WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire spacing 125-500

  1. SpaceWire: IP, Components, Development Support and Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, S.; McClements, C.; Mills, S.; Martin, I.

    SpaceWire is a communications network for use onboard spacecraft. It is designed to connect high data-rate sensors, large solid-state memories, processing units and the downlink telemetry subsystem providing an integrated data-handling network. SpaceWire links are serial, high-speed (2 Mbits/sec to 400 Mbits/sec), bi-directional, full-duplex, pointto- point data links which connect together SpaceWire equipment. Application information is sent along a SpaceWire link in discrete packets. Control and time information can also be sent along SpaceWire links. SpaceWire is defined in the ECSS-E50-12A standard [1]. With the adoption of SpaceWire on many space missions the ready availability of intellectual property (IP) cores, components, software drivers, development support, and test equipment becomes a major issue for those developing satellites and their electronic subsystems. This paper describes the work being done at the University of Dundee and STAR-Dundee Ltd with ESA, BNSC and internal funding to make these essential items available. STAR-Dundee is a spin-out company of the University of Dundee set up specifically to support users of SpaceWire.

  2. An interconnecting bus power optimization method combining interconnect wire spacing with wire ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhang-Ming; Hao Bao-Tian; En Yun-Fei; Yang Yin-Tang; Li Yue-Jin

    2011-01-01

    On-chip interconnect buses consume tens of percents of dynamic power in a nanometer scale integrated circuit and they will consume more power with the rapid scaling down of technology size and continuously rising clock frequency, therefore it is meaningful to lower the interconnecting bus power in design. In this paper, a simple yet accurate interconnect parasitic capacitance model is presented first and then, based on this model, a novel interconnecting bus optimization method is proposed. Wire spacing is a process for spacing wires for minimum dynamic power, while wire ordering is a process that searches for wire orders that maximally enhance it. The method, i.e., combining wire spacing with wire ordering, focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with a consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization method is verified based on various nanometer technology parameters, showing that with 50% slack of routing space, 25.71% and 32.65% of power can be saved on average by the proposed optimization method for a global bus and an intermediate bus, respectively, under a 65-nm technology node, compared with 21.78% and 27.68% of power saved on average by uniform spacing technology. The proposed method is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  4. Developing and Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Steve; Mills, Stuart

    2014-08-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass- memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on- board sub-systems [1]. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi- directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches.Since the SpaceWire standard was published in January 2003, it has been adopted by ESA, NASA, JAXA and RosCosmos for many missions and is being widely used on scientific, Earth observation, commercial and other spacecraft. High-profile missions using SpaceWire include: Gaia, ExoMars rover, Bepi- Colombo, James Webb Space Telescope, GOES-R, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Astro-H.The development and testing of the SpaceWire links and networks used on these and many other spacecraft currently under development, requires a comprehensive array of test equipment. In this paper the requirements for test equipment fulfilling key test functions are outlined and then equipment that meets these requirements is described. Finally the all-important software that operates with the test equipment is introduced.

  5. A reliability analysis tool for SpaceWire network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Zhu, Longjiang; Fei, Haidong; Wang, Xingyou

    2017-04-01

    A SpaceWire is a standard for on-board satellite networks as the basis for future data-handling architectures. It is becoming more and more popular in space applications due to its technical advantages, including reliability, low power and fault protection, etc. High reliability is the vital issue for spacecraft. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and improve the reliability performance of the SpaceWire network. This paper deals with the problem of reliability modeling and analysis with SpaceWire network. According to the function division of distributed network, a reliability analysis method based on a task is proposed, the reliability analysis of every task can lead to the system reliability matrix, the reliability result of the network system can be deduced by integrating these entire reliability indexes in the matrix. With the method, we develop a reliability analysis tool for SpaceWire Network based on VC, where the computation schemes for reliability matrix and the multi-path-task reliability are also implemented. By using this tool, we analyze several cases on typical architectures. And the analytic results indicate that redundancy architecture has better reliability performance than basic one. In practical, the dual redundancy scheme has been adopted for some key unit, to improve the reliability index of the system or task. Finally, this reliability analysis tool will has a directive influence on both task division and topology selection in the phase of SpaceWire network system design.

  6. NASA/BAE SYSTEMS SpaceWire Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments of SpaceWire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements SpaceWire in Register Transfer Level (RTL) VHDL for a SpaceWire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the SpaceWire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for Spaceflight worthy FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented on their .25micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS drivers/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed SpaceWire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for SpaceWire has been identified by both NASA And ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach that works end-to-end. This layer needs to be implemented in hardware to prevent bottlenecks.

  7. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  8. Velocity distribution measurement in wire-spaced fuel pin bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Hiroshi; Ohtake, Toshihide; Uruwashi, Shinichi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    1974-01-01

    Flow distribution measurement was made in the subchannels of a pin bundle in air flow. The present paper is interim because the target of this work is the decision of temperature of the pin surface in contact with wire spacers. The wire-spaced fuel pin bundle used for the experiment consists of 37 simulated fuel pins of stainless steel tubes, 3000 mm in length and 31.6 mm in diameter, which are wound spirally with 6 mm stainless steel wire. The bundle is wrapped with a hexagonal tube, 3500 mm in length and 293 mm in flat-to-flat distance. The bundle is fixed with knock-bar at the entrance of air flow in the hexagonal tube. The pitch of pins in the bundle is 37.6 mm (P/D=1.19) and the wrapping pitch of wire is 1100 mm (H/D=34.8). A pair of arrow-type 5-hole Pitot tubes are used to measure the flow velocity and the direction of air flow in the pin bundle. The measurement of flow distribution was made with the conditions of air flow rate of 0.33 m 3 /sec, air temperature of 45 0 C, and average Reynolds number of 15100 (average air velocity of 20.6 m/sec.). It was found that circular flow existed in the down stream of wire spacers, that axial flow velocity was slower in the subchannels, which contained wire spacers, than in those not affected by the wire, and that the flow angle to the axial velocity at the boundary of subchannels was two thirds smaller than wire wrapping angle. (Tai, I.)

  9. SpaceWire Driver Software for Special DSPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas; Lux, James; Nishimoto, Kouji; Lang, Minh

    2003-01-01

    A computer program provides a high-level C-language interface to electronics circuitry that controls a SpaceWire interface in a system based on a space qualified version of the ADSP-21020 digital signal processor (DSP). SpaceWire is a spacecraft-oriented standard for packet-switching data-communication networks that comprise nodes connected through bidirectional digital serial links that utilize low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS). The software is tailored to the SMCS-332 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) (also available as the TSS901E), which provides three highspeed (150 Mbps) serial point-to-point links compliant with the proposed Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1355.2 and equivalent European Space Agency (ESA) Standard ECSS-E-50-12. In the specific application of this software, the SpaceWire ASIC was combined with the DSP processor, memory, and control logic in a Multi-Chip Module DSP (MCM-DSP). The software is a collection of low-level driver routines that provide a simple message-passing application programming interface (API) for software running on the DSP. Routines are provided for interrupt-driven access to the two styles of interface provided by the SMCS: (1) the "word at a time" conventional host interface (HOCI); and (2) a higher performance "dual port memory" style interface (COMI).

  10. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  11. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  12. Lightweight Metal Rubber Wire and Cable for Space Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to produce ultra-lightweight electrical wire and cable harnesses to reduce the liftoff weight of future space flight...

  13. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  14. A Software Suite for Testing SpaceWire Devices and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stuart; Parkes, Steve

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire is a data-handling network for use on-board spacecraft, which connects together instruments, mass-memory, processors, downlink telemetry, and other on-board sub-systems. SpaceWire is simple to implement and has some specific characteristics that help it support data-handling applications in space: high-speed, low-power, simplicity, relatively low implementation cost, and architectural flexibility making it ideal for many space missions. SpaceWire provides high-speed (2 Mbits/s to 200 Mbits/s), bi-directional, full-duplex data-links, which connect together SpaceWire enabled equipment. Data-handling networks can be built to suit particular applications using point-to-point data-links and routing switches. STAR-Dundee’s STAR-System software stack has been designed to meet the needs of engineers designing and developing SpaceWire networks and devices. This paper describes the aims of the software and how those needs were met.

  15. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  16. X-ray reciprocal space mapping of GaAs.AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Koppensteiner, E.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic arrays of 150 and 175 nm-wide GaAs–AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots were investigated, fabricated by electron beam lithography, and SiCl4/O2 reactive ion etching, by means of reciprocal space mapping using triple axis x-ray diffractometry. From the x-ray data the lateral periodicity of

  17. Time Distribution Using SpaceWire in the SCaN Testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an approach for timekeeping and time transfer among the devices on the CoNNeCT project s SCaN Testbed. It also describes how the clocks may be synchronized with an external time reference; e.g., time tags from the International Space Station (ISS) or RF signals received by a radio (TDRSS time service or GPS). All the units have some sort of counter that is fed by an oscillator at some convenient frequency. The basic problem in timekeeping is relating the counter value to some external time standard such as UTC. With SpaceWire, there are two approaches possible: one is to just use SpaceWire to send a message, and use an external wire for the sync signal. This is much the same as with the RS- 232 messages and l pps line from a GPS receiver. However, SpaceWire has an additional capability that was added to make it easier - it can insert and receive a special "timecode" word in the data stream.

  18. NASA/BAE Systems SpaceWire Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn Parker; Schnurr, Richard G.; Kapcio, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the state of the NASA and BAE SYSTEMS developments using Spacewire. NASA has developed intellectual property that implements Spacewire in Register Transfer Level VHDL for a Spacewire link and router. This design has been extensively verified using directed tests from the Spacewire Standard and design specification, as well as being randomly tested to flush out hard to find bugs in the code. The high level features of the design will be discussed, including the support for multiple time code masters, which will be useful for the James Webb Space Telescope electrical architecture. This design is now ready to be targeted to FPGA's and ASICs. Target utilization and performance information will be presented for some spaceflight qualified FPGA's and a discussion of the ASIC implementations will be addressed. In particular, the BAE SYSTEMS ASIC will be highlighted which will be implemented in their 0.25 micron rad-hard line. The chip will implement a 4-port router with the ability to tie chips together to make larger routers without external glue logic. This part will have integrated LVDS driver/receivers, include a PLL and include skew control logic. It will be targeted to run at greater than 300 MHz and include the implementation for the proposed Spacewire transport layer. The need to provide a reliable transport mechanism for Spacewire has been identified by both NASA and ESA, who are attempting to define a transport layer standard that utilizes a low overhead, low latency connection oriented approach. The Transport layer needs to be implemented in hardware-to prevent bottlenecks.

  19. Flow of ideal fluid through a central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, J.

    1991-04-01

    The results are given of calculations of the flow of an ideal fluid through the central region of a nuclear reactor wire-spaced fuel subassembly. The computer code used is briefly described. (author). 10 figs., 4 refs

  20. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  1. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  2. Diagnostics of underwater electrical wire explosion through a time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Shafer, D; Efimov, S; Gruzinsky, K; Gleizer, S; Krasik, Ya E

    2012-10-01

    A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A ~4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.

  3. POwer WithOut Wire (POWOW): A SEP Concept for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; ONeill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Electric propulsion has emerged as a cost-effective solution to a wide range of satellite applications. Deep Space 1 demonstrated electric propulsion as a primary propulsion source for a spacecraft. The POwer WithOut Wires (POWOW) concept has been developed as a solar electric propelled spacecraft that would travel to Mars, for example, enter selenosynchronous orbit and then use lasers to beam power to surface installations. This concept has been developed with industrial expertise in high efficiency solar cells, advanced concentrator modules, innovative arrays, and high power electric propulsion systems. The paper will present the latest version of the spacecraft, the technologies involved, possible missions and trip times to Mars and laser beaming options. The POWOW spacecraft is a general purpose solar electric propulsion system that includes technologies that are directly applicable to commercial and government spacecraft with power levels ranging from 4 kW in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) to about 1 MW. The system is modular and expandable. Learning curve costing methodologies are used to demonstrate cost effectiveness of a modular system.

  4. A space release/deployment system actuated by shape memory wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragnito, Marino; Vetrella and, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, the design of an innovative hold down/release and deployment device actuated by shape memory wires, to be used for the first time for the S MA RT microsatellite solar wings is shown. The release and deployment mechanisms are actuated by a Shape Memory wire (Nitinol), which allows a complete symmetrical and synchronous release, in a very short time, of the four wings in pairs. The hold down kinematic mechanism is preloaded to avoid vibration nonlinearities and unwanted deployment at launch. The deployment mechanism is a simple pulley system. The stiffness of the deployed panel-hinge system needs to be dimensioned in order to meet the on-orbit requirement for attitude control. One-way roller clutches are used to keep the panel at the desired angle during the mission. An ad hoc software has been developed to simulate both the release and deployment operations, coupling the SMA wire behavior with the system mechanics.

  5. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  6. Design of a mission network system using SpaceWire for scientific payloads onboard the Arase spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Takeshi; Ogawa, Emiko; Asamura, Kazushi; Hikishima, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Arase is a small scientific satellite program conducted by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, which is dedicated to the detailed study of the radiation belts around Earth through in situ observations. In particular, the goal is to directly observe the interaction between plasma waves and particles, which cause the generation of high-energy electrons. To observe the waves and particles in detail, we must record large volumes of burst data with high transmission rates through onboard mission network systems. For this purpose, we developed a high-speed and highly reliable mission network based on SpaceWire, as well as a new and large memory data recorder equipped with a data search function based on observation time (the time index, TI, is the satellite time starting from when the spacecraft is powered on.) with respect to the orbital data generated in large quantities. By adopting a new transaction concept of a ring topology network with SpaceWire, we could secure a redundant mission network system without using large routers and having to suppress the increase in cable weight. We confirmed that their orbit performs as designed.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Piazza, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.dipiazza@enea.it [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy); Tarantino, Mariano [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, C.R. ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano (Italy); Forgione, Nicola [University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m{sup 2}. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals

  8. Heat transfer on HLM cooled wire-spaced fuel pin bundle simulator in the NACIE-UP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Piazza, Ivan; Angelucci, Morena; Marinari, Ranieri; Tarantino, Mariano; Forgione, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments with a wire-wrapped 19-pin fuel bundle cooled by LBE. • Wall and bulk temperature measurements at three axial positions. • Heat transfer and error analysis in the range of low mass flow rates and Péclet number. • Comparison of local and section-averaged Nusselt number with correlations. - Abstract: The NACIE-UP experimental facility at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre (Italy) allowed to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of a wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). Lead or lead-bismuth eutectic are very attractive as coolants for the GEN-IV fast reactors due to the good thermo-physical properties and the capability to fulfil the GEN-IV goals. Nevertheless, few experimental data on heat transfer with heavy liquid metals (HLM) are available in literature. Furthermore, just a few data can be identified on the specific topic of wire-spaced fuel bundle cooled by HLM. Additional analysis on thermo-fluid dynamic behaviour of the HLM inside the subchannels of a rod bundle is necessary to support the design and safety assessment of GEN. IV/ADS reactors. In this context, a wire-spaced 19-pin fuel bundle was installed inside the NACIE-UP facility. The pin bundle is equipped with 67 thermocouples to monitor temperatures and analyse the heat transfer behaviour in different sub-channels and axial positions. The experimental campaign was part of the SEARCH FP7 EU project to support the development of the MYRRHA irradiation facility (SCK-CEN). Natural and mixed circulation flow regimes were investigated, with subchannel Reynolds number in the range Re = 1000–10,000 and heat flux in the range q″ = 50–500 kW/m"2. Local Nusselt numbers were calculated for five sub-channels in different ranks at three axial positions. Section-averaged Nusselt number was also defined and calculated. Local Nusselt data showed good consistency with some of the correlation existing in literature for heat transfer in liquid metals for

  9. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) faces difficult technical and budgetary challenges to overcome before it is scheduled launch in 2010. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), shares these challenges. The major challenge addressed in this paper is the data network used to collect, process, compresses and store Infrared data. A total of 114 Mbps of raw information must be collected from 19 sources and delivered to the two redundant data processing units across a twenty meter deployed thermally restricted interface. Further data must be transferred to the solid-state recorder and the spacecraft. The JWST detectors are kept at cryogenic temperatures to obtain the sensitivity necessary to measure faint energy sources. The Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) that sample the detector, generate packets from the samples, and transmit these packets to the processing electronics must dissipate little power in order to help keep the detectors at these cold temperatures. Separating the low powered front-end electronics from the higher-powered processing electronics, and using a simple high-speed protocol to transmit the detector data minimize the power dissipation near the detectors. Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) drivers were considered an obvious choice for physical layer because of their high speed and low power. The mechanical restriction on the number cables across the thermal interface force the Image packets to be concentrated upon two high-speed links. These links connect the many image packet sources, Focal Plane Electronics (FPE), located near the cryogenic detectors to the processing electronics on the spacecraft structure. From 12 to 10,000 seconds of raw data are processed to make up an image, various algorithms integrate the pixel data Loss of commands to configure the detectors as well as the loss of science data itself may cause inefficiency in the use of the telescope that are unacceptable given the high cost of the observatory. This

  10. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  12. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  13. Replacement of corrosion protection chromate primers and paints used in cryogenic applications on the Space Shuttle with wire arc sprayed aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. L.; Sanders, H. L.; Zimmerman, F. R.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new environmental laws restricting volatile organic compounds and hexavalent chrome emissions, 'environmentally safe' thermal spray coatings are being developed to replace the traditional corrosion protection chromate primers. A wire arc sprayed aluminum coating is being developed for corrosion protection of low pressure liquid hydrogen carrying ducts on the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Currently, this hardware utilizes a chromate primer to provide protection against corrosion pitting and stress corrosion cracking induced by the cryogenic operating environment. The wire are sprayed aluminum coating has been found to have good potential to provide corrosion protection for flight hardware in cryogenic applications. The coating development, adhesion test, corrosion test and cryogenic flexibility test results will be presented.

  14. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  17. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  18. Detection of a buried wire with two resistively loaded wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of two identical straight thin-wire antennas for the detection of a buried wire is analyzed with the aid of numerical calculations. The buried wire is located below an interface between two homogeneous half-spaces. The detection setup, which is formed by a transmitting and a receiving wire,

  19. Detailed design consideration on wire-spaced LMFBR fuel subassemblies under the effects of uncertainties and non-nominal geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper explains some analytical methods for evaluating the effects of deviation in subchannel coolant flow rate from the nominal value due to fuel pin bundle deflection and manufacturing tolerances and of inter-sub-channel coolant mixing and local temperature rise due to a wire-spacer on the hot spot temperature. Numerical results are given in each chapter with respect to a prototype LMFBR core. (author)

  20. Experimental confirmation of the design to minimize vibration and wear in 61-pin wire-spaced EBR-II subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, S.K.

    1978-05-01

    Examinations of HEDL 61-pin subassemblies comprised of 5.84 mm (0.230) inch diameter mixed-oxide fuel pins with 1.02 mm (0.040'') diameter spacer wire (PNL-9, -10, -11, HEDL-N-E, -N-F), showed severe cladding and spacer wire wear after irradiation in EBR-II. A comparison of a large number of design, fabrication, and irradiation parameters for all of the HEDL subassemblies indicated that the porosity per ring of fuel pins correlated significantly with the occurrence of wear on the fuel pins. The porosity per ring is the clearance between the flat-to-flat pin bundle dimension and the inner hex can dimension divided by the number of hexagonal fuel pin rings in the subassembly. The porosity per ring for PNL-9, -10, -11 and HEDL-N-E was 0.15 mm/ring (6 mils/ring) and 0.18 mm/ring (7 mils/ring) for the HEDL-N-F subassembly. Since the original FTR subassembly design had a porosity/ring spread of 0.04 mm/ring to 0.16 mm/ring (1.67 to 6.11 mils/ring) an additional series of irradiation tests was conducted to confirm that a tighter fuel pin bundle would eliminate the wear

  1. Probabilistic distributions of pin gaps within a wire-spaced fuel subassembly and sensitivities of the related uncertainties to pin gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, K.; Hishida, H.

    1978-01-01

    Probabilistic fuel pin gap distributions within a wire-spaced fuel subassembly and sensitivities of the related uncertainties to fuel pin gaps are discussed. The analyses consist mainly of expressing a local fuel pin gap in terms of sensitivity functions of the related uncertainties and calculating the corresponding probabilistic distribution through taking all the possible combinations of the distribution of uncertainties. The results of illustrative calculations show that with the reliability level of 0.9987, the maximum deviation of the pin gap at the cladding hot spot of a center fuel subassembly is 8.05% from its nominal value and the corresponding probabilistic pin gap distribution is shifted to the narrower side due to the external confinement of a pin bundle with a wrapper tube. (Auth.)

  2. Subchannel and bundle friction factors and flow split parameters for laminar transition and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire wrap spaced hexagonal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Todreas, N.E.; Rohsenow, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Correlations are presented for subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. These results are obtained from pressure drop models of flow in individual subchannels. For turbulent flow, an existing pressure drop model for flow in edge subchannels is extended, and the resulting edge subchannel friction factor is identified. Using the expressions for flowsplit parameters and the equal pressure drops assumption, the interior subchannel and bundle friction factors are obtained. For laminar flow, models are developed for pressure drops of individual subchannels. From these models, expressions for the subchannel friction factors are identified and expressions for the flowsplit parameters are derived

  3. Subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition, and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire-wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, J.T.; Chiu, C.; Rohsenow, W.M.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Correlations are presented for subchannel and bundle friction factors and flowsplit parameters for laminar, transition and turbulent longitudinal flows in wire wrap spaced hexagonal arrays. These results are obtained from pressure drop models of flow in individual subchannels. For turbulent flow, an existing pressure drop model for flow in edge subchannels is extended, and the resulting edge subchannel friction factor is identified. Using the expressions for flowsplit parameters and the equal pressured drop assumption, the interior subchannel and bundle friction factors are obtained. For laminar flow, models are developed for pressure drops of individual subchannels. From these models, expressions for the subchannel friction factors are identified and expressions for the flowsplit parameters are derived.

  4. Pacemaker wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of pacemaker wires were performed by comparing Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER) with conventional chest radiography. The scanning equalization technique of the AMBER unit makes it superior to conventional technique in the depiction of different structures in the mediastinum or in the pleural sinuses. So far motion artifacts have not been considered clinically important. The longer exposure time, however, may impair the assessment of pacemaker wires. The motion artifact described may not only make adequate evaluation impossible but may even give a false impression of a lead fracture. The difference between the two systems was significant. (orig.)

  5. A 3D-Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Three Phase Four Wire Neutral Point Clamped Inverter Systems as Power Quality Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC is designed using a Neutral Point Clamped (NPC multilevel inverter to improve the power quality. When designed for high/medium voltage and power applications, the voltage stress across the switches and harmonic content in the output voltage are increased. A 3-phase 4-wire NPC inverter system is developed as Power Quality Conditioner using an effectual three dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3D-SVM technique. The proposed system behaves like a UPQC with shunt and series active filter under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. In addition to the improvement of the power quality issues, it also balances the neutral point voltage and voltage balancing across the capacitors under unbalanced condition. The hardware and simulation results of proposed system are compared with 2D-SVM and 3D-SVM. The proposed system is stimulated using MATLAB and the hardware is designed using FPGA. From the results it is evident that effectual 3D-SVM technique gives better performance compared to other control methods.

  6. Application of irradiated wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, I.; Kozima, K.; Suzuki, S.; Tada, S.; Torisu, S.; Veno, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rubber insulated wires are still useful for internal wiring in motor vehicles and electrical equipment because of flexibility and toughness. Irradiated cross-linked rubber materials have been successfully introduced for use with fusible link wire and helically coiled cord

  7. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  8. Self-Catalyzed CdTe Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Baines

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available CdTe wires have been fabricated via a catalyst free method using the industrially scalable physical vapor deposition technique close space sublimation. Wire growth was shown to be highly dependent on surface roughness and deposition pressure, with only low roughness surfaces being capable of producing wires. Growth of wires is highly (111 oriented and is inferred to occur via a vapor-solid-solid growth mechanism, wherein a CdTe seed particle acts to template the growth. Such seed particles are visible as wire caps and have been characterized via energy dispersive X-ray analysis to establish they are single phase CdTe, hence validating the self-catalysation route. Cathodoluminescence analysis demonstrates that CdTe wires exhibited a much lower level of recombination when compared to a planar CdTe film, which is highly beneficial for semiconductor applications.

  9. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating ... beam size measurements to extract the phase space of the electron and positron ... the laser-wire (LW), instead of a conventional solid wire.

  10. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  11. SAFARI digital processing unit: performance analysis of the SpaceWire links in case of a LEON3-FT based CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Galli, Emanuele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Farina, Maria; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    SAFARI (SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far-infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the SPICA mission. The Digital Processing Unit (DPU) of the instrument implements the functions of controlling the overall instrument and implementing the science data compression and packing. The DPU design is based on the use of a LEON family processor. In SAFARI, all instrument components are connected to the central DPU via SpaceWire links. On these links science data, housekeeping and commands flows are in some cases multiplexed, therefore the interface control shall be able to cope with variable throughput needs. The effective data transfer workload can be an issue for the overall system performances and becomes a critical parameter for the on-board software design, both at application layer level and at lower, and more HW related, levels. To analyze the system behavior in presence of the expected SAFARI demanding science data flow, we carried out a series of performance tests using the standard GR-CPCI-UT699 LEON3-FT Development Board, provided by Aeroflex/Gaisler, connected to the emulator of the SAFARI science data links, in a point-to-point topology. Two different communication protocols have been used in the tests, the ECSS-E-ST-50-52C RMAP protocol and an internally defined one, the SAFARI internal data handling protocol. An incremental approach has been adopted to measure the system performances at different levels of the communication protocol complexity. In all cases the performance has been evaluated by measuring the CPU workload and the bus latencies. The tests have been executed initially in a custom low level execution environment and finally using the Real- Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), which has been selected as the operating system to be used onboard SAFARI. The preliminary results of the carried out performance analysis confirmed the possibility of using a LEON3 CPU processor in the SAFARI DPU, but pointed out, in agreement

  12. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described

  13. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  14. Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Base Information Transport Infrastructure Wired (BITI Wired) Defense Acquisition Management...Combat Information Transport System program was restructured into two pre-Major Automated Information System (pre-MAIS) components: Information...Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel

  15. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  16. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  17. Electroplated superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peger, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    A hard chromium solution has been considered the least efficient of all plating solutions. This is not exactly true if the correct plating conditions are used. The accepted efficiency is only 12% but that is only true for the parameters that were used long ago to make the determination. At 12% efficiency it would be impossible to plate Superconductor wire. The world's chromium plating shops have been plating at a .001 (.025u) per hour rate since the turn of the century. Shops in the Cleveland, Ohio area have been limiting their plating rate to .006 (152u) since 1935. A few have used .012 (304u) to .030 (762u) per hour for specialized jobs. These figures would indicate the apparent efficiency of the old 100 to 1 chromium, sulfate solution can be higher than 60%. The industry uses a 3 bus bar tank with wide spacing between anode and cathode. This results in high solution resistance and high heat generation and consequently slow plating rates. The Reversible Rack 2 Bus Bar System uses very close anode to cathode spacings. This results in the high plating rates with improved quality deposits. When first asked to chromium plate pure nickel wire reel to reel in long lengths, companies making reel to reel machines were asked if chromium plating was practical. In every case, the answer was it couldn't be done. Gold, tin and zinc plating was being done reel to reel. Using the same parameters that were used to determine a chromium solution efficiency was only 12%, these other metal solutions check out close to 100%

  18. PS wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  19. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M. [University of Tokushima, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokushima (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  20. Effect of wire shape on wire array discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, N.; Tanaka, Y.; Yushita, Y.; Nagata, M.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.

    2001-01-01

    Although considerable investigations have been reported on z-pinches to achieve nuclear fusion, little attention has been given from the point of view of how a wire array consisting of many parallel wires explodes. Instability existing in the wire array discharge has been shown. In this paper, the effect of wire shape in the wire array on unstable behavior of the wire array discharge is represented by numerical analysis. The claws on the wire formed in installation of wire may cause uniform current distribution on wire array. The effect of error of wire diameter in production is computed by Monte Carlo Method. (author)

  1. Development of wire wrapping technology for FBR fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Tetsuya; Seki, Nobuo; Sawayama, Takeo; Ishibashi, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    For the FBR fuel assembly, the spacer wire is adopted to maintain the space between fuel pins. The developments have been carried out to achieve automatically wire wrapping with high precision. Based on the fundamental technology developed through the mock-up test operation, Joyo 'MK-I', fuel pin fabrication was started using partially mechanized wire wrapping machine in 1973. In 1978, an automated wire wrapping machine for Joyo 'MK-II' was developed by the adoption of some improvements for the wire inserting system to end plug hole and the precision of wire pitch. On the bases of these experiences, fully automated wire wrapping machine for 'Monju' fuel pin was installed at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in 1987. (author)

  2. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  3. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  4. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  6. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  7. Diamond wire cutting of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, T.R.; Bjerler, J.

    1991-01-01

    With the change-out of equipment at nuclear power plants comes large quantities of low level contaminated metallic waste. Of particular concern are large heat exchangers, preheaters and steam generators. These bulky items consume huge volumes of burial space. The need for volume reduction and recycling of these metals has created new demands for 'how' to cut heat exchangers into useful sizes for decontamination, melting or compaction. This paper reviews the cutting solution provided by a diamond wire system, with particular regard for cutting of a Ringhals Preheater Bundle at Studsvik Nuclear in 1989. The background of diamond wire sawing is discussed and basic components of wire sawing are explained. Other examples of wire cutting decommissioned components are also given. (author)

  8. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  9. Caída de presión de un flujo turbulento en un espacio anular con hélices insertadas//The pressure drop of turbulent flow in an annular space with wire coil inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Imbert González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo presentado evaluó el comportamiento experimental de la caída de presión en un espacio anular con alambres enrollados insertados para números de Reynolds entre 1500 y 5000. La zona de prueba se seleccionó alejada de la influencia de los efectos de entrada. Anteriormente se realizaron pruebas de visualización del flujo para verificar la presencia de un flujo turbulento en esta gama del número de Reynolds. A partir de los datos experimentales se obtuvieron ecuaciones de correlación del factor de fricción para el flujo turbulento. Las ecuaciones obtenidas se compararon con los datos experimentales. Los resultados indican hasta qué punto las hélices inducen la aparición de turbulencias en un espacio anularPalabras claves: caída de presión, flujo anular, análisis hidrodinámico, visualización de flujo, hélices insertadas.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe work presented evaluates the experimental behavior of the pressure drop in an annular space with coiled wires inserted forReynolds numbers between 1500 and 5000. The test zone was selected away from the influence of entrance effects. Previously flow visualization tests were performed to verify the presence of a turbulent flow in this range of Reynolds number. From the experimental data were obtained correlation equations of the friction factor for turbulent flow. The equations obtained were compared with experimental data. The results indicate to what extent the helices induce the occurrence of turbulence in an annular space.Key words: drop pressure, annular flow, hydrodynamic analysis, visualization flow, wire coil inserts.

  10. Model-Based Testability Assessment and Directed Troubleshooting of Shuttle Wiring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Somnath; Domagala, Chuck; Shrestha, Roshan; Malepati, Venkatesh; Cavanaugh, Kevin; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Sanderfer, Dwight; Cockrell, Jim; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have recently completed a pilot study on the Space shuttle wiring system commissioned by the Wiring Integrity Research (WIRe) team at NASA Ames Research Center, As the space shuttle ages, it is experiencing wiring degradation problems including arcing, chaffing insulation breakdown and broken conductors. A systematic and comprehensive test process is required to thoroughly test and quality assure (QA) the wiring systems. The NASA WIRe team recognized the value of a formal model based analysis for risk-assessment and fault coverage analysis. However. wiring systems are complex and involve over 50,000 wire segments. Therefore, NASA commissioned this pilot study with Qualtech Systems. Inc. (QSI) to explore means of automatically extracting high fidelity multi-signal models from wiring information database for use with QSI's Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS) tool.

  11. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  12. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  15. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-05-15

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!.

  16. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  17. Detection of a buried object with pulse-compensated wire antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, S.H.J.A.; Tijhuis, A.G.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    For the detection of a buried object we consider two straight thin-wire antennas above an interface between two homogeneous dielectric half spaces. One antenna is a transmitting wire and the other is a receiving wire. Our aim is to use this simple antenna set up for the detection of buried objects

  18. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  19. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  20. A Flying Wire System in the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Roser, T.; Smith, G.; Syphers, M.; Williams, N.; Witkover, R.

    1999-01-01

    As the AGS prepares to serve as the injector for RHIC, monitoring and control of the beam transverse emittance become a major and important topic. Before the installation of the flying wire system, the emittance was measured with ionization profile monitors in the AGS, which require correction for space charge effects. It is desirable to have a second means of measuring profile that is less dependent on intensity. A flying wire system has been installed in the AGS recently to perform this task. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup and the capabilities of the system

  1. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another

  2. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  3. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  4. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  5. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  6. DETECTORS: Vienna - beyond the wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Manfred; Regler, Meinhard

    1995-01-01

    In 1986, at the fourth Vienna Wire Chamber Conference, Georges Charpak, the inventor of the multiwire proportional chamber, had confidently announced ''Les funérailles des chambres à fils''. Was this the writing on the wall for the conference series as well as this type of detector technology? The demand for detector innovation, coupled with imaginative thinking on the part of the organizers, have kept the Vienna venue at the forefront of the physics calendar. An additional boost to the success of the series was certainly the Nobel Prize awarded to Georges Charpak in 1992. While the major topic naturally is still wire chambers, alternative technologies are also covered. However in fields like calorimetry or ring imaging Cherenkovs, a sample of only a few prominent detectors were presented, giving some participants the impression of a biased selection. The fact that silicon detectors, electronics and track reconstruction strategies were, with the exception of the invited talks, restricted to poster presentations led to the same conclusion. As a result the organizing committee saw that it will have to revise its brief for the next conference. The conference opened with philosophical thoughts by Nobel Prizewinner Georges Charpak. The first day at Vienna is traditionally devoted to applications of gaseous detectors outside high energy physics. L. Shektman gave an overview of wire chambers for medical imaging. Further applications in medicine and in other fields like biology and space science were described by subsequent speakers. The exciting idea of flying a spectrometer on a balloon to study the fraction of electrons and positrons in cosmic rays attracted a lot of attention. The next day covered wire chambers in general. V. Polychronakos presented applications of cathode strip chambers in muon spectrometers for experiments at CERN's LHC proton-proton detector. Certainly the challenges of LHC for detector development dominated many

  7. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains P 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  8. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains ⩾ 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  9. Wired vs. Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Presents a debate on which technology will be in tomorrow's classrooms and the pros and cons of wiring classrooms and using a wireless network. Concluding comments address the likelihood, and desirability, of placing computers throughout the entire educational process and what types of computers and capabilities are needed. (GR)

  10. A World without Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  11. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  12. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  13. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  14. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  15. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  16. Design and development of equipment for laser wire stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Three laser wire strippers have been built for the stripping of Kapton-insulated wire, the baseline wire of the space shuttle orbiter. The strippers are: (1) a bench-model stripper powered with a cw CO2 10.6-micron laser, (2) a hand-held stripper powered with a cw 1.06-micron Nd-YAG laser with an output of 5-7 watts, and (3) a hand-held stripper with a five-inch-long CO2 laser inside the stripping head.

  17. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  18. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  19. Superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  20. Twisting wire scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-15

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  1. Twisting wire scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, V.; Delfs, A.; Koruptchenkov, I.; Noelle, D.; Tiessen, H.; Werner, M.; Wittenburg, K.

    2012-11-01

    A new type of 'two-in-one' wire scanner is proposed. Recent advances in linear motors' technology make it possible to combine translational and rotational movements. This will allow to scan the beam in two perpendicular directions using a single driving motor and a special fork attached to it. Vertical or horizontal mounting will help to escape problems associated with the 45 deg scanners. Test results of the translational part with linear motors is presented.

  2. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  3. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  4. Right wire in orthodontics: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    Quality of orthodontic wire such as stiffness, hardness, resiliency, elasticity and working range are important determinants of the effectivenes of tooth movement. Commonly used types of orthodontic arch wire:1) stainless steel(ss) wire, 2) conventional nickel- titanium (NiTi)alloy wire,3) improved super elastic NiTi- alloy wire( also called low hysteresis(LH)wire), and titanium molybdenum alloy(TMA) wire.

  5. Review of wire chamber aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  7. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  8. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  9. Stabilized superconductive wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ

  10. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, V.; Wessel, F.J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (λ=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ∼1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 μm. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90 degree with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 μm. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 μm) and steel wire d=25 μm were exploded in vacuum (10 -5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Turker; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-04-17

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  12. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Dagdelen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire.

  13. Reliability Criteria for Thick Bonding Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Bonding wire is one of the main interconnection techniques. Thick bonding wire is widely used in power modules and other high power applications. This study examined the case for extending the use of traditional thin wire reliability criteria, namely wire flexure and aspect ratio, to thick wires. Eleven aluminum (Al) and aluminum coated copper (CucorAl) wire samples with diameter 300 μm were tested experimentally. The wire response was measured using a novel non-contact method. High fidelity FEM models of the wire were developed and validated. We found that wire flexure is not correlated to its stress state or fatigue life. On the other hand, aspect ratio is a consistent criterion of thick wire fatigue life. Increasing the wire aspect ratio lowers its critical stress and increases its fatigue life. Moreover, we found that CucorAl wire has superior performance and longer fatigue life than Al wire. PMID:29673194

  14. Vibration of signal wires in wire detectors under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojko, I.R.; Shelkov, G.A.; Dodonov, V.I.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Nikolenko, M.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation-induced vibration of signal wires in wire detectors is found and explained. The phenomenon is based on repulsion of a signal wire with a positive potential and a cloud of positive ions that remains after neutralization of the electron part of the avalanche formed in the course of gas amplification. Vibration with a noticeable amplitude may arise from fluctuations of repulsive forces, which act on the wire and whose sources are numerous ion clusters. A formula is obtained which allows wire oscillations to be estimated for all types of wire detectors. Calculation shows that oscillations of signal wires can be substantial for the coordinate accuracy of a detector working in the limited streamer mode at fluxes over 10 5 particles per second per wire. In the proportional mode an average oscillation amplitude can be as large as 20-30 μm at some detector parameters and external radiation fluxes over 10 5 . The experimental investigations show that the proposed model well describes the main features of the phenomenon. 6 refs., 8 figs

  15. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  16. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  17. B218 Weld Filler Wire Characterization for Al-Li Alloy 2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Systems- Michoud Operations, and McCook Metals have developed an aluminum-copper weld filler wire for fusion welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195. The aluminum-copper based weld filler wire has been identified as B218, a McCook Metals designation. B218 is the result of six years of weld filler wire development funded by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and McCook Metals. The filler wire chemistry was developed to produce enhanced 2195 weld and repair weld mechanical properties over the 4043 aluminum-silicon weld filler wire, which is currently used to weld 2195 on the Super Lightweight External Tank for the NASA Space Shuttle Program. An initial characterization was performed consisting of a repair weld evaluation using B218 and 4043 weld filler wires. The testing involved room temperature and cryogenic repair weld tensile testing along with fracture toughness testing. From the testing, B218 weld filler wire produce enhanced repair weld tensile strength, ductility, and fracture properties over 4043. B218 weld filler wire has proved to be a superior weld filler wire for welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195 over 4043.

  18. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  19. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  20. Control wiring diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, T.M.; Eskinazi, M.; Henson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in electrical document requirements that occur when construction is complete and a generating station starts commercial operation. The needs of operations and maintenance (O and M) personnel are analyzed and contrasted with those of construction to illustrate areas in which the construction documents (drawings, diagrams, and databases) are difficult to use for work at an operating station. The paper discusses the O and M electrical documents that the Arizona Nuclear Power Project (ANPP) believes are most beneficial for the three operating units at Palo Verde; these are control wiring diagrams and an associated document cross-reference list. The benefits offered by these new, station O and M-oriented documents are weighted against the cost of their creation and their impact on drawing maintenance

  1. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  2. Structural Investigations of GaAs/AIAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated periodic arrays of dry etched 150 nm and 175 nm wide, (110) oriented GaAs/AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots by means of reciprocal-space mapping using triple-axis X-ray diffractometry. From the X-ray data the lateral periodicity of wires and dots, the etch depth and the angle

  3. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  4. Pull-pull position control of dual motor wire rope transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Jiao, Zongxia; Yan, Liang; Yu, Qian; Shang, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    Wire rope transmission is very efficient because of the small total moving object mass. The wire rope could only transmit pulling force. Therefore it has to be kept in a tightened state during transmission; in high speed applications the dynamic performance depends on the rope's stiffness, which can be adjusted by the wire rope tension. To improve the system dynamic performance output, this paper proposes a novel pull-pull method based on dual motors connected by wire ropes, for precise, high speed position control applications. The method can regulate target position and wire rope tension simultaneously. Wire ropes remain in a pre-tightening state at all times, which prevents the influence of elasticity and reduces the position tracking error in the changing direction process. Simulations and experiments were conducted; the results indicate that both position precision and superior dynamic performance can be synchronously achieved. The research is relevant to space craft precision pointing instruments.

  5. Plated nickel wire mesh makes superior catalyst bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, M.

    1965-01-01

    Porous nickel mesh screen catalyst bed produces gas evolution in hydrogen peroxide thrust chambers used for attitude control of space vehicles. The nickel wire mesh disks in the catalyst bed are plated in rugose form with a silver-gold coating.

  6. Inhomogeneous wire explosion in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Kong, H.J.; Lee, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Inhomogeneous processes are observed in underwater copper wire explosion induced by a condensed capacitor discharge. The wire used is 0.1 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, and the capacitor of 2 μF is charged to 5 KV. A N 2 laser is used for the diagnostic of spatial extension of exploding copper vapour. The photographs obtained in this experiment show unambiguously the inhomogeneous explosion along the exploding wire. The quenching of plasma by the surrounding water inhibits the expansion of the vapour. It is believed the observed inhomogeneous explosion along the wire is located and localized around Goronkin's striae, which was first reported by Goronkin and discussed by Froengel as a pre-breakdown phenomenon. (author)

  7. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  8. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  9. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  10. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  11. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  12. BioWires: DNA-Based Nanowires for Conductivity-Enhanced, Self-Assembling Nanoelectronics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BioWires project seeks to overcome two central issues identified in TA10-Nanotechnology: first, the miniaturization of nanoelectronics systems with features less...

  13. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  14. Hierarchical Structure and Strengthening Mechanisms in Pearlitic Steel Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    Microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire (the strongest engineering materials in the world) with a nanostructure down to 10 nm and a flow stress up to 5.4 GPa. The interlamellar spacing and the cementite lamellae thickness...... are reduced during drawing in accordance with the change in wire diameter up to a strain of 2.5. At a higher strain enhanced thinning of cementite lamellae points to decomposition and carbon enrichment of the ferrite lamellae. Dislocations are stored as individual dislocations and in low angle boundaries...

  15. NOAA Weather Wire Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigabytes of memory for up to 60-day storage of all products 2 Gigahertz of greater multi-core processor NWS space. Requires a minimum of 3 GB of memory. Requires a minimum 2 GHz of multi-core processing. View EUC provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the correctness of the EUC software provided or the

  16. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  17. Technical innovation: Wire guided ductography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Muhammad Ovais; Ramadan, Salwa; Al-Adwani, Muneera

    2012-01-01

    To introduce an easy and improved technique for performing ductography using inexpensive easily available intravenous cannula. Guide wire: Prolene/Surgipro 3-0 (Polypropylene mono filament non-absorbable surgical suture). A plastic 26 G intravenous cannula. Disposable syringe 2 ml. Non-ionic contrast (low density like Omnipaque 240 mg I/I). The guide wire (Prolene 3-0) is introduced into the orifice of the duct heaving discharge and 26 G intravenous plastic cannula is then passed over the guide wire. The cannula is advanced in the duct over guide wire by spinning around it. When the cannula is in place the guide wire is removed. Any air bubbles present in the hub of the cannula can be displaced by filling the hub from bottom upwards with needle attached to contrast filled syringe. 0.2–0.4 ml non-ionic contrast is gently injected. Injection is stopped if the patient has pain or burning. Magnified cranio-caudal view is obtained with cannula tapped in place and gentle compression is applied with the patient sitting. If duct filling is satisfactory a 90* lateral view is obtained. A successful adaptation of the technique for performing ductography is presented. The materials required for the technique are easily available in most radiology departments and are inexpensive, thus making the procedure comfortable for the patient and radiologist with considerable cost effectiveness.

  18. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Jon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  19. Reduction of Gas Bubbles and Improved Critical Current Density in Bi-2212 Round Wire by Swaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, J; Huang, Y; Hong, S; Parrell, J; Scheuerlein, C; Di Michiel, M; Ghosh, A; Trociewitz, U; Hellstrom, E; Larbalestier, D

    2013-01-01

    Bi-2212 round wire is made by the powder-in-tube technique. An unavoidable property of powder-in-tube conductors is that there is about 30% void space in the as-drawn wire. We have recently shown that the gas present in the as-drawn Bi-2212 wire agglomerates into large bubbles and that they are presently the most deleterious current limiting mechanism. By densifying short 2212 wires before reaction through cold isostatic pressing (CIPping), the void space was almost removed and the gas bubble density was reduced significantly, resulting in a doubled engineering critical current density (JE) of 810 A/mm2 at 5 T, 4.2 K. Here we report on densifying Bi-2212 wire by swaging, which increased JE (4.2 K, 5 T) from 486 A/mm2 for as-drawn wire to 808 A/mm2 for swaged wire. This result further confirms that enhancing the filament packing density is of great importance for making major JE improvement in this round-wire magnet conductor.

  20. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced

  1. Delamination of Pearlitic Steel Wires: The Defining Role of Prior-Drawing Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgaprasad, A.; Giri, S.; Lenka, S.; Sarkar, Sudip Kumar; Biswas, Aniruddha; Kundu, S.; Mishra, S.; Chandra, S.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2018-03-01

    This article reports the occasional (alignment of the pearlite: 22 ± 5 pct vs 34 ± 4 pct in the nondelaminated wires. Although all wires had similar through-thickness texture and stress gradients, delaminated wires had stronger gradients in composition and higher hardness across the ferrite-cementite interface. Carbide dissolution and formation of supersaturated ferrite were clearly correlated with delamination, which could be effectively mitigated by controlled laboratory annealing at 673 K. Direct observations on samples subjected to simple shear revealed significant differences in shear localizations. These were controlled by pearlite morphology and interlamellar spacing. Prior-drawing microstructure of coarse misaligned pearlite thus emerged as a critical factor in the wire drawing-induced delamination of the pearlitic wires.

  2. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  3. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  4. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading

  5. [Mechanics analysis of fracture of orthodontic wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeping; Sun, Xiaoye; Zhang, Longqi

    2003-03-01

    Fracture problem of orthodontic wires was discussed in this paper. The calculation formulae of bending stress and tensile stress were obtained. All main factors that affect bending stress and tensile stress of orthodontic wires were analyzed and discussed. It was concluded that the main causes of fracture of orthodontic wires were fatigue and static disruption. Some improving proposals for preventing fracture of orthodontic wires were put forward.

  6. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. An FPGA based digitizer

  7. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The...

  8. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical...

  9. One century of Kirschner wires and Kirschner wire insertion techniques : A historical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Bas B. G. M.; Schuurman, Arnold H.; Van der Molen, Aebele Mink; Kon, Moshe

    A century ago, in 1909, Martin Kirschner (1879-942) introduced a smooth pin, presently known as the Kirschner wire (K-wire). The K-wire was initiallly used for skeletal traction and is now currently used for many different goals. The development of the K-wire and its insertion devices were mainly

  10. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  11. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems...

  12. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and…

  13. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  14. Linac beam core modeling from wire-scanner data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, A.G.

    1977-08-01

    This study introduces mathematical modeling of accelerator beams from data collected by wire scanners. Details about a beam core D(x,x',y,y') are examined in several situations: (a) for a discretization of the projection into xy-space, a maximum-entropy solution and a minimum-norm solution are developed and discussed, (b) for undiscretized xy-subspace, a two-dimensional Gaussian approximation D(x,.,y,.) = a exp [α(x-x 0 ) 2 + β(x-x 0 )(y-y 0 ) + γ(y-y 0 ) 2 ] is obtained by least squares, and (c) for four-dimensional space, the fit of a single Gaussian to data from a succession of wire scanners is investigated

  15. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  16. Energy Deposition in a Septum Wire

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Knaus, P; Koopman, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    The present note describes a machine development (MD) aimed to confirm experimentally the need for protection of the extraction wire septum ZS in SPS long straight section LSS6 during LHC operation. Single wires identical to the ones mounted on the extraction septum were fixed on a fast wire scanner and put into the beam path. The beam heated the wire until it broke after a measured number of turns. The maximum single shot intensity the septum wires could withstand was thus calculated and compared with simulation results.

  17. Improved Symmetry Greatly Increases X-Ray Power from Wire-Array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Allshouse, G.O.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Mock, R.C.; Spielman, R.B.; Seamen, J.F.; McGurn, J.S.; Jobe, D.; Gilliland, T.L.; Vargas, M.; Struve, K.W.; Stygar, W.A.; Douglas, M.R.; Matzen, M.K.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Eddleman, J.L.; Peterson, D.L.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Thornhill, J.W.; Pulsifer, P.E.; Apruzese, J.P.; Maron, Y.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic experimental study of annular aluminum-wire Z-pinches on a 20-TW electrical generator shows that the measured spatial characteristics and emitted x-ray power agree more closely with rad-hydro simulations when large numbers of wires are used. The measured x-ray power increases first slowly and then rapidly with decreasing interwire gap spacing. Simulations suggested that this increase reflects the transition from implosion of individual wire plasmas to one of an azimuthally symmetric plasma shell. In the plasma-shell regime, x-ray powers of 40TW are achieved. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Effect of transverse compression on I/sub c/ of Nb3Sn multifilamentary wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specking, W.; Goldacker, W.; Fluekiger, R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of transverse compressive stress on critical current in bronze processed Nb 3 Sn multifilamentary wires was measured at 13.5 T. For the same wire the critical current was more sensitive to this stress than to axial stress. An increase in this stress first caused a slight enhancement of the critical current followed by a drastic decrease of 50 percent at a stress equal to 100 MPa. X-ray diffraction under transverse compression revealed a decrease in the spacing between the lattice planes parallel to the wire axis. This provided a physical basis for the initial enhancement of the critical current under transverse compressive stress

  19. A Wire Grid Paraboloid for Large Low Frequency Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Tom

    2017-05-01

    Planetary magnetic fields are usually studied remotely through their electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission from electrons trapped in their magnetic fields. Jupiter has been well studied since the 1960's because its strong magnetic field allows emissions up to about 40 MHz to be observed. The emission from Earth and other outer planets is mostly below 1 MHz and can only be observed from space. It is reasonable to assume that most exoplanets with ECM must be observed at low frequencies from space. Even optimistic assumptions about the strength of such emission leads one to conclude that very large filled aperture telescopes, with a diameters of a kilometer or more, will be needed.This paper reports on a study of a copper wire reflector with a diameter of 1 km operating between 100 kHz and 3.75 MHz. It would require 200 kg of 0.5 mm diameter copper wire (AWG 24)) to be lifted to and deployed in space. For aluminum, the mass would be about 100 kg. By optimizing the wire spacing the mass can be reduced to 80% of a simple radial-azimuthal arrangement. A relatively flat reflector (0.6 ≤ f/D ≤ 1.0) needs to be anchored at about 5 points from center to ring along 24 radii. Station-keeping CubeSats could serve as anchors. A total of about 100-120 anchors would be needed for an f/D = 1 reflector, adding 200-300 kg. to the mass of the reflector. It would be possible to carry several such reflectors into space in a single payload.The Deep Space Network is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Electrodeposition of nickel nano wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok Kuan Ying; Ng Inn Khuan; Nurazila Mat Zali; Siti Salwa Zainal Abidin

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and assembly of one-dimensional nickel nano wires prepared by template directed electrodeposition are discussed in this paper. Parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were electrodeposited using electrolytes with different cations and pH. The nano wires were characterized using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the orientations of the electro deposited Ni nano wires were governed by the deposition current and the electrolyte conditions. Free standing nickel nano wires can be obtained by dissolving the template. Due to the magnetic nature of the nano wires, magnetic alignment was employed to assemble and position the free standing nano wires in the device structure. (author)

  1. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  2. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  3. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  4. Determination of the strain status of GaAs/AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated periodic arrays of 150 and 175 nm wide GaAs-AlAs quantum wires and quantum dots, fabricated by electron beam lithography and SiCI4/O2 reactive ion etching, by means of reciprocal space mapping using triple axis x-ray diffractometry (TAD). The reciprocal space maps reveal that

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  7. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  8. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  9. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  10. Scalable Solution Processing of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Assembled, Tunable Materials with Direct Application to Space Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current material technologies limit space exploration and vehicle performance due to often unnecessary mass increase from copper wiring or heavy structural...

  11. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  12. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  13. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  14. Hot wire radicals and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wengang; Gallagher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Threshold ionization mass spectroscopy is used to measure radical (and stable gas) densities at the substrate of a tungsten hot wire (HW) reactor. We report measurements of the silane reaction probability on the HW and the probability of Si and H release from the HW. We describe a model for the atomic H release, based on the H 2 dissociation model. We note major variations in silicon-release, with dependence on prior silane exposure. Measured radical densities versus silane pressure yield silicon-silane and H-silane reaction rate coefficients, and the dominant radical fluxes to the substrate

  15. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  16. Wire alignment system for ATF LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, H.; Takeda, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsui, T.

    1994-01-01

    A wire based alignment system is adopted to make less than 40μm precision alignment for injector linac of Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system consists of two stretched SUS wires, pickup coils and active mover stages. The position of pickup coils in a mount which will be installed into LINAC stages is set to the calculated wire position prior to installation. All of LINAC stages are then moved to keep the calculated position by the active mover. The test results of wire position detection in a long term are described. (author)

  17. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  18. Nickel contaminated titanium weld wire study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, G.R.; Sumstine, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attachment of thermocouples to fuel rod welding problems at Exxon Nuclear Company and INEL prompted an investigation study of the titanium filler wire material. It was found that the titanium filler wire was contaminated with nickel which was jacketed on the wire prior to the drawing process at the manufacturers. A method was developed to 100% inspect all filler wire for future welding application. This method not only indicates the presence of nickel contamination but indicates quantity of contamination. The process is capable of high speed inspection necessary for various high speed manufacturing processes

  19. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  20. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  1. Microwave heating of electric cable insulated wires before their impregnation with a hydrophobic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niculae, D; Mihailescu, A [Romanian Electricity Authority (Romania); Indreias, I; Martin, D [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Margaritescu, A [ICPE Electrostatica, Bucharest, (Romania); Zlatonovici, D

    1998-12-31

    Underground insulated telecommunication cables must be impregnated with a hydrophobic material in order to prevent water penetration damage. To do so, the cable wire bundle must be heated to a temperature of 60 to 90 degrees C to ensure proper fluidity of the hydrophobic material that must fill the free spaces between the copper wires of the telephone cable. This paper described the microwave heating method of the wires before their impregnation. A cylindrical applicator was designed to perform a telephone bundle heating test. 800 W of microwave power were used on a telephone cable made up of 800 wires of 0.4 mm in diameter. A uniform heating was obtained throughout the section. Microwave heating was also found to be 53 per cent more energy efficient than hot air heating. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-07-01

    Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities

  3. Nanostructure and mechanical properties of heavily cold-drawn steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.S.; Bae, J.G.; Park, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of microstructure on the mechanical properties of the high-carbon steel wires were investigated. The wires were fabricated with carbon content of 0.82 and 1.02 wt.% and drawing strain from 4.12 to 4.32. The bending fatigue resistance and torsion ductility were measured by a Hunter fatigue tester and a torsion tester specially designed for fine wires. As the carbon content and drawing strain increased, the fatigue resistance and the torsional ductility of the steel wires decreased, and the tensile strength increased. To elucidate the causes of these behaviors, the microstructure in terms of lamellar spacing (λ P ), cementite thickness (t C ) and morphology of cementite was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 3-dimensional atom probe (3-DAP).

  4. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  5. Spin correlations in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2015-04-01

    We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.

  6. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  7. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  8. Fluorescent silver nanoparticles via exploding wire technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pure silver nanoparticles in double distilled water were generated via simple physical method using pure (99.9%) silver wires with 0.2 mm diameter. These wires have been exploded in water by bringing them into sudden contact with pure (99.9%) silver plate when subjected to a potential difference of 36 V DC. High current.

  9. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  10. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final... subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for in subheadings 9403.90... China of wire decking, and that such [[Page 4585

  11. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F.D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations and Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  12. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  13. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  14. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  15. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  16. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  17. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Finnemore, D. K.; Gibson, E. D.; Ostenson, J. E.; Schmidt, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb 3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb 3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting

  18. Study on efficiency of multi-wire tungsten moderator for slow positron source on SPring-8 hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plokhoi, Vladimir; Kandiev, Yadgar; Samarin, Sergey; Malyshkin, Gennady; Baidin, Grigory; Litvinenko, Igor; Nikitin, Valery

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides results of numeric simulations of in-target positron production process, processes of moderation, thermalization, diffusion, and reemission of positrons in high efficiency multi-wire moderator made of tungsten monocrystalline wire with regular wire spacing. The paper looks into dynamics of slow positrons in the moderator's vacuum gaps taking into account of external fields. The possibility for using multi-wire moderator with non-regular structure - multi-layer w ire felt m oderator is discussed. According to maximal estimate the multi-wire moderators can reach very high efficiency of fast-slow positron transformation ∼ 10 -2 . Using such moderator the intensity of slow positron source on hard synchrotron radiation of Spring-8 can reach the level of ∼10 11 e + /s. (author)

  19. Wiring of electronic evaluation circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Svoboda, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The wiring is described of electronic evaluation circuits for the automatic viewing of photographic paper strip negatives on which line tracks with an angular scatter relative to the spectrograph longitudinal axis were recorded during the oblique flight of nuclear particles during exposure in the spectrograph. In coincidence evaluation, the size of the angular scatter eventually requires that evaluation dead time be increased. The equipment consists of minimally two fixed registers and a block of logic circuits whose output is designed such as will allow connection to equipment for recording signals corresponding to the number of tracks on the film. The connection may be implemented using integrated circuits guaranteeing high operating reliability and life. (J.B.)

  20. Single wire drift chamber design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 μm rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles

  1. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Production Engineering and Machine Tools

    2001-07-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  2. Wire sawing for the application for dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Hillmann-Apmann, H.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years diamond wire sawing process has been established as a technique for machining of hard and brittle materials in the quarrying and dimensioning of natural stone, i.e. marble and granite /Bor94/, or in machining of concrete and reinforced concrete /NN89, NN90, Rus93, Zil89/. It is more and more applied in different industrial sectors, namely the building and road-building industry, for purposes of reconstruction and decommissioning/. For the application of cutting austenitic steel most of the current wire sawing tools can not be used. First the diamond get in chemical reaction with the steel (graphitisation) and also the plastic flow of the workpiece material (''smearing'') while processing this material, the chip spaces between the diamonds are filled with the steel chips and thus the effective processing is reduced. Only the very tips of the diamonds are in contact with the workpiece, which leads in most cases to rapid wear of the grains. The tool loses its ability to grind in short terms of time. All these problems exclude the wire sawing technique from wide areas of application of cutting ductile steel materials. (orig.)

  3. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  4. Polarimetry and Schlieren diagnostics of underwater exploding wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2009-11-01

    Nondisturbing laser-probing polarimetry (based on the Faraday and Kerr effects) and Schlieren diagnostics were used in the investigation of underwater electrical wire explosion. Measuring the polarization plane rotation angle of a probing laser beam due to the Faraday effect allows one to determine an axially resolved current flowing through the exploding wire, unlike commonly used current probes. This optical method of measuring current yields results that match those obtained using a current viewing resistor within an accuracy of 10%. The same optical setup allows simultaneous space-resolved measurement of the electric field using the Kerr effect. It was shown that the maximal amplitude of the electric field in the vicinity of the high-voltage electrode is ˜80 kV/cm and that the radial electric field is <1 MV/cm during the wire explosion. Finally, it was shown that the use of Schlieren diagnostics allows one to obtain qualitatively the density distribution behind the shock wave front, which is important for the determination of the energy transfer from the discharge channel to the generated water flow.

  5. Polarimetry and Schlieren diagnostics of underwater exploding wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov-Gefen, A. V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2009-01-01

    Nondisturbing laser-probing polarimetry (based on the Faraday and Kerr effects) and Schlieren diagnostics were used in the investigation of underwater electrical wire explosion. Measuring the polarization plane rotation angle of a probing laser beam due to the Faraday effect allows one to determine an axially resolved current flowing through the exploding wire, unlike commonly used current probes. This optical method of measuring current yields results that match those obtained using a current viewing resistor within an accuracy of 10%. The same optical setup allows simultaneous space-resolved measurement of the electric field using the Kerr effect. It was shown that the maximal amplitude of the electric field in the vicinity of the high-voltage electrode is ∼80 kV/cm and that the radial electric field is <1 MV/cm during the wire explosion. Finally, it was shown that the use of Schlieren diagnostics allows one to obtain qualitatively the density distribution behind the shock wave front, which is important for the determination of the energy transfer from the discharge channel to the generated water flow.

  6. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-12-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  7. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼ 1.4 mm. In this plasma-shell regime, many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  8. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ˜1.4 mm. In this "plasma-shell regime," many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models.

  9. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R. C.; Marder, B. M.; Nash, T. J.; Spielman, R. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.; Hammer, J. H.; De Groot, J. S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K. G.; Apruzese, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4 mm. In this ''plasma-shell regime,'' many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models

  10. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  11. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  12. Production of diamond wire by Cu15 v-% Nb 'in situ' process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueira, M.; Pinatti, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond wires are cutting tools used in the slabbing of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, as well as in cutting of concrete structures. This tool consists of a steel cable on which diamond annular segments (pearls) are mounted with spacing between them. This work has developed a new technological route to obtain the diamond wires, whose fabrication involves metal forming processes such as rotary forging and wire drawing, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments of sintering and recrystallization. It was idealized the use of Cu 15v% Nb composite wires as the high tensile strength cable, covered with an external cutting rope made of bronze 4wt% diamond composite, along the overall wire surface. Investigations were carried out on the mechanical behavior and on the microstructural evolution of the Cu 15 vol % Nb wires, which showed ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 960 MPa and deformation of approximately 3,0 %. The cutting external rope of 1.84 mm in diameter showed UTS = 230 MPa. On the microstructural side aspect it was observed that the diamond crystals were uniformly distributed throughout the tool bulk in the several processing steps. Cutting tests were carried out starting with an external diamond rope of 1.93 mm in diameter, which cut a marble sectional area of 1188 cm 2 , and the tool degraded to a final diameter of 1.23 mm. For marble the 'in situ' wire showed a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond saws, however their probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix and the low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond. (author)

  13. Design and fabrication of a three-finger prosthetic hand using SMA muscle wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Filomena; York, Alexander; Seelecke, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-inspired hand-like gripper systems based on shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuation have the potential to enable a number of useful applications in, e.g., the biomedical field or industrial assembly systems. The inherent high energy density makes SMA solutions a natural choice for systems with lightweight, low noise and high force requirements, such as hand prostheses or robotic systems in a human/machine environment. The focus of this research is the development, design and realization of a SMA-actuated prosthetic hand prototype with three fingers. The use of thin wires (100 μm diameter) allows for high cooling rates and therefore fast movement of each finger. Grouping several small wires mechanically in parallel allows for high force actuation. To save space and to allow for a direct transmission of the motion to each finger, the SMA wires are attached directly within each finger, across each phalanx. In this way, the contraction of the wires will allow the movement of the fingers without the use of any additional gears. Within each finger, two different bundles of wires are mounted: protagonist ones that create bending movement and the antagonist ones that enable stretching of each phalanx. The resistance change in the SMA wires is measured during actuation, which allows for monitoring of the wire stroke and potentially the gripping force without the use of additional sensors. The hand is built with modern 3D-printing technologies and its performance while grasping objects of different size and shape is experimentally investigated illustrating the usefulness of the actuator concept.

  14. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  15. Welding wires for high-tensile steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laz'ko, V.E.; Starova, L.L.; Koval'chuk, V.G.; Maksimovich, T.L.; Labzina, I.E.; Yadrov, V.M.

    1993-01-01

    Strength of welded joints in arc welding of high-tensile steels of mean and high thickness by welding wires is equal to approximately 1300 MPa in thermohardened state and approximately 600 MPa without heat treatment. Sv-15Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EhK44-VI) -Sv-30Kh2NMTsRA-VI (EkK47-VI) welding wires are suggested for welding of medium-carbon alloyed steels. These wires provide monotonous growth of ultimate strength of weld metal in 1250-1900 MPa range with increase of C content in heat-treated state

  16. Plastic deformation of 2D crumpled wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, M A F; Donato, C C; Brito, V P; Coelho, A S O

    2008-01-01

    When a single long piece of elastic wire is injected through channels into a confining two-dimensional cavity, a complex structure of hierarchical loops is formed. In the limit of maximum packing density, these structures are described by several scaling laws. In this paper this packing process is investigated but using plastic wires which give rise to completely irreversible structures of different morphology. In particular, the plastic deformation from circular to oblate configurations of crumpled wires is experimentally studied, obtained by the application of an axial strain. Among other things, it is shown that in spite of plasticity, irreversibility and very large deformations, scaling is still observed.

  17. Fast wire scanner for intense electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moore

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a cost-effective, fast rotating wire scanner for use in accelerators where high beam currents would otherwise melt even carbon wires. This new design uses a simple planetary gear setup to rotate a carbon wire, fixed at one end, through the beam at speeds in excess of 20  m/s. We present results from bench tests, as well as transverse beam profile measurements taken at Cornell’s high-brightness energy recovery linac photoinjector, for beam currents up to 35 mA.

  18. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  19. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  20. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  1. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  2. X-ray residual stress measurements on cold-drawn steel wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, P.F.; Naughton, B.P.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The interplanar spacing d{hkl} versus sin2 ψ distributions were measured for the 211, 310, 220 and 200 reflections from severely cold-drawn 0.7% C steel wire with a diameter of 0.25 mm. From the shape of the curves it was concluded that, as well as a 110 fibre texture and elastic anisotropy, plastic

  3. Design and performance of a 2-D multi-wire position sensitive X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of an anode plane with 10 µm SS wires at 3 mm spacing and a pair of orthogonal cathode read- out planes with 25 µm SS .... The electron multiplication process in high electric field is one of the prominent char- acteristics of .... be tested by irradiating the detector with a beam of X-rays of uniform intensity per unit area, and ...

  4. Cortical Composition Hierarchy Driven by Spine Proportion Economical Maximization or Wire Volume Minimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Karbowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and quantitative composition of the cerebral cortex are interrelated with its computational capacity. Empirical data analyzed here indicate a certain hierarchy in local cortical composition. Specifically, neural wire, i.e., axons and dendrites take each about 1/3 of cortical space, spines and glia/astrocytes occupy each about (1/3(2, and capillaries around (1/3(4. Moreover, data analysis across species reveals that these fractions are roughly brain size independent, which suggests that they could be in some sense optimal and thus important for brain function. Is there any principle that sets them in this invariant way? This study first builds a model of local circuit in which neural wire, spines, astrocytes, and capillaries are mutually coupled elements and are treated within a single mathematical framework. Next, various forms of wire minimization rule (wire length, surface area, volume, or conduction delays are analyzed, of which, only minimization of wire volume provides realistic results that are very close to the empirical cortical fractions. As an alternative, a new principle called "spine economy maximization" is proposed and investigated, which is associated with maximization of spine proportion in the cortex per spine size that yields equally good but more robust results. Additionally, a combination of wire cost and spine economy notions is considered as a meta-principle, and it is found that this proposition gives only marginally better results than either pure wire volume minimization or pure spine economy maximization, but only if spine economy component dominates. However, such a combined meta-principle yields much better results than the constraints related solely to minimization of wire length, wire surface area, and conduction delays. Interestingly, the type of spine size distribution also plays a role, and better agreement with the data is achieved for distributions with long tails. In sum, these results suggest

  5. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  6. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, T. R.; Chui, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures

  7. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  8. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  9. Angular response of hot wire probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mare, L; Jelly, T O; Day, I J

    2017-01-01

    A new equation for the convective heat loss from the sensor of a hot-wire probe is derived which accounts for both the potential and the viscous parts of the flow past the prongs. The convective heat loss from the sensor is related to the far-field velocity by an expression containing a term representing the potential flow around the prongs, and a term representing their viscous effect. This latter term is absent in the response equations available in the literature but is essential in representing some features of the observed response of miniature hot-wire probes. The response equation contains only four parameters but it can reproduce, with great accuracy, the behaviour of commonly used single-wire probes. The response equation simplifies the calibration the angular response of rotated slanted hot-wire probes: only standard King’s law parameters and a Reynolds-dependent drag coefficient need to be determined. (paper)

  10. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  11. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Receptacles on a two-wire, single-phase portable or vehicle-mounted generator rated not more than 5kW, where the circuit conductors of the generator are insulated from the generator frame and all other grounded... wiring shall be grounded: (i) Three-wire DC systems. All 3-wire DC systems shall have their neutral...

  13. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  14. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is

  15. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  16. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  17. Tracking with wire chambers at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.; Gundy, M.C.; Palounek, A.P.T.

    1989-07-01

    Limitations placed on wire chambers by radiation damage and rate requirements in the SSC environment are reviewed. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tacking systems that meet these requirements are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 13 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab

  18. Charge Transport Along Phenylenevinylene Molecular Wires

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A model to calculate the mobility of charges along molecular wires is presented. The model is based on the tight-binding approximation and combines a quantum mechanical description of the charge with a classical description of the structural degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the average mobility of charge carriers along molecular wires can be obtained by time-propagation of states which are initially localised. The model is used to calculate the mobility of charg...

  19. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  20. Deformable wire array: fiber drawn tunable metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Simon; Stefani, Alessio; Tang, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated.......By fiber drawing we fabricate a wire array metamaterial, the structure of which can be actively modified. The plasma frequency can be tuned by 50% by compressing the metamaterial; recovers when released and the process can be repeated....

  1. Tracking with wire chambers at high luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation damage and rate limitations impose severe constraints on wire chambers at the SSC. Possible conceptual designs for wire chamber tracking systems that satisfy these constraints are discussed. Computer simulation studies of tracking in such systems are presented. Simulations of events from interesting physics at the SSC, including hits from minimum bias background events, are examined. Results of some preliminary pattern recognition studies are given. 11 refs., 10 figs

  2. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  3. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  4. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.

    2017-07-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  5. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  6. Impedance Characterisation of the SPS Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091911; Prof. Sillanpää, Mika

    As a beam diagnostic tool, the SPS wire scanner interacts with the proton bunches traversing the vacuum pipes of the Super Proton Synchrotron particle accelerator. Following the interaction, the bunches decelerate or experience momentum kicks off-axis and couple energy to the cavity walls, resonances and to the diagnostic tool, the scanning wire. The beam coupling impedance and, in particular, the beam induced heating of the wire motivate the characterisation and redesign of the SPS wire scanner. In this thesis, we characterise RF-wise the low frequency modes of the SPS wire scanner. These have the highest contribution to the impedance. We measure the cavity modes in terms of resonance frequency and quality factor by traditional measurement techniques and data analysis. We carry out a 4-port measurement to evaluate the beam coupling to the scanning wire, that yields the spectral heating power. If combined with the simulations, one is able to extract the beam coupling impedance and deduce the spectral dissipa...

  7. Chemistry of radiation damage to wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1992-08-01

    Proportional counters are used to study aspects of radiation damage to wire chambers (wire aging). Principles of low-pressure, rf plasma chemistry are used to predict the plasma chemistry in electron avalanches (1 atm, dc). (1) Aging is studied in CF 4 /iC 4 H 10 gas mixtures. Wire deposits are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. An apparent cathode aging process resulting in loss of gain rather than in a self-sustained current is observed in CF 4 -rich gases. A four-part model considering plasma polymerization of the hydrocarbon, etching of wire deposits by CF 4 , acceleration of deposition processes in strongly etching environments, and reactivity of the wire surface is developed to understand anode wire aging in CF 4 /iC 4 H 10 gases. Practical guidelines suggested by the model are discussed. (2) Data are presented to suggest that trace amounts of Freons do not affect aging rates in either dimethyl ether or Ar/C 2 H 6 . Apparent loss of gain is explained by attachment of primary electrons to a continuously increasing concentration of Freon 11 (CCl 3 F) in the counter gas. An increase in the concentration of Freon 11 in dimethyl ether is caused by a distillation process in the gas supply bottle and is a natural consequence of the unequal volatilities of the two compounds

  8. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  9. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire; Notice of Commission Determination To... within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos. 6,260,781; 6...

  10. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  11. Supplemental Analysis Survey of C&P Telephone Inside Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    telephone company facilities in 1984. In 1985, among other actions favorable to deregulation and detariffing of inside wiring, the FCC proposed to detariff ...installation of inside wiring, detariff the maintenance of all inside wiring, treat all inside wiring as customer premise equipment and pass ownership...85-148, 50 Fed. let. 13991 (April 9, 1985), pToposing to detariff the installation of simple inside wiring and also to detariff the maintenance of all

  12. Structural Parameters and Strengthening Mechanisms in Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Pearlitic steel wires have a nanoscale structure and a strength which can reach 5 GPa. In order to investigate strengthening mechanisms, structural parameters including interlamellar spacing, dislocation density and cementite decomposition, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...... and high resolution electron microscopy in wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.7. Three strengthening mechanisms, namely boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening have been analyzed and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and the value...

  13. The Analysis of the High Speed Wire Drawing Process of High Carbon Steel Wires Under Hydrodynamic Lubrication Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliga M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the analysis of the wire drawing process in hydrodynamic dies has been done. The drawing process of φ5.5 mm wire rod to the final wire of φ1.7 mm was conducted in 12 passes, in drawing speed range of 5-25 m/s. For final wires of φ1.7 mm the investigation of topography of wire surface, the amount of lubricant on the wire surface and the pressure of lubricant in hydrodynamic dies were determined. Additionally, in the work selected mechanical properties of the wires have been estimated.

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Wiring. Course: Electrical Wiring Rough-In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of two individualized courses included in an electrical wiring curriculum, this course covers electrical installations that are generally hidden within the structure. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Outlet and Switch Boxes, (2) Wiring, (3) Service Entrance, and (4) Signal and Low Voltage Systems. Each unit begins with a Unit…

  15. Effect of discrete wires on the implosion dynamics of wire array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, S. V.; Beg, F. N.; Bland, S. N.; Chittenden, J. P.; Dangor, A. E.; Haines, M. G.; Kwek, K. H.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    A phenomenological model of wire array Z-pinch implosions, based on the analysis of experimental data obtained on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) generator [I. H. Mitchell , Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)], is described. The data show that during the first ∼80% of the implosion the wire cores remain stationary in their initial positions, while the coronal plasma is continuously jetting from the wire cores to the array axis. This phase ends by the formation of gaps in the wire cores, which occurs due to the nonuniformity of the ablation rate along the wires. The final phase of the implosion starting at this time occurs as a rapid snowplow-like implosion of the radially distributed precursor plasma, previously injected in the interior of the array. The density distribution of the precursor plasma, being peaked on the array axis, could be a key factor providing stability of the wire array implosions operating in the regime of discrete wires. The modified ''initial'' conditions for simulations of wire array Z-pinch implosions with one-dimension (1D) and two-dimensions (2D) in the r--z plane, radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes, and a possible scaling to a larger drive current are discussed

  16. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  17. Theory of wire number scaling in wire-array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed-power-driven Z pinches, produced by imploding cylindrical arrays of many wires, have generated very high x-ray radiation powers (>200 TW) and energies (2 MJ). Experiments have revealed a steady improvement in Z-pinch performance with increasing wire number at fixed total mass and array radius. The dominant mechanism acting to limit the performance of these devices is believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which broadens the radially imploding plasma sheath and consequently reduces the peak radiation power. A model is presented which describes an amplification over the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate brought about by kink-like forces on the individual wires. This amplification factor goes to zero as the number of wires approaches infinity. This model gives results which are in good agreement with the experimental data and provides a scaling for wire-array Z pinches. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels; Huang Xiaoxu; Liu Wei; Liu Qing

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110} α or {112} α slip plane traces in the ferrite.

  19. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the cementite phase during wet wire drawing of a pearlitic steel wire has been followed as a function of strain. Particular attention has been given to a quantitative characterization of changes in the alignment and in the dimensions of the cementite phase. Scanning electron...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...... decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...

  20. New crosslinked polyvinyl chloride insulated wire by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, Norio; Shingyouchi, Kazuo; Sato, Masakatsu; Sasaki, Hidemi; Terunuma, Haruji

    1978-01-01

    The polyvinyl chloride-coated wires crosslinked by electron beam irradiation have made rapid progress as electric and electronic wiring material and grown to hold a firm position in this field. In response to the requirements for wires with the advance of electronic equipments, Hitachi Cable Ltd. developed a peculiar graft polymer consisting of chlorinated polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride. To this polymer, the characteristics of a very wide range from toughness to flexibility can be given, and the crosslinked polyvinyl chloride wires utilizing these characteristics were put in practical use. Many kinds of the wires were developed as follows; 105 deg. C rating crosslinked vinyl-coated wires authorized by UL and CSA standards, crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with excellent flexibility, high strength crosslinked vinyl-coated wires with thin coating and crosslinked vinyl-coated wires for automobiles. They are expected to be developed into other new fields and applications. (Kobatake, H.)

  1. Micro Wire-Drawing: Experiments And Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, G. A.; Monti, M.; Bietresato, M.; D'Angelo, L.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, the authors propose to adopt the micro wire-drawing as a key for investigating models of micro forming processes. The reasons of this choice arose in the fact that this process can be considered a quasi-stationary process where tribological conditions at the interface between the material and the die can be assumed to be constant during the whole deformation. Two different materials have been investigated: i) a low-carbon steel and, ii) a nonferrous metal (copper). The micro hardness and tensile tests performed on each drawn wire show a thin hardened layer (more evident then in macro wires) on the external surface of the wire and hardening decreases rapidly from the surface layer to the center. For the copper wire this effect is reduced and traditional material constitutive model seems to be adequate to predict experimentation. For the low-carbon steel a modified constitutive material model has been proposed and implemented in a FE code giving a better agreement with the experiments

  2. Wire scanner software and firmware issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilpatrick, John Doug

    2008-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility presently has 110 slow wire scanning profile measurement instruments located along its various beam lines. These wire scanners were developed and have been operating for at least 30 years. While the wire scanners solved many problems to operate and have served the facility well they have increasingly suffered from several problems or limitations, such as maintenance and reliability problems, antiquated components, slow data acquisition, and etc. In order to refurbish these devices, these wire scanners will be replaced with newer versions. The replacement will consist of a completely new beam line actuator, new cables, new electronics and brand new software and firmware. This note describes the functions and modes of operation that LabVIEW VI software on the real time controller and FPGA LabVIEW firmware will be required. It will be especially interesting to understand the overall architecture of these LabVIEW VIs. While this note will endeavor to describe all of the requirements and issues for the wire scanners, undoubtedly, there will be missing details that will be added as time progresses.

  3. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  4. Wiring economy and volume exclusion determine neuronal placement in the Drosophila brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Alba, Marta; Vitaladevuni, Shiv N; Mishchenko, Yuriy; Mischenko, Yuriy; Lu, Zhiyuan; Takemura, Shin-Ya; Scheffer, Lou; Meinertzhagen, Ian A; Chklovskii, Dmitri B; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G

    2011-12-06

    Wiring economy has successfully explained the individual placement of neurons in simple nervous systems like that of Caenorhabditis elegans [1-3] and the locations of coarser structures like cortical areas in complex vertebrate brains [4]. However, it remains unclear whether wiring economy can explain the placement of individual neurons in brains larger than that of C. elegans. Indeed, given the greater number of neuronal interconnections in larger brains, simply minimizing the length of connections results in unrealistic configurations, with multiple neurons occupying the same position in space. Avoiding such configurations, or volume exclusion, repels neurons from each other, thus counteracting wiring economy. Here we test whether wiring economy together with volume exclusion can explain the placement of neurons in a module of the Drosophila melanogaster brain known as lamina cartridge [5-13]. We used newly developed techniques for semiautomated reconstruction from serial electron microscopy (EM) [14] to obtain the shapes of neurons, the location of synapses, and the resultant synaptic connectivity. We show that wiring length minimization and volume exclusion together can explain the structure of the lamina microcircuit. Therefore, even in brains larger than that of C. elegans, at least for some circuits, optimization can play an important role in individual neuron placement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subarachnoid and basal cistern navigation through the sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, Lauren; Riascos, Roy; Firouzbakht, Farhood; Amole, Adewumi; Von Ritschl, Rudiger; Dipatre, Pier; Cuellar, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    Intraspinal navigation with catheters and fiberscopes has shown feasible results for diagnosis and treatment of intraspinal and intracranial lesions. The most common approach, lumbar puncture, has allowed access to the spinal cord, however, coming with the difficulties of fiberscope damage and decreased torque for guidance. Our objective in this study is to allow an alternate access, the sacral hiatus, with guide wire assistance into the subarachnoid and intracranial structures, while easing the angle of entry and increasing torque. We advanced catheters with guide wire and fluoroscopy assistance into the sacral hiatus of three cadavers. After entry, the thecal sac was punctured and the catheter with guide wire was advanced rostrally until positioned in the basal cisterns of the brain. We confirmed catheter placement with contrast injection, autopsy, and dissection. In our study, the sacral hiatus was easily accessed, but resistance was found when attempting to puncture the thecal sac. The advancement of the catheter with guide wire assistance glided easily rostrally until some mild resistance was discovered at entry into the foramen magnum. With redirection, all catheters passed with ease into the basal cisterns. Positioning was confirmed with contrast injection with fluoroscopy evidence, autopsy, and dissection. There was no macroscopic or microscopic evidence of damage to the spinal roots, spinal cord, or cranial nerves. The sacral hiatus with guide wire assistance is an accessible conduit for uncomplicated entry into the subarachnoid and basal cistern space without damaging surrounding structures.

  6. Comparison between wire mesh sensor and gamma densitometry void measurements in two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, S.; Da Silva, M.; Hampel, U.; Zippe, C.; Beyer, M.; Azzopardi, B.

    2011-10-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are fast imaging instruments that are used for gas-liquid and liquid-liquid two-phase flow measurements and experimental investigations. Experimental tests were conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to test both the capacitance and conductance WMS against a gamma densitometer (GD). A small gas-liquid test facility was utilized. This consisted of a vertical round pipe approximately 1 m in length, and 50 mm internal diameter. A 16 × 16 WMS was used with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Air-deionized water was the two-phase mixture. The gas superficial velocity was varied between 0.05 m s-1 and 1.4 m s-1 at two liquid velocities of 0.2 and 0.7 m s-1. The GD consisted of a collimated source and a collimated detector. The GD was placed on a moving platform close to the plane of wires of the sensor, in order to align it accurately using a counter mechanism, with each of the wires of the WMS, and the platform could scan the full section of the pipe. The WMS was operated as a conductivity WMS for a half-plane with eight wires and as a capacitance WMS for the other half. For the cross-sectional void (time and space averaged), along each wire, there was good agreement between WMS and the GD chordal void fraction near the centre of the pipe.

  7. Comparison between wire mesh sensor and gamma densitometry void measurements in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, S; Azzopardi, B; Da Silva, M; Hampel, U; Zippe, C; Beyer, M

    2011-01-01

    Wire mesh sensors (WMS) are fast imaging instruments that are used for gas–liquid and liquid–liquid two-phase flow measurements and experimental investigations. Experimental tests were conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf to test both the capacitance and conductance WMS against a gamma densitometer (GD). A small gas–liquid test facility was utilized. This consisted of a vertical round pipe approximately 1 m in length, and 50 mm internal diameter. A 16 × 16 WMS was used with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Air–deionized water was the two-phase mixture. The gas superficial velocity was varied between 0.05 m s −1 and 1.4 m s −1 at two liquid velocities of 0.2 and 0.7 m s −1 . The GD consisted of a collimated source and a collimated detector. The GD was placed on a moving platform close to the plane of wires of the sensor, in order to align it accurately using a counter mechanism, with each of the wires of the WMS, and the platform could scan the full section of the pipe. The WMS was operated as a conductivity WMS for a half-plane with eight wires and as a capacitance WMS for the other half. For the cross-sectional void (time and space averaged), along each wire, there was good agreement between WMS and the GD chordal void fraction near the centre of the pipe

  8. Sensitive and simple method for measuring wire tensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.; Mishina, M.

    1982-08-01

    Measuring tension of wires in drift chambers and multiwire proportional chambers after construction is an important process because sometimes wires get loose after soldering, crimping or glueing. One needs to sort out wires which have tensions below a required minimum value to prevent electrostatic instabilities. There have been several methods reported on this subject in which the wires were excited either with sinusoidal current under magnetic field or with sinusoidal voltage electrostatically coupled to the wire, searching for a resonating frequency with which the wires vibrate mechanically. Then the vibration is detected either visually, optically or with magnetic pick-up directly touching the wires. Any of these is only applicable to the usual multiwire chamber which has open access to the wire plane. They also need fairly large excitation currents to induce a detectable vibration to the wires. Here we report a very simple method that can be used for any type of wire chamber or proportional tube system for measuring wire tension. Only a very small current is required for the wire excitation to obtain a large enough signal because it detects the induced emf voltage across a wire. A sine-wave oscillator and a digital voltmeter are sufficient devices aside from a permanent magnet to provide the magnetic field around the wire. A useful application of this method to a large system is suggested

  9. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTiarch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82 ± 0.14, group 2: 1.09 ± 0.30, group 3: 0.87 ± 0.53, group 4: 1.9 ± 1.16, group 5: 1.42 ± 0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034 . Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  10. Evaluation of frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brakcets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mirzaie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When using sliding mechanics for space closure during orthodontic treatment, friction occurs at the bracket-wire interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance between monocrystalline (ICE brackets and Stainless Steel, Beta TMA and NiTi wires. Methods: In this experimental study, we used 5 different types of orthodontic wires. Brackets and wires were divided in to 5 groups: 1-(monocrystalline+stainless steel 18 2–(monocrystalline+stainless steel 19×25 3-(monocrystalline+Beta-TMA 4–(monocrystalline+Beta TMA 19×25 5-(monocrystalline+NiTi 18. Instron Universal Testing Machine was used to investigate the static frictional resistance. The angulation between bracket and wire was 0 and the wires were pulled through the slots at a speed of 10 mm/min. Tests were performed 10 times for each group in artificial saliva. The average of 10 forces recorded was considered as static friction. One-way ANOVA and SPSS Version 18 and LSD post hoc test were used to evaluate the results of the study. Results: The mean static frictional force for each group was: group1: 0.82±0.14, group 2: 1.09±0.30, group 3: 0.87±0.53, group 4: 1.9±1.16, group 5: 1.42±0.30. There was a significant difference when comparing the two groups of similar wires in terms of shape (round or rectangular cross-section as when comparing Beta TMA 18 and 19×25 arch wires with each other, the obtained p-value was 0.023, while the obtained p-value for the comparison of stainles steel arch wires was 0.034. Conclusions: The result of this study shows that Stainless Steel 18 wires generate the least amount of friction and round wires produce less friction than the rectangular wires. Beta TMA wires generate the highest amount of friction.

  11. Carrier transfer and magneto-transport in single modulation-doped V-grooved quantum wire modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen Zhanghai; Wang, F.Z.; Shen, S.C.; Tan, H.H.; Fu, L.; Fraser, M.; Jagadish, C.

    2006-01-01

    A single Al 0.5 Ga 0.5 As/GaAs V-grooved quantum wire modified by selective ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing was investigated by using spatially resolved micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and magneto-resistance measurements. The results of spatially resolved photoluminescence indicate that the ion-implantation-induced quantum well intermixing significantly raises the electronic sub-band energies in the side quantum wells (SQWs) and vertical quantum wells, and a more efficient accumulation of electrons in the quantum wires is achieved. Processes of real space carrier transfer from the SQW to the quantum wire was experimentally observed, and showed the blocking effect of carrier transfer due to the existence of the necking quantum well region. Furthermore, magneto-transport investigation on the ion-implanted quantum wire samples shows the quasi-one-dimensional intrinsic motion of electrons, which is important for the design and the optimization of one-dimensional electronic devices

  12. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  13. Longitudinal magnetic bistability of electroplated wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Garcia-Miquel, H.; Vazquez, M.; Svalov, A.V.; Vas'kovskiy, V.O.

    2002-01-01

    Fe 20 Ni 74 Co 6 and Fe 20 Ni 64 Co 16 1 μm thick magnetic tubes electroplated onto Cu 98 Be 2 conductive wire have been investigated in as-deposited state, after heat treatment under longitudinal magnetic field for 1 h at 330 deg. C, and after rf-sputtering deposition of the additional 2 μm Fe 19 Ni 81 layer. Heat treatments and an additional layer deposition modify the shape of hysteresis loops. Magnetically bistable behaviour, observed after the field annealing at a temperature of 330 deg. C, is studied as a function of the length of the samples. This is the first report by our knowledge on the bistable behaviour of the electroplated wires. The bistability of these wires is promising for applications such as tagging or pulse generator applications

  14. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  15. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example of the g......In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  16. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  17. Emulating Wired Backhaul with Wireless Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we address the need for wireless network densification. We propose a solution wherein the wired backhaul employed in heterogeneous cellular networks is replaced with wireless links, while maintaining the rate requirements of the uplink and downlink traffic of each user. The first...... of the two-way protocol. The transmit power is set high enough to enable successive decoding at the small cell base station where the downlink data to the user is first decoded and its contribution removed from the received signal followed by the uplink data from the user. The decoding of the second layer......, the uplink traffic to the user, remains identical to the one performed in a wired system. In the broadcast phase, the decoding of the downlink traffic can also be guaranteed to remain identical. Hence, our solution claims an emulation of a wired backhaul with wireless network coding with same performance. We...

  18. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Matthew K; Baltodano, Pablo A; Weinberg, Maxene H; Whipple, Lauren A; Gemmiti, Amanda L; Whipple, Richard E

    2017-11-01

    Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire's thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive.

  19. Ultrasonic cleaning of electrodes of wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.A.; Kurepin, A.B.; Razin, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    A technological process of cleaning electrodes and working volume surfaces of wire chambers from contaminations by the simultaneous mechanical action of the energy of ultrasonic oscillations and the chemical action of detergents is discussed. A device for cleaning wire electrodes of proportional chambers of 0.3x0.4 m is described. The device uses two ultrasonic generators with a total power of 0.5 kW. As a detergent use is made of a mixture of ethyl alcohol, gasoline and freon. In the process of cleaning production defects can be detected in the wire chambers which makes it possible to timely remove the defects. Measurements of the surface resistance of fiberglass laminate of printed drift chamber electrodes at a voltage of 2 kV showed that after completing the cleaning process the resistance increases 15-20%

  20. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  1. Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2018-05-01

    We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.

  2. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  3. Basic characteristics of thin wire arc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushihara, K.; Endoh, N.; Ono, S.; Teii, S.; Ishimura, T.

    1998-01-01

    The investigated plasma was generated by applying an electric current of about 50 A to a copper wire of 48 μm diameter in air. The development in time of emission spectra was measured and relative line intensity ratios were used to determine the temperature. The extension of the plasma was measured with a movable electrostatic probe which was placed next to the thin wire, and the electron density was estimated using the known electron mobility. The electron temperature was typically about 8000 K. On the other hand, the electron density tended to decrease with time from about 3.10 16 cm -3

  4. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  5. Mesoscopic NbSe3 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zant, H.S.J. van der; Kalwij, A.; Mantel, O.C.; Markovic, N.

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated wire structures with (sub)micron sizes in the charge-density wave conductor NbSe 3 . Electrical transport measurements include complete mode-locking on Shapiro steps and show that the patterning has not affected the CDW material. Our mesoscopic wires show strong fluctuation and hysteresis effects in the low-temperature current-voltage characteristics, as well as a strong reduction of the phase-slip voltage. This reduction can not be explained with existing models. We suggest that single phase-slip events are responsible for a substantial reduction of the CDW strain in micron-sized systems. (orig.)

  6. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  7. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  8. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  9. 2-D Fractal Wire Antenna Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Peterman, D. J.; Ewing, J. J.; Abbott, C. S.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal wire antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its length by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (of infinite iterations) have an infinite length. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling. A fundamental property of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that can be very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna tends to have additional frequencies that minimize far field return loss. This differs from traditional antenna designs in that a single fractal antenna can operate well at multiple frequencies. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of fractal wire antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, and number of iterations have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance.

  10. Current's Fluctuations through Molecular Wires Composed of Thiophene Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Silva, Judith Helena; Cortés Peñaranda, Juan Camilo; Gómez Castaño, Jovanny A; Duque, Carlos Alberto

    2018-04-11

    We study theoretically the electronic transport and quantum fluctuations in single-molecule systems using thiophene rings as integrated elementary functions, as well as the dependence of these properties with the increase of the coupled rings, i.e., as a quantum wire. In order to analyze the current flow through these molecular systems, the thiophene rings are considered to be connected to metal contacts, which, in general terms, will be related to the application of voltages (bias voltages or gate voltages) to generate non-equilibrium behavior between the contacts. Due to the nonlinear behavior that is generated when said voltages are applied, it is possible to observe quantum fluctuations in the transport properties of these molecular wires. For the calculation of the transport properties, we applied a tight-binding approach using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism and the Fischer-Lee relationship, by means of a semi-analytic Green's function method within a real-space renormalization (decimation procedure). Our results showed an excellent agreement with results using a tight-binding model with a minimal number of parameters reported so far for these molecular systems.

  11. Horizontal Air-Water Flow Analysis with Wire Mesh Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Salve, M; Monni, G; Panella, B

    2012-01-01

    A Wire Mesh Sensor, based on the measurement of the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase mixture, has been used to characterize the fluid dynamics of the gas–liquid interface in a horizontal pipe flow. Experiments with a pipe of a nominal diameter of 19.5 mm and total length of 6 m, have been performed with air/water mixtures, at ambient conditions. The flow quality ranges from 0.00016 to 0.22 and the superficial velocities range from 0.1 to 10.5 m/s for air and from 0.02 to 1.7 m/s for water; the flow pattern is stratified, slug/plug and annular. A sensor (WMS200) with an inner diameter of 19.5 mm and a measuring matrix of 16×16 points equally distributed over the cross-section has been chosen for the measurements. From the analysis of the Wire Mesh Sensor digital signals the average and the local void fraction are evaluated and the flow patterns are identified with reference to space, time and flow rate boundary conditions.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  13. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shane M.; Godley, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis methods and test data is shown to be very good.

  14. Comparison of Analysis, Simulation, and Measurement of Wire-to-Wire Crosstalk. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Yavoich, Brian James; Hodson, Shame M.; Godley, Richard Franklin

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, we compare crosstalk analysis, simulation, and measurement results for electrically short configurations. Methods include hand calculations, PSPICE simulations, Microstripes transient field solver, and empirical measurement. In total, four representative physical configurations are examined, including a single wire over a ground plane, a twisted pair over a ground plane, generator plus receptor wires inside a cylindrical conduit, and a single receptor wire inside a cylindrical conduit. Part 1 addresses the first two cases, and Part 2 addresses the final two. Agreement between the analysis, simulation, and test data is shown to be very good.

  15. System Security Authorization Agreement (SSAA) for the WIRE Archive and Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Archive and Research Facility (WARF) is operated and maintained by the Department of Physics, USAF Academy. The lab is located in Fairchild Hall, 2354 Fairchild Dr., Suite 2A103, USAF Academy, CO 80840. The WARF will be used for research and education in support of the NASA Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) satellite, and for related high-precision photometry missions and activities. The WARF will also contain the WIRE preliminary and final archives prior to their delivery to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The WARF consists of a suite of equipment purchased under several NASA grants in support of WIRE research. The core system consists of a Red Hat Linux workstation with twin 933 MHz PIII processors, 1 GB of RAM, 133 GB of hard disk space, and DAT and DLT tape drives. The WARF is also supported by several additional networked Linux workstations. Only one of these (an older 450 Mhz PIII computer running Red Hat Linux) is currently running, but the addition of several more is expected over the next year. In addition, a printer will soon be added. The WARF will serve as the primary research facility for the analysis and archiving of data from the WIRE satellite, together with limited quantities of other high-precision astronomical photometry data from both ground- and space-based facilities. However, the archive to be created here will not be the final archive; rather, the archive will be duplicated at the NSSDC and public access to the data will generally take place through that site.

  16. Study on the fluid dynamics of nitrogen and hydrogen gases subjected to wires element in monolithic channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia has a very significant value in the fertilizer industry where it was being synthesized via Haber-Bosch process in the early 19th century. As the process utilize high operating conditions, it imposes high capital cost and is an energy-consuming process. Due to this unsustainable process, researchers have initiated an alternative to overcome this drawback by performing a simulation in microfluidic environment using ambient temperature and pressure (25°C and 1 atm. Wires element configured in a 50 mm x 10 mm, (L x D dimension monolithic channel with different spacing and number of wires, arranged axially in 60o pitch have been introduced to investigate the dynamic mixing of nitrogen and hydrogen for ammonia synthesis. As the wires are configured in a different manner, the results show dissimilar volume fraction profile, contours and mixing index. Creating suitable obstruction with larger obstruction space enhanced the mixing. Reducing spacing from 2 mm to 1.5 mm illustrates fluctuating velocity at the centre of the channel causing the flow velocity become less than the set velocity 0.05ms-1. By substituting from 19 wires to 13 wires to the flow, chaotic advection occurs lead to the increased of mixing index up to 94%.

  17. Experimental study on underwater electrical explosion of a copper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qing; Zhang Jun; Tan Xiangyu; Ren Baozhong; Zhang Qiaogen

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the physical process of underwater electrical wire explosion, electrical wire explosions with copper wires were investigated underwater using pulsed voltage in the time scale of a few microseconds. A self-integrating Rogowsky coil and a voltage divider were used for current and voltage at the wire load, respectively. The shock wave pressure is measured with a piezoelectric pressure probe at the same distance. The current rise rate was adjusted by changing the applied voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire. The change of the current rise rate had a great effect on the process of underwater electrical wire explosion with copper wires. At last, the effect of discharge voltage, circuit inductance, length and diameter of copper wire were obtained on the explosion voltage and current as well as shock wave pressure. (authors)

  18. Acoustic Emission from Elevator Wire Ropes During Tensile Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenjie; Chai, Mengyu; Li, Lichan; Li, Yongquan; Duan, Quan

    The acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to monitor the tensile testing process for two kinds of elevator wire ropes in our work. The AE signals from wire breaks were obtained and analyzed by AE parameters and waveforms. The results showed that AE technique can be a useful tool to monitor wire break phenomenon of wire ropes and effectively capture information of wire break signal. The relationship between AE signal characteristics and wire breaks is investigated and it is found that the most effective acoustic signal discriminators are amplitude and absolute energy. Moreover, the wire break signal of two kinds of ropes is a type of burst signal and it is believed that the waveform and spectrum can be applied to analyze the AE wire break signals.

  19. Tungsten wire and tubing joined by nickel brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Thin tungsten wire and tungsten tubing are brazed together using a contacting coil of nickel wire heated to its melting point in an inert-gas atmosphere. This method is also effective for brazing tungsten to tungsten-rhenium parts.

  20. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...

  2. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  3. Brain Wiring in the Fourth Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mathias F; Desplan, Claude

    2015-07-02

    In this issue of Cell, Langen et al. use time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to show how Drosophila photoreceptor growth cones find their targets. Based on the observed dynamics, they develop a simple developmental algorithm recapitulating the highly complex connectivity pattern of these neurons, suggesting a basic framework for establishing wiring specificity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wire anode for isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Dotson, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    In uranium enrichment, an electrode structure of thin, tensioned, parallel wires is claimed for use in applying an electric field to a region of a flowing uranium plasma including selectively ionized particles in order to accelerate the ionized particles for separate collection without interfering with the motion of neutral particles. 24 claims, 3 drawing figures

  5. Wire chamber degradation at the Argonne ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberichter, W.; Spinka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experience with multiwire proportional chambers at high rates at the Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron is described. A buildup of silicon on the sense wires was observed where the beam passed through the chamber. Analysis of the chamber gas indicated that the density of silicon was probably less than 10 ppM

  6. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  7. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  8. Cutting bubbles with a single wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, M.W.; Segers, Q.I.E.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Deen, N.G.

    2017-01-01

    Many gas-liquid-solid contactors, such as trickle bed and bubble slurry columns, suffer from heat and mass transfer limitations. To overcome these limitations, new micro-structured bubble column reactor is proposed. In this reactor, a catalyst coated wire mesh is introduced in a bubble column to cut

  9. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  10. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  11. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  12. Spin polarization of electrons in quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilchenko, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system is calculated using density functional theory. It is shown that spontaneous ferromagnetic state in quantum wire occurs at low one-dimensional electron density. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically.

  13. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  14. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian eBudd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  15. Processing of flexible high-Tc superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.I.; Modi, V.

    1989-01-01

    Wires superconducting at temperatures above 77 K are produced by using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 materials. Flexibility was obtained by support from prefabricated fibers or a metallic coating on the extruded YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 wires. The microstructure, the T c and the critical current densities of the wires were determined. Processing variables and steps are described

  16. A Laser-Wire System for the International Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.; Qurshi, M.; Blair, G.; Boogert, S.; Boorman, G.; Driouichi, C.; Deacon, L.; Aryshev, A.; Karataev, P.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Brachmann, A.; Frisch, J.; Ross, M.

    2009-01-01

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  17. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... control wiring must be— (1) Suitable for installation within in a switchboard enclosure and be rated at 90... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of...

  18. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring. (a)(1) Upon voluntary termination of cable service by a subscriber in a single unit installation, a...

  19. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  20. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  1. Domain observations of Fe and Co based amorphous wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takajo, M.; Yamasaki, J.

    1993-01-01

    Domain observations were made on Fe and Co based amorphous magnetic wires that exhibit a large Barkhausen discontinuity during flux reversal. Domain patterns observed on the wire surface were compared with those found on a polished section through the center of the wire. It was confirmed that the Fe based wire consists of a shell and core region as previously proposed, however, there is a third region between them. This fairly thick transition region made up of domains at an angle of about 45 degree to the wire axis clearly lacking the closure domains of the previous model. The Co based wire does not have a clear core and shell domain structure. The center of the wire had a classic domain structure expected of uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis normal to the wire axis. When a model for the residual stress quenched-in during cooling of large Fe bars is applied to the wire, the expected anisotropy is consistent with the domain patterns in the Fe based wire, however, shape anisotropy still plays a dominant role in defining the wire core in the Co based wire

  2. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  3. Kirschner Wires : insertion techniques and bone related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, B.B.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kirschner (K-) wire was first introduced in 1909 by Martin Kirschner. This is a thin unthreaded wire of surgical steel with a diameter of up to three millimeters and a selection of different tips. The use of K-wires is often promoted as a simple technique because of its easy placement,

  4. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  5. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  6. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires.

  7. The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Maky Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color  stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals. Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit.Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system. Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable. Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not  visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

  8. On grouping individual wire segments into equivalent wires or chains, and introduction of multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a method to cover several wire segments with a single basis function, describes related practical algorithms, and gives some results. The process involves three steps: identifying chains of wire segments, splitting the chains...

  9. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  10. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-yu; Cheng, Shao-wen; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhong-qin; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-quan; Shen, Yue; Ying, Xiao-zhou; Cheng, Xiao-jie; Lv, Chuan-zhu; Peng, Lei

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years). The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood's rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages.

  11. High-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling of wire grid polarizers and micropolarizer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in photolithography allowed the fabrication of high-quality wire grid polarizers for the visible and near-infrared regimes. In turn, micropolarizer arrays (MPAs) based on wire grid polarizers have been developed and used to construct compact, versatile imaging polarimeters. However, the contrast and throughput of these polarimeters are significantly worse than one might expect based on the performance of large area wire grid polarizers or MPAs, alone. We investigate the parameters that affect the performance of wire grid polarizers and MPAs, using high-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain simulations. We pay special attention to numerical errors and other challenges that arise in models of these and other subwavelength optical devices. Our tests show that simulations of these structures in the visible and near-IR begin to converge numerically when the mesh size is smaller than ˜4 nm. The performance of wire grid polarizers is very sensitive to the shape, spacing, and conductivity of the metal wires. Using 3-D simulations of micropolarizer "superpixels," we directly study the cross talk due to diffraction at the edges of each micropolarizer, which decreases the contrast of MPAs to ˜200∶1.

  12. Open Reduction With K-Wire Stabilization of Fracture Dislocations of the Mandibular Condyle: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Kayvon; Manolakakis, Manolis G; Balog, Connor

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of direct transcortical stabilization of fracture dislocations of the mandibular condyle (FDMCs) using narrow-diameter non-threaded Kirschner wire (K-wire). This retrospective review reports on the treatment outcomes for 12 patients (15 fractures) with FDMCs treated with open reduction using transcortical 0.027-inch K-wire stabilization. Postoperative parameters of relevance included infection, facial nerve function, hardware removal, mandibular range of motion, and radiographic determination of fracture union. Three patients had bilateral FDMCs and 9 had unilateral FDMCs (age range at time of injury, 14 to 72 yr; mean age, 32 yr). Postoperative follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 2 years. Four patients required removal of K-wire hardware for different reasons. K-wires were removed because of infection in 1 patient. Another patient required removal because of migration of the pin into the joint space. One pin was removed electively and another was removed for nonspecific postoperative symptoms that resolved after pin removal. Persistent facial nerve deficit was observed in 1 patient. Open reduction with transcortical K-wire stabilization can achieve satisfactory outcomes for the treatment of FDMC. Further investigation is needed in determining the efficacy of this fixation technique in the management of FDMC. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  14. Tunneling into quantum wires: regularization of the tunneling Hamiltonian and consistency between free and bosonized fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling between a point contact and a one-dimensional wire is usually described with the help of a tunneling Hamiltonian that contains a delta function in position space. Whereas the leading order contribution to the tunneling current is independent of the way this delta function is regularized, higher-order corrections with respect to the tunneling amplitude are known to depend on the regularization. Instead of regularizing the delta function in the tunneling Hamiltonian, one may also obta...

  15. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  16. NASA requirements and applications environments for electrical power wiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavnes, M.W.; Hammond, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Serious problems can occur from insulation failures in the wiring harnesses of aerospace vehicles. In most recorded incidents, the failures have been identified to be the result of arc tracking, the propagation of an arc along wiring bundles through degradation of insulation. Propagation of the arc can lead to the loss of the entire wiring harness and the functions which it supports. While an extensive database of testing for arc track resistant wire insulations have been developed for aircraft applications, the counterpart requirements for spacecraft are very limited. This paper presents the electrical, thermal, mechanical, chemical, and operational requirements for specification and testing of candidate wiring systems for spacecraft applications

  17. Thermal Aware Floorplanning Incorporating Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, AndreasThor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Temperature has a negative impact on metal resistance and thus wire delay. In state-of-the-art VLSI circuits, large thermal gradients usually exist due to the uneven distribution of heat sources. The difference in wire temperature can lead to performance mismatch because wires of the same length...... can have different delay. Traditional floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate wire performance. In this work, we show that this does not always produce a design with the shortest delay and we propose a floorplanning algorithm taking into account temperature dependent wire delay as one...

  18. Carbon wire chamber at sub-atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, G., E-mail: charlesg@ipno.in2p3.fr; Audouin, L., E-mail: audouin@ipno.in2p3.fr; Bettane, J.; Dupre, R.; Genolini, B.; Hammoudi, N.; Imre, M.; Le Ven, V.; Maroni, A.; Mathon, B.; Nguyen Trung, T.; Rauly, E.

    2017-05-21

    Present in many experiments, wire and drift chambers have been used in a large variety of shapes and configurations during the last decades. Nevertheless, their readout elements has not evolved much: tungsten, sometimes gold-plated or aluminum, wires. By taking advantage of the developments in the manufacture of conducting carbon fiber, we could obtain interesting improvements for wire detectors. In this article, we present recent tests and simulations using carbon fibers to readout signal in place of traditional tungsten wires. Unlike metallic wires, their low weight guaranties a reduced quantity of material in the active area.

  19. Sleeve Push Technique: A Novel Method of Space Gaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev; Bhupali, Nameksh Raj; Gupta, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Sombir; Singh, Satinder Pal

    2018-01-01

    Space gaining is frequently required in orthodontics. Multiple loops were initially used for space gaining and alignment. The most common used mechanics for space gaining is the use of nickel-titanium open coil springs. The disadvantage of nickel-titanium coil spring is that they cannot be used until the arches are well aligned to receive the stiffer stainless steel wires. Therefore, a new method of gaining space during initial alignment and leveling has been developed and named as sleeve push technique (SPT). The nickel-titanium wires, i.e. 0.012 inches and 0.014 inches along with archwire sleeve (protective tubing) can be used in a modified way to gain space along with alignment. This method helps in gaining space right from day 1 of treatment. The archwire sleeve and nickel-titanium wire in this new SPT act as a mutually synergistic combination and provide the orthodontist with a completely new technique for space opening.

  20. K-wire and tension band wire fixation in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation by K-wire and tension band wire fixation, and to improve the safety and stability of this technique. Methods: This study consisted of 9 cases, 6 males and 3 females with the mean age of 25 years (range, 9-62 years. The causes were traffic accident in 7 cases, falling in 1 case and fight in 1 case. The duration from injury to operation was 2 hours to 7 days. There were 5 left dislocations and 4 right dislocations; 8 anterior dislocations and 1 posterior dislocation, including one combined with left scapular fracture and one with left olecranon fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation using K-wires and tension band wires were performed to treat dislocations. Results: All patients were followed up for 6 to 24 months, 10 months on average. According to Rockwood’s rating scale on postoperative sternoclavicular joint, 8 cases achieved excellent outcomes with an average score of 13.88, and the rest case achieved a good outcome with the score of 12. Anatomical reduction was obtained in all cases. There were no such postoperative complications as severe infection, injury to blood vessel and nerve, failure of fixation, etc. Patients were all satisfied with the anatomical reduction and functional recovery. Conclusions: The technique of K-wire and tension band wire fixation is safe, simple, effective, less invasive and has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery. It is effective in treating sternoclavicular joint dislocation though it has some disadvantages. Key words: Sternoclavicular joint; Dislocations; Bone wires; Fracture fixation, internal

  1. Superconducting wire for the T-15 toroidal magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, E.Yu.; Kruglov, V.S.; Martovetskij, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    Main characteristics of a wire designed for the T-15 toroidal superconducting magnet production are given. The wire with circulation cooling is a twist of 11 niobium-tin wires 1.5 mm in diameter, joined electrolytically by two copper tubes with 3 mm inside diameter. The wire is capable to carry 10 kA current in the 8.5 T induction field. Wire features and structures promote to receive high structural current density in winding: diffuseness of superconducting-to-normal transition increases wire stability, screw symmetry od a current-carrying core provides wire resistance to pulse longitudinal field effect at plasma current disruption, low bronze thermal conductivity in a twist increases stability to outside pulse perturbations

  2. Time domain analysis of thin-wire antennas over lossy ground using the reflection-coefficient approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Pantoja, M.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Rubio Bretones, A.; González García, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to extend the methods of moments in time domain for the transient analysis of thin-wire antennas to include those cases where the antennas are located over a lossy half-space. This extended technique is based on the reflection coefficient (RC) approach, which

  3. The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltodano, Pablo A.; Weinberg, Maxene H.; Whipple, Lauren A.; Gemmiti, Amanda L.; Whipple, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Flexor tenolysis surgery for flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis adhesions is a common procedure performed by hand surgeons. Releasing these adhered tendons can greatly improve hand function and improve quality of life. Recent evidence, however, has shown that the outcomes of tenolysis surgeries are often suboptimal and can result in relapsing adhesions or even tendon ruptures. Methods: This article describes a new technique with potential for reduced complication rates: The Fine Wire Technique for Flexor Tenolysis (FWT). Results: Following FWT, the patient detailed in this article had an excellent recovery of function and no complications: including tendon rupture, infection, hematomas, or any other complications. She reported a major improvement from her preoperative functionality and continues to have this level of success. The wire’s thinness allows for a swift tenolysis. Conclusions: The FWT is a new option available to the hand surgeon associated with good functional results. The wire is readily available to the clinician and is also inexpensive. PMID:29263961

  4. Spontaneous spin polarization in quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, A.A., E-mail: a_vas2002@mail.ru

    2015-12-04

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system was calculated using the density functional theory. In the absence of a magnetic field, we have found that ferromagnetic state occurs in the quantum wires. The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically. - Highlights: • Density functional theory used to study a spin-polarized state in quantum wires. • The Kohn–Sham equation for quasi-one-dimensional electrons solved numerically. • The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. • The electron density below which electrons are in a spin-polarized state was found. • The critical density of electrons was estimated analytically.

  5. Spontaneous spin polarization in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system was calculated using the density functional theory. In the absence of a magnetic field, we have found that ferromagnetic state occurs in the quantum wires. The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically. - Highlights: • Density functional theory used to study a spin-polarized state in quantum wires. • The Kohn–Sham equation for quasi-one-dimensional electrons solved numerically. • The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. • The electron density below which electrons are in a spin-polarized state was found. • The critical density of electrons was estimated analytically.

  6. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  7. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  8. Design of Model-based Controller with Disturbance Estimation in Steer-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sanghun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steer-by-wire system is a next generation steering control technology that has been actively studied because it has many advantages such as fast response, space efficiency due to removal of redundant mechanical elements, and high connectivity with vehicle chassis control, such as active steering. Steer-by-wire system has disturbance composed of tire friction torque and self-aligning torque. These disturbances vary widely due to the weight or friction coefficient change. Therefore, disturbance compensation logic is strongly required to obtain desired performance. This paper proposes model-based controller with disturbance compensation to achieve the robust control performance. Targeted steer-by-wire system is identified through the experiment and system identification method. Moreover, model-based controller is designed using the identified plant model. Disturbance of targeted steer-by-wire is estimated using disturbance observer(DOB, and compensate the estimated disturbance into control input. Experiment of various scenarios are conducted to validate the robust performance of proposed model-based controller.

  9. Metallization of a Rashba wire by a superconducting layer in the strong-proximity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2018-04-01

    Semiconducting quantum wires defined within two-dimensional electron gases and strongly coupled to thin superconducting layers have been extensively explored in recent experiments as promising platforms to host Majorana bound states. We study numerically such a geometry, consisting of a quasi-one-dimensional wire coupled to a disordered three-dimensional superconducting layer. We find that, in the strong-coupling limit of a sizable proximity-induced superconducting gap, all transverse subbands of the wire are significantly shifted in energy relative to the chemical potential of the wire. For the lowest subband, this band shift is comparable in magnitude to the spacing between quantized levels that arises due to the finite thickness of the superconductor (which typically is ˜500 meV for a 10-nm-thick layer of aluminum); in higher subbands, the band shift is much larger. Additionally, we show that the width of the system, which is usually much larger than the thickness, and moderate disorder within the superconductor have almost no impact on the induced gap or band shift. We provide a detailed discussion of the ramifications of our results, arguing that a huge band shift and significant renormalization of semiconducting material parameters in the strong-coupling limit make it challenging to realize a topological phase in such a setup, as the strong coupling to the superconductor essentially metallizes the semiconductor. This metallization of the semiconductor can be tested experimentally through the measurement of the band shift.

  10. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified by transmis......Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified...... by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The mechanical properties have been determined by tensile testing. It is found that the interlamellar spacing and the thickness of the cementite lamellae are reduced in accordance with the changes in wire diameter up to a strain of 2...... at the ferrite/cementite interface. Three strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed: (i) boundary strengthening, (ii) dislocation strengthening and (iii) solid solution hardening. The individual and combined contributions, based on an assumption of linear additivity, of these mechanisms to the wire strength...

  11. From barbed wire to radar traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Several million DM are required already to protect the building sites of power plants. From the very beginning concrete, wood, and barbed wire are used to make a protective wall against intruders, or in official German, 'unauthorized persons'. This expensive provisional set-up is later supplanted by electronic alarm and safety systems. A review of available systems helps to give a picture of power plant protection. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  12. Buoyant Helical Twin-Axial Wire Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    February 2017 The below identified patent application is available for licensing. Requests for information should be addressed to...300169 1 of 9 BUOYANT HELICAL TWIN-AXIAL WIRE ANTENNA CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0001] This application is a divisional...application and claims the benefit of the filing date of United States Patent Application No. 14/280,889; filed on May 19, 2014; and entitled “Twin-Axial

  13. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  14. Spectral correlations in Anderson insulating wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, M.; Micklitz, T.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spectral level-level correlation function of Anderson insulating wires for all three Wigner-Dyson classes. A measurement of its Fourier transform, the spectral form factor, is within reach of state-of-the-art cold atom quantum quench experiments, and we find good agreement with recent numerical simulations of the latter. Our derivation builds on a representation of the level-level correlation function in terms of a local generating function which may prove useful in other contexts.

  15. Visible emission from exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2007), s. 53-53 ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas,Texas, 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Exploding wire * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  16. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  17. Transport properties of different BSCCO wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metra, P.; Gherardi, L.; Vellego, G.; Masini, R.; Zannella, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on two classes of solver sheathed BSCCO wires and laminates were prepared from 2223 (Pb substituted) and 2212 powders, respectively, by the powder in tube method. By suitable heat treatments (sintering and annealing below the melting temperature for 2223, melting + annealing for 2212), we obtained sample wires with Tc of ∼110 and ∼85 K respectively, comparable Jc at 77 K (∼10 3 A/cm 2 ), and dramatically different transport behavior. Measurements of critical current at different temperatures and as a function of applied magnetic field were carried out, to characterize the two classes of samples, together with other electrical testing (e.g. d.c. susceptibility) and structural analyses. The granular nature of the higher Tc BSCCO, qualitatively similar to the one of YBCO, was well documented. The melt-processed material showed no apparent granularity, but very strong field dependence of Jc at high temperature. The effect of mechanical deformation on Jc was also investigated by bending samples on different diameters before and after heat treatment. Wires and tapes with 2212 were found to be bendable on very small diameters before treatment, but also the 2223 filled samples were shown to accept significant deformation before sintering

  18. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  19. Reliability of the wire drawing dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Khany, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A wear based model is proposed for the dies used in wire drawing process. Using this wear model, it is possible to predict life of the die corresponding to a wear limit criterion. Since various quantities in the model are random in nature the resulting die life will also be random quantity characterized by an appropriate distribution. Using a probabilistic characterization of the parameters of the predictive model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to establish the die life distribution. To asses the sensitivity of life distribution with respect to various contributing variables (parameters), the simulation runs were conducted at different levels of these variables (parameters). It is shown that wire drawing die life is Weibull distributed. To compare the simulated results with actual time to failure, data of dies was obtained from a large wire drawing company and was compared with corresponding scenario generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations were very close to the actual time to failure data. (author)

  20. A Prototype Wire Position Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The Wire Position Monitoring System (WPM) will track changes in the transverse position of LCLS Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to 1(micro)m over several weeks. This position information will be used between applications of beam based alignment to correct for changes in component alignment. The WPM system has several requirements. The sensor range must be large enough so that precision sensor positioning is not required. The resolution needs to be small enough so that the signal can be used to monitor motion to 1(micro)m. The system must be stable enough so that system drift does not mimic motion of the component being monitored. The WPM sensor assembly consists of two parts, the magnetic sensor and an integrated lock-in amplifier. The magnetic sensor picks up a signal from the alternating current in a stretched wire. The voltage v induced in the sensor is proportional to the wire displacement from the center of the sensor. The integrated lock-in amplifier provides a DC output whose magnitude is proportional to the AC signal from the magnetic sensor. The DC output is either read on a digital voltmeter or digitized locally and communicated over a computer interface.

  1. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  2. Spin-charge separation in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoby, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Using momentum resolved tunneling between two clean parallel quantum wires in a AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure we directly measure the dispersion of the quantum many-body modes in ballistic wires and follow their dependence on Coulomb interactions by varying the electron density. We find clear signatures of three excitation modes in the data: The anti-symmetric charge mode of the coupled wire system and two spin modes. The density dependence of the anti-symmetric charge mode agrees well with Luttinger-liquid theory. As the density of electrons is lowered, the Coulomb interaction is seen to become increasingly dominant leading to excitation velocities that are up to 2.5 times faster than the bare Fermi velocity, determined experimentally from the carrier density. The symmetric charge excitation, also expected from theory, is, however, not visible in the data. The observed spin velocities are found to be 25% slower than the bare Fermi velocities and depend linearly on carrier density. The dispersions are mapped down to a critical density at which spontaneous localization is observed. Some of the experimental findings concerning this phase will be discussed

  3. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  4. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  5. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  6. Using wire shaping techniques and holographic optics to optimize deposition characteristics in wire-based laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, N J; Higginson, R L; Tyrer, J R

    2016-12-01

    In laser cladding, the potential benefits of wire feeding are considerable. Typical problems with the use of powder, such as gas entrapment, sub-100% material density and low deposition rate are all avoided with the use of wire. However, the use of a powder-based source material is the industry standard, with wire-based deposition generally regarded as an academic curiosity. This is because, although wire-based methods have been shown to be capable of superior quality results, the wire-based process is more difficult to control. In this work, the potential for wire shaping techniques, combined with existing holographic optical element knowledge, is investigated in order to further improve the processing characteristics. Experiments with pre-placed wire showed the ability of shaped wire to provide uniformity of wire melting compared with standard round wire, giving reduced power density requirements and superior control of clad track dilution. When feeding with flat wire, the resulting clad tracks showed a greater level of quality consistency and became less sensitive to alterations in processing conditions. In addition, a 22% increase in deposition rate was achieved. Stacking of multiple layers demonstrated the ability to create fully dense, three-dimensional structures, with directional metallurgical grain growth and uniform chemical structure.

  7. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  8. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  9. Corrosion fatigue behaviors of steel wires used in coalmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Songquan; Zhang, Dekun; Chen, Kai; Xu, Linmin; Ge, Shirong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. • The fatigue source zone showed dimple morphology when coupled with anode potential. • The area of dimple increases with the increase of the applied anode potential. • The strong cathode potential cannot reduce the CF life of the smooth steel wire. • The hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. - Abstract: The corrosion fatigue (CF) behaviors of the mining steel wire in different solutions at different applied polarization potentials were investigated in this paper. The surfaces and fracture morphologies of the steel wire at different applied potentials were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the CF life of steel wire in acid solution is the shortest. Moreover, the strong anodic polarization potential greatly reduced the CF life of steel wire, while the strong cathode potential did not reduce the CF life. For the smooth steel wire, the hydrogen impacted mainly on the plastic deformation of the wire surface. There was obvious dimple in the fatigue source zone of the wire when coupled with anode potential, and the area of the dimple increased with the increase of the applied anode potential. Conversely, the fatigue source zone of the fracture was relatively smooth at cathode polarization potential, which indicated that the crack propagation followed the mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking

  10. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  11. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  12. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico87185 (United States); Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico87545 (United States); Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California94550 (United States); Mosher, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Pulsed Power Physics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States); Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch, Washington, District of Columbia20375 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately}1.4mm. In this {open_quotes}plasma-shell regime,{close_quotes} many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, array radius, and load mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, including the radiated power, increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMEC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below {approximately} 1.4 mm. In the plasma-shell regime, the experimental implosions exhibit 1D- and 2D-code characteristics as evidenced by the presence of a strong first and a weak second radiation pulse that correlates with a strong and weak radial convergence. In this regime, many of the radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. Moreover, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in array mass and radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple K-shell radiation scaling models.

  14. Variation of high-power aluminum-wire array Z-pinch dynamics with wire number, load mass, and array radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.; Mock, R.C.; Marder, B.M.; Nash, T.J.; Spielman, R.B.; Peterson, D.L.; Roderick, N.F.; Hammer, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Mosher, D.; Whitney, K.G.; Apruzese, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of annular aluminum-wire z-pinches on the Saturn accelerator shows that the quality of the implosion, (as measured by the radial convergence, the radiated energy, pulse width, and power), increases with wire number. Radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHC) xy simulations suggest that the implosion transitions from that of individual wire plasmas to that of a continuous plasma shell when the interwire spacing is reduced below ∼1.4mm. In this open-quotes plasma-shell regime,close quotes many of the global radiation and plasma characteristics are in agreement with those simulated by 2D-RMHC rz simulations. In this regime, measured changes in the radiation pulse width with variations in load mass and array radius are consistent with the simulations and are explained by the development of 2D fluid motion in the rz plane. Associated variations in the K-shell yield are qualitatively explained by simple radiation-scaling models. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Baltimore in The Wire and Los Angeles in The Shield: Urban Landscapes in American Drama Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shield (FX 2002-08 and The Wire (HBO 2002-08 are two of the most ever critically acclaimed TV-shows and they both can be seen as the finest developed film noir proposals produced in television. The Wire transcends the cop-show genre by offering a multilayered portrait of the whole city of Baltimore: from police work to drug dealing, getting through stevedores’ union corruption, tricks of local politics, problems of the school system and some unethical journalism practices. On the other, The Shield offers a breathtaking cop-show that features in the foreground the moral ambiguity that characterizes the noir genre. Both series display complementary realist strategies (a neorealist aesthetic in The Wire; a cinéma vérité pastiche in The Shield that highlight the importance of city landscape in their narrative. Baltimore and Los Angeles are portrayed not only as a dangerous and ruined physical places, but are also intertwined with moral and political issues in contemporary cities, such as race, class, political corruption, social disintegration, economical disparities, the limitations of the system of justice, the failure of the American dream and so on. The complex and expanded narrative of The Wire and The Shield, as Dimemberg has written for film noir genre, “remains well attuned to the violently fragmented spaces and times of the late-modern world”. Therefore, this article will focus on how The Wire and The Shield (and some of their TV heirs, such as Southland and Justified reflect and renew several topics related to the city in the film noir tradition: the sociopolitical effects of showing the ruins of the centripetal industrial metropolis, the inferences of filming in actual places, the dramatic presence of what Augé coined as “no-places”, the bachelardian opposition between home and city, or the streets as an urban jungle where danger lurks in every corner.

  16. Method for wrapping a wire round a nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a method for winding a wire round a nuclear fuel rod with accurate pitches without imparting any local strain or torsion to the wire. Structure: A wire is fixed on one end of the fuel rod, and the other end of the wire is secured to a universal joint leaving a winding allowance to the fuel rod. The wire is linearly stretched by a predetermined tension through the universal joint so as to provide an angle of development theta corresponding to the desired winding pitch, and then, the fuel rod may be rotated so that the end of the wire on the side of the universal joint is moved towards the fuel rod so as to render the angle of development theta constant in proportion to said rotation of the fuel rod. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. ''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2007-01-01

    The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10 9 A/cm 2 , total discharge current of ∼3 MA, and rise time of the current of ∼100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect

  18. Failure analysis of the fractured wires in sternal perichronal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesús; Voces, Roberto; Peña, Carmen

    2011-10-01

    We report failure analysis of sternal wires in two cases in which a perichronal fixation technique was used to close the sternotomy. Various characteristics of the retrieved wires were compared to those of unused wires of the same grade and same manufacturer and with surgical wire specifications. In both cases, wire fracture was un-branched and transgranular and proceeded by a high cycle fatigue process, apparently in the absence of corrosion. However, stress anlysis indicates that the effective stress produced during strong coughing is lower than the yield strength. Our findings suggest that in order to reduce the risk for sternal dehiscence, the diameter of the wire used should be increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Welding wire velocity modelling and control using an optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a method for controlling the velocity of a welding wire at the tip of the handle is described. The method is an alternative to the traditional welding apparatus control system where the wire velocity is controlled internal in the welding machine implying a poor disturbance reduction....... To obtain the tip velocity a dynamic model of the wire/liner system is developed and verified.  In the wire/liner system it turned out that backlash and reflections are influential factors. An idea for handling the backlash has been suggested. In addition an optical sensor for measuring the wire velocity...... at the tip has been constructed. The optical sensor may be used but some problems due to focusing cause noise in the control loop demanding a more precise mechanical wire feed system or an optical sensor with better focusing characteristics....

  20. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  1. Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers in multifilamentary superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Q.; Rizzo, N.D.; Prober, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors fabricated multifilamentary NbTi wires with ferromagnetic (FM) artificial pinning centers (APCs) to enhance the critical current density (J c ) in magnetic fields. They used a bundle and draw technique to process the APC wires with either Ni or Fe as the pinning centers. Both wires produced higher J c in the high field range (5-9 T) than previous non-magnetic APC wires similarly processed, even though the authors have not yet optimized pin percentage. Using a magnetometer they found that the pins remained ferromagnetic for the wires with maximum J c . However, they did observe a substantial loss of FM material for the wires where the pin diameter approached 3 nm. Thus, they expect further enhancement of J c with better pin quality

  2. Reliability analysis of magnetic logic interconnect wire subjected to magnet edge imperfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xiaokuo; Liu, Jiahao; Li, Weiwei; Xu, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Nanomagnet logic (NML) devices have been proposed as one of the best candidates for the next generation of integrated circuits thanks to its substantial advantages of nonvolatility, radiation hardening and potentially low power. In this article, errors of nanomagnetic interconnect wire subjected to magnet edge imperfections have been evaluated for the purpose of reliable logic propagation. The missing corner defects of nanomagnet in the wire are modeled with a triangle, and the interconnect fabricated with various magnetic materials is thoroughly investigated by micromagnetic simulations under different corner defect amplitudes and device spacings. The results show that as the defect amplitude increases, the success rate of logic propagation in the interconnect decreases. More results show that from the interconnect wire fabricated with materials, iron demonstrates the best defect tolerance ability among three representative and frequently used NML materials, also logic transmission errors can be mitigated by adjusting spacing between nanomagnets. These findings can provide key technical guides for designing reliable interconnects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61302022) and the Scientific Research Foundation for Postdoctor of Air Force Engineering University (Nos. 2015BSKYQD03, 2016KYMZ06).

  3. Study on velocity field in a wire wrapped fuel pin bundle of sodium cooled reactor. Detailed velocity distribution in a subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Jun; Miyakoshi, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    A sodium cooled fast reactor is designed to attain a high burn-up core in a feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. In high burn-up fuel subassemblies, deformation of fuel pin due to the swelling and thermal bowing may decrease local flow velocity via change of flow area in the subassembly and influence the heat removal capability. Therefore, it is of importance to obtain the flow velocity distribution in a wire wrapped pin bundle. A 2.5 times enlarged 7-pin bundle water model was applied to investigate the detailed velocity distribution in an inner subchannel surrounded by 3 pins with wrapping wire. The test section consisted of a hexagonal acrylic duct tube and fluorinated resin pins which had nearly the same refractive index with that of water and a high light transmission rate. The velocity distribution in an inner subchannel with the wrapping wire was measured by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) through the front and lateral sides of the duct tube. In the vertical velocity distribution in a narrow space between the pins, the wrapping wire decreased the velocity downstream of the wire and asymmetric flow distribution was formed between the pin and wire. In the horizontal velocity distribution, swirl flow around the wrapping wire was obviously observed. The measured velocity data are useful for code validation of pin bundle thermalhydraulics. (author)

  4. Prediction of grain deformation in drawn copper wire

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chao-Cheng; Wang Zi-Wei; Huang Chien-Kuo; Wu Hsu-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Most copper wire is produced using a drawing process. The crystallographic texture of copper wire, which is strongly associated with grain deformation, can have a profound effect on the formability and mechanical and electrical properties. Thus, the ability to predict grain deformation in drawn copper wire could help to elucidate the evolution of microstructure, which could be highly valuable in product design. This study developed a novel method for predicting grain deformation in drawn copp...

  5. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  6. The sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered wire media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered thin wire media is undertaken, in order to understand how its performance may be affected by manufacturing errors. The structure is found to be extremely robust to disorder which keeps the wires parallel. Variation in the orientation of the wires and their longitudinal position causes more significant degradation in the image quality, which is quantified numerically

  7. Wire Rope Failure on the Guppy Winch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figert, John

    2016-01-01

    On January 6, 2016 at El Paso, the Guppy winch motor was changed. After completion of the operational checks, the load bar was being reinstalled on the cargo pallet when the motor control FORWARD relay failed in the energized position. The pallet was pinned at all locations (each pin has a load capacity of 16,000 lbs.) while the winch was running. The wire rope snapped before aircraft power could be removed. After disassembly, the fractured wire rope was shipped to ES4 lab for further characterization of the wire rope portion of the failure. The system was being operated without a clear understanding of the system capability and function. The proximate cause was the failure of the K48 -Forward Winch Control Relay in the energized position, which allowed the motor to continuously run without command from the hand controller, and operation of the winch system with both controllers connected to the system. This prevented the emergency stop feature on the hand controller from functioning as designed. An electrical checkout engineering work instruction was completed and identified the failed relay and confirmed the emergency stop only paused the system when the STOP button on both connected hand controllers were depressed simultaneously. The winch system incorporates a torque limiting clutch. It is suspected that the clutch did not slip and the motor did not stall or overload the current limiter. Aircraft Engineering is looking at how to change the procedures to provide a checkout of the clutch and set to a slip torque limit appropriate to support operations.

  8. Electron Raman scattering in quantum well wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiangfu; Liu Cuihong

    2007-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a semiconductor quantum well wire (QWW) of cylindrical geometry for T=0K and neglecting phonon-assisted transitions. The differential cross-section (DCS) involved in this process is calculated as a function of a scattering frequency and the cylindrical radius. Electron states are confined within a QWW. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules are studied. Singularities in the spectra are interpreted for various cylindrical radii. ERS discussed here can provide direct information about the electron band structure of the system

  9. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  10. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  11. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, T.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm photon in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 μm was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of photon incidence theta. A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-mW He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized photons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for theta > 35 0

  12. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  13. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Tiaoming [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath [Functional Materials and Microsystems Research Group, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Withayachumnankul, Withawat [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-3, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe, E-mail: cfumeaux@eleceng.adelaide.edu.au [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of wire mesh forming life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemuoh, Emmanuel U.; Zhao, Ping; Kadlec, Alec

    2018-03-01

    Forming tables are used with stainless steel wire mesh conveyor belts to produce variety of products. The forming tables will typically run continuously for several days, with some hours of scheduled downtime for maintenance, cleaning and part replacement after several weeks of operation. The wire mesh conveyor belts show large variation in their remaining life due to associated variations in their nominal thicknesses. Currently the industry is dependent on seasoned operators to determine the replacement time for the wire mesh formers. The drawback of this approach is inconsistency in judgements made by different operators and lack of data knowledge that can be used to develop decision making system that will be more consistent with wire mesh life prediction and replacement time. In this study, diagnostic measurements about the health of wire mesh former is investigated and developed. The wire mesh quality characteristics considered are thermal measurement, tension property, gage thickness, and wire mesh wear. The results show that real time thermal sensor and wear measurements would provide suitable data for the estimation of wire mesh failure, therefore, can be used as a diagnostic parameter for developing structural health monitoring (SHM) system for stainless steel wire mesh formers.

  15. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  16. Electron transport in quantum wires: possible current instability mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sablikov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electrons nonlinear and dynamic transition in quantum wires connecting the electron reservoirs, are studies with an account of the Coulomb interaction distribution of electron density between the reservoirs and the wire. It is established that there exist two processes, leading to electrical instability in such structure. One of them is expressed in form of multistability of the charge accumulated in the wire, and negative differential conductivity. The other one is connected with origination of negative dynamic conductivity in the narrow frequency range near the resonance frequency of the charge waves on the wire length [ru

  17. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung

    2008-08-15

    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  18. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  19. Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Ouart, Nicholas D.; LePell, Paul David; Safronova, Alla S.; Shrestha, I.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jones, B.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Yilmaz, M. Faith; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher; Pokala, S.; Nalajala, V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.

  20. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  1. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  2. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.B.; Lee, C.C.; Yi, J.; An, X.H.; Pan, M.X.; Xie, K.Y.; Liao, X.Z.; Cairney, J.M.; Ringer, S.P.; Wang, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  3. Fabrication and physical properties of permalloy nano-size wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Lee, S.F.; Yao, Y.D.; Wong, M.S.; Huang, E.W.; Ma, Y.-R.; Tsai, J.L.; Chang, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nano-size NiFe wires with patterned shapes in half-ring-in-series, octagon-in-series, and zigzag-in-series configurations were fabricated. Their magnetoresistance was studied below room temperature and their magnetic domain images were investigated at room temperature by a magnetic force microscope. In general, we have experimentally demonstrated that the variation of the magnetoresistance of our patterned nano-size wires can be related to different domain configurations and explained by the domain switching effect. The number of magnetic domain walls in our patterned wires can be controlled by the shape anisotropy and the size of each section of patterns that form the wires

  4. Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates for Nano wires Array Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Kok, K.Y.; Ng, I.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the process developed to fabricate anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) templates suitable for the fabrication of nano wire arrays. Anodization process has been used to fabricate the AAO templates with pore diameters ranging from 15 nm to 30 nm. Electrodeposition of parallel arrays of high aspect ratio nickel nano wires were demonstrated using these fabricated AAO templates. The nano wires produced were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the orientations of the electrodeposited nickel nano wires were governed by the deposition current and electrolyte conditions. (author)

  5. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  6. Formation of plasma around wire fragments created by electrically exploded copper wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The physical processes occurring during the electrical explosion of metallic conductors has attracted interest for many years. Applications include circuit breakers, segmented lightning divertor strips for aircraft radomes, disruption of metallic shaped charge jets, plasma armatures for electromagnetic railguns and plasma generators for electrothermal-chemical guns. Recent work has cited the phenomenology of the fragmentation processes, particularly the development of a plasma around the lower resistance condensed fragments. An understanding of both the fragmentation process and the development of the accompanying formation of plasma is essential for the optimization of devices that utilize either of these phenomena. With the use of x-radiography and fast photography, this paper explores the wire explosion process, in particular the relationship between the fragmentation, plasma development and resistance rise that occurs during this period. A hypothesis is put forward to account for the development of plasma around the condensed wire fragments. Experimental parameters used in this study are defined. Wires studied were typically copper, with a diameter of 1 mm and length in excess of 150 mm. Circuit inductance used were from 26 to 800 μH. This relatively high circuit inductance gave circuit rise times less than 180 MA s -1 , slow with respect to many other exploding wire studies. Discharge duration ranged from 0.8 to 10 ms. (author)

  7. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramji Lal

    2013-09-01

    Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Wiring. Course: Electrical Wiring Trim-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of two individualized courses included in an electrical wiring curriculum, this course covers electrical materials installation for the trim-out stage. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Outlets, (2) Fixtures, (3) Switches, (4) Appliances, and (5) Miscellaneous. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives…

  9. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF PLASTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF WIRE OF STEEL 70 AT HIGH-SPEED WIRE DRAWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Bobarikin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out numerical experiments subject to initial and boundary conditions indicate that mathematical model of elastic-plastic characteristics of steel 90 can be used for numerical calculations of wire drawing routes for this grade of steel.

  10. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  11. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SANFORD, THOMAS W. L.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here

  12. Simulation study of solar wind push on a charged wire: basis of solar wind electric sail propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One possibility for propellantless propulsion in space is to use the momentum flux of the solar wind. A way to set up a solar wind sail is to have a set of thin long wires which are kept at high positive potential by an onboard electron gun so that the wires repel and deflect incident solar wind protons. The efficiency of this so-called electric sail depends on how large force a given solar wind exerts on a wire segment and how large electron current the wire segment draws from the solar wind plasma when kept at a given potential. We use 1-D and 2-D electrostatic plasma simulations to calculate the force and present a semitheoretical formula which captures the simulation results. We find that under average solar wind conditions at 1 AU the force per unit length is (5±1×10−8 N/m for 15 kV potential and that the electron current is accurately given by the well-known orbital motion limited (OML theory cylindrical Langmuir probe formula. Although the force may appear small, an analysis shows that because of the very low weight of a thin wire per unit length, quite high final speeds (over 50 km/s could be achieved by an electric sailing spacecraft using today's flight-proved components. It is possible that artificial electron heating of the plasma in the interaction region could increase the propulsive effect even further.

  13. Wire-array initiation and interwire-plasma merger concerns in PBFA-Z tungsten z-pinch implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Experiments with annular wire-array loads to generate high quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on Saturn have shown the importance of maintaining azimuthal symmetry and how the individual wire plasmas merge to form a plasma shell. Here the authors discuss the impact of current symmetry, current prepulse, interwire spacing, and wire size on generating high-quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on PBFA-Z, with annular tungsten wire loads. B-dot monitors measured the current as a function of azimuth in the MITLs and 4.5 cm upstream of the load. Bolometers and filtered XRDs and PCDs, spanning the energy range {approximately} 0 eV to 6 keV, monitored the temporal characteristics of the radiation. Time-integrated and time-resolved, filtered, fast-framing, x-ray pinhole cameras, and a crystal spectrometer monitored the spatial and spectral structure of the radiation. The radial dynamics of single-wire plasmas from the solid-state, using the measured current, was calculated by 1D radiation magnetohydrodynamics code (RMHC) and used as input to an xy RMHC. These calculations together with 2D RMHC simulations in the rz plane are discussed and correlated with the measurements.

  14. Wire-array initiation and interwire-plasma merger concerns in PBFA-Z tungsten z-pinch implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments with annular wire-array loads to generate high quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on Saturn have shown the importance of maintaining azimuthal symmetry and how the individual wire plasmas merge to form a plasma shell. Here the authors discuss the impact of current symmetry, current prepulse, interwire spacing, and wire size on generating high-quality, high-power, z-pinch implosions on PBFA-Z, with annular tungsten wire loads. B-dot monitors measured the current as a function of azimuth in the MITLs and 4.5 cm upstream of the load. Bolometers and filtered XRDs and PCDs, spanning the energy range ∼ 0 eV to 6 keV, monitored the temporal characteristics of the radiation. Time-integrated and time-resolved, filtered, fast-framing, x-ray pinhole cameras, and a crystal spectrometer monitored the spatial and spectral structure of the radiation. The radial dynamics of single-wire plasmas from the solid-state, using the measured current, was calculated by 1D radiation magnetohydrodynamics code (RMHC) and used as input to an xy RMHC. These calculations together with 2D RMHC simulations in the rz plane are discussed and correlated with the measurements

  15. Simulation study of solar wind push on a charged wire: basis of solar wind electric sail propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available One possibility for propellantless propulsion in space is to use the momentum flux of the solar wind. A way to set up a solar wind sail is to have a set of thin long wires which are kept at high positive potential by an onboard electron gun so that the wires repel and deflect incident solar wind protons. The efficiency of this so-called electric sail depends on how large force a given solar wind exerts on a wire segment and how large electron current the wire segment draws from the solar wind plasma when kept at a given potential. We use 1-D and 2-D electrostatic plasma simulations to calculate the force and present a semitheoretical formula which captures the simulation results. We find that under average solar wind conditions at 1 AU the force per unit length is (5±1×10−8 N/m for 15 kV potential and that the electron current is accurately given by the well-known orbital motion limited (OML theory cylindrical Langmuir probe formula. Although the force may appear small, an analysis shows that because of the very low weight of a thin wire per unit length, quite high final speeds (over 50 km/s could be achieved by an electric sailing spacecraft using today's flight-proved components. It is possible that artificial electron heating of the plasma in the interaction region could increase the propulsive effect even further.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.405 - Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electrical Installation Safety Requirements § 1926.405 Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general... lighting wiring methods which may be of a class less than would be required for a permanent installation... subpart for permanent wiring shall apply to temporary wiring installations. Temporary wiring shall be...

  17. Phenomenological studies of electron-beam transport in wire-plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, G.J.; Beezhold, W.

    1980-01-01

    Multiple electron-beam transport in air through plasma channels is an important method for delivering many intense beams to a bremsstrahlung converter system. This paper reports work intended to optimize this transport technique with emphasis on transport through curved channels and on transport efficiencies. Curved-channel transport allows accelerators such as Sandia's PROTO II and PBFA I facilities to be used as flash x-ray sources for weapon effects simulation without reconfiguring the diodes or developing advanced converters. The formation mechanisms of wire-initiated plasma channels in air were examined and the subsequent transport efficiencies of relativistic electron beams through various-length straight and curved plasma channels were determined. Electron transport efficiency through a channel was measured to be 80 to 100% of a zero length channel for 40 cm long straight channels and for curved channels which re-directed the electron beam through an angle of 90 0 . Studies of simultaneous e-beam transport along two curved channels closely spaced at the converter showed that transport efficiency remained at 80 to 100%. However, it was observed that the two e-beams were displaced towards each other. Transport efficiency was observed to depend only weakly on parameters such as wire material, wire length and shape, diode anode aperture, e-beam injection time, and wire-channel applied voltage. For off-center injection conditions the electron beam strongly perturbed the plasma channel in periodic or regularly spaced patterns even though the total energy lost by the electron beam remained small. Plasma-channel transport, when all experimental parameters have been optimized for maximum transport efficiency, is a workable method for directing electron beams to a converter target

  18. F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire (DFBW) in flight over snow capped mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire (DFBW) aircraft in flight over snow capped mountains. Externally identical to a standard Navy F-8C, this aircraft had its control system replaced initially by a primary system using an Apollo digital computer. The backup system used three analog computers. When the pilot moved the airplane's stick and rudder, electronic signals went to the computer, which would generate signals to move the control surfaces. The system was designed so that the digital fly-by-wire aircraft would handle almost identically to a standard F-8C. Later, in Phase 2, the aircraft used three IBM AP-101 computers for its flight control system. The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide. Digital-fly-by-wire

  19. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  20. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  1. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  2. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  3. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  4. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  5. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  6. Temperature Diffusion Distribution of Electric Wire Deteriorated by Overcurrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chung-Seog; Kim, Hyang-Kon; Kim, Dong-Woo; Lee, Ki-Yeon

    This study presents thermal diffusion distribution of the electric wires when overcurrent is supplied to copper wires. And then, this study intends to provide a basis of knowledge for analyzing the causes of electric accidents through hybrid technology. In the thermal image distribution analysis of the electric wire to which fusing current was supplied, it was found that less heat was accumulated in the thin wires because of easier heat dispersion, while more heat was accumulated in the thicker wires. The 3-dimensional thermal image analysis showed that heat distribution was concentrated at the center of the wire and the inclination of heat distribution was steep in the thicker wires. When 81A was supplied to 1.6mm copper wire for 500 seconds, the surface temperature of wire was maximum 46.68°C and minimum 30.87°C. It revealed the initial characteristics of insulation deterioration that generates white smoke without external deformation. In the analysis with stereoscopic microscope, the surface turned dark brown and rough with the increase of fusing current. Also, it was known that exfoliation occurred when wire melted down with 2 times the fusing current. With the increase of current, we found the number of primary arms of the dendrite structure to be increased and those of the secondary and tertiary arms to be decreased. Also, when the overcurrent reached twice the fusing current, it was found that columnar composition, observed in the cross sectional structure of molten wire, appeared and formed regular directivity. As described above, we could present the burning pattern and change in characteristics of insulation and conductor quantitatively. And we could not only minimize the analysis error by combining the information but also present the scientific basis in the analysis of causes of electric accidents, mediation of disputes on product liability concerning the electric products.

  7. Wire-grid electromagnetic modelling of metallic cylindrical objects with arbitrary section, for Ground Penetrating Radar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Pajewski, Lara

    2014-05-01

    This work deals with the electromagnetic wire-grid modelling of metallic cylindrical objects, buried in the ground or embedded in a structure, for example in a wall or in a concrete slab. Wire-grid modelling of conducting objects was introduced by Richmond in 1966 [1] and, since then, this method has been extensively used over the years to simulate arbitrarily-shaped objects and compute radiation patterns of antennas, as well as the electromagnetic field scattered by targets. For any wire-grid model, a fundamental question is the choice of the optimum wire radius and grid spacing. The most widely used criterion to fix the wire size is the so-called same-area rule [2], coming from empirical observation: the total surface area of the wires has to be equal to the surface area of the object being modelled. However, just few authors have investigated the validity of this criterion. Ludwig [3] studied the reliability of the rule by examining the canonical radiation problem of a transverse magnetic field by a circular cylinder fed with a uniform surface current, compared with a wire-grid model; he concluded that the same-area rule is optimum and that too thin wires are just as bad as too thick ones. Paknys [4] investigated the accuracy of the same-area rule for the modelling of a circular cylinder with a uniform current on it, continuing the study initiated in [3], or illuminated by a transverse magnetic monochromatic plane wave; he deduced that the same-area rule is optimal and that the field inside the cylinder is most sensitive to the wire radius than the field outside the object, so being a good error indicator. In [5], a circular cylinder was considered, embedded in a dielectric half-space and illuminated by a transverse magnetic monochromatic plane wave; the scattered near field was calculated by using the Cylindrical-Wave Approach and numerical results, obtained for different wire-grid models in the spectral domain, were compared with the exact solution. The

  8. Ultrasound-guided wire localization of lesions detected on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wire localization for planned surgical treatment in the management of breast cancer is underutilized in our environment. The objective of this study is to assess the role of ultrasound-guided wire localization of breast masses detected on screening mammography and its impact on biopsy and breast ...

  9. PRODUCTION OF ELECTROTECHNICAL WIRE OF SCRAP AND COPPER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Volchok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition, structure and properties of copper upon base steps of wire production technology (melting of anode copper with using of scrap and waste, electrolitical refining, producing of rod by continuous casting, manufacture of electrotechnical wire and fibres is described.

  10. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  11. Test plan for Enraf Series 854 level gauge wire testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An Enraf Series 854 level gauge was installed on tank 241-S-106 during the first week of June 1994. On August 11, 1994, the gauge's stainless steel measuring wire broke. After examination and laboratory analysis, it was determined that the wire broke due to severe chloride ion corrosion. It is suspected that the chloride ion contamination came from the radiation induced breakdown of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) riser liner. It is well documented that the breakdown of PVC due to radiation produces chloride containing compounds. This document provides a qualification test plan to remove and have analyzed the wire in all of the Enraf Series 854 that have been installed to date. These tests will confirm the presence or absence of chloride ions in the PVC liners and/or on the Enraf measuring wires installed in the tanks. This test will involve removing the 316 stainless steel wire drums from all of the existing Enraf Series 854 level gauges that have been installed. New 316 stainless steel wire drums shall be installed into the gauges and the gauges will be placed back into service. The wire that is removed from the gauges shall be sent to the 222-S Lab or the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for analysis. Additional wire replacements will occur at intervals as determined necessary by the results of the laboratory analyses

  12. Wire winding increases lifetime of oxide coated cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, W.; Vargo, D.

    1965-01-01

    Refractory-metal heater base wound with a thin refractory metal wire increases the longevity of oxide-coated cathodes. The wire-wound unit is impregnated with the required thickness of metal oxide. This cathode is useful in magnetohydrodynamic systems and in electron tubes.

  13. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 29 CFR 1910.304 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... contacts effectively grounded except for receptacles mounted on portable and vehicle-mounted generators in... types of current (ac or dc) on the same premises shall be of such design that the attachment plugs used... premises wiring shall be grounded as follows: (i) All 3-wire dc systems shall have their neutral conductor...

  15. Variations in the Magnetic Torque Acting on a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The relation M = [mu] x B is presented in all elementary courses on electromagnetism, but it is usually given just for the simple case of a rectangular wire. We will present a completely general but elementary proof of this relation together with two more advanced proof methods. We will then provide some extensions: non-closed wires and…

  16. 26 CFR 49.4252-7 - Wire and equipment service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of illegal entry, fire, leakage, etc. (2) Wire lines or channels furnished between a point of origin... subscriber may obtain information as to a given condition at the remote point, such as water level, water pressure, gas pressure, etc. (4) Remote control wire lines or channels furnished between a remote point and...

  17. Loss of Guide Wire: A Lesson Learnt Review of Literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or sometimes with delay.[2-5] Here, we elucidate a case of retained guide wire during cannulation of the right external iliac vein, which was ... [3,5] If this rule is followed, the guide wire cannot get lost. The diagnosis is very simple, which is often established incidentally during routine radiographic exams.[4,5]. We report the ...

  18. Optimum driving of magnetostrictive amorphous wire micro-motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Honda, Takashi; Yamasaki, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of a magnetostrictive vibration micro-motor were investigated in relation to a supporting position of a magnetostrictive amorphous wire for optimization of the motor. It was found that a vibration of the wire resembled a vibration mode of both ends free and a maximum rotational speed was obtained by supporting the nodes of vibration

  19. Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Ohkura, K.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ueno, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Nagai, T.; Matsui, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000 m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much more improvements of the superconducting properties such as critical current, mechanical properties, but also longer and more uniform wires. Recently, the performances of Bi2223 wires have been drastically improved by using Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. CT-OP process increased critical current (I c ) by more than 60% at 77 K and self field and improved the mechanical strength by more than 70%. The maximum I c was increased up to 166 A. These drastic improvements were caused by the higher density of Bi2223 filament up to almost 100% and better connectivity of the Bi2223 grains. The dense structure of the Bi2223 filaments prevents the ballooning phenomenon which is caused by the gasification of the trapped liquid nitrogen during temperature rise. Additionally, higher uniformity and higher production yield of long length wire were also achieved by exterminating defects during sintering. These high performance levels in CT-OP wires have contributed commercial level applications. We call as Drastically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO)

  20. Analytical guide wire motion algorithm for simulation of endovascular interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, M. K.; van de Kraats, E. B.; Alderliesten, T.; Niessen, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Performing minimally invasive vascular interventions requires proper training, as a guide wire needs to be manipulated, by the tail, under fluoroscopic guidance. To provide a training environment, the motion of the guide wire inside the human vasculature can be simulated by computer. Such a

  1. Wire bond degradation under thermo- and pure mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Czerny, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental study on degradation of heavy Al bond wires typically used in high power modules. Customized samples are designed to only consist of Al bond wires on standard Si diodes. These samples are subjected to pure mechanical and passive thermal cycling to investigate...

  2. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  3. Water-cooled grid ''wires'' for direct converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of internal convective cooling of grid ''wires'' for direct converters. Detailed computer calculations reveal that the use of small diameter water cooled tubes as grid ''wires'' is feasible for a considerable range of lengths and thermal fluxes

  4. 46 CFR 183.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a manner as to avoid chafing and other damage. The use of plastic tie wraps must be limited to... requirements. (a) If individual wires, rather than cable, are used in systems greater than 50 volts, the wire... current carrying capacity for the circuit in which they are used; (2) Be installed in a manner to avoid or...

  5. 46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... chafing and other damage. The use of plastic tie wraps must be limited to bundling or retention of... wires, rather than cables, are used in systems greater than 50 volts, the wire must be in conduit. (b... for the circuit in which they are used; (2) Be installed in a manner to avoid or reduce interference...

  6. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  7. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  8. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  9. A tentative opinion of modeling plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning

    2002-01-01

    Numerous experiments in both single wire and in wire arrays have attracted much attention. For the wire array Z-pinch implosions the plasma formation in the metallic wire Z pinches is a key question. By means of analyzing a number of single-wire and multi-wire experiments, two models to describe the behavior of a wire array Z-pinch in initial phase are suggested. In this phase each wire carries a rising current and behaves independently in a way similar to that found in single wire Z-pinch experiments in which a comparable current in one wire is employed. Based on one- or/and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, one model is used to simulate the electrical explosion stage of the metallic wire, another is used to simulate the wire-plasma formation stage

  10. Self-organization of mesoscopic silver wires by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long, straight mesoscale silver wires have been fabricated from AgNO3 electrolyte via electrodeposition without the help of templates, additives, and surfactants. Although the wire growth speed is very fast due to growth under non-equilibrium conditions, the wire morphology is regular and uniform in diameter. Structural studies reveal that the wires are single-crystalline, with the [112] direction as the growth direction. A possible growth mechanism is suggested. Auger depth profile measurements show that the wires are stable against oxidation under ambient conditions. This unique system provides a convenient way for the study of self-organization in electrochemical environments as well as for the fabrication of highly-ordered, single-crystalline metal nanowires.

  11. Single Wire Detector Performance Over One Year of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hervas Aguilar, David Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract When ionizing radiation passes through gas chambers in single wire detectors gas molecules separate into ions and electrons. By applying a strong localized electric field near the single wire an avalanche of electrons is created and it can be collected. The current produced in the wire is then proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to detector aging effects which are visible in a loss of gain caused by deposition of contaminants on the collecting wire. This study consists on novel data analysis techniques used to process large amounts of data produced by two simultaneously running single wire detectors. Aging effects are analyzed while environmental fluctuations are corrected for. A series of scripts carry out data filtering, data matching, corrections, and finally trend plotting by using ROOT’s extensive libraries developed at CERN.

  12. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  13. Electromagnetic densification of MgB2/Cu wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Glowacki, B A

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic compaction of in situ MgB 2 /Cu wire has been achieved using a custom-built 200 J device. The monofilament core packing density was increased by 8% and up to 31% for unreacted and reacted wires respectively. The higher density of the MgB 2 core resulted in a critical current density increase of up to 75% in comparison to that for cold-drawn-only wire. Applying this treatment to a wire with Cu powder additions to the core and with an optimized heat treatment resulted in one of the highest ever reported values of J c for MgB 2 /Cu wires of 6.83 × 10 3  A cm −2 at 4.2 K and 6 T. (paper)

  14. Development of environmental-friendly wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam technology has been used in many industrial fields as a method of conventional polymer modification or optimum processability. The main industrial fields of radiation crosslinking are wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubings, plastic foams, precuring of tires, floppy disk curing, foods packaging films, and so on. The radiation crosslinking of wire and cable was started in 1961 in Japan and 15 wire and cable companies are now using electron beam accelerators for production or R and D. The dominant characteristics of crosslinking of insulation materials are application at high temperature, good oil and chemical resistibility and high mechanical properties. These radiation crosslinking wire and cable are applied widely in electronics equipments and automobiles. Recently, electronics manufacturers have indicated deep concern over the effects on the environment. Wire and cable also are required to be applicable for environmental preservation. (J.P.N.)

  15. A New Flying Wire System for the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Willem; Dey, Joseph; Vogel, Greg

    1997-05-01

    A new Flying Wires system replaces the old system to enhance the analysis of the beam emittance, improve the reliability, and handle the upcoming upgrades of the Tevatron. New VME data acquisition modules and timing modules allow for more bunches to be sampled more precisely. The programming language LabVIEW, running on a Macintosh computer, controls the VME modules and the nuLogic motion board that flies the wires. LabVIEW also analyzes and stores the data, and handles local and remote commands. The new system flies three wires and fits profiles of 72 bunches to a gaussian function within two seconds. A new console application operates the flying wires from any control console. This paper discusses the hardware and software setup, the capabilities and measurement results of the new Flying Wires system.

  16. Band structure dynamics in indium wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Cervantes, M.; Krause, R.; Aeschlimann, S.; Gierz, I.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional indium wires grown on Si(111) substrates, which are metallic at high temperatures, become insulating below ˜100 K due to the formation of a charge density wave (CDW). The physics of this transition is not conventional and involves a multiband Peierls instability with strong interband coupling. This CDW ground state is readily destroyed with femtosecond laser pulses resulting in a light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition. The current understanding of this transition remains incomplete, requiring measurements of the transient electronic structure to complement previous investigations of the lattice dynamics. Time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with extreme ultraviolet radiation is applied to this end. We find that the transition from the insulating to the metallic band structure occurs within ˜660 fs, which is a fraction of the amplitude mode period. The long lifetime of the transient state (>100 ps) is attributed to trapping in a metastable state in accordance with previous work.

  17. AC application of second generation HTS wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

  18. Magnetic domain propagation in Pt/Co/Pt micro wires with engineered coercivity gradients along and across the wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, A., E-mail: arctgh@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Gaul, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Urbaniak, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Ehresmann, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Stobiecki, F. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Electron lithography and ion bombardment were used to modify the Co/Pt micro-wires. • Two-dimensional perpendicular magnetic anisotropy gradient was engineered. • Engineered anisotropy gradient allowed to control domain wall positions in the wires. • Simulations confirm the influence of defects on a remanent state of the wires. - Abstract: Pt(15 nm)/[Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)]{sub 4} multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were patterned into several-micrometer wide wires by electron-beam lithography. Bombarding the wires with He{sup +} ions with a fluence gradient along the wire results in a spatial gradient of switching fields that allows a controllable positioning of domain walls. The influence of the reduced anisotropy near the wire edges causes a remanent state in which the reversal close to the long edges precedes that in the middle of the wires. Experiments using Kerr microscopy prove this effect and micromagnetic simulations corroborate that a decrease of the anisotropy at the edges is responsible for the effect.

  19. Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Single Crystal Wires with High Transformation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautcoeur, Alain; Fouché, Florian; Sicre, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    CN-250X is a new material with higher performance than Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). For space mechanisms, the main disadvantage of Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloy is the limited transformation temperature. The new CN-250X Nimesis alloy is a Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire available in large quantity because of a new industrial process. The triggering of actuators made with this Cu-Al-Ni single crystal wire can range from ambient temperature to 200 C in cycling and even to 250 C in one-shot mode. Another advantage of CN-250X is a better shape recovery (8 to 10%) than Ni-Ti (6 to 7%). Nimesis is the first company able to produce this type of material with its new special industrial process. A characterization study is presented in this work, including the two main solicitation modes for this material: tensile and torsion. Different tests measure the shape recovery of Cu-Al-Ni single crystals wires during heating from room temperature to a temperature higher than temperature of end of martensitic transformation.

  20. A Wire Position Monitor System for the ISAC-II Cryomodule Components Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Rawnsley, B; Dutto, G; Fong, K; Laxdal, R E; Ries, T

    2004-01-01

    TRIUMF is developing ISAC-II, a superconducting (SC) linac. It will comprise 9 cryomodules with a total of 48 niobium cavities and 12 SC solenoids. They must remain aligned at liquid He temperatures: cavities to ±400 μm and solenoids to ±200 μm after a vertical contraction of ~4 mm. A wire position monitor (WPM) system based on a TESLA design has been developed, built, and tested with a prototype cryomodule. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by a 215 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPMs. The wire is stretched between the warm tank walls parallel to the beam axis providing a position reference. The sensors, one per cavity and two per solenoid, are attached to the cold elements to monitor their motion during pre-alignment, pumping and cool down. A WPM consists of four 50 Ω striplines spaced 90° apart. A GaAs multiplexer scans the WPMs and a Bergoz card converts the RF signals to DC X and Y voltages. National Ins...

  1. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum robots' actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire-driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  2. Residual strain dependence on the matrix structure in RHQ-Nb3Al wires by neutron diffraction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xinzhe; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Ogitsu, Toru; Yamamoto, Akira; Ito, Takayoshi; Harjo, Stefanus; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Hemmi, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    We prepared three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wire sample with different matrix structures: an all-Ta matrix, a composite matrix of Nb and Ta with a Ta inter-filament, and an all-Nb matrix. Neutron diffraction patterns of the wire samples were measured at room temperature in the J-PARC ‘TAKUMI’. To obtain the residual strains of the materials, we estimated the lattice constant a by multi-peak analysis in the wires. A powder sample of each wire was measured, where the powder was considered to be strain free. The grain size of all the powder samples was below 0.02 mm. For the wire sample with the all-Nb matrix, we also obtained the lattice spacing d by a single-peak analysis. The residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filament were estimated from the two analysis results and were compared. The resulting residual strains obtained from the multi-peak analysis showed a good accuracy with small standard deviation. The multi-peak analysis results for the residual strains of the Nb 3 Al filaments in the three samples (without Cu plating) were all tensile residual strain in the axial direction, of 0.12%, 0.12%, and 0.05% for the all-Ta matrix, the composite matrix, and the all-Nb matrix, respectively. The difference in the residual strain of the Nb 3 Al filament between the composite and all-Nb matrix samples indicates that the type of inter-filament material shows a great effect on the residual strain. In this paper, we report the method of measurement, method of analysis, and results for the residual strain in the three types of non-Cu RHQ-Nb 3 Al wires. (paper)

  3. Nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhiguo; Zou Xiaobing; Wang Xinxin; Jiang Weihua

    2010-01-01

    A device for nano-powder production by electrical explosion of wires was designed and built. Eight wires housed in the discharge chamber are exploded one by one before opening the chamber for the collection of the produced nano-powder. To increase the rate of energy deposition into a wire, the electrical behavior of the discharge circuit including the exploding wire was simulated. The results showed that both reducing the circuit inductance and reducing the capacitance of the energy-storage capacitor (keeping the storage energy constant) can increase the energy deposition rate. To better understand the physical processes of the nano-powder formation by the wire vapor, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer was used to record the time evolution of the wire vapor as well as the plasma. A thermal expansion lag of the dense vapor core as well as more than one times of the vapor burst was observed for the first time. Finally, nano-powders of titanium nitride, titanium dioxide, copper oxides and zinc oxide were produced by electrical explosion of wires. (authors)

  4. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-12-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

  5. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb 3 Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb 3 Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb 3 Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb 3 Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  6. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Heath A.; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  7. The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, L.J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J

    2003-10-15

    This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 x the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC's first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC's second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

  8. Cleanliness of disposable vs nondisposable electrocardiography lead wires in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Nancy; Quatrara, Beth; Letzkus, Lisa; Strider, David; Rovnyak, Virginia; Syptak, Virginia; Fuzy, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Mediastinitis costs hospitals thousands of dollars a year and increases the incidence of patient morbidity and mortality. No studies have been done to evaluate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) counts on disposable and nondisposable electrocardiography (ECG) lead wires in pediatric patients. To compare the cleanliness of disposable and nondisposable ECG lead wires in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients by measuring the quantity of ATP (in relative luminescence units [RLUs]). ATP levels correlate with microbial cell counts and are used by institutions to assess hospital equipment and cleanliness. A prospective, randomized trial was initiated with approval from the institutional review board. Verbal consent was obtained from the parents/guardians for each patient. Trained nurses performed ATP swabs on the right and left upper ECG cables on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. This study enrolled 51 patients. The disposable ECG lead wire ATP count on postoperative day 1 (median, 157 RLUs) was significantly lower (P disposable ECG lead wires (median, 200 RLUs) was also lower (P = .06) than the count for the nondisposable ECG lead wires (median, 453 RLUs). Results of this study support the use of disposable ECG lead wires in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients for at least the first 48 hours as a direct strategy to reduce the ATP counts on ECG lead wires. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. Experience of precision measuring distances by invar wires at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubaj, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to determining the deformations and displacements of the ring foundation of the ITEP accelerator, the method of very accurate distance measurements by means of invar wires and strips is described. Measurement errors are analyzed. This method has allowed to measure distances up to 40 m with a mean-square error of less than 40 μm. The calibration accuracy of 3 and 25-m measuring wires has been determined to be +- 27 μm. Time instability of the wires is +- 16 μm. It is shown that strips are more stable in time than wires. Elongation of 6, 19, 25 and 38 m invar wires has been measured as function of the tension time. The error due to tension of a 38-m wire may be tangible. Data on thermal coefficient variation in time has been obtained for invar wires and strips. The multiannual measurements of the ring foundation deformations show that variations of the mean radius are caused by increases of concrete temperature. Temperature increase by only 1 deg caused mean radius increase of 0.3 mm

  10. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  11. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  12. Development of cutting techniques of steel pipe by wire sawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Yoshinori; Inai, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    A cutting method has a high cutting efficiency and enable cutting in safe. A wire saw cutting method is used for dismantling of massive concrete structures such as nuclear power plants with an effective and safe mean. In the case of dismantling of structures with multiple pipes installed at these facilities, an effective method is also demanded. If a wire saw method to remotely cut target objects in a large block in bulk is applicable, it will be expected an effective dismantling work under severe conditions with radioactivity. Although the wire saw method has adaptability for any shapes of cutting target objects and is widely adopted in dismantling of concrete constructs, it has few actual achievements in dismantling of steel structures such as steel pipe bundle. This study aims to verify its cutting characteristics and adaptability as a cutting method by conducting a cutting basic test to develop a diamond wire saw method to efficiently cut constructs with multiple pipes in a bundle. The test proved that a wire saw cutting method apply to dismantle structures with steel pipe bundle. A wire saw for metal cutting is adaptable in dismantling of bundle of thick carbon steel and stainless steel pipes. And also a wire saw for concrete cutting is adaptable in dismantling of pipe bundle structure with a mortar. (author)

  13. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  14. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  15. Subscale Winged Rocket Development and Application to Future Reusable Space Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi YONEMOTO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Kyushu Institute of Technology has been studying unmanned suborbital winged rocket called WIRES (WInged REusable Sounding rocket and its research subjects concerning aerodynamics, NGC (Navigation, Guidance and Control, cryogenic composite tanks etc., and conducting flight demonstration of small winged rocket since 2005. WIRES employs the original aerodynamic shape of HIMES (HIghly Maneuverable Experimental Sounding rocket studied by ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in 1980s. This paper presents the preliminary design of subscale non-winged and winged rockets called WIRES#013 and WIRES#015, respectively, that are developed in collaboration with JAXA, USC (University of Southern California, UTEP (University of Texas at El Paso and Japanese industries. WIRES#013 is a conventional pre-test rocket propelled by two IPA-LOX (Isopropyl Alcohol and Liquid Oxygen engines under development by USC. It has the total length of 4.6m, and the weight of 1000kg to reach the altitude of about 6km. The flight objective is validation of the telemetry and ground communication system, recovery parachute system, and launch operation of liquid engine. WIRES#015, which has the same length of WIRES#013 and the weight of 1000kg, is a NGC technology demonstrator propelled by a fully expander-cycle LOX-Methane engine designed and developed by JAXA to reach the altitude more than 6km. The flight tests of both WIRES#013 and WIRES#015 will be conducted at the launch facility of FAR (Friends of Amateur Rocketry, Inc., which is located at Mojave Desert of California in United States of America, in May 2018 and March 2019 respectively. After completion of WIRES#015 flight tests, the suborbital demonstrator called WIRES-X will be developed and its first flight test well be performed in 2020. Its application to future fully reusable space transportation systems, such as suborbital space tour vehicles and two

  16. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  17. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  18. Reliability improvement of wire bonds subjected to fatigue stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K. V.; Philofsky, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    The failure of wire bonds due to repeated flexure when semiconductor devices are operated in an on-off mode has been investigated. An accelerated fatigue testing apparatus was constructed and the major fatigue variables, aluminum alloy composition, and bonding mechanism, were tested. The data showed Al-1% Mg wires to exhibit superior fatigue characteristics compared to Al-1% Cu or Al-1% Si and ultrasonic bonding to be better than thermocompression bonding for fatigue resistance. Based on these results highly reliable devices were fabricated using Al-1% Mg wire with ultrasonic bonding which withstood 120,000 power cycles with no failures.

  19. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  20. Modified tension band wiring of medial malleolar ankle fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, G M; White, D B

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-two displaced medial malleolar ankle fractures that were treated surgically using the modified tension band method of Cleak and Dawson were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 25 months. The technique involves the use of a screw to anchor a figure-of-eight wire. There were no malreductions and all fractures healed. Problems with the technique included technical errors with hardware placement, medial ankle pain, and asymptomatic wire migration. Despite this, modified tension band wiring remains an acceptable method for fixation of selected displaced medial malleolar fractures. It is especially suited for small fracture fragments and osteoporotic bone.

  1. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  2. Recent developments in wire chamber tracking at SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogren, H.

    1990-01-01

    All of the major SSC proposed detectors use wire chambers in their tracking systems. The feasibility of wire chambers in an SSC detector has now been established by a number of groups planning detectors at SSC. The major advances during the past year in understanding straw tube drift chambers are presented and several innovations in gaseous wire chambers are discussed. The R and D section will concentrate on progress in drift cell design, electronics and signal processing, and engineering aspects of the tracking designs

  3. Preparation of nanosize carbon powders by pulsed wire discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, C.; Kinemuchi, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Suematsu, H.; Jiang, W.; Yatsui, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan); Hirata, T.; Hatakeyama, R. [Tohoku Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Nanosize powders of carbons were tried to be synthesized by pulsed discharge of graphite wires in several kinds of ambient gases. When the wire was discharged in N{sub 2} gas, nanosize powders have been successfully produced. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that nanosize powders produced in N{sub 2} gas at 750 Torr were amorphous carbon containing glassy carbons, while mass-spectrum analysis demonstrated the production of fullerenes at 600 Torr. If the wire is discharged in Ar gas, dielectric breakdown takes place between electrodes, producing no carbon powders. (author)

  4. Measurement of the saturation magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.; Vazquez, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire by conventional techniques is very difficult because of its small diameter. However, accurate determination of the magnetostriction constant is important in the study of amorphous wires. Here the saturation magnetostriction constant (λ s ) for a low-magnetostriction amorphous wire of nominal composition (Fe 6.3 Co 92.7 Nb 1 ) 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 has been determined by means of the small-angle magnetization-rotation method. λ s has been evaluated to be 2.1x10 -7 for its as-received state. The dependence of thermal treatment is also reported

  5. An automatic tension measurement system of MWPC wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antone, I.; Lolli, M.; Torromeo, G.

    1992-01-01

    An electronic system is presented for automatic mechanical tension measurement to test wire chambers. The developed system works in the tension range from 50 g to 300 g; this large working range is obtained by using a microcontroller that performs a digital control on the bridge of an oscillator containing the wire of which the tension has to be measured. The microcontroller automatically brings the system towards the oscillation condition and subsequently, measuring the frequency, it evaluates, displays and sends to a host computer the value of the mechanical tension of the wires. The system is precise and allows fast measurements. A description of the hardware and software design is given. (orig.)

  6. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  7. Preliminary Single-Phase Mixing Test using Wire Mesh System in a wire-wrapped 37-rod Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hwang; Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Hae Seob; Choi, Sun Rock; Chang, Seokkyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dongjin; Lee, Hyeongyeon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary tests of the wire-mesh sensor are introduced before measuring of mixing coefficient in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Through this preliminary test, it was confirmed that city water can be used as a tracer for demineralized water as a base. A simple test was performed to evaluate the characteristics of a wire mesh with of a short pipe shape. The conductivity of de-mineralized water and city water is linearly increased for the limited temperature ranges as the temperature is increased. The reliability of the wire mesh sensor was estimated based on the averages and standard deviations of the plane image using the cross points. A wire mesh sensor is suitable to apply to a single-phase flow measurement for a mixture with de-mineralized water and city water. A wire mesh sensor and system have been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field with gas and liquid. Recently, Ylonen et al. successfully designed and commissioned a measurement system for a single-phase flow using a wire mesh sensor

  8. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Deeney, Christopher E. [National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington, D.C. 20585 (United States); Douglas, Melissa R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Chittenden, Jerry [Imperial College, London, SW and 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to {approx}5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the {approx}20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of {approx}375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  9. Wire number dependence of the implosion dynamics, stagnation, and radiation output of tungsten wire arrays at Z driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Stygar, William A.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Nash, Thomas J.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Keith Matzen, M.; Porter, John L.; Struve, Kenneth W.; McDaniel, Dillon H.; Deeney, Christopher E.; Douglas, Melissa R.; Chittenden, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    We report results of the experimental campaign, which studied the initiation, implosion dynamics, and radiation yield of tungsten wire arrays as a function of the wire number. The wire array dimensions and mass were those of interest for the Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. An optimization study of the x-ray emitted peak power, rise time, and full width at half maximum was effectuated by varying the wire number while keeping the total array mass constant and equal to ∼5.8 mg. The driver utilized was the ∼20-MA Z accelerator before refurbishment in its usual short pulse mode of 100 ns. We studied single arrays of 20-mm diameter and 1-cm height. The smaller wire number studied was 30 and the largest 600. It appears that 600 is the highest achievable wire number with present day's technology. Radial and axial diagnostics were utilized including crystal monochromatic x-ray backlighter. An optimum wire number of ∼375 was observed which was very close to the routinely utilized 300 for the ICF program in Sandia.

  10. Magnetization processes in thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, R.; Garcia, K.L.; Zhukov, A.; Vazquez, M.; Ipatov, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Zhukova, V.; Vojtanik, P.

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous magnetic microwires are novel materials, which are characterized by the unique magnetic properties. Their magnetization process runs through the depining and subsequent propagation of the single-domain wall. This allows us to study the magnetization processes of the single-domain wall either in static (when the domain wall lies in its potential) or dynamic (when the domain wall propagates along the wire) mode. In the given work, we present surprising results that were found during the single-domain wall switching and propagation in microwires. The negative critical propagation field during the propagation of the single-domain wall in microwires has been found. Moreover, new contribution (based on the structural relaxation) to the domain wall damping during its propagation in microwire was found. The complex shape of the single-domain wall potential, which consists of two contributions, has been found in microwires. The magnetoelastic one coming from the magnetoelastic interaction of the domain wall with the stresses applied on microwires and the stresses introduced during the microwire's production and stabilization one coming from the structural relaxation on atomic level

  11. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  12. Rodent Zic Genes in Neural Network Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Eloísa

    2018-01-01

    The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits. During the last decade, it has become evident that Zic genes, in addition to playing important roles in early development (e.g., gastrulation and neural tube closure), are involved in different processes of late brain development, such as neuronal migration, axon guidance, and refinement of axon terminals. ZIC proteins are therefore essential for the proper wiring and connectivity of the brain. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge of the role of Zic genes in the late stages of neural circuit formation.

  13. Precision multiloop (PM Design with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha P Mankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the entire interbracket distance is used as loop area.

  14. Precision multiloop (PM Design) with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mugdha P Mankar; Achint Chachada; Harish Atram; Avanti Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the ent...

  15. Multi responses optimization of wire EDM process parameters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taguchi approach coupled with principal component analysis methodology .... Wire EDM to perform trails; (2) Selection of material according to importance and .... manufacturing of oil and gases pipeline, springs, construction, automobiles and ...

  16. Attaching Copper Wires to Magnetic-Reed-Switch Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamila, Rudolf

    1987-01-01

    Bonding method reliably joins copper wires to short iron-alloy leads from glass-encased dry magnetic-reed switch without disturbing integrity of glass-to-metal seal. Joint resistant to high temperatures and has low electrical resistance.

  17. Ductile alloy and process for preparing composite superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Ostenson, J.E.

    An alloy for the commercial production of ductile superconducting wire is prepared by melting together copper and at least 15 weight percent niobium under non-oxygen-contaminating conditions, and rapidly cooling the melt to form a ductile composite consisting of discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles of niobium in a copper matrix. As the wire is worked, the dendritic particles are realigned parallel to the longitudinal axis and when drawn form a plurality of very fine ductile superconductors in a ductile copper matrix. The drawn wire may be tin coated and wound into magnets or the like before diffusing the tin into the wire to react with the niobium. Impurities such as aluminum or gallium may be added to improve upper critical field characteristics.

  18. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  19. Seeded perturbations in wire array z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Safronova, Alla S.; Maxwell, J.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Jones, Brent Manley; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 3D structure on wire array z-pinch dynamics is a topic of current interest, and has been studied by the controlled seeding of wire perturbations. First, Al wires were etched at Sandia, creating 20% radial perturbations with variable axial wavelength. Observations of magnetic bubble formation in the etched regions during experiments on the MAGPIE accelerator are discussed and compared to 3D MHD modeling. Second, thin NaF coatings of 1 mm axial extent were deposited on Al wires and fielded on the Zebra accelerator. Little or no axial transport of the NaF spectroscopic dopant was observed in spatially resolved K-shell spectra, which places constraints on particle diffusivity in dense z-pinch plasmas. Finally, technology development for seeding perturbations is discussed

  20. Interferometer for electron density measurement in exploding wire plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Jigyasa; Jaiswar, Ashutosh; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-12-01

    Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) has been developed for measuring electron density profile in pulsed plasmas. MZI is to be used for characterizing exploding wire plasmas for correlating electron density dynamics with x-rays emission. Experiments have been carried out for probing electron density in pulsed plasmas produced in our laboratory like in spark gap and exploding wire plasmas. These are microsecond phenomenon. Changes in electron density have been registered in interferograms with the help of a streak camera for specific time window. Temporal electron density profiles have been calculated by analyzing temporal fringe shifts in interferograms. This report deals with details of MZI developed in our laboratory along with its theory. Basic introductory details have also been provided for exploding wire plasmas to be probed. Some demonstrative results of electron density measurements in pulsed plasmas of spark gap and single exploding wires have been described. (author)