both examinations were recorded and later reviewed by physicians trained in ultrasound interpretation. Data were collected on 20 blunt trauma patients over a period of 13 mo. Twenty ultrasound-trained physicians blindly compared transmitted vs. bedside images using 11 Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction scales. Four paired samples t-tests were conducted to assess mean differences between ratings for ambulatory and base images. Although there is a slight tendency for the average rating across all subjects and raters to be slightly higher in the base than in the ambulatory condition, none of these differences are statistically significant. These results suggest that the quality of the ambulatory images was viewed as essentially as good as the quality of the base images.

  19. Improvement of RF Wireless Power Transmission Using a Circularly Polarized Retrodirective Antenna Array with EBG Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Trinh-Van

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance improvement of a circularly polarized (CP retrodirective array (RDA through the suppression of mutual coupling effects. The RDA is designed based on CP Koch-shaped patch antenna elements with an inter-element spacing as small as 0.4 λ for a compact size ( λ is the wavelength in free space at the designed frequency of 5.2 GHz. Electromagnetic band gap (EBG structures are applied to reduce the mutual coupling between the antenna elements, thus improving the circular polarization characteristic of the RDA. Two CP RDAs with EBGs, in the case 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 arrays, are used as wireless power transmitters to transmit a total power of 50 W. A receiver is located at a distance of 1 m away from the transmitter to harvest the transmitted power. At the broadside direction, the simulated results demonstrate that the received powers are improved by approximately 11.32% and 12.45% when using the 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 CP RDAs with the EBGs, respectively, as the transmitters.

  20. Position and Orientation Insensitive Wireless Power Transmission for EnerCage-Homecage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yaoyao; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Wang, Zheyuan; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Madsen, Teresa E; Rainnie, Donald; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-10-01

    We have developed a new headstage architecture as part of a smart experimental arena, known as the EnerCage-HC2 system, which automatically delivers stimulation and collects behavioral data over extended periods with minimal small animal subject handling or personnel intervention in a standard rodent homecage. Equipped with a four-coil inductive link, the EnerCage-HC2 system wirelessly powers the receiver (Rx) headstage, irrespective of the subject's location or head orientation, eliminating the need for tethering or carrying bulky batteries. On the transmitter (Tx) side, a driver coil, five high-quality (Q) factor segmented resonators at different heights and orientations, and a closed-loop Tx power controller create a homogeneous electromagnetic (EM) field within the homecage 3-D space, and compensate for drops in power transfer efficiency (PTE) due to Rx misalignments. The headstage is equipped with four small slanted resonators, each covering a range of head orientations with respect to the Tx resonators, which direct the EM field toward the load coil at the bottom of the headstage. Moreover, data links based on Wi-Fi, UART, and Bluetooth low energy are utilized to enables remote communication and control of the Rx. The PTE varies within 23.6%-33.3% and 6.7%-10.1% at headstage heights of 8 and 20 cm, respectively, while continuously delivering >40 mW to the Rx electronics even at 90° rotation. As a proof of EnerCage-HC2 functionality in vivo, a previously documented on-demand electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus, eliciting consistent head rotation, is demonstrated in three freely behaving rats.

  1. Intermediate frequency magnetic field generated by a wireless power transmission device does not cause genotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dejing; Zhu, Chunbo; Lu, Rengui; Mao, Shitong; Qi, Yanhua

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields (IFMF) generated by a wireless power transmission (WPT) based on magnetic resonance from the perspective of cellular genotoxicity on cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs). We evaluated the effects of exposure to 90 kHz magnetic fields at 93.36 µT on cellular genotoxicity in vitro for 2 and 4 h. The magnetic flux density is approximately 3.5 times higher than the reference level recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cellular proliferation, apoptosis and DNA damage by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, flow cytometry analysis, alkaline comet assay and phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation test. We did not detect any effect of a 90 kHz IFMF generated by WPT based on magnetic resonance on cell proliferation, apoptosis, comet assay, and γH2AX foci formation test. Our results indicated that exposure to 90 kHz IFMF generated by WPT based on magnetic resonance at 93.36 µT for 2 and 4 h does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cooperative Transmission in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets: A Double-Differential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the rapidly increasing mobility of sensor nodes, mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs would be subject to multiple carrier frequency offsets (MCFOs, which result in time-varying channels and drastically degrade the network performance. To enhance the performance of such MWSNs, we propose a relay selection (RS based double-differential (DD cooperative transmission scheme, termed RSDDCT, in which the best relay sensor node is selected to forward the source sensor node’s signals to the destination sensor node with the detect-and-forward (DetF protocol. Assuming a Rayleigh fading environment, first, exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability and average bit error rate (BER of the RSDDCT scheme are derived. Then, simple and informative asymptotic outage probability and average BER expressions at the large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR regime are presented, which reveal that the RSDDCT scheme can achieve full diversity. Furthermore, the optimum power allocation strategy in terms of minimizing the average BER is investigated, and simple analytical solutions are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RSDDCT scheme can achieve excellent performance over fading channels in the presence of unknown random MCFOs. It is also shown that the proposed optimum power allocation strategy offers substantial average BER performance improvement over the equal power allocation strategy.

  3. Station-keeping of a high-altitude balloon with electric propulsion and wireless power transmission: A concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wynsberghe, Erinn; Turak, Ayse

    2016-11-01

    A stable, ultra long-duration high-altitude balloon (HAB) platform which can maintain stationary position would represent a new paradigm for telecommunications and high-altitude observation and transmission services, with greatly reduced cost and complexity compared to existing technologies including satellites, telecom towers, and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). This contribution proposes a lightweight superpressure balloon platform for deployment to an altitude of 25 km. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters are presented to maintain position by overcoming stratospheric winds. Critical to maintaining position is a continual supply of electrical power to operate the on-board propulsion system. One viable solution is to deliver power wirelessly to a high-altitude craft from a ground-based transmitter. Microwave energy, not heavily attenuated by the atmosphere, can be provided remotely from a ground-based generator (magnetron, klystron, etc.) and steered electrically with an antenna array (phased array) at a designated frequency (such as 2.45 or 5.8 GHz). A rectifying antenna ("rectenna") on the bottom of the balloon converts waves into direct current for on-board use. Preliminary mission architecture, energy requirements, and safety concerns for a proposed system are presented along with recommended future work.

  4. Energy transmission transformer for a wireless capsule endoscope: analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Nagato, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Toshio; Koshiji, Kohji

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic influences on the analysis of biological tissue surrounding a prototype energy transmission system for a wireless capsule endoscope. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by electromagnetic simulator in a model consisting of primary coil and a human trunk including the skin, fat, muscle, small intestine, backbone, and blood. First, electric and magnetic strength in the same conditions as the analytical model were measured and compared to the analytical values to confirm the validity of the analysis. Then, SAR and current density as a function of frequency and output power were analyzed. The validity of the analysis was confirmed by comparing the analytical values with the measured ones. The SAR was below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). At the same time, the results for current density show that the influence on biological tissue was lowest in the 300-400 kHz range, indicating that it was possible to transmit energy safely up to 160 mW. In addition, we confirmed that the current density has decreased by reducing the primary coil's current.

  5. Resource Planning for Voice over Wireless Both-Way Transmission Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tsankov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The medium in IEEE 802.11- and IEEE 802.16-based networks for voice communications can be considered "both-way" - for transmission and reception. Therefore, the packet arrivals for voice dialogue services in such networks are not strictly independent. In this paper, we discuss the traffic capacity in the call (network layer and suggest accounting for the impact of the correlated nature of two-way voice conversations on performance estimation. We present analytical results and numerical examples.

  6. Wireless ATM : handover issues

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Fan; Käkölä, Timo

    1998-01-01

    Basic aspects of cellular systems and the ATM transmission technology are introduced. Wireless ATM is presented as a combination of radio ATM and mobile ATM. Radio ATM is a wireless extension of an ATM connection while mobile ATM contains the necessary extensions to ATM to support mobility. Because the current ATM technology does not support mobility, handover becomes one of the most important research issues for wireless ATM. Wireless ATM handover requirements are thus analysed. A handover s...

  7. Evaluation of MEMS-Based Wireless Accelerometer Sensors in Detecting Gear Tooth Faults in Helicopter Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David George; Lambert, Nicholas A.; Wagoner, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostics capability of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based rotating accelerometer sensors in detecting gear tooth crack failures in helicopter main-rotor transmissions was evaluated. MEMS sensors were installed on a pre-notched OH-58C spiral-bevel pinion gear. Endurance tests were performed and the gear was run to tooth fracture failure. Results from the MEMS sensor were compared to conventional accelerometers mounted on the transmission housing. Most of the four stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing and most of the CI's used gave indications of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS system performed well and lasted the entire test. All MEMS accelerometers gave an indication of failure at the end of the test. The MEMS systems performed as well, if not better, than the stationary accelerometers mounted on the gear box housing with regards to gear tooth fault detection. For both the MEMS sensors and stationary sensors, the fault detection time was not much sooner than the actual tooth fracture time. The MEMS sensor spectrum data showed large first order shaft frequency sidebands due to the measurement rotating frame of reference. The method of constructing a pseudo tach signal from periodic characteristics of the vibration data was successful in deriving a TSA signal without an actual tach and proved as an effective way to improve fault detection for the MEMS.

  8. An energy-efficient transmission scheme for real-time data in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Barrado, José Ramón Ramos; Jeon, Dong-Keun

    2015-05-20

    The Internet of things (IoT) is a novel paradigm where all things or objects in daily life can communicate with other devices and provide services over the Internet. Things or objects need identifying, sensing, networking and processing capabilities to make the IoT paradigm a reality. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is one of the main communication protocols proposed for the IoT. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard provides the guaranteed time slot (GTS) mechanism that supports the quality of service (QoS) for the real-time data transmission. In spite of some QoS features in IEEE 802.15.4 standard, the problem of end-to-end delay still remains. In order to solve this problem, we propose a cooperative medium access scheme (MAC) protocol for real-time data transmission. We also evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the network performance.

  9. Performance Analysis of Diversity-Controlled Multi-User Superposition Transmission for 5G Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jeong Seon; Chu, Eunmi; Jung, Bang Chul; Jin, Hu

    2018-02-10

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-complexity multi-user superposition transmission (MUST) technique for 5G downlink networks, which allows multiple cell-edge users to be multiplexed with a single cell-center user. We call the proposed technique diversity-controlled MUST technique since the cell-center user enjoys the frequency diversity effect via signal repetition over multiple orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) sub-carriers. We assume that a base station is equipped with a single antenna but users are equipped with multiple antennas. In addition, we assume that the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation is used for users. We mathematically analyze the bit error rate (BER) of both cell-edge users and cell-center users, which is the first theoretical result in the literature to the best of our knowledge. The mathematical analysis is validated through extensive link-level simulations.

  10. Challenges and Ideas to Achieve Wireless 100 Gb/s Transmission: An Overview of Challenges and Solutions within the German Research Foundation (DFG) Special Priority Program SPP1655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Wireless communications is one of the fastest growing technology fields, driving numerous other innovations in electronics. One challenging research area within the wireless field is to achieve much higher transmission rates. First products with up to 3 Gb/s are in the market. In the coming years we predict this speed growing quickly up to and beyond 100 Gb/s. Today it is an open question how we can realize a wireless system at this speed. If we intend to use such systems in a mobile environment, we can only afford to spend approximately 1-10 pW/b for the end-to-end communication. This includes RF-transmission and all processing and protocol steps. The SPP1655 of the DFG was set up to investigate new paradigms for achieving the 100 Gb/s wireless transmission goal. Within 11 coordinated projects researchers from all over Germany are addressing several relevant issues ranging from the antennas and RF-Frontend, baseband-processing and error correction to protocol processing. A number of limitations of current approaches have to be investigated and new algorithms must be found in order to achieve the intended goal. One of the big challenges is finding the correct balance between analog and digital signal processing to achieve an extremely high performance at very low energy consumption. Another challenge is to find a good balance between bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency to achieve the 100 Gbps goal. Finally, protocol processing will need new approaches to decouple the central processor of a computer from the high-end input/output operations. Within this editorial we will address the main challenges and briefly outline the approaches of the running projects. The rest of this special issue will be devoted to more detailed descriptions and achievements of the individual projects of SPP1655.

  11. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Electromagnetic interference-aware transmission scheduling and power control for dynamic wireless access in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunchongharn, Phond; Hossain, Ekram; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2011-11-01

    We study the multiple access problem for e-Health applications (referred to as secondary users) coexisting with medical devices (referred to as primary or protected users) in a hospital environment. In particular, we focus on transmission scheduling and power control of secondary users in multiple spatial reuse time-division multiple access (STDMA) networks. The objective is to maximize the spectrum utilization of secondary users and minimize their power consumption subject to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) constraints for active and passive medical devices and minimum throughput guarantee for secondary users. The multiple access problem is formulated as a dual objective optimization problem which is shown to be NP-complete. We propose a joint scheduling and power control algorithm based on a greedy approach to solve the problem with much lower computational complexity. To this end, an enhanced greedy algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the greedy algorithm by finding the optimal sequence of secondary users for scheduling. Using extensive simulations, the tradeoff in performance in terms of spectrum utilization, energy consumption, and computational complexity is evaluated for both the algorithms.

  13. Optimal wireless receiver structure for omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougheri, Hesam Sadeghi; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants, the use of several orthogonal coils in the receiver side (Rx) has been proposed in the past. In this paper, the optimal Rx structure for connecting three orthogonal Rx coils and the power management is found to achieve the maximum power delivered to the load (PDL) in the presence of any Rx coil tilting. Unlike previous works, in which a separate power management has been used for each coil to deliver power to the load, different resonant Rx structures for connecting three Rx coils to a single power management are studied. In simulations, connecting three Rx coils with the diameters of 3 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.6 mm in series and resonating them with a single capacitor at the operation frequency of 100 MHz led to the maximum PDL for large loads when the implant was tilted for 45o. This optimal Rx structure achieves higher PDL in worst-case scenarios as well as reduces the number of power managements to only one.

  14. Real-time dual-polarization transmission based on hybrid optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Artur N.; Alimi, Isiaka A.; Ferreira, Ricardo M.; Shahpari, Ali; Lima, Mário; Monteiro, Paulo P.; Teixeira, António L.

    2018-01-01

    We present experimental work on a gigabit-capable and long-reach hybrid coherent UWDM-PON plus FSO system for supporting different applications over the same fiber infrastructure in the mobile backhaul (MBH) networks. Also, for the first time, we demonstrate a reconfigurable real-time DSP transmission/reception of DP-QPSK signals over standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and FSO links. The receiver presented is based on a commercial field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The considered communication links are based on 20 UDWDM channels with 625 Mbaud and 2.5 GHz channel spacing. We are able to demonstrate the lowest sampling rate required for digital coherent PON by employing four 1.25 Gsa/s ADCs using an electrical front-end receiver that offers only 1 GHz analog bandwidth. We achieved this by implementing a phase and polarization diversity coherent receiver combined with the DP-QPSK modulation formats. The system performance is estimated in terms of receiver sensitivity. The results show the viability of coherent PON and flexible dual-polarization supported by software-defined transceivers for the MBH.

  15. Video systems for alarm assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C.; Ebel, P.E.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Video systems for alarm assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Effect of the ratio of radial gap to radius of the coils on the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Tian, Zijian; Wang, Xuqi; Wu, Jun; Gui, Weifeng

    2018-03-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) via coupled magnetic resonance is a promising technology to be applied in many fields. In general, there will be a radial gap in practical application, and some special application environments need to limit the radius of the coils. Therefore, in this paper, considering the comprehensive analysis of the radial gap and the radius of the coils, the concept of the ratio of radial gap to the radius of the coils was proposed. Based on the circuit theory, the formula between the ratio and transmission efficiency of WPT was deduced, and the effects of the ratio on the transmission efficiency were studied respectively at different axial distances. Simulation experiments were carried out and the results not only demonstrate the influence law of the ratio on transmission efficiency, but also validate the value of the ratio which the axial distance has the greatest effect on the transmission efficiency. Besides, the results shows the relationship between the effect of the ratio on the efficiency and the effect of the axial distance on the efficiency. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct, thus providing an useful theoretical reference for the design and further research on the wireless power transfer system in complicated environment.

  18. Effect of the ratio of radial gap to radius of the coils on the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer via coupled magnetic resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer (WPT via coupled magnetic resonance is a promising technology to be applied in many fields. In general, there will be a radial gap in practical application, and some special application environments need to limit the radius of the coils. Therefore, in this paper, considering the comprehensive analysis of the radial gap and the radius of the coils, the concept of the ratio of radial gap to the radius of the coils was proposed. Based on the circuit theory, the formula between the ratio and transmission efficiency of WPT was deduced, and the effects of the ratio on the transmission efficiency were studied respectively at different axial distances. Simulation experiments were carried out and the results not only demonstrate the influence law of the ratio on transmission efficiency, but also validate the value of the ratio which the axial distance has the greatest effect on the transmission efficiency. Besides, the results shows the relationship between the effect of the ratio on the efficiency and the effect of the axial distance on the efficiency. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct, thus providing an useful theoretical reference for the design and further research on the wireless power transfer system in complicated environment.

  19. Optimal Design of Wireless Power Transmission Links for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for RF power transmission to millimeter-sized implantable biomedical devices. The optimal operating frequency and coil geometries are found such that power transfer efficiency (PTE) and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power are maximized. We define receiver power reception susceptibility (Rx-PRS) and transmitter figure of merit (Tx-FoM) such that their multiplication yields the PTE. Rx-PRS and Tx-FoM define the roles of the Rx and Tx in the PTE, respectively. First, the optimal Rx coil geometry and operating frequency range are identified such that the Rx-PRS is maximized for given implant constraints. Since the Rx is very small and has lesser design freedom than the Tx, the overall operating frequency is restricted mainly by the Rx. Rx-PRS identifies such operating frequency constraint imposed by the Rx. Secondly, the Tx coil geometry is selected such that the Tx-FoM is maximized under the frequency constraint at which the Rx-PRS was saturated. This aligns the target frequency range of Tx optimization with the frequency range at which Rx performance is high, resulting in the maximum PTE. Finally, we have found that even in the frequency range at which the PTE is relatively flat, the tissue loss per unit delivered power can be significantly different for each frequency. The Rx-PRS can predict the frequency range at which the tissue loss per unit delivered power is minimized while PTE is maintained high. In this way, frequency adjustment for the PTE and tissue-loss-constrained allowed power is realized by characterizing the Rx-PRS. The design procedure was verified through full-wave electromagnetic field simulations and measurements using de-embedding method. A prototype implant, 1 mm in diameter, achieved PTE of 0.56% ( -22.5 dB) and power delivered to load (PDL) was 224 μW at 200 MHz with 12 mm Tx-to-Rx separation in the tissue environment.

  20. Self-tuning wireless power transmission scheme based on on-line scattering parameters measurement and two-side power matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanting; Yang, Yongmin; Chen, Zhongsheng

    2014-04-10

    Sub-resonances often happen in wireless power transmission (WPT) systems using coupled magnetic resonances (CMR) due to environmental changes, coil movements or component degradations, which is a serious challenge for high efficiency power transmission. Thus self-tuning is very significant to keep WPT systems following strongly magnetic resonant conditions in practice. Traditional coupled-mode ways is difficult to solve this problem. In this paper a two-port power wave model is presented, where power matching and the overall systemic power transmission efficiency are firstly defined by scattering (S) parameters. Then we propose a novel self-tuning scheme based on on-line S parameters measurements and two-side power matching. Experimental results testify the feasibility of the proposed method. These findings suggest that the proposed method is much potential to develop strongly self-adaptive WPT systems with CMR.

  1. Space-division-multiplexed transmission of 3x3 multiple-input multiple-output wireless signals over conventional graded-index multimode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yi; Li, Jianqiang; Fan, Yuting; Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2016-12-12

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant 3-spatial-stream WLAN signals over 3 spatial modes of conventional 50um graded-index (GI) multimode fiber (MMF) employing non-mode-selective 3D-waveguide photonic lantern. Two kinds of scenarios, including fiber-only transmission and fiber-wireless hybrid transmission, were investigated by measuring error vector magnitude (EVM) performance for each stream and condition number (CN) of the channel matrix. The experimental results show that, SDM-based MMF link could offer a CNwireless MIMO signals over existing in-building commercially-available MMFs with enormous cost-saving.

  2. Advanced alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Advanced Alarm Management System (AWARE) is one of the Man-Machine Design Interfaces (MMI) which has great flexibility with regard to hardware type and configuration, alarm system concept, plant scope, engineering scope and installation. The AWARE System provides the capability to better manage the quantity prioritization and presentation of real-time process alarm messages in the control room. The messages are specific, precise and dynamic. The AWARE System can provide a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must address at any one time, thus making the alarm message system a useful tool for the operators during situations that normally produce a high volume of messages as well as improving the clarity of the presentation of process abnormalities during small disturbances. The operating staff is now provided with the basis for a better understanding of the current plant state and for taking the appropriate control actions. (2 refs., 3 figs.)

  3. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  4. Single Channel 106 Gbit/s 16QAM Wireless Transmission in the 0.4 THz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Jia, Shi; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a single channel 32-GBd 16QAM THz wireless link operating in the 0.4 THz band. Post-FEC net data rate of 106 Gbit/s is successfully achieved without any spatial/frequency multiplexing.......We experimentally demonstrate a single channel 32-GBd 16QAM THz wireless link operating in the 0.4 THz band. Post-FEC net data rate of 106 Gbit/s is successfully achieved without any spatial/frequency multiplexing....

  5. Security Alarm for Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ismail

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A security alarm for motorcycle has been developed. This equipment consists of two parts. Part one is as a remote control, where it produces a radio signal with frequency of 37.5 MHz to turn on (activate or to turn off alarm. Part two consists of sensor, receiver to receive signal from part one, and alarm. This part two will be attached to motorcycle while part one will be kept as a key by the owner of motorcycle. This equipment has been tested in the laboratory and it worked well. When part two is activated by pushing the “set button” in part one, then any movement of part two (as a movement of motor cycle by about 20 cm from initial position will cause the alarm sounds continuously. The alarm will be off whenever the “reset button” in part one is pushed. Part one (a remote control can activate part two with a maximum of twelve meter separation apart. This shows that the equipment can be used as a security alarm to prevent the motorcycle to be stolen in the future.

  6. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  7. Screening of young competitive athletes for the prevention of sudden cardiac death with a wireless electrocardiographic transmission device: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Hyung; Selen, Mats A; Kocheril, Abraham G

    2015-08-11

    The 12-lead electrocardiographic screening for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in young competitive athletes is not cost-effective and thus not routinely recommended. We investigate whether a less expensive wireless electrocardiographic transmission device can be used to screen for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in this population. During pre-participation screening, twenty college football players underwent two electrocardiograms: a conventional 12-lead electrocardiogram and a wireless 9-lead electrocardiogram. We compared several electrocardiographic parameters (QRS duration, left ventricular hypertrophy using the Cornell voltage criteria and the Sokolow-Lyon criteria, ST deviation and corrected QT interval) to determine the correlation. The QRS duration, left ventricular hypertrophy using the Cornell voltage criteria and the Sokolow-Lyon criteria and corrected QT interval exhibited significant correlation between the two types of electrocardiograms (correlation coefficient 0.878, 0.630, 0.770 and 0.847, respectively with P values of 0.01, 0.003, 0.01 and 0.01, respectively). ST deviation in V1 was weakly correlated between the two types of electrocardiograms without statistical significance (correlation coefficient 0.360 with a P value of 0.119). Our newly developed wireless 9-lead electrocardiogram demonstrated significant correlations with a conventional 12-lead electrocardiogram in terms of QRS duration, left ventricular hypertrophy and corrected QT interval.

  8. R and D of suitable unit to heightening in grade of mobile wireless telegraphy system; Test on data transmission characteristics and research on transmission method. Ido musen system no kodoka ni tekigo kano na sochi no kaihatsu kenkyu; Deta denso tokusei shiken oyobi denso hoho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onigawara, Shuichi; Koyama, Masayoshi; Masunaga, Katsutoshi [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1989-03-30

    In order to heighten the grade by the present mobile wireless telegraphy system, through the experimentation and research on both data transmission and error correction methods, both data and facsimile transmission were confirmed to be possible together with the following result: In the character transmission by a CPU connection and other encoded transmissions in which even an error by one bit considerably influences the contents of data, 1200bps, as able to be widened in service area, is profitable. While the data transmission in the mobile wireless telegraphy generates many errors due to phasing and noise along the propagation route. To attenuate those errors, error correction encoding is effectively applied with a correction method to be selected by kind of data. Further the 150MHz band, as more largely influenced by urban noise than the 400MHz band, narrows service area in the urban district. While the mobile wireless telegraphy is restricted in frequency band region. 12 refs., 26 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their general......: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. Interior intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    In meeting the requirements for the safeguarding of special nuclear material and the physical protection of licensed facilities, the licensee is required to design a physical security system that will meet minimum performance requirements. An integral part of any physical security system is the interior intrusion alarm system. The purpose of this report is to provide the potential user of an interior intrusion alarm system with information on the various types, components, and performance capabilities available so that he can design and install the optimum alarm system for his particular environment. In addition, maintenance and testing procedures are discussed and recommended which, if followed, will help the user obtain the optimum results from his system

  11. The LEP alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Unlike alarm systems for previous accelerators, the LEP alarm system caters not only for the operation of the accelerator but also for technical services and provides the direct channel for personnel safety. It was commissioned during 1989 and has seen a continued development up to the present day. The system, comprising over 50 computers including 5 different platforms and 4 different operating systems, is described. The hierarchical structure of the software is outlined from the interface to the equipment groups, through the front end computers to the central server, and finally to the operator consoles. Reasons are given for choosing a conventional, as opposed to a 'knowledge based' approach. Finally, references are made to a prototype real time expert system for surveying the power converters of LEP, which was conducted during 1990 as part of the alarm development program. (author)

  12. Criticality accident alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the ''minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% 235 U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs

  13. A Hybrid TDMA/CSMA-Based Wireless Sensor and Data Transmission Network for ORS Intra-Microsatellite Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Liu, Yong; Yin, Zengshan

    2018-05-12

    To achieve launch-on-demand for Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) missions, in this article, an intra-satellite wireless network (ISWN) is presented. It provides a wireless and modularized scheme for intra-spacecraft sensing and data buses. By removing the wired data bus, the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) based wireless modular architecture will reduce both the volume and weight of the satellite platform, thus achieving rapid design and cost savings in development and launching. Based on the on-orbit data demand analysis, a hybrid time division multiple access/carrier sense multiple access (TDMA/CSMA) protocol is proposed. It includes an improved clear channel assessment (CCA) mechanism and a traffic adaptive slot allocation method. To analyze the access process, a Markov model is constructed. Then a detailed calculation is given in which the unsaturated cases are considered. Through simulations, the proposed protocol is proved to commendably satisfy the demands and performs better than existing schemes. It helps to build a full-wireless satellite instead of the current wired ones, and will contribute to provide dynamic space capabilities for ORS missions.

  14. All-Optical envelope detection and fiber transmission of wireless signals by external injection of a DFB laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2008-01-01

    We outline a novel method for all-optical envelope detection of wireless signals by exploiting cross-gain modulation effects in a distributed feedback laser operating with optical injection. We successfully demonstrate envelope detection of a 20-GHz carrier amplitude-shift-keying modulated signal...

  15. A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks: Reducing Preamble Transmissions and Transceiver State Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient medium access protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Although the protocol uses TDMA to give nodes in the WSN the opportunity to communicate collision-free, the network is self-organizing in terms of time slot assignment and synchronization. The

  16. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention is utilized, for example, to a reprocessing facility for storing and processing nuclear fuels and measures and controls the nuclear fuel assembly system so as not to exceed criticality. That is, a conventional criticality alarm device applies a predetermined processing to neutron fluxes generated from a nuclear fuel assembly system containing nuclear fuels and outputs an alarm. The device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux supply source for increasing and decreasing neutron fluxes periodically and supplying them to nuclear fuel assemblies, (2) a detector for detecting neutron fluxes in the nuclear fuel assemblies, (3) a critical state judging section for judging the critical state of the nuclear fuel assemblies based on the periodically changing signals obtained from the detector (2) and (4) an alarm section for outputting criticality alarms depending on the result of the judgement. The device of the present invention can accurately recognize the critical state of the nuclear fuel assembly system and can forecast reaching of the nuclear fuel assembly to criticality or prompt neutron critical state. (I.S.)

  17. Capacity Enhancement for Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Channels with 46.8Gbit/sWireless Multi-CAP Transmission over 50m at W-Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Transmission of a 46.8 Gbit/s multi-band CAP signal is experimentally demonstrated over a 50 m W-band radio-over-fiber link. Bit error rates below 3.8×10-3 are achieved, employing nine CAP bands with bit and power loading.......Transmission of a 46.8 Gbit/s multi-band CAP signal is experimentally demonstrated over a 50 m W-band radio-over-fiber link. Bit error rates below 3.8×10-3 are achieved, employing nine CAP bands with bit and power loading....

  18. A system of two piezoelectric transducers and a storage circuit for wireless energy transmission through a thin metal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongping; Hu, Yuantai; Chen, Chuanyao; Wang, Ji

    2008-10-01

    A system to wirelessly convey electric energy through a thin metal wall is proposed in the paper, where 2 piezoelectric transducers are used to realize energy transformation between electric and mechanical, and a rechargeable battery is employed to store the transmitted energy. To integrate them as a whole, an interface of a modulating circuit is applied between the transducer system and the storage battery. In addition, a synchronized switch harvesting on inductor in parallel with the transducer system is introduced to artificially extend the closed interval of the modulating circuit. The process of transmitting energy is computed, and the performance of the transducer system is optimized in detail for a prescribed external electric source. The results obtained are useful for understanding and designing wireless energy supply systems.

  19. Electrifying the disk: a modular rotating platform for wireless power and data transmission for Lab on a disk application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfflin, Jens; Torres Delgado, Saraí M; Suárez Sandoval, Fralett; Korvink, Jan G; Mager, Dario

    2015-06-21

    We present a design for wireless power transfer, via inductively coupled coils, to a spinning disk. The rectified and stabilised power feeds an Arduino-compatible microcontroller (μC) on the disc, which in turn drives and monitors various sensors and actuators. The platform, which has been conceived to flexibly prototype such systems, demonstrates the feasibility of a wireless power supply and the use of a μC circuit, for example for Lab-on-a-disk applications, thereby eliminating the need for cumbersome slip rings or batteries, and adding a cogent and new degree of freedom to the setup. The large number of sensors and actuators included demonstrate that a wide range of physical parameters can be easily monitored and altered. All devices are connected to the μC via an I(2)C bus, therefore can be easily exchanged or augmented by other devices in order to perform a specific task on the disk. The wireless power supply takes up little additional physical space and should work in conjunction with most existing Lab-on-a-disk platforms as a straightforward add-on, since it does not require modification of the rotation axis and can be readily adapted to specific geometrical requirements.

  20. Performance of a Protected Wireless Sensor Network in a Fire. Analysis of Fire Spread and Data Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine-Santoni, Thierry; Santucci, Jean-François; de Gentili, Emmanuelle; Silvani, Xavier; Morandini, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as a reliable solution for capturing the kinematics of a fire front spreading over a fuel bed. To provide reliable information in fire studies and support fire fighting strategies, a Wireless Sensor Network must be able to perform three sequential actions: 1) sensing thermal data in the open as the gas temperature; 2) detecting a fire i.e., the spatial position of a flame; 3) tracking the fire spread during its spatial and temporal evolution. One of the great challenges in performing fire front tracking with a WSN is to avoid the destruction of motes by the fire. This paper therefore shows the performance of Wireless Sensor Network when the motes are protected with a thermal insulation dedicated to track a fire spreading across vegetative fuels on a field scale. The resulting experimental WSN is then used in series of wildfire experiments performed in the open in vegetation areas ranging in size from 50 to 1,000 m2. PMID:22454563

  1. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache R , IIS R , TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape R , Microsoft Internet Explorer R , Mozilla Firefox R , Opera R , and others. (authors)

  2. Performance of a 60-GHz DCM-OFDM and BPSK-Impulse Ultra-Wideband System with Radio-Over-Fiber and Wireless Transmission Employing a Directly-Modulated VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán, Marta; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Yu, Xianbin

    2011-01-01

    The performance of radio-over-fiber optical transmission employing vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), and further wireless transmission, of the two major ultra-wideband (UWB) implementations is reported when operating in the 60-GHz radio band. Performance is evaluated at 1.44 Gbit...... in bend-insensitive single-mode fiber with wireless transmission up to 5 m in both cases is demonstrated with no penalty. A simulation analysis has also been performed in order to investigate the operational limits. The analysis results are in excellent agreement with the experimental work and indicate...... good tolerance to chromatic dispersion due to the chirp characteristics of electro-optical conversion when a directly-modulated VCSEL is employed. The performance comparison indicates that BPSK-IR UWB exhibits better tolerance to optical transmission impairments requiring lower received optical power...

  3. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  4. PDA-phone-based instant transmission of radiological images over a CDMA network by combining the PACS screen with a Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Keun; Yoo, Sun K; Park, Jeong Jin; Kim, Sun Ho

    2007-06-01

    Remote teleconsultation by specialists is important for timely, correct, and specialized emergency surgical and medical decision making. In this paper, we designed a new personal digital assistant (PDA)-phone-based emergency teleradiology system by combining cellular communication with Bluetooth-interfaced local wireless links. The mobility and portability resulting from the use of PDAs and wireless communication can provide a more effective means of emergency teleconsultation without requiring the user to be limited to a fixed location. Moreover, it enables synchronized radiological image sharing between the attending physician in the emergency room and the remote specialist on picture archiving and communication system terminals without distorted image acquisition. To enable rapid and fine-quality radiological image transmission over a cellular network in a secure manner, progressive compression and security mechanisms have been incorporated. The proposed system is tested over a code division Multiple Access 1x-Evolution Data-Only network to evaluate the performance and to demonstrate the feasibility of this system in a real-world setting.

  5. A Cross-Layer Wireless Sensor Network Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Real-Time Monitoring of the Long-Distance Electric Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN nodes has become a critical link that constrains the engineering application of the smart grid due to the fact that the smart grid is characterized by long-distance transmission in a special environment. The paper proposes a linear hierarchical network topological structure specific to WSN energy conservation in environmental monitoring of the long-distance electric transmission lines in the smart grid. Based on the topological structural characteristics and optimization of network layers, the paper also proposes a Topological Structure be Layered Configurations (TSLC routing algorithm to improve the quality of WSN data transmission performance. Coprocessing of the network layer and the media access control (MAC layer is achieved by using the cross-layer design method, accessing the status for the nodes in the network layer and obtaining the status of the network nodes of the MAC layer. It efficiently saves the energy of the whole network, improves the quality of the network service performance, and prolongs the life cycle of the network.

  6. Wireless Transmission of Monitoring Data out of an Underground Repository: Results of Field Demonstrations Performed at the HADES Underground Laboratory - 13589

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.J.; Rosca-Bocancea, E.; Hart, J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the European 7. framework project MoDeRn, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) performed experiments in order to demonstrate the feasibility of wireless data transmission through the subsurface over large distances by low frequency magnetic fields in the framework of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. The main objective of NRG's contribution is to characterize and optimize the energy use of this technique within the specific context of post-closure monitoring of a repository. For that, measurements have been performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Mol, Belgium, at 225 m depth. The experimental set-up utilizes a loop antenna for the transmitter that has been matched to the existing infrastructure of the HADES. Between 2010 and 2012 NRG carried out several experiments at the HADES URL in order to test the technical set-up and to characterize the propagation behavior of the geological medium and the local background noise pattern. Transmission channels have been identified and data transmission has been demonstrated at several frequencies, with data rates up to 10 bit/s and bit error rates <1%. A mathematical model description that includes the most relevant characteristics of the transmitter, transmission path, and receiver has been developed and applied to analyze possible options to optimize the set-up. With respect to the energy-efficiency, results so far have shown that data transmission over larger distances through the subsurface is a feasible option. To support the conclusions on the energy need per bit of transmitted data, additional experiments are foreseen. (authors)

  7. A Reliable Data Transmission Model for IEEE 802.15.4e Enabled Wireless Sensor Network under WiFi Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2017-06-07

    The IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Medium Access Control (MAC) to support collision-free wireless channel access mechanisms for industrial, commercial and healthcare applications. However, unnecessary wastage of energy and bandwidth consumption occur due to inefficient backoff management and collisions. In this paper, a new channel access mechanism is designed for the buffer constraint sensor devices to reduce the packet drop rate, energy consumption and collisions. In order to avoid collision due to the hidden terminal problem, a new frame structure is designed for the data transmission. A new superframe structure is proposed to mitigate the problems due to WiFi and ZigBee interference. A modified superframe structure with a new retransmission opportunity for failure devices is proposed to reduce the collisions and retransmission delay with high reliability. Performance evaluation and validation of our scheme indicate that the packet drop rate, throughput, reliability, energy consumption and average delay of the nodes can be improved significantly.

  8. 4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Duran, Jose R.; Janjua, Bilal; Wang, Huai-Yung; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chi, Yu-Cheih; Ng, Tien Khee; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Lin, Gong-Ru; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) employing 450-nm TO-9 packaged and fiberpigtailed laser diode (LD) directly encoded with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-OFDM) data. A record data rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s over 5.4-m transmission distance is achieved. By encoding the full 1.2-GHz bandwidth of the 450-nm LD with a 16-QAM-OFDM data, an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 16.5%, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15.63 dB and a bit error rate (BER) of 2.6 × 10-3, well pass the forward error correction (FEC) criterion, were obtained. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  9. Wireless Data Transmission at Terahertz Carrier Waves Generated from a Hybrid InP-Polymer Dual Tunable DBR Laser Photonic Integrated Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Hisatake, Shintaro; de Felipe, David; Guzman, Robinson; Nagatsuma, Tadao; Keil, Norbert

    2018-02-14

    We report for the first time the successful wavelength stabilization of two hybrid integrated InP/Polymer DBR lasers through optical injection. The two InP/Polymer DBR lasers are integrated into a photonic integrated circuit, providing an ideal source for millimeter and Terahertz wave generation by optical heterodyne technique. These lasers offer the widest tuning range of the carrier wave demonstrated to date up into the Terahertz range, about 20 nm (2.5 THz) on a single photonic integrated circuit. We demonstrate the application of this source to generate a carrier wave at 330 GHz to establish a wireless data transmission link at a data rate up to 18 Gbit/s. Using a coherent detection scheme we increase the sensitivity by more than 10 dB over direct detection.

  10. 4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2015-08-26

    We experimentally demonstrate an underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) employing 450-nm TO-9 packaged and fiberpigtailed laser diode (LD) directly encoded with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM-OFDM) data. A record data rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s over 5.4-m transmission distance is achieved. By encoding the full 1.2-GHz bandwidth of the 450-nm LD with a 16-QAM-OFDM data, an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 16.5%, a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 15.63 dB and a bit error rate (BER) of 2.6 × 10-3, well pass the forward error correction (FEC) criterion, were obtained. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  11. Wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed.

  12. Multistandard wireless transmission over SSMF and large-core POF for access and in-home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Morant, M.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Llorente, R.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    An end-to-end transmission of coexisting multistandard radio (LTE, WiMAX, and UWB) signals is demonstrated for the first time with the transmission over a combined access and in-home networks consisting of 25-km SSMF, 25-m large-core diameter polymethylmethacrylate graded-index plastic optical fiber

  13. Alarm personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunomiya, Tomoya; Yamauchi, Hideshi; Shibata, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Fuji Electric advanced the development of the conventional alarm personal dosemeter (APD) by adopting JIS Z 4312 (2002), which reflects IEC61526 (1998), and by improving the radiation performance characteristics, electromagnetic performance characteristics and mechanical performance characteristics of the APD (acquiring a CE marking). This new dosemeter will target overseas market in the future. The APD is a suitable dosemeter for detecting and monitoring radiation exposure to personnel working in the controlled areas of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power stations. The APD product line includes 'gamma ray', 'gamma ray + beta ray' and 'gamma ray + neutron' models. (author)

  14. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  15. REVIEW OF WIRELESS MIMO CHANNEL MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    MIMO wireless system, the transmitted signal interacts ... delay spread information, power delay profile, angle of arrival and ... With the advent of the MIMO wireless systems, there arose a ..... associated with channel transmission and reception.

  16. Alarm pocket dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, H; Kitamura, S [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    This instrument is a highly reliable pocket dosimeter which has been developed for personal monitoring use. The dosimeter generates an alarm sound when the exposure dose reaches a preset value. Using a tiny GM tube for a radiation detector and measuring the integrated dose by means of a digital counting method, this new pocket dosimeter has high accuracy and stability. Using a sealed alkali storage battery for the power supply, and with an automatic control charger, this dosimetry system is easy and economical to operate and maintain. Detectable radiation by the dosimeter are X and ..gamma.. rays. Standard preset dose values are 30, 50, 80 and 100 mR. Detection accuracy is betwen +10% and -20%. The dosimeter is continuously usable for more than 14 hours after charging for 2 hours. The dosimeter has the following features; good realiability, shock-proof loud and clear alarm sound, the battery charger also serves as a stock container for the dosimeters, and no switching operation required for the power supply due to the internal automatic switch. Therefore, the dosimetry system is very useful for personal monitoring management in many radiation industry establishments.

  17. Study of Wireless Transmission Protocol Technology for Use in Flight Line Environment to Assist the Data Loading and Downloading on Aircraft

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng, Ow

    2004-01-01

    ... into the use of wireless tmnsmission technology to complement or replace the manual method of loading the critical data file from the command station onto every F-16 aircraft, The present wireless technology...

  18. Dual-Level Security based Cyclic18 Steganographic Method and its Application for Secure Transmission of Keyframes during Wireless Capsule Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Khan; Sajjad, Muhammad; Baik, Sung Wook

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the problem of secure transmission of sensitive contents over the public network Internet is addressed by proposing a novel data hiding method in encrypted images with dual-level security. The secret information is divided into three blocks using a specific pattern, followed by an encryption mechanism based on the three-level encryption algorithm (TLEA). The input image is scrambled using a secret key, and the encrypted sub-message blocks are then embedded in the scrambled image by cyclic18 least significant bit (LSB) substitution method, utilizing LSBs and intermediate LSB planes. Furthermore, the cover image and its planes are rotated at different angles using a secret key prior to embedding, deceiving the attacker during data extraction. The usage of message blocks division, TLEA, image scrambling, and the cyclic18 LSB method results in an advanced security system, maintaining the visual transparency of resultant images and increasing the security of embedded data. In addition, employing various secret keys for image scrambling, data encryption, and data hiding using the cyclic18 LSB method makes the data recovery comparatively more challenging for attackers. Experimental results not only validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in terms of visual quality and security compared to other state-of-the-art methods, but also suggest its feasibility for secure transmission of diagnostically important keyframes to healthcare centers and gastroenterologists during wireless capsule endoscopy.

  19. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-03-03

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  20. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Aamir; Lee, Malrey; Xiong, Neal Naixue; Jeong, Gisung; Lee, Young-Keun; Choi, Jae-Young; Mahesar, Abdul Wheed; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB) is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design. PMID:26950129

  1. A Secure, Intelligent, and Smart-Sensing Approach for Industrial System Automation and Transmission over Unsecured Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3 performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol. During disassembly and reassembling processes, the pseudo-transport layer keeps track of the bytes sequence. However, no mechanism is available that can verify the message or maintain the integrity of the bytes in the bytes received/transmitted from/to the data link layer or in the send/respond from the main controller/sensors. To properly and sequentially keep track of the bytes, a mechanism is required that can perform verification while bytes are received/transmitted from/to the lower layer of the DNP3 protocol or the send/respond to/from field sensors. For security and byte verification purposes, a mechanism needs to be proposed for the pseudo-transport layer, by employing cryptography algorithm. A dynamic choice security buffer (SB is designed and employed during the security development. To achieve the desired goals of the proposed study, a pseudo-transport layer stack model is designed using the DNP3 protocol open library and the security is deployed and tested, without changing the original design.

  2. Downlink Cooperative Broadcast Transmission Based on Superposition Coding in a Relaying System for Future Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Han, Guangjie; Shi, Sulong; Li, Zhengquan

    2018-06-20

    This study investigates the superiority of cooperative broadcast transmission over traditional orthogonal schemes when applied in a downlink relaying broadcast channel (RBC). Two proposed cooperative broadcast transmission protocols, one with an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay, and the other with a repetition-based decode-and-forward (DF) relay, are investigated. By utilizing superposition coding (SupC), the source and the relay transmit the private user messages simultaneously instead of sequentially as in traditional orthogonal schemes, which means the channel resources are reused and an increased channel degree of freedom is available to each user, hence the half-duplex penalty of relaying is alleviated. To facilitate a performance evaluation, theoretical outage probability expressions of the two broadcast transmission schemes are developed, based on which, we investigate the minimum total power consumption of each scheme for a given traffic requirement by numerical simulation. The results provide details on the overall system performance and fruitful insights on the essential characteristics of cooperative broadcast transmission in RBCs. It is observed that better overall outage performances and considerable power gains can be obtained by utilizing cooperative broadcast transmissions compared to traditional orthogonal schemes.

  3. Alarm management a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hollifield, Bill R

    2011-01-01

    In this second edition, Alarm Management: A Comprehensive Guide, various problems of alarm systems are covered with precise guidance on how they come about and how to effectively correct them. It is written by individuals with vast experience in the different plants, processes, and environments requiring effective alarm management. The second edition is filled with good examples and explanations of procedures, with practical lists and tips on how one should proceed. It is based on hundreds of successful projects.

  4. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  5. Alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Elm, W.C.; Lipner, M.H.; Butterworth, G.E.; Easter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    An alarm management system is described, comprising: a light water pressurized nuclear power plant; sensors coupled to the plant indicating the state of the plant; a sensor signal processor, operatively connected to the sensors, for producing state signals indicating the state of the sensors monitoring the power plant from the sensor signals and for combining the state signals using rule based algorithms to produce abnormality indication signals; a message processor, operatively connected to the sensor signal processor for receiving the abnormality indication signals; a spatially dedicated parallel display for each function, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the portion of the messages simultaneously; and a serial display, operatively connected to the message processor, for displaying the message in the queues in priority order within category within function upon request, the message processor outputting messages from the queue to the parallel display as display space becomes available on the parallel display due to an abnormality being resolved

  6. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  7. Pulse shaping for high data rate ultra-wideband wireless transmission under the Russian spectral emission mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmission under the Russian spectral emission mask for unlicensed UWB radio communications. Four pulse shapes are proposed and their bit error rate (BER) performance is both estimated analytically and evaluated experimentally. Well......-known shapes such as the Gaussian, root-raised cosine, hyperbolic secant, and the frequency B-spline wavelet are used to form linear combinations of component pulses, shaped to make efficient use of the spectral emission mask. Analytical BER values are derived using a Nakagami-m model, and good agreement......-UWB transmission under the strict regulations of the Russian spectral emission mask....

  8. Demonstration of fully functional MIMO wireless LAN transmission over GI-MMF for in-building networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, S.; Chen, H.; Huijskens, F.M.; Cao, Z.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a low-cost optically-fed architecture capable of increasing the capacity and overall coverage of IEEE 802.11n MIMO WLAN system for in-building networks. A fully functional transmission over GI-MMF was demonstrated employing 2×3 MIMO configuration.

  9. Line supervision of alarm communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chritton, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions

  10. A high-efficiency self-powered wireless sensor node for monitoring concerning vibratory events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dacheng; Li, Suiqiong; Li, Mengyang; Xie, Danpeng; Dong, Chuan; Li, Xinxin

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a self-powered wireless alarming sensor node (SWASN), which was designed to monitor the occurrence of concerning vibratory events. The major components of the sensor node include a vibration-threshold-triggered energy harvester (VTTEH) that powers the sensor node, a dual threshold voltage control circuit (DTVCC) for power management and a radio frequency (RF) signal transmitting module. The VTTEH generates significant electric energy only when the input vibration reaches certain amplitude. Thus, the VTTEH serves as both the power source and the vibration-event-sensing element for the sensor node. The DTVCC was specifically designed to utilize the limited power supply from the VTTEH to operate the sensor node. Constructed with only voltage detectors and MOSFETs, the DTVCC achieved low power consumption, which was 65% lower compared with the power management circuit designed in our previous work. Meanwhile, a RF transmit circuit was constructed based on the commercially available CC1110-F32 wireless transceiver chip and a compact planar antenna was designed to improve the signal transmission distance. The sensor node was fabricated and was characterized both in the laboratory and in the field. Experimental results showed that the SWASN could automatically send out alarming signals when the simulated concerning event occurred. The waiting time between two consecutive transmission periods is less than 125 s and the transmission distance can reach 1.31 km. The SWASN will have broad applications in field surveillances.

  11. Alarm processing - Ways to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirus, D [EDF - Septen Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleires, Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    1997-09-01

    After a brief presentation of the main characteristics an efficient alarm system should have, a presentation of the N4 alarm processing and presentation is described in terms of reduction in alarm occurrence, alarm handling and operator presentation. The EDF experiments on the future alarm processing expected for the next generation of the French nuclear plants are then presented. This alarm system will manage the alarms functionally in order to present to the operators the real consequences on the whole plant of a dedicated alarm and try to imbed deeply the alarm presentation within the operating formats and the procedures. (author).

  12. Alarm processing - Ways to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirus, D.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the main characteristics an efficient alarm system should have, a presentation of the N4 alarm processing and presentation is described in terms of reduction in alarm occurrence, alarm handling and operator presentation. The EDF experiments on the future alarm processing expected for the next generation of the French nuclear plants are then presented. This alarm system will manage the alarms functionally in order to present to the operators the real consequences on the whole plant of a dedicated alarm and try to imbed deeply the alarm presentation within the operating formats and the procedures. (author)

  13. Development of radiation alarm monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung Jae Song; Myung Chan Lee; Jung Kwan Son

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Alarm Monitor is developed domestically in order to protect radiation workers from over exposure. The Radiation Alarm Monitor with microprocessor installed can record the information of radiation field before and after accidents. It can also provide the data to analyze the accident and to set a counterplan. It features a wide detection range of radiation (I OmR/h - I OOR/h), radiation work and data storage, portability, high precision (5%) due to calibration, and adaptation of a powerful alarm system. In order to protect workers from over exposure, light and sound alarm had been designed to initiate when accident occurs such as an unexpected change of radiation field such as radiation rate and accumulated dosed between 90 min. before the alarm and 30 min. after the alarm. In addition, the Radiation Alarm Monitor interfaces with computer so that the accident can be analyzed. After the testing conditions in other countries for the Radiation Alarm Monitor were compared, the most stringent test, ANSI N42. 17-A, was selected. The performance testing was car-ried out under various conditions of temperature, humidity, vibration and electromagnetic wave hindrance by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). As a result, the Radiation Alan-n Monitor passed all test. Also, for the Radiation Alarm Monitor, environmental adaptability tests under the environmental conditions of NPP sites had been performed. The Radiation Alan-n Monitor had been reviewed by radiation workers at NPPs and their opinions had been collected. Operating procedure will be written and distributed to every NPP sites. Radiation Alarm Monitor will be modified for use under the specific environmental conditions of each site. It will be distributed to NPP sites and will be used by radiation workers

  14. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    In a critical alarm device comprising an n-number of radiation detectors and a 2/3 logic module, the 2/3 logic module comprises a rectifier inputting an output of an AC power and outputting it as a full wave-rectified, DC voltage, an analog/digital converter inputting the output from the rectifier, putting it to analog/digital conversion and continuously storing it into a memory, a latch circuit inputting critical signals from the 2/3 logic and holding them and outputting latch signals, and a means for outputting timing signals for data storage to a memory based on clocks at a predetermined period and outputting timing signals for stopping the data storage to the memory after passing a predetermined period from the inputting time point if the latch signals are inputted from the latch circuit. Then, judgement whether the generation of criticality is caused by an actual radiation detection or by noises from the power source is enabled, to provide extremely high reliability. (N.H.)

  15. Definition of an 802.11 Interface Management Process in a Proposed System for Transmission Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Köbel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 802.11-based wireless mesh networks (WMNs as last mile solutions frequently become bottlenecks in the overall Internet communication structure. The lack of end-to-end capacity on routes also affects vertical traffic coming from or flowing towards external networks, such as the Internet. The presented approach aims to increase the overall network performance by exploiting channel diversity and to additionally favor vertical traffic. To achieve this, first we propose a general system that modifies an existing mesh node architecture, in order to prepare a more efficient resource management and to enhance the restricted transmission capacity in standard WMNs. The parallel use of nonoverlapping channels, based on a multiradio node, marks the starting point. The system treats aspects of channel assignment, traffic analysis, and fast layer 2 forwarding. Then, the impact of a novel Multihop Radio Resource Management process is discussed as a relevant component of this new system architecture. The process combines per-hop priority queuing and load balancing in a novel way. It was designed, developed, and evaluated in the presented paper, resulting in the fact that capacity in WMNs was significantly increased, Quality-of-Service parameters were improved, and more efficient use of multiple radios could be reached. The proposed process was validated using a simulation approach.

  16. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  17. Cooperative wireless network control based health and activity monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Ganesh, A Balaji; Girish, Siva V

    2016-10-01

    A real-time cooperative communication based wireless network is presented for monitoring health and activity of an end-user in their environment. The cooperative communication offers better energy consumption and also an opportunity to aware the current location of a user non-intrusively. The link between mobile sensor node and relay node is dynamically established by using Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Link Quality Indicator (LQI) based on adaptive relay selection scheme. The study proposes a Linear Acceleration based Transmission Power Decision Control (LA-TPDC) algorithm to further enhance the energy efficiency of cooperative communication. Further, the occurrences of false alarms are carefully prevented by introducing three stages of sequential warning system. The real-time experiments are carried-out by using the nodes, namely mobile sensor node, relay nodes and a destination node which are indigenously developed by using a CC430 microcontroller integrated with an in-built transceiver at 868 MHz. The wireless node performance characteristics, such as energy consumption, Signal-Noise ratio (SNR), Bit Error Rate (BER), Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and transmission offset are evaluated for all the participated nodes. The experimental results observed that the proposed linear acceleration based transmission power decision control algorithm almost doubles the battery life time than energy efficient conventional cooperative communication.

  18. Multi-parameter vital sign database to assist in alarm optimization for general care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, James; Kanter, Benjamin; Skora, Brooke; McCombie, Scott; Henry, Isaac; McCombie, Devin; Kennedy, Rosemary; Soller, Babs

    2016-12-01

    Continual vital sign assessment on the general care, medical-surgical floor is expected to provide early indication of patient deterioration and increase the effectiveness of rapid response teams. However, there is concern that continual, multi-parameter vital sign monitoring will produce alarm fatigue. The objective of this study was the development of a methodology to help care teams optimize alarm settings. An on-body wireless monitoring system was used to continually assess heart rate, respiratory rate, SpO 2 and noninvasive blood pressure in the general ward of ten hospitals between April 1, 2014 and January 19, 2015. These data, 94,575 h for 3430 patients are contained in a large database, accessible with cloud computing tools. Simulation scenarios assessed the total alarm rate as a function of threshold and annunciation delay (s). The total alarm rate of ten alarms/patient/day predicted from the cloud-hosted database was the same as the total alarm rate for a 10 day evaluation (1550 h for 36 patients) in an independent hospital. Plots of vital sign distributions in the cloud-hosted database were similar to other large databases published by different authors. The cloud-hosted database can be used to run simulations for various alarm thresholds and annunciation delays to predict the total alarm burden experienced by nursing staff. This methodology might, in the future, be used to help reduce alarm fatigue without sacrificing the ability to continually monitor all vital signs.

  19. Some points of advanced alarm system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.

    1977-01-01

    A description of some of the more relevant questions relating to advanced alarm systems for nuclear power plant installations. The development of such alarm systems embodies three main tasks: development of formal alarm handling methods, design of alarm patterns, development of alarm analysis systems. The major aspects of these tests are dealt with and the close relation between the alarm analysis and the plant disturbance analysis procedure is emphasized. (author)

  20. Novel Concepts of Cooperative Wireless Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    ; secondly, the increasing density of the wireless devices makes cooperation possible; last, the cost of information exchange (i.e. transmission power, transmission time, spectrum, etc.) is very low if information exchange over short-range link is needed. Cooperation changes the way of information delivery......Although wireless networks have achieved great success in the lastest two decades, the current wireless networks have difficulties to fulll users' ever-increasing expectations and needs. It is mainly due to available spectrum resource scarcity, limited battery capacity of wireless device......, unreliable wireless radio link, etc. To tackle these issues, a new telecommunication paradigm has been proposed, referred to as cooperative wireless networking [1]. The basic idea of cooperative wireless networking is that wireless devices work together to achieve their individual goals or one common goal...

  1. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

  2. Energy-efficient wireless mesh infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, Y.; de Meer, Hermann; Hummel, Karin Anna; Meyer, Harald; Meo, Michela; Remondo Bueno, David

    2011-01-01

    The Internet comprises access segments with wired and wireless technologies. In the future, we can expect wireless mesh infrastructures (WMIs) to proliferate in this context. Due to the relatively low energy efficiency of wireless transmission, as compared to wired transmission, energy consumption of WMIs can represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the Internet as a whole. We explore different approaches to reduce energy consumption in WMIs, taking into accoun...

  3. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  4. Production of sensitivity and false alarm rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zijie; Kang Wu; Chu Chengsheng; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Cao Lin; Hu Yongbo; Gong Jian; Xiang Yongchun; Zhang Jianhua; Yang Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    The false alarm rate and sensitivity in nuclear material monitoring system are affected by alarm principle. Two different alarm principles are studied with theory and experiment analysis in this paper. Our research shows that theory analysis and experiment result are accordant very much. This study provides technology support for designing better alarm principle in nuclear material monitoring system. (authors)

  5. WiFi, multiband clipped LTE-A and Gbps 4-PAM simultaneous transmission over 50m Thick-core POF and wireless link for home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forni, F.; Shi, Y.; van den Boom, H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    An IEEE802.11n-compliant 40MHz WiFi, 9 bands 64-QAM LTE-A with reduced PAPR by clipping and 1.7Gb/s 4-PAM signals were successfully transmitted over 50m PMMA GI-POF and 12m wireless. This proves that POF is suitable for multi-standard wireless-wired in-home networks.

  6. Energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design for wireless smart sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Huang, Xiongchuan; Wang, Chao; Tae-Hyoung Kim, Tony; Lian, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless smart sensing is now widely used in various applications such as health monitoring and structural monitoring. In conventional wireless sensor nodes, significant power is consumed in wirelessly transmitting the raw data. Smart sensing adds local intelligence to the sensor node and reduces the amount of wireless data transmission via on-node digital signal processing. While the total power consumption is reduced compared to conventional wireless sensing, the power consumption of the digital processing becomes as dominant as wireless data transmission. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design techniques for reducing the power consumption of the wireless smart sensor node to prolong battery life and enable self-powered applications.

  7. Wireless Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Wireless Access. Wireless connect to the Base station. Easy and Convenient access. Costlier as compared to the wired technology. Reliability challenges. We see it as a complementary technology to the DSL.

  8. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, Kay; Chen, Xihui; Danilova, Ekaterina N.

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good 'alarm philosophy' on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  9. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  10. Single-Carrier Dual-Polarization 328-Gb/s Wireless Transmission in a D-Band Millimeter Wave 2 x 2 MU-MIMO Radio-Over-Fiber System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta, Rafael; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying

    2018-01-01

    Next generation wireless communication systems face many challenges to increase the capacity and spectral efficiency of current solutions. The worldwide mobile data traffic increased 4000-fold over the last decade, and is forecast a 7-fold increase between 2016 and 2021. To cope with these string......Next generation wireless communication systems face many challenges to increase the capacity and spectral efficiency of current solutions. The worldwide mobile data traffic increased 4000-fold over the last decade, and is forecast a 7-fold increase between 2016 and 2021. To cope...... with these stringent demands, prospective solutions are millimeter-wave (mmWave) technology and ultradense small cell networks, given that today most of the mobile traffic is offloaded from mobile networks, i.e., most of mobile users are connected to fixed networks. In addition, enabled by the fast development...... of electronics, digital signal processing has become essential to enhance the capacity and the performance of current communication systems. In this paper, by using the benefits of multiband modulation schemes and independent sideband (ISB) modulation, high-speed mmWave wireless transmissions in the D-band (110...

  11. Pervasive wireless environments

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jie; Trappe, Wade; Cheng, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief provides a new approach to prevent user spoofing by using the physical properties associated with wireless transmissions to detect the presence of user spoofing. The most common method, applying cryptographic authentication, requires additional management and computational power that cannot be deployed consistently. The authors present the new approach by offering a summary of the recent research and exploring the benefits and potential challenges of this method. This brief discusses the feasibility of launching user spoofing attacks and their impact on the wireless and sen

  12. Object oriented design in the AGSDCS alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The alarm subsystem of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Distributed Control System (AGSDCS) has been redesigned to enhance reliability, flexibility, and ease of maintenance. The alarm system is functionally divided into Alarm Generators, Alarm Displays, and a central Alarm Receiver. The task was simplified by defining a set of C++ classes that could be reused by all components of the alarm system. The AlarmData class represents instances of alarm conditions. The AlarmFilter class is used by both the Alarm Receiver and Alarm Displays to select the alarms that are of interest to a particular user. The AlarmDatabase class is used by the Alarm Receiver to manage the central alarm database. The Alarm Displays use the AlarmDatabase class to manage the local database representing the alarms on their screens. ((orig.))

  13. False Alarms and Overmonitoring: Major Factors in Alarm Fatigue Among Labor Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Lyndon, Audrey

    2018-06-08

    Nurses can be exposed to hundreds of alarms during their shift, contributing to alarm fatigue. The purposes were to explore similarities and differences in perceptions of clinical alarms by labor nurses caring for generally healthy women compared with perceptions of adult intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal ICU nurses caring for critically ill patients and to seek nurses' suggestions for potential improvements. Nurses were asked via focus groups about the utility of clinical alarms from medical devices. There was consensus that false alarms and too many devices generating alarms contributed to alarm fatigue, and most alarms lacked clinical relevance. Nurses identified certain types of alarms that they responded to immediately, but the vast majority of the alarms did not contribute to their clinical assessment or planned nursing care. Monitoring only those patients who need it and only those physiologic values that are warranted, based on patient condition, may decrease alarm burden.

  14. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  15. Wireless communications resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, B; Seo, H

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies continue to evolve to address the insatiable demand for faster response times, larger bandwidth, and reliable transmission. Yet as the industry moves toward the development of post 3G systems, engineers have consumed all the affordable physical layer technologies discovered to date. This has necessitated more intelligent and optimized utilization of available wireless resources. Wireless Communications Resource Managem ent, Lee, Park, and Seo cover all aspects of this critical topic, from the preliminary concepts and mathematical tools to detailed descriptions of all the resource management techniques. Readers will be able to more effectively leverage limited spectrum and maximize device battery power, as well as address channel loss, shadowing, and multipath fading phenomena.

  16. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  17. Fire auto alarm system intelligent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Chengbao

    1997-01-01

    The author gives the course and trend of the fire alarm system going to more computerized and more intelligent. It is described that only the system applied artificial intelligent and confusion control is the true intelligent fire alarm system. The author gives the detailed analysis on the signal treatment of artificial intelligent applied to analogue fire alarm system as well as the alarm system controlled by confusion technology and artificial nervous net

  18. Systems analysis of a security alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.

    1975-01-01

    When the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory found that its security alarm system was causing more false alarms and maintenance costs than LLL felt was tolerable, a systems analysis was undertaken to determine what should be done about the situation. This report contains an analysis of security alarm systems in general and ends with a review of the existing Security Alarm Control Console (SACC) and recommendations for its improvement, growth and change. (U.S.)

  19. F-band millimeter-wave signal generation for wireless link data transmission using on-chip photonic integrated dual-wavelength sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzman, Robinson; Carpintero, G.; Gordon Gallegos, Carlos; Lawniczuk, Katarzyna; Leijtens, Xaveer

    2015-01-01

    Millimeter-waves (30-300 GHz) have interest due to the wide bandwidths available for carrying information, enabling broadband wireless communications. Photonics is a key technology for millimeter wave signal generation, recently demonstrating the use of photonic integration to reduce size and cost.

  20. Fiber Wireless Transmission of 8.3 Gb/s/ch QPSK-OFDM Signals in 75-110 GHz Band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Beltrán Ramírez, Marta; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a scalable high speed Wband (75-110 GHz) fiber wireless communication system. By using an optical frequency comb generator, 3-channel 8.3 Gb/s/ch optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) baseband signals in a 15 GHz bandwidth are seamlessly translated f...

  1. 46 CFR 76.15-30 - Alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than paint and lamp lockers and similar small spaces, shall be fitted with an approved audible alarm in... required to be fitted with a delayed discharge. Such alarms shall be so arranged as to sound during the 20 second delay period prior to the discharge of carbon dioxide into the space, and the alarm shall depend...

  2. Wireless data link for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, M.K.; Prabhakara Rao, G.; Ilango Sambasivan, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Ramakrishna, P.V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a wireless data link for transmission of block pile signals at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research (IGCAR). This link is to establish wireless connectivity, typically at RS232C rates, over distances of the order of 50 m, and is expected to operate under electrically hostile conditions. (author)

  3. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.W. Markman

    2001-01-01

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  4. Space power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuribayashi, Shizuma [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan)

    1989-10-05

    There being a conception to utilize solar energy by use of a space power station (SPS), a method to bring that universal grace to mankind is wireless energy transmission. The wireless energy transmission is regarded to be microwave transmission or laser beam transmission. The microwave transmission is to transmit 2.45GHz band microwave from the SPS to a receiving station on the ground to meet power demand on earth. The microwave, as small in attenuation in atmosphere and resistant against rain and cloud, is made candidate and, however, problematic in influence on organism, necessary large area of receiving antenna and many other points to be studied. While the laser transmission, as more convergent of beam than the microwave transmission, is advantageous with enabling the receiving area to be small and, however, disadvantageous with being not resistant against dust, rain and cloud, if used for the energy transmission between the space and earth. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. From early wireless to Everest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1998-01-01

    Medical information has been transmitted using wireless technologies for almost 80 years. A "wired wireless" electronic stethoscope was developed by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in the early 1920's, for potential use in ship-to-shore transmission of cardiac sounds. [Winters SR. Diagnosis by wireless. Scientific American June 11, 1921, p. 465] Today, wireless is used in a wide range of medical applications and at sites from transoceanic air flights to offshore oil platforms to Mt. Everest. 'Wireless LANs' are often used in medical environments. Typically, nurses and physicians in a hospital or clinic use hand-held "wireless thin client" pen computers that exchange patient information and images with the hospital server. Numerous companies, such as Fujitsu (article below) and Cruise Technologies (www.cruisetech.com) manufacture handheld pen-entry computers. One company, LXE, integrates radio-frequency (RF) enhanced hand-held computers specifically designed for production use within a wireless LAN (www.lxe.com). Other companies (Proxim, Symbol, and others) supply the wireless RF LAN infrastructure for the enterprise. Unfortunately, there have been problems with widespread deployment of wireless LANs. Perhaps the biggest impediment has been the lack of standards. Although an international standard (IEEE 802.11) was adopted in 1997, most wireless LAN products still are not compatible with the equipment of competing companies. A problem with the current standard for LAN adapters is that throughput is limited to 3 Mbps--compared to at least 10 Mbps, and often 100 Mbps, in a hard-wired Ethernet LAN. An II Mbps standard is due out in the next year or so, but it will be at least 2 years before standards-compliant products are available. This story profiles some of the ways that wireless is being used to overcome gaps in terrestrial and within-enterprise communication.

  6. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  7. Ionization smoke detector and alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector particularly suited to residential use is disclosed. The detector is battery-operated and is connected with a non-latching, pulsating alarm circuit. The detector has a sensing chamber formed by a perforated metallic shell and an electrode within which an insulated radiation source is centrally positioned to generate an ionization current for detecting smoke or other similar aerosols. The alarm circuit provides a pulsating alarm signal when smoke levels above a pre-determined value are sensed. The alarm circuit also includes a low voltage detection circuit for sounding the alarm when the end of useful battery life is approaching. (Auth.)

  8. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  9. A questionnaire comparison of two alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Steven G.

    1997-11-01

    A questionnaire was developed, based on guidelines for alarm system design given in NUREG/CR-6105. The intentions were both to develop a subjective instrument for rating the effectiveness of alarm systems and to learn lessons on alarm system design from a comparison of two systems. The questionnaire was administered to reactor operations staff at two locations with different alarm systems embedded in a simulation of the same underlying PWR power plant: Loviisa NPP and Halden Man-Machine Laboratory. The questionnaire, considered as a measuring instrument, had good to high reliability and moderate to good content validity. The questionnaire is considered suitable for further use in the shortened form resulting from this study. Further work is also recommended. The degree of reliability and validity also lend a degree of validation to the NUREG guidelines. The questionnaire was able to show differences between ratings of the two alarm systems. The Loviisa system showed more consistency with other control room features and was better at drawing the operators' attention to important alarms. Both systems were not rated particularly well on alarm prioritisation and spurious alarms. The Halden system was better at showing naturally occurring relationships between alarms. Some of these differences may have been due to the subjects' greater familiarity with the Loviisa alarm system. The results nevertheless show that the questionnaire can measure subjective responses to alarm systems. (author)

  10. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohoma (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ``Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels``. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Evaluating alternative responses to safeguards alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alarms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to have stolen special nuclear material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms

  12. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yuji; Saito, Koji

    1997-01-01

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ''Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels''. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  13. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  14. Compact wideband CMOS receiver frontends for wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaakmeer, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wireless communication is an integral part of our daily life, the mobile phone is an example of a very popular wireless communication device. A communication link consists of a transmitter, a receiver and the transmission medium, which air or vacuum for a wireless link. Part of the receiver

  15. Wireless Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Zarki, M.; Heijenk, Geert; Lee, Kenneth S.; Bidgoli, H.

    This chapter addresses the topic of wireless Internet, the extension of the wireline Internet architecture to the wireless domain. As such the chapter introduces the reader to the dominant characteristics of the Internet, from its structure to the protocols that control the forwarding of data and

  16. Nuclear data transmission based on zigbee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Yan; Fang Fang; Chen Wei; Jiang Zancheng

    2007-01-01

    Zigbee, a new wireless communication protocol, which is an important technology supporting wireless sensor networks. We introduce a solution of nuclear data transmission based on zigbee, the cc2420 build up the core of the data acquisition module and the wireless transceive module, and realized remote monitor and nuclear data quickly analysis. (authors)

  17. An alarm multiplexer communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A low cost Alarm Multiplexer Communication System (AMCS) has been developed to perform the security sensor monitoring and control functions and to provide remote relay control capability for integrated security systems. AMCS has a distributed multiplexer/repeater architecture with up to four dual communication loops and dual control computers that guarantee total system operation under any single point failure condition. Each AMCS can control up to 4096 sensors and 2048 remote relays. AMCS reports alarm status information to and is controlled by either one or two Host computers. This allows for independent operation of primary and backup security command centers. AMCS communicates with the Host computers over an asynchronous serial communication link and has a message protocol which allows AMCS to fully recover from lost messages or large blocks of data communication errors. This paper describes the AMCS theory of operation, AMCS fault modes, and AMCS system design methodology. Also, cost and timing information is presented. AMCS is being used and considered for several DOE and DOD facilities

  18. Ecological alarm system for Itaipu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehser, L.

    1984-05-01

    At Itaipu, on the Rio Parana, Brazil and Paraguay are constructing the world's largest hydro-electric power plant with a capacity seven times as high as that of Assuan. An information system is intended to give fair warning in case of threatening ecological conditions. The computer-supported alarm system had four objectives: 1. presentation of the present ecological situation; 2. evaluation of the ecological risks; 3. warning about ecological deficits; 4. suggestions for establishing ecological stability. In a first step the available inventory data concerning soil, topography, vegetation and water were evaluated by expert groups according to their risk grade (0-4) and ecological weight (1-10). The product of these evaluations indicates the ecological deficit (0-40). At a threshold value of 30, the information system automatically signals ecological alarm and locates the centre of danger via computer-plotted maps and tables. The necessary data are supplied periodically by selected measurement stations. Quantification of ecological facts enables the persons who are responsible for decisions at Itaipu to recognize, avoid, or diminish elements of danger even if they have little or no ecological knowledge. The file of data that has been compiled so far should be extended parallel with the development in the Itaipu area. With the help of factor analysis connections of cause and effect can be detected in this extremely complex reservoir system which has hardly been explored yet.

  19. Technical Challenges Hindering Development of Robust Wireless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... challenges remain to be resolved, in designing robust wireless networks that can deliver the performance ... demonstrated the first radio transmission from the Isle of ... distances with better quality, less power, and smaller ...

  20. BLUETOOTH WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY: A MILESTONE IN ICT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    This article summarizes the Bluetooth technology – a type of Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) with emphasis ... facilitating data transmission over short distances from fixed and ... primarily designed for low power consumption, with a.

  1. Urethral alarm probe for permanent prostate implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutajar, D.; Lerch, M.; Takacs, G.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a urethral dosimetry system for real time dose verification along the urethra during permanent implant prostate brachytherapy. The urethral alarm uses 'spectroscopic dosimetry' to calculate the dose rate along the urethra in real time. The application of spectroscopic dosimetry for the urethral alarm probe was verified using Monte Carlo calculations. In phantom depth dose measurements as well as isotropy measurements were performed to verify the usefulness of the urethra alarm probe as an in vivo real time dosimeter. (author)

  2. Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmit Diversity is an effective methodology for improving the quality and reliability of a wireless network by reducingthe effects of fading. As majority of the wireless devices (i.e. mobile handsets, etc are limited to only one antenna, especiallydue to hardware constraints, size and cost factors; cooperative communication can be utilized in order to generatetransmit diversity [1]. This enables single antenna wireless devices to share their antennas during transmission in such amanner that creates a virtual MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output system [2] [3]. In this paper, we will analyze therecent developments and trends in this promising area of wireless Ad hoc networks. The article will also discuss variousmain cooperative signaling methods and will also observe their performance.

  3. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  4. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  5. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  6. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  7. Introductory survey for wireless infrared communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munsif Ali Jatoi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless infrared communications can be defined as the propagation of light waves in free space using infrared radiation whose range is 400–700 nm. This range corresponds to frequencies of hundreds of terahertz, which is high for higher data rate applications. Wireless infrared is applied for higher data rates applications such as wireless computing, wireless video and wireless multimedia communication applications. Introduced by Gfeller, this field has grown with different link configurations, improved transmitter efficiency, increased receiver responsivity and various multiple access techniques for improved quality. Errors are caused because of background light, which causes degradation overall system performance. Error correction techniques are used to remove the errors caused during transmission. This study provides a brief account on field theory used for error correction in wireless infrared systems. The results are produced in terms of bit error rate and signal-to-noise ratio for various bit lengths to show the ability of encoding and decoding algorithms.

  8. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging

  9. Wireless Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    completely change the entire landscape. For example, under the quantum computing regime, factoring prime numbers requires only polynomial time (i.e., Shor’s...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0206 Wireless Cybersecurity Biao Chen Syracuse University April 2013 Final Report DISTRIBUTION A...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 21-02-2013 FINAL REPORT 01-04-2009 TO 30-11-2012 Wireless Cybersecurity

  10. Simultaneous transmission of 256-QAM WIMAX at 5.7GHz and optically generated impulse radio UWB over fiber for indoor wireless multi-services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Yin, Xiaoli; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2010-01-01

    Fiber transmission of simultaneous optically generated FCC compliant 625Mbps impulse radio UWB and 80Mbps 256-QAM IEEE 802.16 WIMAX signals is experimentally demonstrated by using a single directly modulated light source.......Fiber transmission of simultaneous optically generated FCC compliant 625Mbps impulse radio UWB and 80Mbps 256-QAM IEEE 802.16 WIMAX signals is experimentally demonstrated by using a single directly modulated light source....

  11. The CANDU alarm analysis tool (CAAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, E C; Feher, M P; Lupton, L R [Control Centre Technology Branch, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    AECL undertook the development of a software tool to assist alarm system designers and maintainers based on feedback from several utilities and design groups. The software application is called the CANDU Alarm Analysis Tool (CAAT) and is being developed to: Reduce by one half the effort required to initially implement and commission alarm system improvements; improve the operational relevance, consistency and accuracy of station alarm information; record the basis for alarm-related decisions; provide printed reports of the current alarm configuration; and, make day-to-day maintenance of the alarm database less tedious and more cost-effective. The CAAT assists users in accessing, sorting and recording relevant information, design rules, decisions, and provides reports in support of alarm system maintenance, analysis of design changes, or regulatory inquiry. The paper discusses the need for such a tool, outlines the application objectives and principles used to guide tool development, describes the how specific tool features support user design and maintenance tasks, and relates the lessons learned from early application experience. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs.

  12. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  13. T-Farm complex alarm upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

  14. The CANDU alarm analysis tool (CAAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Feher, M.P.; Lupton, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    AECL undertook the development of a software tool to assist alarm system designers and maintainers based on feedback from several utilities and design groups. The software application is called the CANDU Alarm Analysis Tool (CAAT) and is being developed to: Reduce by one half the effort required to initially implement and commission alarm system improvements; improve the operational relevance, consistency and accuracy of station alarm information; record the basis for alarm-related decisions; provide printed reports of the current alarm configuration; and, make day-to-day maintenance of the alarm database less tedious and more cost-effective. The CAAT assists users in accessing, sorting and recording relevant information, design rules, decisions, and provides reports in support of alarm system maintenance, analysis of design changes, or regulatory inquiry. The paper discusses the need for such a tool, outlines the application objectives and principles used to guide tool development, describes the how specific tool features support user design and maintenance tasks, and relates the lessons learned from early application experience. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  15. Reliable and Efficient Communications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhakim, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a key technology for a wide range of military and civilian applications. Limited by the energy resources and processing capabilities of the sensor nodes, reliable and efficient communications in wireless sensor networks are challenging, especially when the sensors are deployed in hostile environments. This research aims to improve the reliability and efficiency of time-critical communications in WSNs, under both benign and hostile environments. We start with wireless sensor network with mobile access points (SENMA), where the mobile access points traverse the network to collect information from individual sensors. Due to its routing simplicity and energy efficiency, SENMA has attracted lots of attention from the research community. Here, we study reliable distributed detection in SENMA under Byzantine attacks, where some authenticated sensors are compromised to report fictitious information. The q-out-of-m rule is considered. It is popular in distributed detection and can achieve a good trade-off between the miss detection probability and the false alarm rate. However, a major limitation with this rule is that the optimal scheme parameters can only be obtained through exhaustive search. By exploiting the linear relationship between the scheme parameters and the network size, we propose simple but effective sub-optimal linear approaches. Then, for better flexibility and scalability, we derive a near-optimal closed-form solution based on the central limit theorem. It is proved that the false alarm rate of the q-out-of-m scheme diminishes exponentially as the network size increases, even if the percentage of malicious nodes remains fixed. This implies that large-scale sensor networks are more reliable under malicious attacks. To further improve the performance under time varying attacks, we propose an effective malicious node detection scheme for adaptive data fusion; the proposed scheme is analyzed using the entropy-based trust model

  16. Fully Implantable Deep Brain Stimulation System with Wireless Power Transmission for Long-term Use in Rodent Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Man Seung; Moon, Hyun Seok; Kim, Hee Chan; Park, Hyung Woo; Lim, Young Hoon; Paek, Sun Ha

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study to develop new deep-brain stimulation system for long-term use in animals, in order to develop a variety of neural prostheses. Our system has two distinguished features, which are the fully implanted system having wearable wireless power transfer and ability to change the parameter of stimulus parameter. It is useful for obtaining a variety of data from a long-term experiment. To validate our system, we performed pre-clinical test in Parkinson's disease-rat models for 4 weeks. Through the in vivo test, we observed the possibility of not only long-term implantation and stability, but also free movement of animals. We confirmed that the electrical stimulation neither caused any side effect nor damaged the electrodes. We proved possibility of our system to conduct the long-term pre-clinical test in variety of parameter, which is available for development of neural prostheses.

  17. Useful and usable alarm systems : recommended properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.

    2001-01-01

    This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)

  18. Alarm processing system using AI techniques for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon On; Chang, Soon Heung

    1990-01-01

    An alarm processing system (APS) has been developed using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The alarms of nuclear power plants (NPP's) are classified into the generalized and special alarms. The generalized alarms are also classified into the global and local alarms. For each type of alarms, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The local processing are based on 'model-based reasoning.' The global and special alarms are processed by using the general cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to the plant state and the consistencies between them

  19. Improvement The Transmission Efficiency For Wireless Packet Communication Systems Using Automatic Control for power And Time Slot Width Of Slotted Non persistent ISMA Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad M. Hardan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In packed communication systems which use a protocol, the protocol should perform the allocation of channels such that the transmission channel is used efficiently. Efficiency is usually measured in terms of channel throughput and the average transmission  delay. The Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol is one of random access protocols used in packed communication systems. In this research a Slotted Nonpersistent ISMA protocol Model with automatic control for power and time slot is proposed. the suggested algorithm enable the base station(access point to control  the protocol time slot length and  transmission power in a dynamic way to control the normalized propagation delay d and to maintain all the uplink signals in the limit of captured power threshold (capture ratio in order to control the  throughput and the average transmission delay of the communication system by an automatic method. the computer simulation results  confirm the activity of the  proposed algorithm for increasing the  throughput and decreasing the average transmission delay by an accepted ratios.

  20. Sleep Scheduling in Critical Event Monitoring with Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Peng; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Kui

    In this paper, we focus on the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for critical event monitoring, where normally there are only small number of packets need to be transmitted, while when urgent event occurs, the alarm should be broadcast to the entire network as soon as possible. During

  1. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households.

  2. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drexler, J E; Oicese, G O [INVAP S.E. (Argentina)

    1997-09-01

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ``Reactor Alarm System`` (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: (a) Alarm Panel Display; (b) Alarm Page; (c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; (d) Alarms Color and Attributes; (e) Condition Classification; and (f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: (a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; (b) Improved alarm handling; (c) Extended dictionary; and (d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs.

  3. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, J.E.; Oicese, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ''Reactor Alarm System'' (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: a) Alarm Panel Display; b) Alarm Page; c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; d) Alarms Color and Attributes; e) Condition Classification; and f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; b) Improved alarm handling; c) Extended dictionary; and d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs

  4. Feasibility of space-division-multiplexed transmission of IEEE 802.11 n/ac-compliant wireless MIMO signals over OM3 multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yi; Li, Jianqiang; Meng, Ziyi; Wu, Rui; Wan, Zhiquan; Fan, Yuting; Zhang, Wenjia; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of space-division-multiplexed 3 × 3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission over a single OM3 multimode fiber (MMF) using commercial IEEE 802.11 n/ac access points. Throughput performance for different fiber length links

  5. Space-division-multiplexed transmission of 3x3 multiple-input multiple-output wireless signals over conventional graded-index multimode fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yi; Li, Jianqiang; Fan, Yuting; Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Yin, Feifei; Dai, Yitang; Xu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of IEEE 802.11ac-compliant 3-spatial-stream WLAN signals over 3 spatial modes of conventional 50um graded-index (GI) multimode fiber (MMF) employing non-mode-selective 3D-waveguide photonic lantern. Two kinds

  6. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.C.

    1987-05-01

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment

  7. Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov; Gattiker, James R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Myers, Kary [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tompkins, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Risk Analysis and Decision Support Systems, Stop F609, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for ratios of counts, analysis of a ratio criterion is included. Detection probability results that consider the effects of 5 factors are given for 2 signal-injection studies, 1 for counts, and 1 for count ratios.

  8. Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Tom; Gattiker, James R.; Myers, Kary; Tompkins, George

    2007-01-01

    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for ratios of counts, analysis of a ratio criterion is included. Detection probability results that consider the effects of 5 factors are given for 2 signal-injection studies, 1 for counts, and 1 for count ratios

  9. Wallac automatic alarm dosimeter type RAD21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P. H.; Iles, W.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Automatic Alarm Dosimeter type RAD 21 is a batterypowered personal dosemeter and exposure rate alarm monitor, designed to be worn on the body, covering an exposure range from 0.1 to 999.9 mR and has an audible alarm which can be pre-set over the range 1 mR h -1 to 250 mR h -1 . The instrument is designed to measure x- and γ radiation over the energy range 50 keV to 3 MeV. The facilities and controls, the radiation, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics, and the manual, have been evaluated. (U.K.)

  10. Real-Time Video Transmission Over Different Underwater Wireless Optical Channels Using a Directly Modulated 520  nm Laser Diode

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ooi, Boon S.; Shihada, Basem

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high-quality real-time video streaming over an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) link up to 5 m distance using phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes. The communication system uses software defined platforms connected to a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the receiver. To simulate various underwater channels, we perform laboratory experiments on clear, coastal, harbor I, and harbor II ocean water types. The measured bit error rates of the received video streams are 1.0×10−9 for QPSK, 4-QAM, and 8-QAM and 9.9×10−9 for 8-PSK. We further evaluate the quality of the received live video images using structural similarity and achieve values of about 0.9 for the first three water types, and about 0.7 for harbor II. To the best of our knowledge, these results present the highest quality video streaming ever achieved in UWOC systems that resemble communication channels in real ocean water environments.

  11. Real-Time Video Transmission Over Different Underwater Wireless Optical Channels Using a Directly Modulated 520  nm Laser Diode

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2017-09-13

    We experimentally demonstrate high-quality real-time video streaming over an underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) link up to 5 m distance using phase-shift keying (PSK) modulation and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes. The communication system uses software defined platforms connected to a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the receiver. To simulate various underwater channels, we perform laboratory experiments on clear, coastal, harbor I, and harbor II ocean water types. The measured bit error rates of the received video streams are 1.0×10−9 for QPSK, 4-QAM, and 8-QAM and 9.9×10−9 for 8-PSK. We further evaluate the quality of the received live video images using structural similarity and achieve values of about 0.9 for the first three water types, and about 0.7 for harbor II. To the best of our knowledge, these results present the highest quality video streaming ever achieved in UWOC systems that resemble communication channels in real ocean water environments.

  12. Artificial intelligence in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Rondeau, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    This cutting-edge resource offers practical overview of cognitive radio, a paradigm for wireless communications in which a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters. The alteration of parameters is based on the active monitoring of several factors in the external and internal radio environment. This book offers a detailed description of cognitive radio and its individual parts. Practitioners learn how the basic processing elements and their capabilities are implemented as modular components. Moreover, the book explains how each component can be developed and t

  13. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  14. Wireless battery management control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumstein, James M.; Chang, John T.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Kovotsky, Jack; Lavietes, Anthony; Trebes, James Edward

    2018-01-16

    A battery management system using a sensor inside of the battery that sensor enables monitoring and detection of various events in the battery and transmission of a signal from the sensor through the battery casing to a control and data acquisition module by wireless transmission. The detection of threshold events in the battery enables remedial action to be taken to avoid catastrophic events.

  15. Intelligent sensors and actuators. Autonomous solar input and wireless data transmission. Intelligente Sensoren und Aktoren. Autonome Solar-Versorgung und drahtlose Datenuebertragung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, W; Mores, R [Transferzentrum Furtwangen (Germany)

    1991-09-03

    Sensors are referred to as intelligent if they evaluate the results immediately internally. A micro server as a rule is responsible for it. Sensors can be implemented with extremely low power dissipation. If they are supplied with energy over optical waveguide, they can even work potentialfree. Battery-fed or solar-fed intelligent sensors with data transmission viaer infrared light or UHF record measured values with standard time. They are bus-capable and allow a mobile application without interfering cables. (orig.).

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy; alarming variables for postoperative bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawan H.A. Said

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: According to our present results stone complexity (GSS grade 3 and 4, history of ipsilateral renal stone surgery, and occurrence of intraoperative pelvicalyceal perforation are alarming variables for post-PCNL bleeding.

  17. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, E C; Basso, R A; Feher, M P [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Basso, R.A.; Feher, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  19. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  20. Wireless Tots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lee-Allison

    2003-01-01

    The first wireless technology program for preschoolers was implemented in January at the Primrose School at Bentwater in Atlanta, Georgia, a new corporate school operated by Primrose School Franchising Co. The new school serves as a testing and training facility for groundbreaking educational approaches, including emerging innovations in…

  1. Wireless Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest areas in technology is invisible. Wireless communications allow people to transmit voice messages, data, and other signals through the air without physically connecting senders to receivers with cables or wires. And the technology is spreading at lightning speed. Cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and wireless…

  2. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  3. Voice Quality Estimation in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Zach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of Wireless (Wi-Fi networks on the perceived quality of voice services. The Quality of Service (QoS metrics must be monitored in the computer network during the voice data transmission to ensure proper voice service quality the end-user has paid for, especially in the wireless networks. In addition to the QoS, research area called Quality of Experience (QoE provides metrics and methods for quality evaluation from the end-user’s perspective. This article focuses on a QoE estimation of Voice over IP (VoIP calls in the wireless networks using network simulator. Results contribute to voice quality estimation based on characteristics of the wireless network and location of a wireless client.

  4. Wireless Transmission Intelligent Instrument Design and Development of the FSC Racing Car%FSC赛车无线通讯智能仪表的设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建国; 甘永超; 王保华

    2014-01-01

    FSC赛车智能仪表是反映赛车技术水平的内容之一。基于无线传输技术,设计了一种无线传输的赛车智能仪表,开发了智能仪表硬件控制器和软件程序,并进行了智能仪表功能调试和性能调试,完成了智能仪表的实车性能测试和功能评价。经过一系列试验和测试,智能仪表工作可靠,达到了设计要求,实现了设计目标。%FSC racing intelligent instrument is a reflection of the technical level of the contents of the car. Based on wireless transmission technology, a kind of intelligent instrument of the racing car has been designed. Its hardware controller and software program have been developed. Further the function and performance testing of the intelligent instrument have been carried out. And the vehicle performance testing and functional evaluation of intelligent instrument have been completed. The result of the experiments and tests shows that the intelligent instrument works reliable and meets the design requirements;the design goal is achieved.

  5. Wireless Sensor Network for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality monitoring system consists of wireless sensor device, nRF24L01 wireless transceiver modules, C8051MCU, STM32103 remote monitoring platform, alarm device and data server. Distributed in the interior space of wireless sensors measure parameters of the local air quality, wireless transceiver module of the MCU to transmit data to the remote monitoring platform for analysis which displayed and stored field environment data or charts. The data collecting from wireless sensors to be send by wireless Access Point to the remote data server based on B/S architecture, intelligent terminals such as mobile phone, laptop, tablet PC on the Internet monitor indoor air quality in real-time. When site environment air quality index data exceeds the threshold in the monitoring device, the remote monitoring platform sends out the alarm SMS signal to inform user by GSM module. Indoor air quality monitoring system uses modular design method, has the portability and scalability has the low manufacture cost, real-time monitoring data and man-machine interaction.

  6. Wireless communications networks for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Quang-Dung; Rajalingham, Gowdemy; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a comprehensive review of the network architecture and communication technologies of the smart grid communication network (SGCN). It then studies the strengths, weaknesses and applications of two promising wireless mesh routing protocols that could be used to implement the SGCN. Packet transmission reliability, latency and robustness of these two protocols are evaluated and compared by simulations in various practical SGCN scenarios. Finally, technical challenges and open research opportunities of the SGCN are addressed. Wireless Communications Networks for Smart Grid provi

  7. Wireless Power Transfer Impact on Data Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Baikova, Elena N.; Valtchev, Stanimir S.; Melício, R.; Fernão Pires, V.

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado no 23rd International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (Speedam, 2016), 22-24 junho de 2016, Capri, Itália This paper presents measurement results and analysis of the interference produced by the high-power electromagnetic field in a wireless energy transfer system. Through this analysis it is expected to be possible to evaluate the influence of the strong electromagnetic field on the data transmission channel. The wireless power...

  8. Advanced Wireless Sensor Nodes - MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnavas, Kosta; Richeson, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    NASA field center Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, AL), has invested in advanced wireless sensor technology development. Developments for a wireless microcontroller back-end were primarily focused on the commercial Synapse Wireless family of devices. These devices have many useful features for NASA applications, good characteristics and the ability to be programmed Over-The-Air (OTA). The effort has focused on two widely used sensor types, mechanical strain gauges and thermal sensors. Mechanical strain gauges are used extensively in NASA structural testing and even on vehicle instrumentation systems. Additionally, thermal monitoring with many types of sensors is extensively used. These thermal sensors include thermocouples of all types, resistive temperature devices (RTDs), diodes and other thermal sensor types. The wireless thermal board will accommodate all of these types of sensor inputs to an analog front end. The analog front end on each of the sensors interfaces to the Synapse wireless microcontroller, based on the Atmel Atmega128 device. Once the analog sensor output data is digitized by the onboard analog to digital converter (A/D), the data is available for analysis, computation or transmission. Various hardware features allow custom embedded software to manage battery power to enhance battery life. This technology development fits nicely into using numerous additional sensor front ends, including some of the low-cost printed circuit board capacitive moisture content sensors currently being developed at Auburn University.

  9. Remote Access Unit for Optic-to-Wireless Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Rommel, Simon; Turkiewicz, J. P.

    . Growing demand for high speed wireless data transmission and new wireless standards like 5G force network operators to find new solutions for backhaul networks. Presently, to meet this need, attention of many researchers and top network vendors has been directed towards millimeter wave radio links....... Operation in the millimeter wave range brings new possibilities for a channel allocation as well as allows wider radio channels to be used. Moreover this frequency range is lighter licensed than regular GSM. This clearly shows a huge potential of millimeter waves for a high speed wireless data transmission...... was proposed and research projects like IPHOBAC-NG were founded. The aim of the mentioned project is to employ novel RAUs featuring opticto-wireless and wireless-to-optic conversion with a speeds of 1-10Gbit/s for broadband wireless access and up to 3Gbit/s for mobile backhaul. The RAU proposed in this paper...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) [Reserved] ...

  12. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” ...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 196.37-9 Section 196.37-9 Shipping... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING...

  14. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED” next to...

  15. Advanced Communication for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    strategies that could be used to increase the single-hop transmission range of a wireless sensor network, increase energy efficiency (improve battery...substance placed within the reach of the network. Sensor measurements were quantized to save energy and bandwidth during transmission of the...the problem of assigning transmission powers to every node in order to maintain connectivity while minimizing the energy consumption of the whole

  16. Contributions to time-frequency synchronization in wireless systems

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    Time and frequency synchronization is an indispensable task for all wireless transceivers and systems. In modern wireless systems, such as 4G and future 5G systems, new wireless technologies set new challenges also to synchronization. In particular, new solutions for time and frequency synchronization are needed in multiantenna and cooperative systems. New research areas arise also in context of interference cancellation and cognitive radio systems where the transmission parameters of the sig...

  17. Multigigabit W-Band (75–110 GHz) Bidirectional Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Systems in Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    compare the transmission performances in terms of achievable wireless distances with and without using a high-frequency electrical power amplifier at the wireless transmitter. A downlink 16-Gbit/s QPSK signal and an uplink 1.25-Gbit/s ASK signal transmission over the two implementations are experimentally......We experimentally demonstrate multigigabit capacity bidirectional hybrid fiber-wireless systems with RF carrier frequencies at the W-band (75-110 GHz) that enables the seamless convergence between wireless and fiber-optic data transmission systems in access networks. In this study, we evaluate...... the transmission performances in two scenarios: a fiber-wireless access link that directly provide high-speed connections to wireless end users, and a fiber-wireless-fiber signal relay where a high capacity wireless link can be used to bridge two access fiber spans over physical obstacles. In both scenarios, we...

  18. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  19. An evaluation approach for alarm processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Dong-Young; Hwang, In-Koo; Park, Jae-Chang

    1997-01-01

    In light of the need to improve MMIS of NPPs, the advanced I and C research team of KAERI has embarked on developing an Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System, called ADIOS, to filter or suppress unnecessary or nuisance alarms and diagnose abnormality of the plant process. ADIOS has been built in an object-oriented AI environment of G-2 expert system software tool, as presented in a companion paper. ADIOS then is evaluated according to the plan in three steps; (1) preliminary tests to refine the knowledge base and inference structure of ADIOS in such a dynamic environment, and also to evaluate the appropriateness of alarm-processing algorithms; (2) to ensure correctness, consistency, and completeness in the knowledge base using COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net); and (3) the cognitive performance evaluation using the Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model (SACOM) in the KAERI's Integrated Test Facility (ITF). (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Behavioral alarm treatment for nocturnal enuresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To investigate the efficacy of alarm treatment in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents with nocturnal enuresis and relate treatment success to age and type of clinical support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 32 weeks, 84 children and adolescents received alarm treatment together with weekly psychological support sessions for individual families or groups of 5 to 10 families. RESULTS: 71% of the participants achieved success, defined as 14 consecutive dry nights. The result was similar for children and adolescents and for individual or group support. The time until success was shorter for participants missing fewer support sessions. CONCLUSIONS: Alarm treatment was effective for the present sample, regardless of age or type of support. Missing a higher number of support sessions, which may reflect low motivation for treatment, increased the risk of failure.