WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire computer components

  1. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  2. Multicellular computing using conjugation for wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts in synthetic biology have focussed on the implementation of logical functions within living cells. One aim is to facilitate both internal "re-programming" and external control of cells, with potential applications in a wide range of domains. However, fundamental limitations on the degree to which single cells may be re-engineered have led to a growth of interest in multicellular systems, in which a "computation" is distributed over a number of different cell types, in a manner analogous to modern computer networks. Within this model, individual cell type perform specific sub-tasks, the results of which are then communicated to other cell types for further processing. The manner in which outputs are communicated is therefore of great significance to the overall success of such a scheme. Previous experiments in distributed cellular computation have used global communication schemes, such as quorum sensing (QS), to implement the "wiring" between cell types. While useful, this method lacks specificity, and limits the amount of information that may be transferred at any one time. We propose an alternative scheme, based on specific cell-cell conjugation. This mechanism allows for the direct transfer of genetic information between bacteria, via circular DNA strands known as plasmids. We design a multi-cellular population that is able to compute, in a distributed fashion, a Boolean XOR function. Through this, we describe a general scheme for distributed logic that works by mixing different strains in a single population; this constitutes an important advantage of our novel approach. Importantly, the amount of genetic information exchanged through conjugation is significantly higher than the amount possible through QS-based communication. We provide full computational modelling and simulation results, using deterministic, stochastic and spatially-explicit methods. These simulations explore the behaviour of one possible conjugation-wired cellular computing

  3. Multicellular Computing Using Conjugation for Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts in synthetic biology have focussed on the implementation of logical functions within living cells. One aim is to facilitate both internal “re-programming” and external control of cells, with potential applications in a wide range of domains. However, fundamental limitations on the degree to which single cells may be re-engineered have led to a growth of interest in multicellular systems, in which a “computation” is distributed over a number of different cell types, in a manner analogous to modern computer networks. Within this model, individual cell type perform specific sub-tasks, the results of which are then communicated to other cell types for further processing. The manner in which outputs are communicated is therefore of great significance to the overall success of such a scheme. Previous experiments in distributed cellular computation have used global communication schemes, such as quorum sensing (QS), to implement the “wiring” between cell types. While useful, this method lacks specificity, and limits the amount of information that may be transferred at any one time. We propose an alternative scheme, based on specific cell-cell conjugation. This mechanism allows for the direct transfer of genetic information between bacteria, via circular DNA strands known as plasmids. We design a multi-cellular population that is able to compute, in a distributed fashion, a Boolean XOR function. Through this, we describe a general scheme for distributed logic that works by mixing different strains in a single population; this constitutes an important advantage of our novel approach. Importantly, the amount of genetic information exchanged through conjugation is significantly higher than the amount possible through QS-based communication. We provide full computational modelling and simulation results, using deterministic, stochastic and spatially-explicit methods. These simulations explore the behaviour of one possible conjugation-wired cellular

  4. Computer Component Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Carlos Horvath of the Burroughs Corporation, inspired by information published in NASA Tech Briefs, developed the AC/DC tester which checks out ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic) devices and their functionality within the computer. Each ECL device has a specific task in the computer's operation; the tester determines whether the device is performing that function properly. Horvath's invention allows rapid manual checking without extensive programming as it is required by other test methods; thus the ECL tester makes it easier to find out what is malfunctioning, and does the job faster.

  5. Computation of radiation from wire antennas on conducting bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, N. Christian; Hansen, Jesper; Jensen, Niels E.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical formulation, in terms of combined magnetic and electric field integral equations, is presented for the class of electromagnetic problems in which one or more wire antennas are connected to a conducting body of arbitrary shape. The formulation is suitable for numerical computation...... provided that the overall dimensions of the structure are not large compared to the wavelength. A computer program is described, and test runs on various configurations involving a cylindrical body with one or more straight wires are presented. The results obtained agree well with experimental data....

  6. Electrical Core Transformer for Grid Improvement Incorporating Wire Magnetic Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrie R. Buswell, PhD; Dennis Jacobs, PhD; Steve Meng

    2012-03-26

    The research reported herein adds to the understanding of oil-immersed distribution transformers by exploring and demonstrating potential improvements in efficiency and cost utilizing the unique Buswell approach wherein the unit is redesigned, replacing magnetic sheet with wire allowing for improvements in configuration and increased simplicity in the build process. Exploration of new designs is a critical component in our drive to assure reduction of energy waste, adequate delivery to the citizenry, and the robustness of U.S. manufacturing. By moving that conversation forward, this exploration adds greatly to our base of knowledge and clearly outlines an important avenue for further exploration. This final report shows several advantages of this new transformer type (outlined in a report signed by all of our collaborating partners and included in this document). Although materials development is required to achieve commercial potential, the clear benefits of the technology if that development were a given is established. Exploration of new transformer types and further work on the Buswell design approach is in the best interest of the public, industry, and the United States. Public benefits accrue from design alternatives that reduce the overall use of energy, but it must be acknowledged that new DOE energy efficiency standards have provided some assurance in that regard. Nonetheless the burden of achieving these new standards has been largely shifted to the manufacturers of oil-immersed distribution transformers with cost increasing up to 20% of some units versus 2006 when this investigation was started. Further, rising costs have forced the industry to look closely are far more expensive technologies which may threaten U.S. competitiveness in the distribution transformer market. This concern is coupled with the realization that many units in the nation's grid are beyond their optimal life which suggests that the nation may be headed for an infrastructure

  7. Fabrication details for wire wrapped fuel assembly components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosy, B.J.

    1978-09-01

    Extensive hydraulic testing of simulated LMFBR blanket and fuel assemblies is being carried out under this MIT program. The fabrication of these test assemblies has involved development of manufacturing procedures involving the wire wrapped pins and the flow housing. The procedures are described in detail in the report

  8. Universal quantum computation in a semiconductor quantum wire network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2010-01-01

    Universal quantum computation (UQC) using Majorana fermions on a two-dimensional topological superconducting (TS) medium remains an outstanding open problem. This is because the quantum gate set that can be generated by braiding of the Majorana fermions does not include any two-qubit gate and also no single-qubit π/8 phase gate. In principle, it is possible to create these crucial extra gates using quantum interference of Majorana fermion currents. However, it is not clear if the motion of the various order parameter defects (vortices, domain walls, etc.), to which the Majorana fermions are bound in a TS medium, can be quantum coherent. We show that these obstacles can be overcome using a semiconductor quantum wire network in the vicinity of an s-wave superconductor, by constructing topologically protected two-qubit gates and any arbitrary single-qubit phase gate in a topologically unprotected manner, which can be error corrected using magic-state distillation. Thus our strategy, using a judicious combination of topologically protected and unprotected gate operations, realizes UQC on a quantum wire network with a remarkably high error threshold of 0.14 as compared to 10 -3 to 10 -4 in ordinary unprotected quantum computation.

  9. Design of microstrip components by computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisco, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    Development of computer programs for component analysis and design aids used in production of microstrip components is discussed. System includes designs for couplers, filters, circulators, transformers, power splitters, diode switches, and attenuators.

  10. Fabricating Superior NiAl Bronze Components through Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghong Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cast nickel aluminum bronze (NAB alloy is widely used for large engineering components in marine applications due to its excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Casting porosity, as well as coarse microstructure, however, are accompanied by a decrease in mechanical properties of cast NAB components. Although heat treatment, friction stir processing, and fusion welding were implemented to eliminate porosity, improve mechanical properties, and refine the microstructure of as-cast metal, their applications are limited to either surface modification or component repair. Instead of traditional casting techniques, this study focuses on developing NAB components using recently expanded wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM. Consumable welding wire is melted and deposited layer-by-layer on substrates producing near-net shaped NAB components. Additively-manufactured NAB components without post-processing are fully dense, and exhibit fine microstructure, as well as comparable mechanical properties, to as-cast NAB alloy. The effects of heat input from the welding process and post-weld-heat-treatment (PWHT are shown to give uniform NAB alloys with superior mechanical properties revealing potential marine applications of the WAAM technique in NAB production.

  11. Reliable Acquisition of RAM Dumps from Intel-Based Apple Mac Computers over FireWire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Pavel; Almansoori, Afrah

    RAM content acquisition is an important step in live forensic analysis of computer systems. FireWire offers an attractive way to acquire RAM content of Apple Mac computers equipped with a FireWire connection. However, the existing techniques for doing so require substantial knowledge of the target computer configuration and cannot be used reliably on a previously unknown computer in a crime scene. This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring RAM content of Apple Mac computers over FireWire, which automatically discovers necessary information about the target computer and can be used in the crime scene setting. As an application of the developed method, the techniques for recovery of AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) conversation fragments from RAM dumps are also discussed in this paper.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF LONGITUDINAL COMPONENT OF MAGNETIC FLUX IN FERROMAGNETIC WIRE OF SINGLE-CORE POWER CABLE ARMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kostiukov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem of determination of effective longitudinal magnetic permeability of single core power cable armour is defined. A technique for experimental determination of longitudinal component of magnetic flux in armour spiral ferromagnetic wire is proposed.

  13. Residual stress of as-deposited and rolled Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing Ti–6Al–4V components

    OpenAIRE

    Martina, Filomeno; Roy, M. J.; Szost, B. A.; Terzi, S.; Colegrove, Paul A.; Williams, Stewart W.; Withers, P. J.; Meyer, J.; Hofmann, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wire + arc additive manufacturing components contain significant residual stresses, which manifest in distortion. High-pressure rolling was applied to each layer of a linear Ti–6Al–4V wire + arc additive manufacturing component in between deposition passes. In rolled specimens, out-of-plane distortion was more than halved; a change in the deposits' geometry due to plastic deformation was observed and process repeatability was increased. The Contour method of residual stresses measurements sho...

  14. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  15. Computer-controlled rig for measurements of velocity and turbulence distributions by hot-wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1984-06-01

    The long measuring times for hot-wire measurements require automation of rig control and data acquisition. The report describes test rig, measurement system and control. The effectiveness was increased by a factor of 60 by computer-control (orig.) [de

  16. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... after importation of certain computers and computer peripheral devices and components thereof and... computers and computer peripheral devices and components thereof and products containing the same that... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-841] Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral...

  17. Nanosecond electrical explosion of thin aluminum wire in vacuum: experimental and computational investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, Kyle Robert; Struve, Kenneth William; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich; Deeney, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The experimental and computational investigations of nanosecond electrical explosion of thin Al wire in vacuum are presented. We have demonstrated that increasing the current rate leads to increased energy deposited before voltage collapse. Laser shadowgrams of the overheated Al core exhibit axial stratification with a ∼100 (micro)m period. The experimental evidence for synchronization of the wire expansion and light emission with voltage collapse is presented. Two-wavelength interferometry shows an expanding Al core in a low-ionized gas condition with increasing ionization toward the periphery. Hydrocarbons are indicated in optical spectra and their influence on breakdown physics is discussed. The radial velocity of low-density plasma reaches a value of ∼100 km/s. The possibility of an overcritical phase transition due to high pressure is discussed. 1D MHD simulation shows good agreement with experimental data. MHD simulation demonstrates separation of the exploding wire into a high-density cold core and a low-density hot corona as well as fast rejection of the current from the wire core to the corona during voltage collapse. Important features of the dynamics for wire core and corona follow from the MHD simulation and are discussed.

  18. 6. QUANTUM COMPUTING: Unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaev, A. Yu

    2001-10-01

    Certain one-dimensional Fermi systems have an energy gap in the bulk spectrum while boundary states are described by one Majorana operator per boundary point. A finite system of length L possesses two ground states with an energy difference proportional to exp(-L/l0) and different fermionic parities. Such systems can be used as qubits since they are intrinsically immune to decoherence. The property of a system to have boundary Majorana fermions is expressed as a condition on the bulk electron spectrum. The condition is satisfied in the presence of an arbitrary small energy gap induced by proximity of a three-dimensional p-wave superconductor, provided that the normal spectrum has an odd number of Fermi points in each half of the Brillouin zone (each spin component counts separately).

  19. A One Chip Hardened Solution for High Speed SpaceWire System Implementations. Session: Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joseph R.; Berger, Richard W.; Rakow, Glenn P.

    2007-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that implements the SpaceWire protocol has been developed in a radiation hardened 0.25 micron CMOS technology. This effort began in March 2003 as a joint development between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and BAE Systems. The BAE Systems SpaceWire ASIC is comprised entirely of reusable core elements, many of which are already flight-proven. It incorporates a router with 4 SpaceWire ports and two local ports, dual PC1 bus interfaces, a microcontroller, 32KB of internal memory, and a memory controller for additional external memory use. The SpaceWire cores are also reused in other ASICs under development. The SpaceWire ASIC is planned for use on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)-R, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and other missions. Engineering and flight parts have been delivered to programs and users. This paper reviews the SpaceWire protocol and those elements of it that have been built into the current and next SpaceWire reusable cores and features within the core that go beyond the current standard and can be enabled or disabled by the user. The adaptation of SpaceWire to BAE Systems' On Chip Bus (OCB) for compatibility with the other reusable cores will be reviewed and highlighted. Optional configurations within user systems and test boards will be shown. The physical implementation of the design will be described and test results from the hardware will be discussed. Application of this ASIC and other ASICs containing the SpaceWire cores and embedded microcontroller to Plug and Play and reconfigurable implementations will be described. Finally, the BAE Systems roadmap for SpaceWire developments will be updated, including some products already in design as well as longer term plans.

  20. Dynamic leaching test of personal computer components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadong; Richardson, Jay B; Niu, Xiaojun; Jackson, Ollie J; Laster, Jeremy D; Walker, Aaron K

    2009-11-15

    A dynamic leaching test (DLT) was developed and used to evaluate the leaching of toxic substances for electronic waste in the environment. The major components in personal computers (PCs) including motherboards, hard disc drives, floppy disc drives, and compact disc drives were tested. The tests lasted for 2 years for motherboards and 1.5 year for the disc drives. The extraction fluids for the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were used as the DLT leaching solutions. A total of 18 elements including Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ni, Pd, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn were analyzed in the DLT leachates. Only Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were commonly found in the DLT leachates of the PC components. Their leaching levels were much higher in TCLP extraction fluid than in SPLP extraction fluid. The toxic heavy metal Pb was found to continuously leach out of the components over the entire test periods. The cumulative amounts of Pb leached out of the motherboards in TCLP extraction fluid reached 2.0 g per motherboard over the 2-year test period, and that in SPLP extraction fluid were 75-90% less. The leaching rates or levels of Pb were largely affected by the content of galvanized steel in the PC components. The higher was the steel content, the lower the Pb leaching rate would be. The findings suggest that the obsolete PCs disposed of in landfills or discarded in the environment continuously release Pb for years when subjected to landfill leachate or rains.

  1. Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their

  2. Computer programs for evaluation of turbulence characteristics from hot-wire measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosahlo, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the set of the computer programs for evaluation of the turbulent flow characteristics from hot-wire experimental data. Three different methods and, in addition, some variants are solved in these programs. This enables a comparison of the results obtained by these methods and the analysis of the influence of individual calculation parameters and calibration coefficients on the evaluated results. The results are printed in lucid numerical tables and written into files for further processing into graphs by plotting routines. (orig.) [de

  3. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  4. Reflections on Component Computing from the Boxer Project's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    diSessa, Andrea A.

    2004-01-01

    The Boxer Project conducted the research that led to the synthetic review "Issues in Component Computing." This brief essay provides a platform from which to develop our general perspective on educational computing and how it relates to components. The two most important lines of our thinking are (1) the goal to open technology's creative…

  5. Computer program simplifies design of rotating components of turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, J. C.

    1967-01-01

    Digital computer program performs stress analysis and burst speed calculations on rotating axisymmetric turbomachinery components. The computer printout contains the displacement of each nodal point, the stress at the center of each element, the average tangential stress within the component, and the burst speed.

  6. Learning Residential Electrical Wiring through Computer Simulation: The Impact of Computer-Based Learning Environments on Student Achievement and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Chin; Su, I-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia learning environments such as computer simulations are widely accepted as tools for supporting science learning. Although the design of multimedia learning environments can be domain specific, few studies have focused on the use of computer simulations for learning residential electrical wiring. This study aimed to determine whether…

  7. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  8. Computer-Based Study Guides II: Educational Components and Advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R. M.; Smyth, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the potential contributions of computers to medical education and, in particular, the use of computer-based study guides. Presents the educational functions of various study guide components and lists advantages and disadvantages of computer-based study guides over print-based guides. (LZ)

  9. Computational needs for modelling accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanerfeld, H.

    1985-06-01

    The particle-in-cell MASK is being used to model several different electron accelerator components. These studies are being used both to design new devices and to understand particle behavior within existing structures. Studies include the injector for the Stanford Linear Collider and the 50 megawatt klystron currently being built at SLAC. MASK is a 2D electromagnetic code which is being used by SLAC both on our own IBM 3081 and on the CRAY X-MP at the NMFECC. Our experience with running MASK illustrates the need for supercomputers to continue work of the kind described. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Landing Gear Components Noise Study - PIV and Hot-Wire Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Burley, Casey L.; Stead, Daniel J.; Becker, Lawrence E.; Price, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    PIV and hot-wire measurements of the wake flow from rods and bars are presented. The test models include rods of different diameters and cross sections and a rod juxtaposed to a plate. The latter is representative of the latch door that is attached to an aircraft landing gear when the gear is deployed, while the single and multiple rod configurations tested are representative of some of the various struts and cables configuration present on an aircraft landing gear. The test set up is described and the flow measurements are presented. The effect of model surface treatment and freestream turbulence on the spanwise coherence of the vortex shedding is studied for several rod and bar configurations.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.405 - Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... throw will be either vertical or horizontal. However, if the throw is vertical, a locking device shall... included as a component part of other apparatus, shall be provided with an automatic means of draining the...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.305 - Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... throw will be either vertical or horizontal. However, if the throw is vertical, a locking device shall... component part of other apparatus, shall be provided with an automatic means of draining the stored charge...

  13. Gamma dose effects valuation on micro computing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffre, F.

    1995-01-01

    Robotics in hostile environment raises the problem of micro computing components resistance with gamma radiation cumulated dose. The current aim is to reach a dose of 3000 grays with industrial components. A methodology and an instrumentation adapted to test this type of components have been developed. The aim of this work is to present the advantages and disadvantages bound to the use of industrial components in the presence of gamma radiation. After an analysis of the criteria allowing to justify the technological choices, the different steps which characterize the selection and the assessment methodology used are explained. The irradiation and measures means now operational are mentioned. Moreover, the supply aspects of the chosen components for the design of an industrialized system is taken into account. These selection and assessment components contribute to the development and design of computers for civil nuclear robotics. (O.M.)

  14. Computation of X-ray powder diffractograms of cement components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Computation of X-ray powder diffractograms of cement components and its application to phase analysis and hydration performance of OPC cement. Rohan Jadhav N C Debnath. Volume 34 Issue 5 August 2011 pp 1137- ... Keywords. Portland cement; X-ray diffraction; crystal structure; characterization; Rietveld method.

  15. Computers and Instructional Design: Component Display Theory in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent G.

    Component display theory (CDT) is used as a working example in this examination of the relationship between instructional design theory and computer assisted instruction (CAI) models. Two basic approaches to instructional design--the analytic and the holistic methods--are reviewed, and four elements of CDT are described: (1) content types,…

  16. Computers Take Flight: A History of NASA's Pioneering Digital Fly-By-Wire Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, James E.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the NASA F-8 Fly-by Wire project is presented. The project made two significant contributions to the new technology: (1) a solid design base of techniques that work and those that do not, and (2) credible evidence of good flying qualities and the ability of such a system to tolerate real faults and to continue operation without degradation. In 1972 the F-8C aircraft used in the program became he first digital fly-by-wire aircraft to operate without a mechanical backup system.

  17. Symbolic Computation of Strongly Connected Components Using Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Ciardo, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Finding strongly connected components (SCCs) in the state-space of discrete-state models is a critical task in formal verification of LTL and fair CTL properties, but the potentially huge number of reachable states and SCCs constitutes a formidable challenge. This paper is concerned with computing the sets of states in SCCs or terminal SCCs of asynchronous systems. Because of its advantages in many applications, we employ saturation on two previously proposed approaches: the Xie-Beerel algorithm and transitive closure. First, saturation speeds up state-space exploration when computing each SCC in the Xie-Beerel algorithm. Then, our main contribution is a novel algorithm to compute the transitive closure using saturation. Experimental results indicate that our improved algorithms achieve a clear speedup over previous algorithms in some cases. With the help of the new transitive closure computation algorithm, up to 10(exp 150) SCCs can be explored within a few seconds.

  18. Mathematical and computer modeling of component surface shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashkov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The process of shaping technical surfaces is an interaction of a tool (a shape element) and a component (a formable element or a workpiece) in their relative movements. It was established that the main objects of formation are: 1) a discriminant of a surfaces family, formed by the movement of the shape element relatively the workpiece; 2) an enveloping model of the real component surface obtained after machining, including transition curves and undercut lines; 3) The model of cut-off layers obtained in the process of shaping. When modeling shaping objects there are a lot of insufficiently solved or unsolved issues that make up a single scientific problem - a problem of qualitative shaping of the surface of the tool and then the component surface produced by this tool. The improvement of known metal-cutting tools, intensive development of systems of their computer-aided design requires further improvement of the methods of shaping the mating surfaces. In this regard, an important role is played by the study of the processes of shaping of technical surfaces with the use of the positive aspects of analytical and numerical mathematical methods and techniques associated with the use of mathematical and computer modeling. The author of the paper has posed and has solved the problem of development of mathematical, geometric and algorithmic support of computer-aided design of cutting tools based on computer simulation of the shaping process of surfaces.

  19. Thermal noise informatics: totally secure communication via a wire, zero-power communication, and thermal noise driven computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Mingesz, Robert; Gingl, Zoltan

    2007-06-01

    Very recently, it has been shown that Gaussian thermal noise and its artificial versions (Johnson-like noises) can be utilized as an information carrier with peculiar properties therefore it may be proper to call this topic Thermal Noise Informatics. Zero Power (Stealth) Communication, Thermal Noise Driven Computing, and Totally Secure Classical Communication are relevant examples. In this paper, while we will briefly describe the first and the second subjects, we shall focus on the third subject, the secure classical communication via wire. This way of secure telecommunication utilizes the properties of Johnson(-like) noise and those of a simple Kirchhoff's loop. The communicator is unconditionally secure at the conceptual (circuit theoretical) level and this property is (so far) unique in communication systems based on classical physics. The communicator is superior to quantum alternatives in all known aspects, except the need of using a wire. In the idealized system, the eavesdropper can extract zero bit of information without getting uncovered. The scheme is naturally protected against the man-in-the-middle attack. The communication can take place also via currently used power lines or phone (wire) lines and it is not only a point-to-point communication like quantum channels but network-ready. We report that a pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line with ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation/sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for copper wires with diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system

  20. Designing ceramic components with the CARES computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1989-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has developed a public-domain computer program, designated 'Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures' (CARES) for calculating the fast-fracture reliability of macroscopically isotropic ceramic components subjected to the complex thermomechanical loadings typical of heat engines. The design methodology employed by CARES encompasses linear elastic fracture mechanics theory, extreme value statistics, and material microstructures; component integrity is conceived as a function of the entire field solution of the stresses, rather than being based solely on the most highly stressed point.

  1. DESIGN VISUAL COMPONENT SLIDES FOR TEACHING COMPUTER PRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bryantseva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the common mistakes that allow educators and teachers in the design of the visual component of computer slide presentations to lessons. Detail the most common technological and conceptual errors: the use of photographic images of low resolution, "distortion" of the image on the slide, abuse banal images, the image on the slide, not "correlated" with the educational context. Methodical recommendations to address the negative impact of technological and conceptual errors in the visual perception of the slide.

  2. Using active power filter to compensate the current component of asymmetrical non-linear load in the four wire network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Володимирович Власенко

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electricity quality improving is extremely relevant nowadays. With such industrial loads as induction motors, induction furnaces, welding machines, controlled or uncontrolled rectifiers, frequency converters and others reactive power, harmonics and unbalance are generated in power grid. Reactive power, higher harmonic currents and asymmetry loads influence the functioning of electric devices and electrical mains. An effective technical solution is the use of new compensating devices, that is active power filters. The emergence of consumers with a unit capacity of four wire networks requires a new approach to building system control active power filter. When designing the active power filter control system the current flowing in the neutral wire must be taken into account. To assess the power balance in the four wire active power filter, scientists have proposed to apply pqr theory of power based on the Clarke transformation. There are different topologies of three-phase four wire active power filters. A visual simulation of Matlab / Simulink model with an active power filter based on pqr theory of power has been created. A method of pulse width modulation with four control channels was used as pulses forming systems with transistor keys. Operating conditions of three-phase four wire active power filter with asymmetry, non-sinosoidal voltage source and asymmetric load have been studied. The correction taking into account the means improving the active power filter has been offered as pqr theory of power does not take into account non-sinosoidal voltage

  3. Computer-aided design of antenna structures and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses computer-aided design procedures for antenna reflector structures and related components. The primary design aid is a computer program that establishes cross sectional sizes of the structural members by an optimality criterion. Alternative types of deflection-dependent objectives can be selected for designs subject to constraints on structure weight. The computer program has a special-purpose formulation to design structures of the type frequently used for antenna construction. These structures, in common with many in other areas of application, are represented by analytical models that employ only the three translational degrees of freedom at each node. The special-purpose construction of the program, however, permits coding and data management simplifications that provide advantages in problem size and execution speed. Size and speed are essentially governed by the requirements of structural analysis and are relatively unaffected by the added requirements of design. Computation times to execute several design/analysis cycles are comparable to the times required by general-purpose programs for a single analysis cycle. Examples in the paper illustrate effective design improvement for structures with several thousand degrees of freedom and within reasonable computing times.

  4. Assessing the effects of manual dexterity and playing computer games on catheter-wire manipulation for inexperienced operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Z; Hameed, Y; Amin, P; Shamsad, S; Raja, U; Alsafi, A; Hamady, M S

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of playing computer games and manual dexterity on catheter-wire manipulation in a mechanical aortic model. Medical student volunteers filled in a preprocedure questionnaire assessing their exposure to computer games. Their manual dexterity was measured using a smartphone game. They were then shown a video clip demonstrating renal artery cannulation and were asked to reproduce this. All attempts were timed. Two-tailed Student's t-test was used to compare continuous data, while Fisher's exact test was used for categorical data. Fifty students aged 18-22 years took part in the study. Forty-six completed the task at an average of 168 seconds (range 103-301 seconds). There was no significant difference in the dexterity score or time to cannulate the renal artery between male and female students. Students who played computer games for >10 hours per week had better dexterity scores than those who did not play computer games: 9.1 versus 10.2 seconds (p=0.0237). Four of 19 students who did not play computer games failed to complete the task, while all of those who played computer games regularly completed the task (p=0.0168). Playing computer games is associated with better manual dexterity and ability to complete a basic interventional radiology task for novices. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Computation of the mechanical behaviour of nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosi, S.; Niffenegger, M.; Roesel, R.; Reichlin, K.; Duijvestijn, A.

    1994-01-01

    A possible limiting factor of the service life of a reactor is the mechanical load carrying margin, i.e. the excess of the load carrying capacity over the actual loading, of the central, heavy section components. This margin decreases during service but, for safety reasons, may not fall below a critical value. Therefore, it is essential to check and to control continuously the factors which cause the decrease. The reasons for the decrease are shown at length and in detail in an example relating to the test which almost achieved failure of a pipe emanating from a reactor pressure vessel, weakened by an artificial crack and undergoing a water-hammer loading. The latter was caused by a sudden valve closure supposed to follow upon a break far downstream. The computational and experimental difficulties associated with the simultaneous occurrence of an extreme weakening and an extreme loading in an already rather complicated geometry are explained. It is concluded that available computational tools and present know-how are sufficient to simulate the behaviour under such conditions as would prevail in normal service, and even to analyse departures from them, as long as not all difficulties arise simultaneously. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  8. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  9. Software Components and Formal Methods from a Computational Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Software components and the methodology of component-based development offer a promising approach to master the design complexity of huge software products because they separate the concerns of software architecture from individual component behavior and allow for reusability of components. In combination with formal methods, the specification of a formal component model of the later software product or system allows for establishing and verifying important system properties in an automatic a...

  10. Information Sharing for Computing Trust Metrics on COTS Electronic Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMillon, William J

    2008-01-01

    .... It is challenging for the DoD to determine whether and how much to trust in COTS components, given uncertainty and incomplete information about the developers and suppliers of COTS components as well...

  11. Influence of sliding friction on leveling force of superelastic NiTi arch wire: A computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, M. F.; Mahmud, A. S.; Mokhtar, N.; Abdullah, J.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of sliding friction toward the effective force of superelastic NiTi arch wire applied in orthodontic bracing for tooth leveling. A three-dimensional finite-element model integrated with superelastic subroutine and contact interaction was used to predict the contribution of friction on force-deflection curve of NiTi wire in three brackets bending configuration. It was found that the friction between the wire and the bracket increased proportionally as a function of wire deflection, thus transforming the constant force characteristic of NiTi material into a slope. The highest magnitude of sliding friction was measured to be 3.1 N and 2.2 N with respect to the activation and deactivation of the arch wire.

  12. [Developing a home care nursing information system by utilizing wire-wireless network and mobile computing system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Sung-Ae; Yoon, Soon-Nyoung; Kang, Sung-Rye

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a home care nursing network system for operating home care effectively and efficiently by utilizing a wire-wireless network and mobile computing in order to record and send patients' data in real time, and by combining the headquarter office and the local offices with home care nurses over the Internet. It complements the preceding research from 1999 by adding home care nursing standard guidelines and upgrading the PDA program. Method/1 and Prototyping were adopted to develop the main network system. The detailed research process is as follows : 1)home care nursing standard guidelines for Diabetes, cancer and peritoneal-dialysis were added in 12 domains of nursing problem fields with nursing assessment/intervention algorithms. 2) complementing the PDA program was done by omitting and integrating the home care nursing algorithm path which is unnecessary and duplicated. Also, upgrading the PDA system was done by utilizing the machinery and tools where the PDA and the data transmission modem are integrated, CDMX-1X base construction, in order to reduce a transmission error or transmission failure.

  13. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  14. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  15. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  16. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  17. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. IPython: components for interactive and parallel computing across disciplines. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Bussonnier, M.; Frederic, J. D.; Froehle, B. M.; Granger, B. E.; Ivanov, P.; Kluyver, T.; Patterson, E.; Ragan-Kelley, B.; Sailer, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific computing is an inherently exploratory activity that requires constantly cycling between code, data and results, each time adjusting the computations as new insights and questions arise. To support such a workflow, good interactive environments are critical. The IPython project (http://ipython.org) provides a rich architecture for interactive computing with: 1. Terminal-based and graphical interactive consoles. 2. A web-based Notebook system with support for code, text, mathematical expressions, inline plots and other rich media. 3. Easy to use, high performance tools for parallel computing. Despite its roots in Python, the IPython architecture is designed in a language-agnostic way to facilitate interactive computing in any language. This allows users to mix Python with Julia, R, Octave, Ruby, Perl, Bash and more, as well as to develop native clients in other languages that reuse the IPython clients. In this talk, I will show how IPython supports all stages in the lifecycle of a scientific idea: 1. Individual exploration. 2. Collaborative development. 3. Production runs with parallel resources. 4. Publication. 5. Education. In particular, the IPython Notebook provides an environment for "literate computing" with a tight integration of narrative and computation (including parallel computing). These Notebooks are stored in a JSON-based document format that provides an "executable paper": notebooks can be version controlled, exported to HTML or PDF for publication, and used for teaching.

  19. Systems biology in psychiatric research: from complex data sets over wiring diagrams to computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Felix; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The classification of psychiatric disorders has always been a problem in clinical settings. The present debate about the major systems in clinical practice, DSM-IV and ICD-10, has resulted in attempts to improve and replace those schemes by some that include more endophenotypic and molecular features. However, these disorders not only require more precise diagnostic tools, but also have to be viewed more extensively in their dynamic behaviors, which require more precise data sets related to their origins and developments. This enormous challenge in brain research has to be approached on different levels of the biological system by new methods, including improvements in electroencephalography, brain imaging, and molecular biology. All these methods entail accumulations of large data sets that become more and more difficult to interpret. In particular, on the molecular level, there is an apparent need to use highly sophisticated computer programs to tackle these problems. Evidently, only interdisciplinary work among mathematicians, physicists, biologists, and clinicians can further improve our understanding of complex diseases of the brain.

  20. THE COMPONENTS OF ADAPTIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT FOR COMPUTER-ORIENTED LESSONS

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kosova

    2012-01-01

    The issues of adaptive computer-oriented learning environment for visual impaired children are discussed in this article. The author proposes techniques for making of adaptive environment components. These components depend of individual characteristics of pupils.

  1. Software, component, and service deployment in computational Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Laszewski, G.; Blau, E.; Bletzinger, M.; Gawor, J.; Lane, P.; Martin, S.; Russell, M.

    2002-01-01

    Grids comprise an infrastructure that enables scientists to use a diverse set of distributed remote services and resources as part of complex scientific problem-solving processes. We analyze some of the challenges involved in deploying software and components transparently in Grids. We report on three practical solutions used by the Globus Project. Lessons learned from this experience lead us to believe that it is necessary to support a variety of software and component deployment strategies. These strategies are based on the hosting environment

  2. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  3. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  4. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. Computation of X-ray powder diffractograms of cement components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The importance of computed X-ray diffraction patterns of various polymorphs of alite (M3, T1, R), belite aluminate (cubic, orthorhombic), aluminoferrite, gypsum and hemihydrate in the quantitative phase ana- lysis of cement and its early stage hydration performance is highlighted in this work with three OPC ...

  7. Computation of X-ray powder diffractograms of cement components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The importance of computed X-ray diffraction patterns of various polymorphs of alite (3, 1, ), belite (, ), aluminate (cubic, orthorhombic), aluminoferrite, gypsum and hemihydrate in the quantitative phase analysis of cement and its early stage hydration performance is highlighted in this work with three OPC samples.

  8. Electron Gun for Computer-controlled Welding of Small Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupák, Jan; Vlček, Ivan; Zobač, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 62, 2-3 (2001), s. 159-164 ISSN 0042-207X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Electron beam-welding machine * Electron gun * Computer- control led beam Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2001

  9. Computation of X-ray powder diffractograms of cement components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cement, both qualitative and quantitative phase analyses of different mineralogical phases of the components ... der diffraction method is highly suitable for both qualitative and quantitative phase analyses of cement ..... where τ is the characteristic time defined as aR2ρ/Co Di and y the reduced radius, ri /R, a the number of ...

  10. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to

  11. Principal Component Analysis - A Powerful Tool in Computing Marketing Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research regarding a powerful multivariate data analysis method which can be used by the researchers in order to obtain valuable information for decision makers that need to solve the marketing problem a company face with. The literature stresses the need to avoid the multicollinearity phenomenon in multivariate analysis and the features of Principal Component Analysis (PCA in reducing the number of variables that could be correlated with each other to a small number of principal components that are uncorrelated. In this respect, the paper presents step-by-step the process of applying the PCA in marketing research when we use a large number of variables that naturally are collinear.

  12. COMPUTER AIDED THREE DIMENSIONAL DESIGN OF MOLD COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim ÇETİNKAYA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Sheet metal molding design with classical methods is formed in very long times calculates and drafts. At the molding design, selection and drafting of most of the components requires very long time because of similar repetative processes. In this study, a molding design program has been developed by using AutoLISP which has been adapted AutoCAD packet program. With this study, design of sheet metal molding, dimensioning, assemly drafting has been realized.

  13. Calculating a checksum with inactive networking components in a computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Michael E; Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip; Tauferner, Andrew T

    2014-12-16

    Calculating a checksum utilizing inactive networking components in a computing system, including: identifying, by a checksum distribution manager, an inactive networking component, wherein the inactive networking component includes a checksum calculation engine for computing a checksum; sending, to the inactive networking component by the checksum distribution manager, metadata describing a block of data to be transmitted by an active networking component; calculating, by the inactive networking component, a checksum for the block of data; transmitting, to the checksum distribution manager from the inactive networking component, the checksum for the block of data; and sending, by the active networking component, a data communications message that includes the block of data and the checksum for the block of data.

  14. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  15. A virtual component method in numerical computation of cascades for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Shi; Cheng Lu

    2014-01-01

    The analysis, optimization, design and operation of cascades for isotope separation involve computations of cascades. In analytical analysis of cascades, using virtual components is a very useful analysis method. For complicated cases of cascades, numerical analysis has to be employed. However, bound up to the conventional idea that the concentration of a virtual component should be vanishingly small, virtual component is not yet applied to numerical computations. Here a method of introducing the method of using virtual components to numerical computations is elucidated, and its application to a few types of cascades is explained and tested by means of numerical experiments. The results show that the concentration of a virtual component is not restrained at all by the 'vanishingly small' idea. For the same requirements on cascades, the cascades obtained do not depend on the concentrations of virtual components. (authors)

  16. Dimensional Control of Micro Components with Synchrotron Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrig, Karsten; Goebbels, Juergen; Staude, Andreas; Bartscher, Markus; Haertig, Frank; Kniel, Karin; Neukamm, Marko; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    An advantage of Computed Tomography (CT) is the coordinate measurement capability of small inner structures, which are not accessible with classical measurement techniques. Using the advantages of synchrotron radiation CT measurements of parts with sizes of a few millimeters are performed at BAMline of BESSY II and are expected to be used as references for further dimensional measurements with micro CT. Previous investigations were focused on external gears, which are accessible with standard Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMMs). To obtain information about the accuracy of dimensional measurements of internal gears with CT, reference data have been measured by a tactile-optical CMM. This information is used to evaluate the performance of the CT. In addition to the first results for the evaluation of internal gear flanks, new measurements of different gear materials (steel and zirconium dioxide) will be presented. For functional evaluation, gear flanks are a matter of particular interest. Form deviations are analyzed with respect to the different gear materials to establish CT measurements as technology in the field of quality assurance and to compare the different manufacturing processes.

  17. Interactive Multimedia Applications "Know Your Computer Components" Using the Swish Max

    OpenAIRE

    Seno Dimas Bintoro; Yulina Yulina, Skom, MMSi

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays with the advancement of science and technology and advances in the computer world in particular, many people utilization of computer technology in all areas of life, as in the field of medical science, education and others. Computer is not just another luxury item for the middle class and above, but has become an important need in life. An ordinary computer users sometimes can only use the computer in general, they did not know more about the components in a computer. Usually to get ...

  18. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  19. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Zachary; Mehra, Akshay; Olsen, Michael; Donnelly, Michael; Schemitsch, Emil

    2013-11-01

    The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1) and the last 9 (Cohort 2) hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA) from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 (P = 0.01). Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.

  20. Computer navigation experience in hip resurfacing improves femoral component alignment using a conventional jig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Morison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:The use of computer navigation has been shown to improve the accuracy of femoral component placement compared to conventional instrumentation in hip resurfacing. Whether exposure to computer navigation improves accuracy when the procedure is subsequently performed with conventional instrumentation without navigation has not been explored. We examined whether femoral component alignment utilizing a conventional jig improves following experience with the use of imageless computer navigation for hip resurfacing. Materials and Methods:Between December 2004 and December 2008, 213 consecutive hip resurfacings were performed by a single surgeon. The first 17 (Cohort 1 and the last 9 (Cohort 2 hip resurfacings were performed using a conventional guidewire alignment jig. In 187 cases, the femoral component was implanted using the imageless computer navigation. Cohorts 1 and 2 were compared for femoral component alignment accuracy. Results:All components in Cohort 2 achieved the position determined by the preoperative plan. The mean deviation of the stem-shaft angle (SSA from the preoperatively planned target position was 2.2° in Cohort 2 and 5.6° in Cohort 1 ( P = 0.01. Four implants in Cohort 1 were positioned at least 10° varus compared to the target SSA position and another four were retroverted. Conclusions: Femoral component placement utilizing conventional instrumentation may be more accurate following experience using imageless computer navigation.

  1. A very fast algorithm for simultaneously performing connected-component labeling and euler number computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan

    2015-09-01

    Labeling connected components and calculating the Euler number in a binary image are two fundamental processes for computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper presents an ingenious method for identifying a hole in a binary image in the first scan of connected-component labeling. Our algorithm can perform connected component labeling and Euler number computing simultaneously, and it can also calculate the connected component (object) number and the hole number efficiently. The additional cost for calculating the hole number is only O(H) , where H is the hole number in the image. Our algorithm can be implemented almost in the same way as a conventional equivalent-label-set-based connected-component labeling algorithm. We prove the correctness of our algorithm and use experimental results for various kinds of images to demonstrate the power of our algorithm.

  2. 77 FR 20047 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... respondents Acer Inc. of Taiwan; Brother Industries, Ltd. of Japan; Canon Inc. of Japan; Dane- Elec Memory of France; Dell Inc. of TX; Falcon Northwest Computer Systems, Inc. of OR; Fujitsu Limited of Japan; Jasco...; Newegg Inc. of CA; Rosewell Inc. of CA; Sabrent of CA; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Seiko...

  3. Safe zones and a technical guide for cerclage wiring of the femur: a computed topographic angiogram (CTA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, Theerachai; Siripipattanamongkol, P; Oh, Chang-Wug; Sananpanich, K; Phornphutkul, C

    2018-01-01

    Cerclage wiring for reduction of complex femoral shaft fractures can create iatrogenic vascular injury. To describe the anatomical relation of blood vessels to the femur and develop a technical guide for safe passage of cerclage wire. CT lower-limb angiographs (CTA) of 80 patients were reviewed and analysed to identify the superficial femoral artery (SFA) and the deep femoral artery (DFA) as well as the relation of those arteries to the femoral cortex. The total length of the femur was measured and divided into eight equal segments (seven levels). At each level, the medial half of the femur was divided into eight sectors labelled A through H and the position of the SFA and DFA was recorded. The shortest distance between the femoral cortex and the SFA and DFA at each level was measured. The data was analysed using STATA version 10.0. The average total femoral length from the tip of greater trochanter to lateral joint line was 402.98 ± 26.16 cm. The average distances from the SFA to the femur (d1) for levels 1 through 7 were 37.20 ± 5.0, 32.09 ± 4.74, 27.13 ± 4.19, 27.71 ± 5.46, 23.71 ± 4.40, 13.63 ± 3.59 and 10.08 ± 3.09 mm, respectively. The average distances between the DFA and the femur (d2) for levels 1 through 3 were 26.70 ± 4.13, 14.76 ± 3.27 and 9.58 ± 3.79 mm, respectively. The position of the SFA is located in sectors B through E at levels 1-3 and in sectors E through H at levels 4-7 and the position of the DFA located in sectors B through F at levels 1-3. Cerclage wiring should be started from the posterior intermuscular septum at the linea aspera. The safe area is the proximal half (midshaft) of the femur where the SFA and DFA lie at a safe distance from the femur. Between the midshaft and the distal 1/4, insertion of the passer must be done meticulously with the tip kept close to posteromedial cortex. Below the distal 1/4, the tip of the passer should be kept close to the posterior cortex to avoid injury to the SFA and

  4. Rod-shaped ion exchanger useful for purifying liquids or recovering components from liquids comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rod-shaped ion exchanger comprises a metal wire core surrounded by an ion-exchange resin. Independent claims are also included for: (1) a module comprising a housing with an inlet and outlet and one or more ion exchangers as above; (2) a process for producing an ion exchanger as above, comprising

  5. Structural Sizing of the EDIN0620 Body Components Using the APAS Structural Synthesis Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a structural synthesis computer program to design components for a heavy lift launch vehicle is defined. A loads program was used to determine the vehicle shears, bending moments, and axial loads at two design loading conditions. A comparison was made between results from the structures program and the results of a weight estimating program which used historical data in determining component weights.

  6. A computer-controlled electronic system for the ultrasonic NDT of components for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrmann, M.; Harbecke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes an automatic ultrasonic testing system combined with a computer-controlled electronics system, called IMPULS I, for the non-destructive testing of components of nuclear reactors. The system can be used for both in-service inspection and for inspection during the manufacturing process. IMPUL I has more functions and less components than conventional ultrasonic systems, and the system gives good reproducible test results and is easy to operate. (U.K.)

  7. Component alignment and functional outcome following computer assisted and jig based total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Dnyanesh G; Thilak, Jai; Thadi, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Incorrect positioning of the implant and improper alignment of the limb following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can lead to rapid implant wear, loosening, and suboptimal function. Studies suggest that alignment errors of > 3° are associated with rapid failure and less satisfactory function. Computer navigated systems have been developed to enhance precision in instrumentation during surgery. The aim of the study was to compare component alignment following computer assisted surgery (CAS) and jig based TKA as well as functional outcome. This is a prospective study of 100 knees to compare computer-assisted TKA and jig-based surgery in relation to femoral and tibial component alignment and functional outcome. The postoperative x-rays (anteroposterior and lateral) of the knee and CT scanogram from hip to foot were obtained. The coronal alignment of the femoral and tibial components and rotational alignment of femoral component was calculated. Knee society score at 24 months was used to assess the function. Results of our study show that mean placement of the tibial component in coronal plane (91.3037°) and sagittal planes (3.6058°) was significantly better with CAS. The difference was statistically insignificant in case of mean coronal alignment of the femoral components (90.34210° in navigation group and 90.5444° in jig group) and in case of the mean femoral condylar twist angle (external rotation 2.3406° in navigation group versus 2.3593° in jig group). A significantly improved placement of the component was found in the coronal and sagittal planes of the tibial component by CAS. The placement of the components in the other planes was comparable with the values recorded in the jig-based surgery group. Functional outcome was not significantly different.

  8. Stem abutment affects alignment of the humeral component in computer-assisted elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colin P; Peters, Terry M; Johnson, James A; King, Graham J W

    2011-09-01

    The humeral component in total elbow arthroplasty has limited geometric modularity, and the extent to which this affects accurate positioning is unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) validate the accuracy of a computer-assisted implant alignment technique, and (2) identify variations in distal humeral morphology that affected computer-assisted implant alignment. This was achieved by implanting both an unmodified humeral component and an implant with a reduced stem using computer assistance. We hypothesized that implantation of a humeral component with a reduced stem length would be more accurate than implantation of the standard length stem. In addition, we hypothesized that the variation in flexion-extension (FE) varus-valgus angulation would significantly affect computer-assisted implant alignment. Computer-assisted alignment of the implant articulating axis with the humeral FE axis was performed on 13 cadaveric humeri for both the regular and modified humeral component. Navigation was based on alignment of the prosthesis with a preoperative plan and registration of this plan to the humerus. Implant alignment was significantly improved for the reduced stem. Alignment error of the reduced stem averaged 1.3 ± 0.5 mm in translation and 1.2° ± 0.4° in rotation, compared with 1.9 ± 1.1 mm and 3.6° ± 2.1° for the regular stem. Humeral varus-valgus angulation significantly affected alignment of the unmodified stem. A humeral component with a fixed valgus angulation cannot be accurately positioned in a consistent fashion without sacrificing alignment of the FE axis. Improved accuracy of implant placement can be achieved by introducing a family of humeral components, with 3 valgus angulations of 0°, 4° and 8°. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Designing Fault Tolerance Strategy by Iterative Redundancy for Component-Based Distributed Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is a critical issue for component-based distributed computing systems, some distributed software allows the existence of large numbers of potentially faulty components on an open network. Faults are inevitable in this large-scale, complex, distributed components setting, which may include a lot of untrustworthy parts. How to provide highly reliable component-based distributed systems is a challenging problem and a critical research. Generally, redundancy and replication are utilized to realize the goal of fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a CFI (critical fault iterative redundancy technique, by which the efficiency can be guaranteed to make use of resources (e.g., computation and storage and to create fault-tolerance applications. When operating in an environment with unknown components’ reliability, CFI redundancy is more efficient and adaptive than other techniques (e.g., K-Modular Redundancy and N-Version Programming. In the CFI strategy of redundancy, the function invocation relationships and invocation frequencies are employed to rank the functions’ importance and identify the most vulnerable function implemented via functionally equivalent components. A tradeoff has to be made between efficiency and reliability. In this paper, a formal theoretical analysis and an experimental analysis are presented. Compared with the existing methods, the reliability of components-based distributed system can be greatly improved by tolerating a small part of significant components.

  10. Component Evaluation of a Computer Based Format for Teaching Discrete Trial and Backward Chaining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, Melissa R.; Williams, W. Larry

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of a multi-component computer based training package that consisted of competency based instructions, video modeling, and two forms of feedback was evaluated in terms of treatment integrity of two procedures across four staff. Treatment integrity in completing critical steps of discrete-trial and backward chaining procedures were…

  11. Development of computational methods of design by analysis for pressure vessel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan; Wu Honglin

    2005-01-01

    Stress classification is not only one of key steps when pressure vessel component is designed by analysis, but also a difficulty which puzzles engineers and designers at all times. At present, for calculating and categorizing the stress field of pressure vessel components, there are several computation methods of design by analysis such as Stress Equivalent Linearization, Two-Step Approach, Primary Structure method, Elastic Compensation method, GLOSS R-Node method and so on, that are developed and applied. Moreover, ASME code also gives an inelastic method of design by analysis for limiting gross plastic deformation only. When pressure vessel components design by analysis, sometimes there are huge differences between the calculating results for using different calculating and analysis methods mentioned above. As consequence, this is the main reason that affects wide application of design by analysis approach. Recently, a new approach, presented in the new proposal of a European Standard, CEN's unfired pressure vessel standard EN 13445-3, tries to avoid problems of stress classification by analyzing pressure vessel structure's various failure mechanisms directly based on elastic-plastic theory. In this paper, some stress classification methods mentioned above, are described briefly. And the computational methods cited in the European pressure vessel standard, such as Deviatoric Map, and nonlinear analysis methods (plastic analysis and limit analysis), are depicted compendiously. Furthermore, the characteristics of computational methods of design by analysis are summarized for selecting the proper computational method when design pressure vessel component by analysis. (authors)

  12. 78 FR 75942 - Certain Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To Review in Part a Final Initial Determination Finding a Violation of Section 337; Schedule for Briefing on the Issues Under Review and on Remedy, the...

  13. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  14. Decreasing Transition Times in Elementary School Classrooms: Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Automate Intervention Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…

  15. Design of an empirical process model and algorithm for the Tungsten Inert Gas wire+arc additive manufacture of TI-6AL-4V components

    OpenAIRE

    Martina, Filomeno; Williams, Stewart; Colegrove, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the wire+arc additive manufacture process parameters can be varied to achieve a wide range of deposit widths, as well as layer heights. Pulsed Tungsten Inert Gas was chosen as the deposition process. A working envelope was developed, which ensures unfeasible parameters combinations are excluded from the algorithm. Thanks to an extensive use of a statistically designed experiment, it was possible to produce process equations through linear regression, for both wall width and ...

  16. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  17. Superior-inferior position of patellar component affects patellofemoral kinematics and contact forces in computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nishitani, Kohei; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-06-01

    Anterior knee pain has been reported as a major postoperative complication after total knee arthroplasty, which may lead to patient dissatisfaction. Rotational alignment and the medial-lateral position correlate with patellar maltracking, which can cause knee pain postoperatively. However, the superior-inferior position of the patellar component has not been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of the patellar superior-inferior position on patellofemoral kinematics and kinetics. Superior, central, and inferior models with a dome patellar component were constructed. In the superior and inferior models, the position of the patellar component translated superiorly and inferiorly, respectively, by 3mm, relative to the center model. Kinematics of the patellar component, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force were calculated using a computer simulation during a squatting activity in a weight-bearing deep knee bend. In the inferior model, the flexion angle, relative to the tibial component, was the greatest among all models. The inferior model showed an 18.0%, 36.5%, and 22.7% increase in the maximum quadriceps force, the maximum medial patellofemoral force, and the maximum lateral patellofemoral force, respectively, compared with the superior model. Superior-inferior positions affected patellofemoral kinematic and kinetics. Surgeons should avoid the inferior position of the patellar component, because the inferior positioned model showed greater quadriceps and patellofemoral force, resulting in a potential risk for anterior knee pain and component loosening. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Computer software program for monitoring the availability of systems and components of electric power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, T.A.; Hilsmeier, T.A.; Kapinus, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    As availabilities of electric power generating stations systems and components become more and more important from a financial, personnel safety, and regulatory requirements standpoint, it is evident that a comprehensive, yet simple and user-friendly program for system and component tracking and monitoring is needed to assist in effectively managing the large volume of systems and components with their large numbers of associated maintenance/availability records. A user-friendly computer software program for system and component availability monitoring has been developed that calculates, displays and monitors selected component and system availabilities. This is a Windows trademark based (Graphical User Interface) program that utilizes a system flow diagram for the data input screen which also provides a visual representation of availability values and limits for the individual components and associated systems. This program can be customized to the user's plant-specific system and component selections and configurations. As will be discussed herein, this software program is well suited for availability monitoring and ultimately providing valuable information for improving plant performance and reducing operating costs

  19. FORMING THE ICT-COMPETENCE COMMUNICATION COMPONENT OF THE COMPUTER PROFILE ENGINEERS-PEDAGOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhen V. Tymoshenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is investigated the problem of ICT-competence formation of the future computer profile engineers-teachers. It has been analyzed scientific papers that study development issues of information and communication competence of students in the field of ІCT. It is pointed out the need for further development of communication component and suggested to apply for this the B. Bloom's cognitive processes measurement system. Based on the competency approach and improved B. Bloom's pedagogical purposes taxonomy it has been developed a cognitive processes measuring system aiming to form ICT-competence communication component.

  20. Femoral Component External Rotation Affects Knee Biomechanics: A Computational Model of Posterior-stabilized TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Mohammad; Wright, Timothy M; Cross, Michael B; Mayman, David J; Pearle, Andrew D; Sculco, Peter K; Westrich, Geoffrey H; Imhauser, Carl W

    2018-01-01

    The correct amount of external rotation of the femoral component during TKA is controversial because the resulting changes in biomechanical knee function associated with varying degrees of femoral component rotation are not well understood. We addressed this question using a computational model, which allowed us to isolate the biomechanical impact of geometric factors including bony shapes, location of ligament insertions, and implant size across three different knees after posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA. Using a computational model of the tibiofemoral joint, we asked: (1) Does external rotation unload the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and what is the effect on lateral collateral ligament tension? (2) How does external rotation alter tibiofemoral contact loads and kinematics? (3) Does 3° external rotation relative to the posterior condylar axis align the component to the surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) and what anatomic factors of the femoral condyle explain variations in maximum MCL tension among knees? We incorporated a PS TKA into a previously developed computational knee model applied to three neutrally aligned, nonarthritic, male cadaveric knees. The computational knee model was previously shown to corroborate coupled motions and ligament loading patterns of the native knee through a range of flexion. Implant geometries were virtually installed using hip-to-ankle CT scans through measured resection and anterior referencing surgical techniques. Collateral ligament properties were standardized across each knee model by defining stiffness and slack lengths based on the healthy population. The femoral component was externally rotated from 0° to 9° relative to the posterior condylar axis in 3° increments. At each increment, the knee was flexed under 500 N compression from 0° to 90° simulating an intraoperative examination. The computational model predicted collateral ligament forces, compartmental contact forces, and tibiofemoral internal/external and

  1. EXAFS Phase Retrieval Solution Tracking for Complex Multi-Component System: Synthesized Topological Inverse Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jay Min; Yang, Dong-Seok; Bunker, Grant B

    2013-01-01

    Using the FEFF kernel A(k,r), we describe the inverse computation from χ(k)-data to g(r)-solution in terms of a singularity regularization method based on complete Bayesian statistics process. In this work, we topologically decompose the system-matched invariant projection operators into two distinct types, (A + AA + A) and (AA + AA + ), and achieved Synthesized Topological Inversion Computation (STIC), by employing a 12-operator-closed-loop emulator of the symplectic transformation. This leads to a numerically self-consistent solution as the optimal near-singular regularization parameters are sought, dramatically suppressing instability problems connected with finite precision arithmetic in ill-posed systems. By statistically correlating a pair of measured data, it was feasible to compute an optimal EXAFS phase retrieval solution expressed in terms of the complex-valued χ(k), and this approach was successfully used to determine the optimal g(r) for a complex multi-component system.

  2. GRAPHIC COMPETENCE AS A COMPONENT OF TRAINING FUTURE ENGINEERING TEACHERS OF COMPUTER PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Kozak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis the system of professional training of future engineering teachers of computer type at the pedagogical universities, including graphical content preparation. It is established that the modernization of this system of training engineering teachers of computer profile is extremely important because of increasing demands for total graphics education, which in terms of mass communication, the need to compress a significant amount of information and opportunities provided by new information technologies, becomes so important as second literacy. The article reveals the essential characteristics of the concept of graphic competence as important component of the modernization of the education system, and an attempt to find promising ways of further work to effective solving of the issue of formation of graphic competence of engineering teachers of computer profile.

  3. TITAN: a computer program for accident occurrence frequency analyses by component Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Kanai, Shigeru

    2000-04-01

    In a plant system consisting of complex equipments and components for a reprocessing facility, there might be grace time between an initiating event and a resultant serious accident, allowing operating personnel to take remedial actions, thus, terminating the ongoing accident sequence. A component Monte Carlo simulation computer program TITAN has been developed to analyze such a complex reliability model including the grace time without any difficulty to obtain an accident occurrence frequency. Firstly, basic methods for the component Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to obtain an accident occurrence frequency, and then, the basic performance such as precision, convergence, and parallelization of calculation, is shown through calculation of a prototype accident sequence model. As an example to illustrate applicability to a real scale plant model, a red oil explosion in a German reprocessing plant model is simulated to show that TITAN can give an accident occurrence frequency with relatively good accuracy. Moreover, results of uncertainty analyses by TITAN are rendered to show another performance, and a proposal is made for introducing of a new input-data format to adapt the component Monte Carlo simulation. The present paper describes the calculational method, performance, applicability to a real scale, and new proposal for the TITAN code. In the Appendixes, a conventional analytical method is shown to avoid complex and laborious calculation to obtain a strict solution of accident occurrence frequency, compared with Monte Carlo method. The user's manual and the list/structure of program are also contained in the Appendixes to facilitate TITAN computer program usage. (author)

  4. Development of high performance scientific components for interoperability of computing packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulabani, Teena Pratap [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three major high performance quantum chemistry computational packages, NWChem, GAMESS and MPQC have been developed by different research efforts following different design patterns. The goal is to achieve interoperability among these packages by overcoming the challenges caused by the different communication patterns and software design of each of these packages. A chemistry algorithm is hard to develop as well as being a time consuming process; integration of large quantum chemistry packages will allow resource sharing and thus avoid reinvention of the wheel. Creating connections between these incompatible packages is the major motivation of the proposed work. This interoperability is achieved by bringing the benefits of Component Based Software Engineering through a plug-and-play component framework called Common Component Architecture (CCA). In this thesis, I present a strategy and process used for interfacing two widely used and important computational chemistry methodologies: Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics. To show the feasibility of the proposed approach the Tuning and Analysis Utility (TAU) has been coupled with NWChem code and its CCA components. Results show that the overhead is negligible when compared to the ease and potential of organizing and coping with large-scale software applications.

  5. Supersonic propulsion simulation by incorporating component models in the large perturbation inlet (LAPIN) computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gary L.; Richard, Jacques C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to simulating the internal flows of supersonic propulsion systems is presented. The approach is based on a fairly simple modification of the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code. LAPIN uses a quasi-one dimensional, inviscid, unsteady formulation of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved using a shock capturing, finite difference algorithm. The original code, developed for simulating supersonic inlets, includes engineering models of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and variable duct geometry, by means of source terms in the equations. The source terms also provide a mechanism for incorporating, with the inlet, propulsion system components such as compressor stages, combustors, and turbine stages. This requires each component to be distributed axially over a number of grid points. Because of the distributed nature of such components, this representation should be more accurate than a lumped parameter model. Components can be modeled by performance map(s), which in turn are used to compute the source terms. The general approach is described. Then, simulation of a compressor/fan stage is discussed to show the approach in detail.

  6. How to improve femoral component rotational alignment in computer-assisted TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambianchi, F; Luyckx, T; Victor, J; Digennaro, V; Giorgini, A; Catani, F

    2014-08-01

    Although several anatomical landmarks have been proposed to obtain adequate femoral component alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there is still no consensus regarding the best way to correctly position the prosthetic component on the horizontal plane. A previous computed tomography (CT)-based study has demonstrated anatomical transepicondylar axis (aTEA) to be externally rotated relative to surgical transepicondylar axis (sTEA) of approximately 4.5°. In this study, it is described a new methodological approach to femoral component rotational positioning through the use of previously reported CT scan information and navigation. Eight consecutive patients scheduled for navigated TKA were selected. Rotational placement of the femoral component was performed using navigation system. The femoral component was implanted setting 4.5° of internal rotation relative to the aTEA. Within 1 week from surgery, all patients underwent a CT scan, and the posterior condylar angle (PCA) was measured. A PCA of 0.0°, meaning component placement parallel to sTEA, was set as femoral rotational alignment target. Clinical evaluation was performed at a mean 14.3 months of follow-up with KOOS questionnaire. The mean PCA measured on post-operative CT images was 0.4° (SD 1.3°), meaning that the femoral component was averagely implanted with 0.4° of internal rotation relative to the sTEA. Seven out of eight cases (87.5 %) resulted to have within 1° deviation from the rotational alignment target. All patients but one reported good clinical results. Relevant finding of the present study was that the use of navigation and aTEA as a reference demonstrated to be accurate to set up femoral component rotational positioning on the horizontal plane in TKA. Further study should be performed to confirm this conclusion.

  7. Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.

    2006-01-01

    All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)

  8. 75 FR 17437 - In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-705] In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial... importation of certain notebook computer products and components thereof by reason of infringement of the '693...

  9. 75 FR 65656 - In the Matter of: Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-705] In the Matter of: Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... States after importation of certain notebook computer products and components thereof by reason of...

  10. Advanced computational simulation for design and manufacturing of lightweight material components for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, S.; Aramayo, G.A.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Toridis, T.G. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Bandak, F.; Ragland, C.L. [Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Computational vehicle models for the analysis of lightweight material performance in automobiles have been developed through collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, and George Washington University. The vehicle models have been verified against experimental data obtained from vehicle collisions. The crashed vehicles were analyzed, and the main impact energy dissipation mechanisms were identified and characterized. Important structural parts were extracted and digitized and directly compared with simulation results. High-performance computing played a key role in the model development because it allowed for rapid computational simulations and model modifications. The deformation of the computational model shows a very good agreement with the experiments. This report documents the modifications made to the computational model and relates them to the observations and findings on the test vehicle. Procedural guidelines are also provided that the authors believe need to be followed to create realistic models of passenger vehicles that could be used to evaluate the performance of lightweight materials in automotive structural components.

  11. A method of obtaining signal components of residual carrier signal with their power content and computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1993-01-01

    A novel algorithm to obtain all signal components of a residual carrier signal with any number of channels is presented. The phase modulation type may be NRZ-L or split phase (Manchester). The algorithm also provides a simple way to obtain the power contents of the signal components. Steps to recognize the signal components that influence the carrier tracking loop and the data tracking loop at the receiver are given. A computer program for numerical computation is also provided.

  12. CCARES: A computer algorithm for the reliability analysis of laminated CMC components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Structural components produced from laminated CMC (ceramic matrix composite) materials are being considered for a broad range of aerospace applications that include various structural components for the national aerospace plane, the space shuttle main engine, and advanced gas turbines. Specifically, these applications include segmented engine liners, small missile engine turbine rotors, and exhaust nozzles. Use of these materials allows for improvements in fuel efficiency due to increased engine temperatures and pressures, which in turn generate more power and thrust. Furthermore, this class of materials offers significant potential for raising the thrust-to-weight ratio of gas turbine engines by tailoring directions of high specific reliability. The emerging composite systems, particularly those with silicon nitride or silicon carbide matrix, can compete with metals in many demanding applications. Laminated CMC prototypes have already demonstrated functional capabilities at temperatures approaching 1400 C, which is well beyond the operational limits of most metallic materials. Laminated CMC material systems have several mechanical characteristics which must be carefully considered in the design process. Test bed software programs are needed that incorporate stochastic design concepts that are user friendly, computationally efficient, and have flexible architectures that readily incorporate changes in design philosophy. The CCARES (Composite Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) program is representative of an effort to fill this need. CCARES is a public domain computer algorithm, coupled to a general purpose finite element program, which predicts the fast fracture reliability of a structural component under multiaxial loading conditions.

  13. Life Prediction for a CMC Component Using the NASALIFE Computer Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2005-01-01

    The computer code, NASALIFE, was used to provide estimates for life of an SiC/SiC stator vane under varying thermomechanical loading conditions. The primary intention of this effort is to show how the computer code NASALIFE can be used to provide reasonable estimates of life for practical propulsion system components made of advanced ceramic matrix composites (CMC). Simple loading conditions provided readily observable and acceptable life predictions. Varying the loading conditions such that low cycle fatigue and creep were affected independently provided expected trends in the results for life due to varying loads and life due to creep. Analysis was based on idealized empirical data for the 9/99 Melt Infiltrated SiC fiber reinforced SiC.

  14. Computer aided epitope design as a peptide vaccine component against Lassa virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Ar-Rafi Md; Imtiaz, Syed Hassan; Zerin, Tasnim; Rahman, Tania; Shekhar, Hossain Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is an arena virus causing hemorrhagic fever and it is endemic in several regions of West Africa. The disease-causing virus records high mortality rate in endemic regions due to lack of appropriate treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, it is of interest to design and develop viable vaccine components against the virus. We used the Lassa virus envelope glyco-proteins as a vaccine target to identify linear peptides as potential epitopes with immunogenic properties by computer aided epitope prediction tools. We report a T-cell epitope 'LLGTFTWTL' and a B-cell epitope 'AELKCFGNTAVAKCNE' with predicted potential immunogenicity for further in vivo and in vitro consideration.

  15. A computational approach for ordering signal transduction pathway components from genomics and proteomics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hongyu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction is one of the most important biological processes by which cells convert an external signal into a response. Novel computational approaches to mapping proteins onto signaling pathways are needed to fully take advantage of the rapid accumulation of genomic and proteomics information. However, despite their importance, research on signaling pathways reconstruction utilizing large-scale genomics and proteomics information has been limited. Results We have developed an approach for predicting the order of signaling pathway components, assuming all the components on the pathways are known. Our method is built on a score function that integrates protein-protein interaction data and microarray gene expression data. Compared to the individual datasets, either protein interactions or gene transcript abundance measurements, the integrated approach leads to better identification of the order of the pathway components. Conclusions As demonstrated in our study on the yeast MAPK signaling pathways, the integration analysis of high-throughput genomics and proteomics data can be a powerful means to infer the order of pathway components, enabling the transformation from molecular data into knowledge of cellular mechanisms.

  16. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  17. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  18. Advanced DVR with Zero-Sequence Voltage Component and Voltage Harmonic Elimination for Three-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margo P; Mauridhi Heri Purnomo; Mochamad Ashari; Zaenal P; Takashi Hiyama

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is a power electronics device to protect sensitive load when voltage sag occurs. Commonly, sensitive loads are electronic-based devices which generate harmonics. The magnitude and phase of compensated voltage in DVR depend on grounding system and type of fault. If the system is floating, the zero sequence components do not appear on the load side. Meanwhile, in a neutral grounded system, voltage sag is extremely affected by zero sequence components. A blocking t...

  19. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  20. Design of ceramic components with the NASA/CARES computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Manderscheid, Jane M.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1990-01-01

    The ceramics analysis and reliability evaluation of structures (CARES) computer program is described. The primary function of the code is to calculate the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of macro-scopically isotropic ceramic components. These components may be subjected to complex thermomechanical loadings, such as those found in heat engine applications. CARES uses results from MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS finite-element analysis programs to evaluate how inherent surface and/or volume type flaws component reliability. CARES utilizes the Batdorf model and the two-parameter Weibull cumulative distribution function to describe the effects of multiaxial stress states on material strength. The principle of independent action (PIA) and the Weibull normal stress averaging models are also included. Weibull material strength parameters, the Batdorf crack density coefficient, and other related statistical quantities are estimated from four-point bend bar or uniform uniaxial tensile specimen fracture strength data. Parameter estimation can be performed for a single or multiple failure modes by using a least-squares analysis or a maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-to-fit-tests, 90 percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters, and Kanofsky-Srinivasan 90 percent confidence band values are also provided. Examples are provided to illustrate the various features of CARES.

  1. Adaptive tracking of discriminative frequency components in electroencephalograms for a robust brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kavitha P; Guan, Cuntai; Lau, Chiew Tong; Vinod, A P; Ang, Kai Keng

    2011-06-01

    In an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), motor imagery has been successfully used as a communication strategy. Motor imagery causes detectable amplitude changes in certain frequency bands of EEGs, which are dubbed event-related desynchronization\\synchronization. The frequency components that give effective discrimination between different types of motor imagery are subject specific and identification of these subject-specific discriminative frequency components (DFCs) is important for the accurate classification of motor imagery activities. In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the DFC using the Fisher criterion and investigate the variability of these DFCs over multiple sessions of EEG recording. Observing the variability of DFC over sessions in the analysis, a new BCI approach called the Adaptively Weighted Spectral-Spatial Patterns (AWSSP) algorithm is proposed. AWSSP tracks the variation in DFC over time adaptively based on the deviation of discriminative weight values of frequency components. The classification performance of the proposed AWSSP is compared with a static BCI approach that employs fixed DFCs. In the offline and online experiments, AWSSP offers better classification performance than the static approach, emphasizing the significance of tracking the variability of DFCs in EEGs for developing robust motor imagery-based BCI systems. A study of the effect of feedback on the variation in DFCs is also performed in online experiments and it is found that the presence of visual feedback results in increased variation in DFCs.

  2. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barashev, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Golubov, Stanislav I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  3. Low-temperature swelling in LWR internal components: a computational assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, Roger E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Golubov, Stanislav I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barashev, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325 °C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine-scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. The long-term objective of this research is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  4. A Computational Model of Torque Generation: Neural, Contractile, Metabolic and Musculoskeletal Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Damien M.; Umberger, Brian R.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    The pathway of voluntary joint torque production includes motor neuron recruitment and rate-coding, sarcolemmal depolarization and calcium release by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, force generation by motor proteins within skeletal muscle, and force transmission by tendon across the joint. The direct source of energetic support for this process is ATP hydrolysis. It is possible to examine portions of this physiologic pathway using various in vivo and in vitro techniques, but an integrated view of the multiple processes that ultimately impact joint torque remains elusive. To address this gap, we present a comprehensive computational model of the combined neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems that includes novel components related to intracellular bioenergetics function. Components representing excitatory drive, muscle activation, force generation, metabolic perturbations, and torque production during voluntary human ankle dorsiflexion were constructed, using a combination of experimentally-derived data and literature values. Simulation results were validated by comparison with torque and metabolic data obtained in vivo. The model successfully predicted peak and submaximal voluntary and electrically-elicited torque output, and accurately simulated the metabolic perturbations associated with voluntary contractions. This novel, comprehensive model could be used to better understand impact of global effectors such as age and disease on various components of the neuromuscular system, and ultimately, voluntary torque output. PMID:23405245

  5. Advanced DVR with Zero-Sequence Voltage Component and Voltage Harmonic Elimination for Three-Phase Three-Wire Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo P

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR is a power electronics device to protect sensitive load when voltage sag occurs. Commonly, sensitive loads are electronic-based devices which generate harmonics. The magnitude and phase of compensated voltage in DVR depend on grounding system and type of fault. If the system is floating, the zero sequence components do not appear on the load side. Meanwhile, in a neutral grounded system, voltage sag is extremely affected by zero sequence components. A blocking transformer is commonly installed in series with DVR to reduce the effect of zero sequence components. This paper proposes a new DVR control scheme that is capable of eliminating the blocking transformer and reducing harmonic distortion. The system uses fuzzy polar controller to replace the conventional PI or FL controller that is commonly used. By taking into account the zero sequence components in the controller design, the effects of zero sequence components can be compensated. Simulated results show the effectiveness of the proposed DVR controller

  6. Computing the influences of different Intraocular Pressures on the human eye components using computational fluid-structure interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Intraocular Pressure (IOP) is defined as the pressure of aqueous in the eye. It has been reported that the normal range of IOP should be within the 10-20 mmHg with an average of 15.50 mmHg among the ophthalmologists. Keratoconus is an anti-inflammatory eye disorder that debilitated cornea unable to reserve the normal structure contrary to the IOP in the eye. Consequently, the cornea would bulge outward and invoke a conical shape following by distorted vision. In addition, it is known that any alterations in the structure and composition of the lens and cornea would exceed a change of the eye ball as well as the mechanical and optical properties of the eye. Understanding the precise alteration of the eye components' stresses and deformations due to different IOPs could help elucidate etiology and pathogenesis to develop treatments not only for keratoconus but also for other diseases of the eye. In this study, at three different IOPs, including 10, 20, and 30 mmHg the stresses and deformations of the human eye components were quantified using a Three-Dimensional (3D) computational Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) model of the human eye. The results revealed the highest amount of von Mises stress in the bulged region of the cornea with 245 kPa at the IOP of 30 mmHg. The lens was also showed the von Mises stress of 19.38 kPa at the IOPs of 30 mmHg. In addition, by increasing the IOP from 10 to 30 mmHg, the radius of curvature in the cornea and lens was increased accordingly. In contrast, the sclera indicated its highest stress at the IOP of 10 mmHg due to over pressure phenomenon. The variation of IOP illustrated a little influence in the amount of stress as well as the resultant displacement of the optic nerve. These results can be used for understanding the amount of stresses and deformations in the human eye components due to different IOPs as well as for clarifying significant role of IOP on the radius of curvature of the cornea and the lens.

  7. Decreasing transition times in elementary school classrooms: Using computer-assisted instruction to automate intervention components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Jeffrey F; Ardoin, Scott P; Foster, Tori E

    2015-09-01

    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined the effects of the intervention on the latency to on-task behavior of 4 students in 2 classrooms. Data also were collected on students' on-task behavior during activities and teachers' use of prompts and praise statements. Implementation of the intervention substantially decreased students' latencies to on-task behavior and increased on-task behavior overall. Further, the 2 teachers used fewer prompts to cue students to transition and stay on task and provided more praise during intervention phases. We discuss how automating classroom interventions may affect student and teacher behavior as well as how it may increase procedural fidelity. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. Annotating the structure and components of a nanoparticle formulation using computable string expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chappell, Alan R; Baker, Nathan A

    2012-12-31

    Nanoparticle formulations that are being developed and tested for various medical applications are typically multi-component systems that vary in their structure, chemical composition, and function. It is difficult to compare and understand the differences between the structural and chemical descriptions of hundreds and thousands of nanoparticle formulations found in text documents. We have developed a string nomenclature to create computable string expressions that identify and enumerate the different high-level types of material parts of a nanoparticle formulation and represent the spatial order of their connectivity to each other. The string expressions are intended to be used as IDs, along with terms that describe a nanoparticle formulation and its material parts, in data sharing documents and nanomaterial research databases. The strings can be parsed and represented as a directed acyclic graph. The nodes of the graph can be used to display the string ID, name and other text descriptions of the nanoparticle formulation or its material part, while the edges represent the connectivity between the material parts with respect to the whole nanoparticle formulation. The different patterns in the string expressions can be searched for and used to compare the structure and chemical components of different nanoparticle formulations. The proposed string nomenclature is extensible and can be applied along with ontology terms to annotate the complete description of nanoparticles formulations.

  9. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  10. Computer Simulation of Robotic Device Components in 3D Printer Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kiselev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a relevant problem "Computer simulation of robotic device components in manufacturing on a 3D printer" and highlights the problem of computer simulation based on the cognitive programming technology of robotic device components. The paper subject is urgent because computer simulation of force-torque and accuracy characteristics of robot components in terms of their manufacturing properties and conditions from polymeric and metallic materials is of paramount importance for programming and manufacturing on the 3D printers. Two types of additive manufacturing technologies were used:1. FDM (Fused deposition modeling - layered growth of products from molten plastic strands;2. SLM (Selective laser melting - selective laser sintering of metal powders, which, in turn, create:• conditions for reducing the use of expensive equipment;• reducing weight and increasing strength through optimization of  the lattice structures when using a bionic design;• a capability to implement mathematical modeling of individual components of robotic and other devices in terms of appropriate characteristics;• a 3D printing capability to create unique items, which cannot be made by other known methods.The paper aim was to confirm the possibility of ensuring the strength and accuracy characteristics of cases when printing from polymeric and metallic materials on a 3D printer. The investigation emphasis is on mathematical modeling based on the cognitive programming technology using the additive technologies in their studies since it is, generally, impossible to make the obtained optimized structures on the modern CNC machines.The latter allows us to create a program code to be clear to other developers without cost, additional time for development, adaptation and implementation.Year by year Russian companies increasingly use a 3D-print system in mechanical engineering, aerospace industry, and for scientific purposes. Machines for the additive

  11. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  12. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  13. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  14. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  15. Computer navigation vs extramedullary guide for sagittal alignment of tibial components: radiographic study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Paul R T; Higgins, Gordon A; Tunggal, James A W; Sellan, Michael E; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2012-04-01

    Sagittal alignment of tibial components using computer navigation was compared with conventional methods. A radiologic study was performed using 110 total knee arthroplasties from 3 groups: computer navigation, cutting block with extramedullary guide, and manual tilt of extramedullary guide. Posterior tibial slopes were measured from radiographs and compared using statistical methods. The cutting block method was the most accurate, and computer navigation was the most precise. The manual tilt group had the greatest variance, significantly greater than computer navigation. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the percentage of knees with posterior slope within 3° of the desired slope. Meta-analysis of 10 studies found no reduction in outliers with computer navigation. Computer navigation offers greatest precision but does not reduce the number of outliers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical planning of total hip arthroplasty: accuracy of computer-assisted EndoMap software in predicting component size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, Jesse A.; Kransdorf, Mark J.; Duffy, Gavan P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the accuracy of a computer-assisted templating in the surgical planning of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty utilizing EndoMap software (Siemans AG, Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany). Endomap Software is an electronic program that uses DICOM images to analyze standard anteroposterior radiographs for determination of optimal prosthesis component size. We retrospectively reviewed the preoperative radiographs of 36 patients undergoing uncomplicated primary total hip arthroplasty, utilizing EndoMap software, Version VA20. DICOM anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed using standard manufacturer supplied electronic templates to determine acetabular and femoral component sizes. No additional clinical information was reviewed. Acetabular and femoral component sizes were assessed by an orthopedic surgeon and two radiologists. Mean and estimated component size was compared with component size as documented in operative reports. The mean estimated acetabular component size was 53 mm (range 48-60 mm), 1 mm larger than the mean implanted size of 52 mm (range 48-62 mm). Thirty-one of 36 acetabular component sizes (86%) were accurate within one size. The mean calculated femoral component size was 4 (range 2-7), 1 size smaller than the actual mean component size of 5 (range 2-9). Twenty-six of 36 femoral component sizes (72%) were accurate within one size, and accurate within two sizes in all but four cases (94%). EndoMap Software predicted femoral component size well, with 72% within one component size of that used, and 94% within two sizes. Acetabular component size was predicted slightly better with 86% within one component size and 94% within two component sizes. (orig.)

  17. Computation of binding energies including their enthalpy and entropy components for protein-ligand complexes using support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Frank, Martin; Kemp, Graham J L; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2013-10-28

    Computing binding energies of protein-ligand complexes including their enthalpy and entropy terms by means of computational methods is an appealing approach for selecting initial hits and for further optimization in early stages of drug discovery. Despite the importance, computational predictions of thermodynamic components have evaded attention and reasonable solutions. In this study, support vector machines are used for developing scoring functions to compute binding energies and their enthalpy and entropy components of protein-ligand complexes. The binding energies computed from our newly derived scoring functions have better Pearson's correlation coefficients with experimental data than previously reported scoring functions in benchmarks for protein-ligand complexes from the PDBBind database. The protein-ligand complexes with binding energies dominated by enthalpy or entropy term could be qualitatively classified by the newly derived scoring functions with high accuracy. Furthermore, it is found that the inclusion of comprehensive descriptors based on ligand properties in the scoring functions improved the accuracy of classification as well as the prediction of binding energies including their thermodynamic components. The prediction of binding energies including the enthalpy and entropy components using the support vector machine based scoring functions should be of value in the drug discovery process.

  18. Computer-assisted surgical navigation does not improve the alignment and orientation of the components in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Kim, Jun-Shik; Choi, Yoowang; Kwon, Oh-Ryong

    2009-01-01

    Whether total knee arthroplasty with use of computer-assisted surgical navigation can improve the limb and component alignment is a matter of debate. We hypothesized that total knee arthroplasty with use of computer-assisted surgical navigation is superior to conventional total knee arthroplasty with regard to the precision of implant positioning. Sequential simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasties were carried out in 160 patients (320 knees). One knee was replaced with use of a computer-assisted surgical navigation system, and the other was replaced conventionally without use of computer-assisted surgical navigation. The two methods were compared for accuracy of orientation and alignment of the components as determined by radiographs and computed tomography scans. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.4 years. The mean preoperative Knee Society score was 26 points, with an improvement to 92 points postoperatively, in the computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty group and 25 points, with an improvement to 93 points postoperatively, in the conventional total knee arthroplasty group. Preoperative and postoperative ranges of motion of the knees were similar in both groups. The operating and tourniquet times were significantly longer in the computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty group than in the conventional total knee arthroplasty group (p component positioning and the number of outliers for the various radiographic parameters (p > 0.05). Our data demonstrate that total knee arthroplasty with use of computer-assisted surgical navigation did not result in more accurate implant positioning than that achieved in conventional total knee arthroplasty, as determined by both radiographs and computed tomography scans.

  19. Uncemented computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacture femoral components in revision total hip replacement: a minimum follow-up of ten years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead-Allwood, S; Sandiford, N A; Skinner, J A; Hua, J; Muirhead, W; Kabir, C; Walker, P S

    2010-10-01

    We prospectively evaluated the long-term outcome of 158 consecutive patients who underwent revision total hip replacement using uncemented computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacture femoral components. There were 97 men and 61 women. Their mean age was 63.1 years (34.6 to 85.9). The mean follow-up was 10.8 years (10 to 12). The mean Oxford, Harris and Western Ontario and McMaster hip scores improved from 41.1, 44.2 and 52.4 pre-operatively to 18.2, 89.3 and 12.3, respectively (p component was 97% (95% confidence interval 94.5 to 99.7). These results are comparable to those of previously published reports for revision total hip replacement using either cemented or uncemented components.

  20. Enhanced THz guiding properties of curved two-wire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jingshu; Kim, Geun Ju; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-03-21

    We present experimental and simulation studies of enhanced terahertz (THz) guiding properties of curved two-wire lines for several surface conditions. When a THz-wave propagates through curved two-wire lines, a rough wire surface with dielectric coating contributes to a lower bending loss compared to a smooth or rough wire surface without coating. Dielectric coating and rough surface confine the THz field to the wire surface making the bending loss low. The guiding property at a curve depth of 30 mm of a rough wire surface with 25-μm-thick coating is improved by 34% compared to that of a smooth wire without coating. Furthermore, computer simulation technology (CST) software visually shows the bending loss as same as the experimental studies.

  1. Component alignment and functional outcome following computer assisted and jig based total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanesh G Lad

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: A significantly improved placement of the component was found in the coronal and sagittal planes of the tibial component by CAS. The placement of the components in the other planes was comparable with the values recorded in the jig-based surgery group. Functional outcome was not significantly different.

  2. A computer-assisted transfusion management system and changed transfusion practices contribute to appropriate management of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, Akimichi; Abe, Katsumi; Ohsawa, Toshiya; Miyake, Noriko; Sugita, Shio; Tojima, Ikuko

    2008-08-01

    ABO-incompatible blood transfusions attributable to inadequate identification (ID) of the patient or the blood unit are among the most serious of transfusion hazards. It has been unclear whether a computer-assisted transfusion management system connected to a bar code ID system could contribute to the appropriate management of blood components, as well as to the prevention of mistransfusions. A transfusion management system has been developed that links the hospital information system, a bar code patient-blood unit ID system, and an automated device for pretransfusion testing. The guidelines for issuing blood components from the transfusion service were also changed. The appropriateness of blood management was evaluated by monitoring the time to initiate transfusion after issuing a blood unit from the transfusion service (time after issuing [TAI]) and by calculating the number of units issued and subsequently returned, as well as the rate of date-expired red cell (RBC) components. From July 2002 to December 2006, a total of 49,974 blood components were transfused without a single mistransfusion. The monitoring of TAI and the notice to use the issued blood immediately had the effect of shortening TAI in the inpatient ward. The number of issued and subsequently returned RBC components, as well as the rate of date-expired RBC components, decreased significantly after the introduction of the system. A computer-assisted transfusion management system and changing transfusion practices appear useful in preventing mistransfusions and in contributing to the appropriate management of blood components.

  3. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  4. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  5. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  6. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  7. Segmentation of computer-classified Landsat multispectral scanner data into spatially-connected regions of elk habitat components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Segmentation of computer-classified Landsat multispectral data into spatially-connected regions of ground cover is described. Sorting and hash addressing, techniques commonly used for ordering and searching data records keyed by attributes, are the basis for the region identification and extraction. An example based on the use of spatial regions for evaluating elk habitat components is outlined.

  8. Knowledge-based geographic information systems on the Macintosh computer: a component of the GypsES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Elmes; Thomas Millette; Charles B. Yuill

    1991-01-01

    GypsES, a decision-support and expert system for the management of Gypsy Moth addresses five related research problems in a modular, computer-based project. The modules are hazard rating, monitoring, prediction, treatment decision and treatment implementation. One common component is a geographic information system designed to function intelligently. We refer to this...

  9. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  10. A hybrid finite element analysis and evolutionary computation method for the design of lightweight lattice components with optimized strut diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Chantzis, Dimitrios; Kappatos, Vasileios

    2017-01-01

    Components incorporating lattice structures have become very popular lately due to their lightweight nature and the flexibility that additive manufacturing offers with respect to their fabrication. However, design optimization of lattice components has been addressed so far either with empirical...... approaches or with the use of topology optimization methodologies. An optimization approach utilizing multipurpose optimization algorithms has not been proposed yet. This paper presents a novel user-friendly method for the design optimization of lattice components towards weight minimization, which combines...... finite element analysis and evolutionary computation. The proposed method utilizes the cell homogenization technique in order to reduce the computational cost of the finite element analysis and a genetic algorithm in order to search for the most lightweight lattice configuration. A bracket consisting...

  11. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  12. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  13. Computer-aided process planning in prismatic shape die components based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient technologies made good integration between the die components in design, process planning, and manufacturing impossible in the past few years. Nowadays, the advanced technologies based on Standard for the Exchange of Product model data are making it possible. This article discusses the three main steps for achieving the complete process planning for prismatic parts of the die components. These three steps are data extraction, feature recognition, and process planning. The proposed computer-aided process planning system works as part of an integrated system to cover the process planning of any prismatic part die component. The system is built using Visual Basic with EWDraw system for visualizing the Standard for the Exchange of Product model data file. The system works successfully and can cover any type of sheet metal die components. The case study discussed in this article is taken from a large design of progressive die.

  14. Arthroscopic Removal of a Wire Fragment from the Posterior Septum of the Knee following Tension Band Wiring of a Patellar Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yasuaki; Nakayama, Takashi; Kita, Kenichiro; Miyatake, Katsutosi; Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Fujii, Koji; Takeda, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    Tension band wiring with cerclage wiring is most widely used for treating displaced patellar fractures. Although wire breakage is not uncommon, migration of a fragment of the broken wire is rare, especially migration into the knee joint. We describe here a rare case of migration of a wire fragment into the posterior septum of the knee joint after fixation of a displaced patellar fracture with tension band wiring and cerclage wiring. Although it was difficult to determine whether the wire fragment was located within or outside the knee joint from the preoperative plain radiographs or three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT), we found it arthroscopically through the posterior transseptal portal with assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Surgeons who treat such cases should bear in mind the possibility that wire could be embedded in the posterior septum of the knee joint.

  15. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Speed up Radiative Transfer (RT) Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natraj, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Multiple scattering RT calculations time-consuming. Need a speed improvement of about 1000 (for OCO)! Solution: Make use of redundancies in spectra. Correlated-k (Lacis and Wang, Lacis and Oinas, Goody et al, Fu and Liou) Problem: Assume that spectral variation of atmospheric optical properties spatially correlated at all points along optical path. High accuracy (HI) and 2-stream (2S) calculations have high correlation. Single scattering (SS) computations highly scenario-dependent, but not time consuming. Perform SS and 2S calculations at every wavelength. Perform small number of HI computations. Need to compute correction factor B at every wavelength.

  16. Uncemented custom computer-assisted design and manufacture of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral components: survival at 10 to 17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead-Allwood, S K; Sandiford, N; Skinner, J A; Hua, J; Kabir, C; Walker, P S

    2010-08-01

    We present the 10- to 17-year results of 112 computer-assisted design computer-assisted manufacture femoral components. The total hip replacements were performed between 1992 and 1998 in 111 patients, comprising 53 men and 58 women. Their mean age was 46.2 years (24.6 to 62.2) with a mean follow-up of 13 years (10 to 17). The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 42.4 (7 to 99) to 90.3 (38 to 100), the mean Oxford Hip Score from 43.1 (12 to 59) to 18.2 (12 to 51) and the mean Western Ontario MacMasters University Osteoarthritis Index score from 57.0 (7 to 96) to 11.9 (0 to 85). There was one revision due to failure of the acetabular component but no failures of the femoral component. There were no revisions for aseptic loosening. The worst-case survival in this cohort of custom femoral components at 13.2 years follow-up was 98.2% (95% confidence interval 95 to 99). Overall survival of this series of total hip replacements was 97.3% (95% confidence interval 95 to 99). These results are comparable with the best medium- to long-term results for femoral components used in primary total hip replacement with any means of fixation.

  17. A flexible computer aid for conceptual design based on constraint propagation and component-modeling. [of aircraft in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    The Rubber Airplane program, which combines two symbolic processing techniques with a component-based database of design knowledge, is proposed as a computer aid for conceptual design. Using object-oriented programming, programs are organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, and using constraint propagation, declarative statements designate mathematical relationships among all the equation variables. It is found that the additional level of organizational structure resulting from the arrangement of the design information in terms of design components provides greater flexibility and convenience.

  18. Which physiological components are more suitable for visual ERP based brain-computer interface? A preliminary MEG/EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Luigi; Sami, Saber; Hillebrand, Arjan; Fawcett, Ian P; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita; Seri, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    We investigated which evoked response component occurring in the first 800 ms after stimulus presentation was most suitable to be used in a classical P300-based brain-computer interface speller protocol. Data was acquired from 275 Magnetoencephalographic sensors in two subjects and from 61 Electroencephalographic sensors in four. To better characterize the evoked physiological responses and minimize the effect of response overlap, a 1000 ms Inter Stimulus Interval was preferred to the short (components other than the P300 maximally represented in the occipital region, could be successfully used to improve classification accuracy and finally drive this class of BCIs.

  19. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Water-cooled grid ''wires'' for direct converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of internal convective cooling of grid ''wires'' for direct converters. Detailed computer calculations reveal that the use of small diameter water cooled tubes as grid ''wires'' is feasible for a considerable range of lengths and thermal fluxes

  1. Finite-element computer program for axisymmetric loading situations where components may have a relative interference fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element computer program which enables the analysis of distortions and stresses occurring in compounds having a relative interference is presented. The program is limited to situations in which the loading is axisymmetric. Loads arising from the interference fit(s) and external, inertial, and thermal loadings are accommodated. The components comprise several different homogeneous isotropic materials whose properties may be a function of temperature. An example illustrating the data input and program output is given.

  2. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  3. Automatic procedures for computing complete configuration geometry from individual component descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Raymond L.; Adams, Mary S.

    1994-01-01

    Procedures are derived for developing a complete airplane surface geometry starting from component descriptions. The procedures involve locating the intersection lines of adjacent components and omitting any regions for which part of one surface lies within the other. The geometry files utilize the wave-drag (Harris) format, and output files are written in Hess format. Two algorithms are used: one, if both intersecting surfaces have airfoil cross sections; the other, if one of the surfaces has circular cross sections. Some sample results in graphical form are included.

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  5. The application of "CrimeLite" to examination of computer components "in situ".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A M; Gwynne, B

    2005-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of identifying potential fingerprints and other marks in a computer system, having regard for the damage which conventional print enhancement techniques may cause. They evaluate a non-invasive method of mark location and recommend a new procedure for the handling of digital evidence sources which may contain "conventional" evidence.

  6. Computer-tailored health interventions delivered over the Web: review and analysis of key components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustria, Mia Liza A; Cortese, Juliann; Noar, Seth M; Glueckauf, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    This systematic review explores how computer-tailored, behavioral interventions implemented and delivered via the Web have been operationalized in a variety of settings. Computer-tailored, online behavioral intervention studies published from 1996 to early 2007 were selected and reviewed by two independent coders. Of 503 studies screened, 30 satisfied the selection criteria. The level of sophistication of these interventions varied from immediate risk/health assessment, tailored web content to full-blown customized health programs. The most common variables for tailoring content were health behaviors and stages of change. Message tailoring was achieved through a combination mechanisms including: feedback, personalization and adaptation. Tailored, self-guided health interventions delivered via the Web to date have involved a great diversity of features and formats. While some programs have been relatively brief and simple, others have involved complex, theory-based tailoring with iterative assessment, tools for development of self-regulatory skills, and various mechanisms for providing feedback. Our ability to fully optimize the use of computer-assisted tailoring will depend on the development of empirically based guidelines for tailoring across populations, health foci, health behaviors and situations. Further outcome research is needed to enhance our understanding of how and under what conditions computer-tailoring leads to positive health outcomes in online behavioral interventions.

  7. 76 FR 41523 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... complainant Apple Inc., f/k/a Apple Computer, Inc. of Cupertino, California (``Apple'') and respondents Nokia... accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be... February 24, 2010, based on a complaint filed by Apple. 75 FR 8399- 400. The complaint, as amended and...

  8. 75 FR 8399 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ..., under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Apple Inc., f/k/a Apple Computer, Inc. of Cupertino, California. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 based... obtained by accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this...

  9. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  10. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  11. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based

  12. Principle component analysis of exposure variation analysis during computer work at presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, A; Kawczyński, A; Chmura, J; Madeleine, P

    2012-01-01

    Eleven healthy volunteers took part in three sessions where computer work was performed for 10 min in each session. The recordings were made on two consecutive days. After the first session, the subjects underwent a series of high intensity eccentric exercises of shoulder elevation to induce muscle soreness. The second session was performed immediately after the exercises and third session 24 hours after the exercise. Surface electromyography (EMG) of descending and ascending trapezius, deltoideus anterior and serratus anterior was recorded. Exposure variation analysis (EVA) centroid and marginal distribution was computed. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on both cases. Describing more than 80% of variance, first eight components for EVA marginal distributions and first four ones for EVA centroid were picked to be investigated. The sole EVA amplitude levels played a practically significant role to describe the variation in EVA marginal distribution. However, a significant pattern of load redistribution to superficial muscles was not found. This may suggest investigating the role of deep muscles in redistribution of load during computer work in response to high level eccentric contractions.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING AS A COMPONENT OF THE UNIVERSITY IT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl P. Oleksyuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the concept of IT infrastructure of higher educational institution. The article described models of deploying of cloud technologies in IT infrastructure. The hybrid model is most recent for higher educational institution. The unified authentication is an important component of IT infrastructure. The author suggests the public (Google Apps, Office 365 and private (Cloudstack, Eucalyptus, OpenStack cloud platforms to deploying in IT infrastructure of higher educational institution. Open source platform for organizing enterprise clouds were analyzed by the author. The article describes the experience of the deployment enterprise cloud in IT infrastructure of Department of Physics and Mathematics of Ternopil V. Hnatyuk National Pedagogical University.

  14. Computer Aided Design of Microwave Front-End Components and Antennas for Ultrawideband Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalkawi, Mohammad J.

    This dissertation contributes to the development of novel designs, and implementation techniques for microwave front-end components and packaging employing both transmission line theory and classical circuit theory. For compact realization, all the presented components have been implemented using planar microstrip technology. Recently, there has been an increase in the demand for compact microwave front-ends which exhibit advanced functions. Under this trend, the development of multiband front-end components such as antennas with multiple band-notches, dual-band microwave filters, and high-Q reconfigurable filters play a pivotal role for more convenient and compact products. Therefore, the content of this dissertation is composed of three parts. The first part focuses on packaging as an essential process in RF/microwave integration that is used to mitigate unwanted radiations or crosstalk due to the connection traces. In printed circuit board (PCB) interconnects, crosstalk reduction has been achieved by adding a guard trace with/without vias or stitching capacitors that control the coupling between the traces. In this research, a new signal trace configuration to reduce crosstalk without adding additional components or guard traces is introduced. The second part of this dissertation considers the inherent challenges in the design of multiple-band notched ultrawideband antennas that include the integration of multilayer antennas with RF front-ends and the realization of compact size antennas. In this work, a compact UWB antenna with quad band-notched frequency characteristics was designed, fabricated, and tested demonstrating the desired performance. The third part discusses the design of single- and dual-band dual-mode filters exhibiting both symmetric and asymmetric transfer characteristics. In dual-mode filters, the numbers of resonators that determine the order of a filter are reduced by half while maintaining the performance of the actual filter order. Here, in

  15. Response Surface Modeling of Combined-Cycle Propulsion Components using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, C. J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Three examples of response surface modeling with CFD are presented for combined cycle propulsion components. The examples include a mixed-compression-inlet during hypersonic flight, a hydrogen-fueled scramjet combustor during hypersonic flight, and a ducted-rocket nozzle during all-rocket flight. Three different experimental strategies were examined, including full factorial, fractionated central-composite, and D-optimal with embedded Plackett-Burman designs. The response variables have been confined to integral data extracted from multidimensional CFD results. Careful attention to uncertainty assessment and modeling bias has been addressed. The importance of automating experimental setup and effectively communicating statistical results are emphasized.

  16. Genetic algorithms in computer aided inductor design

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Fivaz; Willem A. Cronjé

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this investigation is to determine the advantages of using genetic algorithms in computer-aided design as applied to inductors.  These advantages are exploited in design problems with a number of specifications and constraints, as encountered in power electronics during practical inductor design. The design tool should be able to select components, such as cores and wires, from databases of available components, and evaluate these choices based on the components’ characteristic d...

  17. Computational Design of Multi-component Bio-Inspired Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Koufos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation is motivated by the need to design bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties for use in a range of applications, such as targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging. We draw inspiration from biological cell membranes and focus on their principal constituents. In this paper, we present our results on the role of molecular architecture on the interfacial, structural and dynamical properties of bio-inspired membranes. We focus on four lipid architectures with variations in the head group shape and the hydrocarbon tail length. Each lipid species is composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. In addition, we study a model of the Cholesterol molecule to understand the interfacial properties of a bilayer membrane composed of rigid, single-tail molecular species. We demonstrate the properties of the bilayer membranes to be determined by the molecular architecture and rigidity of the constituent species. Finally, we demonstrate the formation of a stable mixed bilayer membrane composed of Cholesterol and one of the phospholipid species. Our approach can be adopted to design multi-component bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties. We use a Molecular Dynamics-based mesoscopic simulation technique called Dissipative Particle Dynamics that resolves the molecular details of the components through soft-sphere coarse-grained models and reproduces the hydrodynamic behavior of the system over extended time scales.

  18. Interim Progress Report on the Application of an Independent Components Analysis-based Spectral Unmixing Algorithm to Beowulf Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshewsky, George

    2003-01-01

    This report describes work done to implement an independent-components-analysis (ICA) -based blind unmixing algorithm on the Eastern Region Geography (ERG) Beowulf computer cluster. It gives a brief description of blind spectral unmixing using ICA-based techniques and a preliminary example of unmixing results for Landsat-7 Thematic Mapper multispectral imagery using a recently reported1,2,3 unmixing algorithm. Also included are computer performance data. The final phase of this work, the actual implementation of the unmixing algorithm on the Beowulf cluster, was not completed this fiscal year and is addressed elsewhere. It is noted that study of this algorithm and its application to land-cover mapping will continue under another research project in the Land Remote Sensing theme into fiscal year 2004.

  19. Rotational and Translational Components of Motion Parallax: Observers' Sensitivity and Implications for Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Montegut, Michael J.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1995-01-01

    The motion of objects during motion parallax can be decomposed into 2 observer-relative components: translation and rotation. The depth ratio of objects in the visual field is specified by the inverse ratio of their angular displacement (from translation) or equivalently by the inverse ratio of their rotations. Despite the equal mathematical status of these 2 information sources, it was predicted that observers would be far more sensitive to the translational than rotational component. Such a differential sensitivity is implicitly assumed by the computer graphics technique billboarding, in which 3-dimensional (3-D) objects are drawn as planar forms (i.e., billboards) maintained normal to the line of sight. In 3 experiments, observers were found to be consistently less sensitive to rotational anomalies. The implications of these findings for kinetic depth effect displays and billboarding techniques are discussed.

  20. Identifying Bottom-Up and Top-Down Components of Attentional Weight by Experimental Analysis and Computational Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maria; Dyrholm, Mads; Bundesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    . Measured by use of Bundesen’s (1990) computational theory of visual attention, the attentional weight of a singleton object was nearly proportional to the weight of an otherwise similar nonsingleton object, with a factor of proportionality that increased with the strength of the feature contrast...... of the singleton. This result is explained by generalizing the weight equation of Bundesen’s (1990) theory of visual attention such that the attentional weight of an object becomes a product of a bottom-up (feature contrast) and a top-down (feature relevance) component....

  1. Development of a personal computer based facility-level SSAC component and inspector support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, A.

    1989-08-01

    Research Contract No. 4658/RB was conducted between the IAEA and the Bulgarian Committee on Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes. The contract required the Committee to develop and program a personal computer based software package to be used as a facility-level computerized State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) at an off-load power reactor. The software delivered, called the National Safeguards System (NSS) keeps track of all fuel assembly activity at a power reactor and generates all ledgers, MBA material balances and any required reports to national or international authorities. The NSS is designed to operate on a PC/AT or compatible equipment with a hard disk of 20 MB, color graphics monitor or adaptor and at least one floppy disk drive, 360 Kb. The programs are written in Basic (compiler 2.0). They are executed under MS DOS 3.1 or later

  2. Ceramic component reliability with the restructured NASA/CARES computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Starlinger, Alois; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures (CARES) integrated design program on statistical fast fracture reliability and monolithic ceramic components is enhanced to include the use of a neutral data base, two-dimensional modeling, and variable problem size. The data base allows for the efficient transfer of element stresses, temperatures, and volumes/areas from the finite element output to the reliability analysis program. Elements are divided to insure a direct correspondence between the subelements and the Gaussian integration points. Two-dimensional modeling is accomplished by assessing the volume flaw reliability with shell elements. To demonstrate the improvements in the algorithm, example problems are selected from a round-robin conducted by WELFEP (WEakest Link failure probability prediction by Finite Element Postprocessors).

  3. Smile - a computer program for evaluating the lifetime of fusion reactor structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, R.; Ponti, C.; Heusden, R. van; Biggio, M.; Perfumo, A.

    1984-01-01

    The choice of materials for one of the most critical structural components of fusion reactors, such as the first wall, is the result of a trade-off between different and often conflicting requirements. The problem of checking whether or not a material can withstand the design operating conditions requires taking into account the complete set of relevant properties. The programme SMILE, based on a simple one-dimensional model, was developed as part of a broader experimental activity focused on the first wall design problem of the NET/INTOR reactor. The purpose of the programme is: (I) to assess the behavior of the candidate structural materials; (II) to identify the limiting failure mechanism and the critical value of the property involved; and (III) to provide a reference procedure for evaluating the performance of different materials and the effects of the different operating conditions. (orig.)

  4. SMILE - a computer program for evaluating the lifetime of fusion reactor structural components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matera, R.; Ponti, C.; Heusden, R. van; Biggio, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Perfumo, A. (Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati S.p.A. (NIRA), Genoa)

    1984-04-01

    The choice of materials for one of the most critical structural components of fusion reactors, such as the first wall, is the result of a trade-off between different and often conflicting requirements. The problem of checking whether or not a material can withstand the design operating conditions requires taking into account the complete set of relevant properties. The programme SMILE, based on a simple one-dimensional model, was developed as part of a broader experimental activity focused on the first wall design problem of the NET/INTOR reactor. The purpose of the programme is: (I) to assess the behavior of the candidate structural materials; (II) to identify the limiting failure mechanism and the critical value of the property involved; and (III) to provide a reference procedure for evaluating the performance of different materials and the effects of the different operating conditions.

  5. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  6. The Symbiosis Interactome: a computational approach reveals novel components, functional interactions and modules in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Llorente Ignacio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizobium-Legume symbiosis is an attractive biological process that has been studied for decades because of its importance in agriculture. However, this system has undergone extensive study and although many of the major factors underpinning the process have been discovered using traditional methods, much remains to be discovered. Results Here we present an analysis of the 'Symbiosis Interactome' using novel computational methods in order to address the complex dynamic interactions between proteins involved in the symbiosis of the model bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti with its plant hosts. Our study constitutes the first large-scale analysis attempting to reconstruct this complex biological process, and to identify novel proteins involved in establishing symbiosis. We identified 263 novel proteins potentially associated with the Symbiosis Interactome. The topology of the Symbiosis Interactome was used to guide experimental techniques attempting to validate novel proteins involved in different stages of symbiosis. The contribution of a set of novel proteins was tested analyzing the symbiotic properties of several S. meliloti mutants. We found mutants with altered symbiotic phenotypes suggesting novel proteins that provide key complementary roles for symbiosis. Conclusion Our 'systems-based model' represents a novel framework for studying host-microbe interactions, provides a theoretical basis for further experimental validations, and can also be applied to the study of other complex processes such as diseases.

  7. A study on the optimal replacement periods of digital control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Even a trip of a single nuclear power plant (NPP) causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this paper we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models of optimal replacement periods to the digital control computer's components of Wolsung NPP Unit 1 and calculated the optimal replacement periods analytically. We compared the periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit 1. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained and those used in the field show a little difference. (Author)

  8. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  9. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  10. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  11. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  12. [Can we do therapy without a therapist? Active components of computer-based CBT for depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, G; Dimitrova, S; Burté, T

    2017-12-01

    Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations. However, a lot of C-CBT is provided without any therapeutic support. Several reports showed that C-CBTs, both guided or unguided by a therapist, may be reliable and effective for patients with depression, and their use was recommended as part of the first step of the clinical care. The aim of the present qualitative review is to describe the operational format and functioning of five of the most cited unguided C-CBT programs for depression, to analyze their characteristics according to the CBT's principles, and to discuss the results of the randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted to evaluate its effectiveness, adherence and user's experience. We analyzed five C-CBTs: Beating The Blues (BTB), MoodGYM, Sadness, Deprexis and Overcoming Depression on the Internet (ODIN) and 22 randomized controlled studies according to 5 dimensions: General characteristics; Methodology, structure and organization; Specific modules, themes and techniques: Clinical indications, recruitment mode, type of users with depression, type and mode of therapist's support, overall therapeutic effects, adherence and user's experience. The C-CBT have a secured free or pay-to-use access in different languages (English, German, Dutch, and Chinese) but not in French. The programs may be accessed at a medical center or at home via a CD-ROM or via an Internet connection. Some C-CBTs are very close to textual self

  13. Computational 3D imaging to quantify structural components and assembly of protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Pouyan; Özdemir, Bugra; Reski, Ralf; Röhrle, Oliver; Birkhold, Annette I

    2018-03-15

    Traditionally, protein structures have been described by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. However, the relatively novel method of 3D confocal microscopy of fluorescent-protein-tagged networks in living cells allows resolving the detailed spatial organization of these networks. This provides new possibilities to predict network functionality, as structure and function seem to be linked at various scales. Here, we propose a quantitative approach using 3D confocal microscopy image data to describe protein networks based on their nano-structural characteristics. This analysis is constructed in four steps: (i) Segmentation of the microscopic raw data into a volume model and extraction of a spatial graph representing the protein network. (ii) Quantifying protein network gross morphology using the volume model. (iii) Quantifying protein network components using the spatial graph. (iv) Linking these two scales to obtain insights into network assembly. Here, we quantitatively describe the filamentous temperature sensitive Z protein network of the moss Physcomitrella patens and elucidate relations between network size and assembly details. Future applications will link network structure and functionality by tracking dynamic structural changes over time and comparing different states or types of networks, possibly allowing more precise identification of (mal) functions or the design of protein-engineered biomaterials for applications in regenerative medicine. Protein networks are highly complex and dynamic structures that play various roles in biological environments. Analyzing the detailed spatial structure of these networks may lead to new insight into biological functions and malfunctions. Here, we propose a tool set that extracts structural information at two scales of the protein network and allows therefore to address questions such as "how is the network built?" or "how networks grow?". Copyright © 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by

  14. Lightning effects on the NASA F-8 digital-fly-by-wire airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Fisher, F. A.; Walko, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of lightning on a Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW)aircraft control system were investigated. The aircraft was a NASA operated F-8 fitted with a modified Apollo guidance computer. Current pulses similar in waveshape to natural lightning, but lower in amplitude, were injected into the aircraft. Measurements were made of the voltages induced on the DFBW circuits, the total current induced on the bundles of wires, the magnetic field intensity inside the aircraft, and the current density on the skin of the aircraft. Voltage measurements were made in both the line-to-ground and line-to-line modes. Voltages measured at the non-destructive test level were then scaled upward to determine how much would be produced by actual lightning. A 200,000 ampere severe lightning flash would produce between 40 and 2000 volts in DFBW circuits. Some system components are expected to be vulnerable to these voltages.

  15. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight......-binding Hamiltonian matrix within a single-band effective-mass approximation. We use this transport model to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a number of δ-doped wires, achieving good agreement with experiment. To motivate our transport model we have performed density-functional calculations...... for a variety of δ-doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ-doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm....

  16. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  17. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  18. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  19. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  20. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  2. Investigation of Shielding Properties of Yarns, Twisted with Metal Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra VARNAITĖ-ŽURAVLIOVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development level of the modern techniques and information technologies creates diverse nature electromagnetic fields and electric field accumulations in the human environment. Electrically conductive textiles that protect against electromagnetic waves and electric charge accumulations can be usable as protective covers for work in computer equipment rooms, measuring stands, air and gas filters and so on. One of the methods used in increase of electrical conductivity in textiles is the development of their specific structures (including the development of threads with the metal component. In this paper, unlike the currently used in the world conductive material production method, where different metal fibres are used as an additives to the main fibre composition in order to create a variety of fibres and yarns, a spun yarn with metal wire was prototyped as samples for this research and the parameters of protective properties of these samples were investigated (such as surface resistivity, vertical resistance, etc.. The protective and shielding properties of woven network with prototyped twisted electro conductive thread with a wire (metal wire diameter of 15 microns were investigated. During the investigation the influence of the following factors, such as conductive fibre composition, electrically conductive thread distribution frequency of the longitudinal and transverse direction, on the protective shielding properties of conductive network were analyzed. The research enabled the assessment of influence of electrically conductive fibre yarn composition and its distribution in the woven mesh on protective shielding properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.2492

  3. Parsimonious classification of binary lacunarity data computed from food surface images using kernel principal component analysis and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Abdullah; Valous, Nektarios A; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Lacunarity is about quantifying the degree of spatial heterogeneity in the visual texture of imagery through the identification of the relationships between patterns and their spatial configurations in a two-dimensional setting. The computed lacunarity data can designate a mathematical index of spatial heterogeneity, therefore the corresponding feature vectors should possess the necessary inter-class statistical properties that would enable them to be used for pattern recognition purposes. The objectives of this study is to construct a supervised parsimonious classification model of binary lacunarity data-computed by Valous et al. (2009)-from pork ham slice surface images, with the aid of kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), using a portion of informative salient features. At first, the dimension of the initial space (510 features) was reduced by 90% in order to avoid any noise effects in the subsequent classification. Then, using KPCA, the first nineteen kernel principal components (99.04% of total variance) were extracted from the reduced feature space, and were used as input in the ANN. An adaptive feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) classifier was employed to obtain a suitable mapping from the input dataset. The correct classification percentages for the training, test and validation sets were 86.7%, 86.7%, and 85.0%, respectively. The results confirm that the classification performance was satisfactory. The binary lacunarity spatial metric captured relevant information that provided a good level of differentiation among pork ham slice images. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Torsion-induced magnetoimpedance in nanocrystalline Fe-based wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.D.; Olivera, J.; Alvarez, P.; Sanchez, T.; Perez, M.J.; Sanchez, M.L.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic field influence on the real and imaginary parts of axial-diagonal (ζ zz ) and off-diagonal (ζ φz ) components of the surface magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor has been studied in amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 73.5 Si 13.5 B 9 Cu 1 Nb 3 wires. Twisted and untwisted wires were annealed at a temperature near to that of primary crystallization. The MI response has been measured at 1MHz and 5mA rms drive current in all the samples. Even though the higher values for both components of the MI tensor are achieved for the untwisted annealed wire, the most interesting features are observed in the torsion annealed wire

  5. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  6. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  7. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  8. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  9. The effect of clamping a tensioned wire: implications for the Ilizarov external fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M A; Mathias, K J; Maffulli, N; Hukins, D W L

    2003-01-01

    This study demonstrates that clamping a tensioned wire can cause a reduction in wire tension. Tension (about 1275 N) was applied to a wire that was subsequently clamped, using cannulated bolts, to the steel half-ring of an Ilizarov external fixator. The tension in the wire was monitored before, during and after clamping. The apparatus was disassembled and the deformations in the wire caused by the clamps were measured. This experiment was repeated 15 times. When the wire was clamped to the frame, the wire tension was reduced by 22 +/- 7 per cent (mean +/- standard deviation, SD). The drop in wire tension was linearly correlated (r = 0.96; p toothpaste from a tube) and so reduce its tension during fixator assembly. To assess the magnitude of this effect in the clinical situation, the FE model analysis was repeated to replicate clamping a 1.8-mm-diameter wire to a 180-mm-diameter steel Ilizarov ring component. The analysis showed that for these conditions the tension reduced by 8-29 per cent. The results of this study highlight a general engineering problem: how can a tensioned wire be secured to a structure without an appreciable loss of tension? If the performance of the structure depends on the wire tension, this performance will change when the wire is secured.

  10. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  11. Application of kernel principal component analysis and computational machine learning to exploration of metabolites strongly associated with diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Yuka; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2018-02-21

    Computer-based technological innovation provides advancements in sophisticated and diverse analytical instruments, enabling massive amounts of data collection with relative ease. This is accompanied by a fast-growing demand for technological progress in data mining methods for analysis of big data derived from chemical and biological systems. From this perspective, use of a general "linear" multivariate analysis alone limits interpretations due to "non-linear" variations in metabolic data from living organisms. Here we describe a kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)-incorporated analytical approach for extracting useful information from metabolic profiling data. To overcome the limitation of important variable (metabolite) determinations, we incorporated a random forest conditional variable importance measure into our KPCA-based analytical approach to demonstrate the relative importance of metabolites. Using a market basket analysis, hippurate, the most important variable detected in the importance measure, was associated with high levels of some vitamins and minerals present in foods eaten the previous day, suggesting a relationship between increased hippurate and intake of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the KPCA-incorporated analytical approach described herein enabled us to capture input-output responses, and should be useful not only for metabolic profiling but also for profiling in other areas of biological and environmental systems.

  12. Independent Component Analysis-Support Vector Machine-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's with Visual Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedher, Laila; Illán, Ignacio A; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier; Brahim, Abdelbasset; Meyer-Baese, Anke

    2017-05-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but limitations on interpretability and performance exist. In this work, a fully automatic CAD system based on supervised learning methods is proposed to be applied on segmented brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) participants for automatic classification. The proposed CAD system possesses two relevant characteristics: optimal performance and visual support for decision making. The CAD is built in two stages: a first feature extraction based on independent component analysis (ICA) on class mean images and, secondly, a support vector machine (SVM) training and classification. The obtained features for classification offer a full graphical representation of the images, giving an understandable logic in the CAD output, that can increase confidence in the CAD support. The proposed method yields classification results up to 89% of accuracy (with 92% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for normal controls (NC) and AD patients, 79% of accuracy (with 82% of sensitivity and 76% of specificity) for NC and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 85% of accuracy (with 85% of sensitivity and 86% of specificity) for MCI and AD patients.

  13. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  14. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  15. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  16. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  17. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  18. Development of Lightning-Resistant Overhead Ground Wire for Large-size Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Sakae; Nagaraki, Yoshimi; Takami, Jun; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Saito, Toshiyuki; Nagano, Koji; Goda, Yutaka

    The overhead ground wire of AC 150mm2 is applied for the large-size transmission lines. According to inspections of transmission lines, melted component wires of AC 150mm2 have been found in some parts of 500kV transmission lines and it is obvious that the damages have been caused by lightning. Hence, the authors have developed lightning-resistant overhead ground wires as well as being evaluated lightning-resistant performance of the conventional AC 150mm2. In the paper, firstly, it is reported on the lightning performance of the conventional AC 150mm2 resulting from a DC arc test which is considered the polarity of currents and injected current waveforms for summer and winter lightning. As a result, the least amount of electric charges which can melt the components of the conventional wire was 180C. Then, the paper outlines the improvement of lightning performance of the overhead ground wire. Some kinds of developed ground wires as a trial piece have been proposed and tested, and here presented the characteristics of two typical developed wires among them. One is coated with conductive ceramic on the outer components and the another is enlarged a diameter of outer components. Both types of the wires show the excellent lightning performance from the DC arc test, comparing with the conventional ground wire of AC 150mm2.

  19. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.

  20. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  1. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  2. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  3. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. REVIEW OF THE GOVERNING EQUATIONS, COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHMS, AND OTHER COMPONENTS OF THE MODELS-3 COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODELING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article describes the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components entering into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This system has been designed to approach air quality as a whole by including state-of-the-science capabiliti...

  5. Fabrication of optical fiber micro(and nano)-optical and photonic devices and components, using computer controlled spark thermo-pulling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, H.; Mosleh, A.; Pashmkar, M.; Khaksar Kalati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of optical fiber Micro (and Nano)-Optical component and devices, as well as, those applicable for photonic purposes are described. It is to demonstrate the practical capabilities and characterization of the previously reported Computer controlled spark thermo-pulling fabrication system.

  6. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  7. Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew; Przybytniak, Grażyna; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The computer simulations based on Monte Carlo (MC) method and the ModeCEB software were carried out in connection with electron beam (EB) radiation set-up for crosslinking of electric wire and cable insulation. The theoretical predictions for absorbed dose distribution in irradiated electric insulation induced by scanned EB were compared to the experimental results of irradiation that was carried out in the experimental set-up based on ILU 6 electron accelerator with electron energy 0.5–2.0 MeV. The computer simulation of the dose distributions in two-sided irradiation system by a scanned electron beam in multilayer circular objects was performed for various process parameters, namely electric wire and cable geometry (thickness of insulation layers and copper wire diameter), type of polymer insulation, electron energy, energy spread and geometry of electron beam, electric wire and cable layout in irradiation zone. The geometry of electron beam distribution in the irradiation zone was measured using CTA and PVC foil dosimeters for available electron energy range. The temperature rise of the irradiated electric wire and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated for different experimental conditions to optimize technological process parameters. The results of computer simulation are consistent with the experimental data of dose distribution evaluated by gel-fraction measurements. Such conformity indicates that ModeCEB computer simulation is reliable and sufficient for optimization absorbed dose distribution in the multi-layer circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beams. - Highlights: ► We model wire and cables irradiation process by Monte Carlo simulations. ► We optimize irradiation configuration for various process parameters. ► Temperature rise and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated. ► Calculation (dose) and experimental (gel-fraction) results were compared. ► Computer simulation was found reliable and sufficient for process optimization.

  8. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  9. Hot Wire Measurements in a Axisymmetric Shear Layer with Swirl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, D.; Pollard, A.

    1996-11-01

    It is well known that the introduction of swirl in an axisymmetric jet can influence the development of and mixing in the near field of the jet. Recent efforts to compute this flow have demonstrated that the development of the near field is dependent on parameters at the jet outlet other than distribution of the swirl component, such as the distribution the mean radial velocity (Xai, J.L., Smith, B.L., Benim, A. C., Schmidli, J., and Yadigaroglu, G. (1996) Influence of Boundary Conditions on Swirling Flow in Combustors, Proc. ASME Fluid. Eng. Div. Summer Meeting), San Diego, Ca., July 7-11.. An experimental rig has been designed to produce co-axial round and annular swirling jets with uniform outlet conditions in each flow. The flow rate and swirl component from each of these jets can be controlled independently and the rig can be configured to produce both co- and counter-swirling flows. Thus, the rig can be used to carry out an extensive investigation of the effect of swirl on the development of axisymmetric flows. The key design features of the rig and the first sets of hot-wire measurements in the shear layer will be reported here.

  10. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  11. Report on UQ Assessmentsto support SESAME wire-wrappedbundle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Emilian L. [ORNL; Pointer, William David [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    This work assesses the influence of assumptions made when generating a mesh of a wire-wrappedgeometry. The contact region between a wire and its adjacent pin is commonly modeled by eitherembedding the wire to the adjacent pin or trimming the wire so that a gap separates the wire from itsadjacent pin. These models are referred to as close-gap and open-gap approaches herein and are applied totwo geometries. The first geometry consists of a single pin wire-wrapped subchannel. A polyhedral meshand a hexahedral mesh are generated. The second and third geometry are a 7-pin and a 19-pinwire-wrapped bundles meshed with polyhedral elements only. Pressure drops are obtained with theSTAR-CCM+computational fluid dynamic package. Sensitivity analyses of the mesh density, the meshtype, and the turbulent models are performed. Numerical results show that the best match to theexperimental data and to the Cheng-Todreas correlation is obtained with the combination of a hexahedralmesh, the shear stress transport (SST) turbulent model, and the open-gap approach. In the case of the 7-pingeometry, the best results are obtained with the open-gap approach and the SST turbulent model. The19-pin geometry yields contradictory results to the 7-pin geometry results, and thus will require furtherinvestigations.

  12. Heat resistant wire and cable and heat shrinkable tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiji Ueno

    1994-01-01

    Radiation processes have been used in industrial fields (e.g. wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubes) for about 30 years. In Japan, 60 electron beam accelerators were used in R and D, 54 in wire and cable, 24 in tire rubber, 16 in paint curing, 14 in PE foam and 9 accelerators were used in heat shrinkable tubes in 1993. Many properties (e.g. solder resistance, thermal deformation, and solven resistance) of wire and cable are improved by using radiation processes, and many kinds of radiation crosslinked wire and cable are used in the consumer market (TV sets, VTR's, audio disc players, etc.), automobiles (automobile wire harnesses, fusible link wires, sensor cables etc.), and the industrial market (computer cables, cables for keyboards, coaxial cables, etc.). Another important industrial application of Eβ radiation process is heat shrinkable tubes. Heat shinkable tubes, heated by a hot gun, shrink 1/2 ∼ 1/3 of their inner diameters. Heat shrinkable tubes are used for covers of distributing line terminals, joint covers of telecommunication lines, protection of fuel pipe lines and so on. In this seminar, actual applications and characteristic properties of radiation crosslinked materials are presented

  13. Comparison and analysis of BNCT radiation dose between gold wire and JCDS measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Mizobuchi, Y.; Nagahiro, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kumada, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    We compared and evaluated boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) radiation dose between gold wire measurement and JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS). Gold wire analysis demonstrates the actual BNCT dose though it dose not reflect the real the maximum and minimum dose in tumor tissue. We can conclude that JCDS is precise and high-reliable dose planning system for BNCT. (author)

  14. Research on wire rope deformation distribution of WR-CVT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wu; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Chuanwei; Lu, Zhengxiong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-07-01

    A wire rope continuously variable transmissions (WR-CVT) has been introduced in the paper, in view of its less research, this paper mainly studied the deformation distribution of 6×7+IWS bending wire rope. The results shown that in the same section, half of the side strands are in a stretched state and half are in a compressed state. When the transmission ratio i=2.35, the maximum deformation and the minimum deformation are decrease when section U1 to U2, U3 transition. Wire deformation distribution when the transmission ratio i=0.42 is similar to that of i=0.2.35. Wire deformation amount and the deformation difference decrease as the transmission ratio decreases, this shows that the increase in the bending radius of the wire will make the wire deformation more uniform, and the reduction of the deformation difference will also reduce the wear. This study provides a basis for the study of fatigue and wears failure of WR-CVT components.

  15. Measurement of 3-Axis Magnetic Fields Induced by Current Wires Using a Smartphone in Magnetostatics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an inexpensive smartphone's magnetic sensor to measure magnetic field components (B[subscript x], B[subscript y] and B[subscript z]) induced by current wires in magnetostatic experiments. The variable parameters used to measure the magnetic sensor's capabilities were: the geometrical shapes of the wire, current…

  16. Intra-abdominal migration of a k-wire during revision total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin T. Hug, MD; Navin D. Fernando, MD, FRCS(C)

    2017-01-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty in the setting of severe acetabular bone loss is a challenging problem that is becoming more common. Kirschner wires are often used during acetabular revision for temporary fixation of trial components. We describe an intraoperative migration of a Kirschner wire through the acetabulum into the peritoneal cavity, requiring acute laparoscopic removal.

  17. A finite element model for independent wire rope core with double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to model and analyse independent wire rope core accurately (IWRC). In this paper, ... Although considerable research studies have been carried out about the analytical solutions of IWRCs by Costello & Sinha ... straight strand as being the main component for modelling IWRC and more complex wire ropes by using IWRC.

  18. Telepresence: A "Real" Component in a Model to Make Human-Computer Interface Factors Meaningful in the Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selverian, Melissa E. Markaridian; Lombard, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    A thorough review of the research relating to Human-Computer Interface (HCI) form and content factors in the education, communication and computer science disciplines reveals strong associations of meaningful perceptual "illusions" with enhanced learning and satisfaction in the evolving classroom. Specifically, associations emerge…

  19. Process water reduction in a wire milling operation. 1989 summer intern report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberg, J.

    1989-12-31

    Johnson Filtration Systems is a company located in New Brighton, Minnesota which employs 256 people. The focus of the project was to reduce the water usage of the wire milling operation. Water in the milling process is used to clean the wire and cool the mill components. Total annual water usage for this operation is six million gallons. The milling process changes the cross sectional shape of the wire by using flattening hammers and rollers. A synthetic coolant is used to enhance this process and remove heat. The coolant is removed from the wire as it is pulled through a squeegee, washed it with water and dried with an air knife.

  20. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  1. Optimization of electron beam crosslinking of wire and cable insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Przybytniak, G.; Nowicki, A.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The computer simulations based on Monte Carlo method and the ModeCEB software program were carried out in connection with EB radiation set-up for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable insulation, located at the Center for Radiation Research and Technology of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The theoretical predictions for absorbed dose distribution in irradiated electrical wire and cable insulation caused by scanned EB were compared to the experimental results of irradiation which were carried out in the experimental set-up based on ILU 6 electron accelerator, which is characterized by the following parameters: Electron energy 0.5-2.0 MeV; Average beam current 40-10 mA, pulse duration 400 μs; Width of scanning up to 80 cm; Scan frequency up to 50 Hz. The computer simulation of the dose distributions in two-sided irradiation system by a scanned electron beam in multilayer circular objects was performed for different process parameters; electrical wire and cable geometry (thickness of insulation layers and cupper wire diameter), type of polymer isolation, electron energy, energy spread, geometry of electron beam and electrical wire and cable distribution at irradiation zone. The geometry of electron beam distribution in irradiation zone was measured using TVA and PVC foil dosimeters for electron energy range available in ILU 6 accelerator. The temperature rise of irradiated electrical wire and irradiation homogeneity were evaluated for different experimental conditions to optimize process parameters. The obtained results of computer simulation were supported by experimental data of dose distribution based on gel-fraction measurements. Such agreement indicates that computer simulation ModeCEB is correct and sufficient for modelling of absorbed dose distribution in multi-layer circular objects irradiated with scanned electron beams. Acknowledgement: The R and D activities are supported by the European

  2. Developments in the Generation and Interpretation of Wire Codes (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Three new developments in the generation and interpretation of wire codes are discussed. First, a method was developed to computer generate wire codes using data gathered from a utility database of the local distribution system and from tax assessor records. This method was used to wire code more than 250,000 residences in the greater Denver metropolitan area. There was an approximate 75% agreement with field wire coding. Other research in Denver suggests that wire codes predict some characteristics of a residence and its neighbourhood, including age, assessed value, street layout and traffic density. A third new development is the case-specular method to study the association between wire codes and childhood cancers. Recent results from applying the method to the Savitz et al and London et al studies suggest that the associations between childhood cancer and VHCC residences were strongest for residences with a backyard rather than street service drop, and for VHCC residences with LCC speculars. (author)

  3. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  4. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  5. Strength and Reliability of Wood for the Components of Low-cost Wind Turbines: Computational and Experimental Analysis and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sharma, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the latest results of the comprehensive program of experimental and computational analysis of strength and reliability of wooden parts of low cost wind turbines. The possibilities of prediction of strength and reliability of different types of wood are studied in the series...... of experiments and computational investigations. Low cost testing machines have been designed, and employed for the systematic analysis of different sorts of Nepali wood, to be used for the wind turbine construction. At the same time, computational micromechanical models of deformation and strength of wood...

  6. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  7. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inelastic scattering and local heating in atomic gold wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads; Lorente, N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for including inelastic scattering in a first-principles density-functional computational scheme for molecular electronics. As an application, we study two geometries of four-atom gold wires corresponding to two different values of strain and present results for nonlinear...

  9. Neuroscientists Find Learning Is Not "Hard-Wired"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience exploded into the education conversation more than 20 years ago, in step with the evolution of personal computers and the rise of the Internet, and policymakers hoped medical discoveries could likewise help doctors and teachers understand the "hard wiring" of the brain. That conception of how the brain works, exacerbated by the…

  10. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  11. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  12. The Landlab OverlandFlow component: a Python library for computing shallow-water flow across watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jordan M.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Hobley, Daniel E. J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Hutton, Eric W. H.; Nudurupati, Sai S.; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic models and modeling components are used in a wide range of applications. Rainfall-runoff models are used to investigate the evolution of hydrologic variables, such as soil moisture and surface water discharge, throughout one or more rainfall events. Longer-term landscape evolution models also include aspects of hydrology, albeit in a highly simplified manner, in order to approximate how flowing water shapes landscapes. Here we illustrate how the OverlandFlow hydrologic component co...

  13. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  14. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  15. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  16. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  17. Use of EPICS and Python technology for the development of a computational toolkit for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh; Swamy, Rajamannar; Khirwadkar, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated approach to software development for computational processing and experimental control. • Use of open source, cross platform, robust and advanced tools for computational code development. • Prediction of optimized process parameters for critical heat flux model. • Virtual experimentation for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components. - Abstract: The high heat flux testing and characterization of the divertor and first wall components are a challenging engineering problem of a tokamak. These components are subject to steady state and transient heat load of high magnitude. Therefore, the accurate prediction and control of the cooling parameters is crucial to prevent burnout. The prediction of the cooling parameters is based on the numerical solution of the critical heat flux (CHF) model. In a test facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components (PFC), the integration of computations and experimental control is an essential requirement. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) provides powerful tools for steering controls, data simulation, hardware interfacing and wider usability. Python provides an open source alternative for numerical computations and scripting. We have integrated these two open source technologies to develop a graphical software for a typical high heat flux experiment. The implementation uses EPICS based tools namely IOC (I/O controller) server, control system studio (CSS) and Python based tools namely Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib and NOSE. EPICS and Python are integrated using PyEpics library. This toolkit is currently under operation at high heat flux test facility at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) and is also useful for the experimental labs working in the similar research areas. The paper reports the software architectural design, implementation tools and rationale for their selection, test and validation.

  18. Use of EPICS and Python technology for the development of a computational toolkit for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh, E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Swamy, Rajamannar, E-mail: rajamannar@ipr.res.in; Khirwadkar, Samir, E-mail: sameer@ipr.res.in

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach to software development for computational processing and experimental control. • Use of open source, cross platform, robust and advanced tools for computational code development. • Prediction of optimized process parameters for critical heat flux model. • Virtual experimentation for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components. - Abstract: The high heat flux testing and characterization of the divertor and first wall components are a challenging engineering problem of a tokamak. These components are subject to steady state and transient heat load of high magnitude. Therefore, the accurate prediction and control of the cooling parameters is crucial to prevent burnout. The prediction of the cooling parameters is based on the numerical solution of the critical heat flux (CHF) model. In a test facility for high heat flux testing of plasma facing components (PFC), the integration of computations and experimental control is an essential requirement. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) provides powerful tools for steering controls, data simulation, hardware interfacing and wider usability. Python provides an open source alternative for numerical computations and scripting. We have integrated these two open source technologies to develop a graphical software for a typical high heat flux experiment. The implementation uses EPICS based tools namely IOC (I/O controller) server, control system studio (CSS) and Python based tools namely Numpy, Scipy, Matplotlib and NOSE. EPICS and Python are integrated using PyEpics library. This toolkit is currently under operation at high heat flux test facility at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) and is also useful for the experimental labs working in the similar research areas. The paper reports the software architectural design, implementation tools and rationale for their selection, test and validation.

  19. Genetic algorithms in computer aided inductor design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Fivaz

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this investigation is to determine the advantages of using genetic algorithms in computer-aided design as applied to inductors.  These advantages are exploited in design problems with a number of specifications and constraints, as encountered in power electronics during practical inductor design. The design tool should be able to select components, such as cores and wires, from databases of available components, and evaluate these choices based on the components’ characteristic data read from a database of manufacturers’ data-sheets.  The proposed design must always be practically realizable, as close to the desired specifications as possible and within any specified constraints.

  20. Finite element bond models for seven-wire prestressing strands in concrete crossties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Seven-wire strands are commonly used in pretensioned : concrete ties, but its bonding mechanism with concrete needs : further examination to provide a better understanding of some : concrete tie failure modes. As a key component in the finite : eleme...

  1. An exploratory study of the Work Ability Index (WAI) and its components in a group of computer workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Filipa; Puga-Leal, Rogério; Nunes, Isabel L

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a study on the assessment of the work ability of a group of aged computers workers. The study was developed with the goal of creating a decision making framework oriented towards the maintenance of the health and working ability of aged workers. Fifty computer workers participated in this study. They were administrative secretaries and computer technicians working mainly with office computers. The method used to assess the work ability was the Work Ability Index (WAI). 78% of the participants had good or excellent work ability and only 2% a poor one. The average WAI score was 40.5 (SD=5.761; min=27; max=49). This study confirms the decrease in work ability of workers while aging. The group overall work ability was slightly higher than the reference values develop by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. The assessment of work ability is fundamental to make age-friendly workplaces. WAI is one tool designed to perform such assessment. The results obtained could assist the early identification of situations where employees are struggling with their work ability, thus helping to prioritize ergonomic interventions devoted to improve the working conditions, and allowing the continued employment of aging workers on their current job.

  2. The Dynamo package for tomography and subtomogram averaging: components for MATLAB, GPU computing and EC2 Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Díez, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Dynamo is a package for the processing of tomographic data. As a tool for subtomogram averaging, it includes different alignment and classification strategies. Furthermore, its data-management module allows experiments to be organized in groups of tomograms, while offering specialized three-dimensional tomographic browsers that facilitate visualization, location of regions of interest, modelling and particle extraction in complex geometries. Here, a technical description of the package is presented, focusing on its diverse strategies for optimizing computing performance. Dynamo is built upon mbtools (middle layer toolbox), a general-purpose MATLAB library for object-oriented scientific programming specifically developed to underpin Dynamo but usable as an independent tool. Its structure intertwines a flexible MATLAB codebase with precompiled C++ functions that carry the burden of numerically intensive operations. The package can be delivered as a precompiled standalone ready for execution without a MATLAB license. Multicore parallelization on a single node is directly inherited from the high-level parallelization engine provided for MATLAB, automatically imparting a balanced workload among the threads in computationally intense tasks such as alignment and classification, but also in logistic-oriented tasks such as tomogram binning and particle extraction. Dynamo supports the use of graphical processing units (GPUs), yielding considerable speedup factors both for native Dynamo procedures (such as the numerically intensive subtomogram alignment) and procedures defined by the user through its MATLAB-based GPU library for three-dimensional operations. Cloud-based virtual computing environments supplied with a pre-installed version of Dynamo can be publicly accessed through the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), enabling users to rent GPU computing time on a pay-as-you-go basis, thus avoiding upfront investments in hardware and longterm software maintenance.

  3. BioMog: A Computational Framework for the De Novo Generation or Modification of Essential Biomass Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, Christopher J.; Reed, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The success of genome-scale metabolic modeling is contingent on a model's ability to accurately predict growth and metabolic behaviors. To date, little focus has been directed towards developing systematic methods of proposing, modifying and interrogating an organism's biomass requirements that are used in constraint-based models. To address this gap, the biomass modification and generation (BioMog) framework was created and used to generate lists of biomass components de novo, as well as to modify predefined biomass component lists, for models of Escherichia coli (iJO1366) and of Shewanella oneidensis (iSO783) from high-throughput growth phenotype and fitness datasets. BioMog's de novo biomass component lists included, either implicitly or explicitly, up to seventy percent of the components included in the predefined biomass equations, and the resulting de novo biomass equations outperformed the predefined biomass equations at qualitatively predicting mutant growth phenotypes by up to five percent. Additionally, the BioMog procedure can quantify how many experiments support or refute a particular metabolite's essentiality to a cell, and it facilitates the determination of inconsistent experiments and inaccurate reaction and/or gene to reaction associations. To further interrogate metabolite essentiality, the BioMog framework includes an experiment generation algorithm that allows for the design of experiments to test whether a metabolite is essential. Using BioMog, we correct experimental results relating to the essentiality of thyA gene in E. coli, as well as perform knockout experiments supporting the essentiality of protoheme. With these capabilities, BioMog can be a valuable resource for analyzing growth phenotyping data and component of a model developer's toolbox. PMID:24339916

  4. Two-layer synchronized ternary quantum-dot cellular automata wire crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata are an interesting nanoscale computing paradigm. The introduction of the ternary quantum-dot cell enabled ternary computing, and with the recent development of a ternary functionally complete set of elementary logic primitives and the ternary memorizing cell design of complex processing structures is becoming feasible. The specific nature of the ternary quantum-dot cell makes wire crossings one of the most problematic areas of ternary quantum-dot cellular automata circuit design. We hereby present a two-layer wire crossing that uses a specific clocking scheme, which ensures the crossed wires have the same effective delay. PMID:22507371

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  6. Young's modulus of a copper-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductive wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.; Moulder, J.C.; Austin, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    Young's modulus was determined for a 0.6-mm-dia niobium-titanium superconductive wire. Two methods were used: continuous-wave-resonance and laser-pulse-excitation. Young's moduli were also determined for the components - copper and Nb-Ti - in both wire and bulk forms. Some mechanical-deformation effects on Young's modulus were also measured. From the component' elastic moduli, that of the composite was predicted accurately by a simple rule-of-mixtures relationship

  7. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2017 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  8. Feasibility studies on the direct wire readout on wire scanners in electron accelerators; Durchfuehrbarkeitsstudien zur direkten Drahtauslese an Wirescannern in Elektronen-Beschleunigern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markert, Michael

    2010-10-15

    This bachelor thesis deals essentially with the signal processing of a so-called wire scanner, a special monitor, which comes to application in the beam diagnostics of particle accelerators. In this direct wire readout the voltage signal, which is induced by the particle beam in the measurement wire of the wire scanner, shall be directly read out. The aim of this thesis is to show fundamental considerations and perform studies, which study, whether and how in the future by means of a suited data transmission as well as readout electronics conclusion on the most important parameters of the beam, like position and profile, are possible. The measurement system presented here is divided in three main components: Signal measurement, signal preparation, and signal stretching. A suited test facility was developed and is presented in detail, in which then all components, like for instance the transmission cables, the wire-scanner fork, and the developed measurement circuit, are studied, which are of importance for a faultless signal transmission and presentation. Extensive measurements on the single components, as well as calculations for the signal transmission on and in the wire scanner were performed, whereby a good agreement could be found. Thereafter a comparison and a selection of the component used in this project were made. Furthermore improvement proposals, new constructions, and outlooks are presented, which could be of importance in further works.

  9. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. II - Macular neural network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Cutler, Lynn; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted reconstructions of small parts of the macular neural network show how the nerve terminals and receptive fields are organized in 3-dimensional space. This biological neural network is anatomically organized for parallel distributed processing of information. Processing appears to be more complex than in computer-based neural network, because spatiotemporal factors figure into synaptic weighting. Serial reconstruction data show anatomical arrangements which suggest that (1) assemblies of cells analyze and distribute information with inbuilt redundancy, to improve reliability; (2) feedforward/feedback loops provide the capacity for presynaptic modulation of output during processing; (3) constrained randomness in connectivities contributes to adaptability; and (4) local variations in network complexity permit differing analyses of incoming signals to take place simultaneously. The last inference suggests that there may be segregation of information flow to central stations subserving particular functions.

  10. Dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium 192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucco, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is in order to present in table formats the dosimetry of wires and single ribbons of Iridium with lengths 1-12 cm for each one linear source along the bisector which is perpendicular at tissue sources (water) computed for linear activity 1 mCi/cm in the case of wires, and 1 mCi/seed for ribbons. The above tables are of direct use, adaptable at particular cases so they facilitate logarithmic graphics of doses in function of the distance for interpolation and use in the treatments planning. It was shown that for two sources with identical linear activity and total length, one of the equidistant seeds at 1 cm (ribbon) and one wire on the other hand, the differences in dose rates in near positions can be about the 15% so corroborating that it is not possible to use wire tables for seeds neither vice versa. Moreover it was elaborated tables of practical direct use for dose rate in water at c Gy/hr for wires and Ribbons 1-12 cm length and from 0.5-10 cm of distance in the perpendicular bisector at the Iridium implant. (Author)

  11. WIRED — World Wide Web interactive remote event display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaminut, A.; Colonello, C.; Dönszelmann, M.; van Herwijnen, E.; Köper, D.; Korhonen, J.; Litmaath, M.; Perl, J.; Theodorou, A.; Whiteson, D.; Wolff, E.

    2001-10-01

    WIRED ( http://wired.cern.ch/) is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g., fisheye, ρ- φ, ρ- Z, φ- Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. A special Java interpreter allows physicists to write small scripts to interact with their data and its display. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, BaBar, D0 and ZEUS). WIRED event displays have also proven to be useful to explain High Energy Physics to the general public. Both CERN, in its traveling exhibition and MicroCosm, and RAL, during its open days, have displays set up.

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  14. A High Performance Computing Approach to the Simulation of Fluid-Solid interaction Problems with Rigid and Flexible Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazouki Arman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a unified multi-threaded, multi-scale High Performance Computing (HPC approach for the direct numerical simulation of Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI problems. The simulation algorithm relies on the extended Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (XSPH method, which approaches the fluid flow in a La-grangian framework consistent with the Lagrangian tracking of the solid phase. A general 3D rigid body dynamics and an Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF are implemented to model rigid and flexible multibody dynamics. The two-way coupling of the fluid and solid phases is supported through use of Boundary Condition Enforcing (BCE markers that capture the fluid-solid coupling forces by enforcing a no-slip boundary condition. The solid-solid short range interaction, which has a crucial impact on the small-scale behavior of fluid-solid mixtures, is resolved via a lubrication force model. The collective system states are integrated in time using an explicit, multi-rate scheme. To alleviate the heavy computational load, the overall algorithm leverages parallel computing on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU cards. Performance and scaling analysis are provided for simulations scenarios involving one or multiple phases with up to tens of thousands of solid objects. The software implementation of the approach, called Chrono:Fluid, is part of the Chrono project and available as an open-source software.

  15. Towards a non-wired simulator for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurvillier, I.; Laviron, A.; Blin, A.

    1991-11-01

    This paper outlines the objectives and preliminary results of a research programme aiming to increase the advantages of electronic simulators used for reliability studies of complex systems. Research work has resulted in the design of a device based on an electronic simulator capable of carrying out all types of simulation without the drawback of wiring, as is currently the case. Its performance levels as regards speed are comparable to those of wired simulators and this is its main advantage over studies made on a computer. In addition, the simulator is connected to a computer which greatly increases system flexibility and user-friendliness. The first results obtained illustrate what characteristics can be expected of such a system, both as regards the anticipated computation time and the extended processing capabilities (such as the study of common cause failures). (author) [fr

  16. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  17. Demonstration of Inexact Computing Implemented in the JPEG Compression Algorithm using Probabilistic Boolean Logic applied to CMOS Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-24

    T P(t), (81) where T is the clock period, and for the inexact circuit the energy is Ẽ(t) = T P̃(t). (82) In digital circuits , the total power P...Y , Cb, or Cr) data X input vector to a digital logic circuit Y output of a digital logic circuit Y luminance Z quantization factor matrix zi,j (i...accuracy in digital logic circuits . The contribution of this research will be to advance the state of the art of inexact computing by optimizing the JPEG

  18. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. I - Macular receptive field organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cutler, Lynn; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell polarizations are divergent. Morphologically, each calyx of oblong and elongated fields appears to be an information processing site. Intrinsic modulation of information processing is extensive and varies with the kind of field. Each reconstructed field differs in detail from every other, suggesting that an element of randomness is introduced developmentally and contributes to endorgan adaptability.

  19. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  1. ABCXYZ: vector potential (A) and magnetic field (B) code (C) for Cartesian (XYZ) geometry using general current elements. [In LRL TRAN for CDC > 600 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.V.; Breazeal, J.; Finan, C.H.; Johnston, B.M.

    1976-09-14

    ABCXYZ is a computer code for obtaining the Cartesian components of the vector potential and the magnetic field on an observed grid from an arrangement of current-carrying wires. Arbitrary combinations of straight line segments, arcs, and loops are allowed in the specification of the currents. Arbitrary positions and orientations of the current-carrying elements are also allowed. Specification of the wire diameter permits the computation of well-defined fields, even in the interiors of the conductors. An optical feature generates magnetic field lines. Extensive graphical and printed output is available to the user including contour, grid-line, and field-line plots. 12 figures, 1 table.

  2. Wired or Wireless Internet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    This paper finds that network externalities play a minimal role in the choice of internet access technology. Potential adopters of mobile laptop internet view broadband technology as a black box, the technological details of which donot matter. The study uses qualitative techniques to explore how...... the speed of technological obsolescence, market share dominance, and the black boxing of technology influence consumer intention to adopt WiMax and 3G wireless internet for their laptop computers. The results, implications for industry, and areas for further research are discussed....

  3. Computer-assisted detection of monoclonal components: results from the multicenter study for the evaluation of CASPER (Computer Assisted Serum Protein Electrophoresis Recognizer) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognibene, Agostino; Graziani, Maria S; Caldini, Anna; Terreni, Alessandro; Righetti, Gabriella; Varagnolo, Maria C; Campanella, Ada; Martelli, Marinella; Mancini, Rita; Rizzotti, Paolo; Plebani, Mario; Mori, Marco; Gaspari, Giovanni; Motta, Roberto; Galli, Gianni; Fabris, Massimiliano; Messeri, Gianni

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in the evaluation of serum protein electrophoresis, we set up a multicenter study involving six Italian laboratories. For this purpose, we developed an algorithm named CASPER (Computer Assisted Serum Protein Electrophoresis Recognizer). A total of 59,516 samples from the six centers were divided into three groups. Training and validation sets were used to develop the neural network, whereas evaluation set was used to test the performance of CASPER in recognizing abnormal electrophoretic profiles. CASPER showed 93.0% sensitivity and 47.4% specificity. CASPER sensitivity and specificity ranged in the six sites from 88% (site 3) to 97% (site 5) and from 36% (site 6) to 53% (site 3), respectively. Sensitivity for gamma zone was 94.6%, for beta zone 89.7% and for oligoclonal patterns 92.0%. The sensitivity of the CASPER algorithm does not allow us to recommend its use as a replacement for the visual inspection, but it could be helpful in avoiding accidental misclassifications by the operator. Moreover, the CASPER algorithm may be a useful tool for training operators and students. This study evidenced a high inter-observer variability, which should be addressed in a dedicated study. Data set to train and validate ANNs should contain a huge range and an adequate number of different abnormalities.

  4. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  5. The Influence of Wiring Economy on Nervous System Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Irving E; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2016-10-24

    The activity and maintenance of neurons requires substantial metabolic energy, resulting in selective pressure to decrease resource consumption by the nervous system. The wiring economy principle proposes that animals have evolved mechanisms that wire circuits efficiently by minimizing neurite length. Computational modeling of neuronal morphology, microcircuit organization, and neural networks reveals that wiring economy is a significant determinant of nervous system layout. The strategies for reducing wiring costs are shared across phyla and point to the possibility of generalizable rules that specify the development of efficient nervous systems. As the developmental mechanisms underpinning wiring economy are only now being elucidated, whether the molecular basis of this phenomenon is the result of conserved genetic programs or convergent evolution remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of tensile residual stresses during the drawing process of tungsten wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Ripoll, Manel; Weygand, Sabine M.; Riedel, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten wires are commonly used in the lighting industry as filaments for lamps. During the drawing process, the inhomogeneous deformation imparted by the drawing die causes tensile residual stresses at the wire surface in circumferential direction. These stresses have a detrimental effect for the wire because they are responsible for driving longitudinal cracks, known as splits. This work proposes two methods for reducing the residual stresses during wire drawing, namely applying an advanced die geometry and performing an inexpensive post-drawing treatment based on targeted bending operations. These two methods are analyzed with finite element simulations using material parameters obtained by mechanical tests on tungsten wires at different temperatures as input data. The computed results predict a substantial reduction of the circumferential residual stresses, thus reducing the risk of splitting.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  9. Computer analysis of an adiabatic Stirling cryocooler using a two-phase two-component working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfroe, D.A.; Cheung, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the performance and behavior of a Stirling cyrocooler incorporating a working fluid composed of helium and nitrogen. At the operating temperature of the cryocooler (80 K), the nitrogen component will condense in the freezer section. It is shown that the phase change in the working fluid increased the heat lifted for a given size and weight of machine and the coefficient of performance. The magnitude of these effects was dependent on the mass ratio of nitrogen to helium, phase angle between the compression and expansion processes, and the ratio of the compression space volume to the expansion space volume. The optimum heat lifted performance was obtained for a mass ratio of four parts of nitrogen to one part of helium, a phase angle of approximately 100 degrees, and a volume ratio of two which resulted in a heat lifted increase of 75% over the single phase, 90 degree phase angle configuration. The coefficient of performance showed a 20% improvement

  10. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  11. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  12. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  13. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  14. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  15. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  16. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  17. Electrochemical sensor for monitoring electrochemical potentials of fuel cell components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Harold R.; Breault, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor comprised of wires, a sheath, and a conduit can be utilized to monitor fuel cell component electric potentials during fuel cell shut down or steady state. The electrochemical sensor contacts an electrolyte reservoir plate such that the conduit wicks electrolyte through capillary action to the wires to provide water necessary for the electrolysis reaction which occurs thereon. A voltage is applied across the wires of the electrochemical sensor until hydrogen evolution occurs at the surface of one of the wires, thereby forming a hydrogen reference electrode. The voltage of the fuel cell component is then determined with relation to the hydrogen reference electrode.

  18. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  19. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  1. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  2. Wiring Economy of Pyramidal Cells in the Juvenile Rat Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Cajal hypothesized that the structure of neurons is designed in such a way as to save space, time and matter, numerous researchers have analyzed wiring properties at different scales of brain organization. Here we test the hypothesis that individual pyramidal cells, the most abundant type of neuron in the cerebral cortex, optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. In this study, we analyze the neuronal wiring of complete basal arborizations of pyramidal neurons in layer II, III, IV, Va, Vb and VI of the hindlimb somatosensory cortical region of postnatal day 14 rats. For each cell, we search for the optimal basal arborization and compare its length with the length of the real dendritic structure. Here the optimal arborization is defined as the arborization that has the shortest total wiring length provided that all neuron bifurcations are respected and the extent of the dendritic arborizations remain unchanged. We use graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques to search for the minimal wiring arborizations. Despite morphological differences between pyramidal neurons located in different cortical layers, we found that the neuronal wiring is near-optimal in all cases (the biggest difference between the shortest synthetic wiring found for a dendritic arborization and the length of its real wiring was less than 5%). We found, however, that the real neuronal wiring was significantly closer to the best solution found in layers II, III and IV. Our studies show that the wiring economy of cortical neurons is related not to the type of neurons or their morphological complexities but to general wiring economy principles.

  3. Numerical simulations on the rotating flow of wrapped wired HPLWR fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissa, A., E-mail: kissa@reak.bme.hu [Budapest Univ. of Tech. and Economics, Inst. of Nuclear Tech. (NTI), Budapest (Hungary); Laurien, E., E-mail: Laurien@ike.uni-stuttgart.de [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Tech. and Energy Systems (IKE), Stuttgart (Germany); Aszodia, A. [Budapest Univ. of Tech. and Economics, Inst. of Nuclear Tech. (NTI), Budapest (Hungary); Zhu, Y. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. for Nuclear Tech. and Energy Systems (IKE), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Three dimensional computational-fluid-dynamics simulations are performed for the fluid flow within a 40 rod fuel bundle in a square arrangement with a central moderator channel. To ensure spacing between the rods the design of the bundle uses thin wires wrapped counter-clockwise around each rod. This geometry is presently investigated in the framework of the European High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR), which operates at supercritical pressure of 25 MPa. A section with one revolution located in the evaporator region of the HPLWR core is investigated using hydraulic (to ensure fully developed flow inlet boundary conditions and reference for heated cases) and thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions. The geometry of wrapped wires gives rise to additional mixing and a circulating or 'sweeping' flow near the outer and inner regions of the fuel element next to the wall of the so called fuel assembly and moderator box. Some interesting flow features associated with the complex three-dimensional flow with significant transverse velocity components are visualized as the first evaluated result of this diversified investigation. (author)

  4. Numerical simulation on a HPLWR fuel assembly flow with one revolution of wrapped wire spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Attila; Laurien, Eckart [Univ. of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques; Aszodi, Attila; Zhu, Yu [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme

    2010-08-15

    Three dimensional computational-fluid-dynamics simulations are performed for the fluid flow within a 40 rod fuel bundle in a square arrangement with a central moderator channel. To ensure spacing between the rods, the design of the bundle uses thin wires wrapped counter-clockwise around each rod. This geometry is presently investigated in the framework of the European High-Performance Light-Water Reactor (HPLWR), which operates at supercritical pressure of 25 MPa. A section with one revolution located in the evaporator region of the HPLWR core is investigated using hydraulic (to ensure fully developed flow inlet boundary conditions and reference for heated cases) and thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions. The geometry of wrapped wires gives rise to additional mixing and a circulating or 'sweeping' flow near the outer and inner regions of the fuel element next to the wall of the so called fuel assembly and moderator box. Some interesting flow features associated with the complex three-dimensional flow with significant transverse velocity components are visualized as the first evaluated result of this diversified investigation. (orig.)

  5. [Comparison of event-related potentials components characteristics obtained during stimulation of symbolical and alphabetic matrixes used in brain-computer interface paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltykov, K A; Bark, E D; Kulikov, M A

    2014-01-01

    In order to create a brain-computer interface (BCI) on the basis of paradigm P300 (the so-called Farwell-Donchin paradigm, FD) with a symbolical matrix used as stimuli, there were compared characteristics of event-related potentials (ERP) obtained from stimulation both by symbolical and alphabetical matrixes. The matrixes contained 6 x 6 signs (cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms). Nine healthy adults were examined in 18 experiments during which 28 channel EEG were recorded while matrixes of two types (containing either cyrillic letters or symbols-pictograms) were used for stimulation. The obtained ERP data, i.e. amplitudes and peak latencies of the following components of ERP: N1, P3 with sub-components P3a and P3b, N4 were compared and analized for different types of the stimulation matrixes. Similar changes in amplitude or peak latency received from 7 or more out of 9 examinees were taken into consideration, matching the criteria of significance. It was discovered that for components P3a, P3b and N4 the amplitudes of ERP in response to a symbolic matrix were bigger than to a letter matrix, the opposite being true for component N1. Latent periods of ERP components were shorter for a symbolic matrix than for a letter matrix in case of components N1 and P3a, and longer in case of P3b and N4. In order to find out which zones of the brain react to stimulation the most, there was conducted a pair t-test (series of pair t-tests) to analize the topography of variety of ERP responses to different types of stimuli, and, through comparing the amplitudes of ERP components, a topographical map detailing the variety of responses to the different types of matrixes was obtained. The data about the differences were analized separately for each of 28 channels, then the (absolute magnitude t-test) were summed up algebraically for all the nine examinees. Thus, it was shown, for amplitudes of all the tested ERP components in the case of pair "significant-insignificant letters

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  13. Impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography for analyzing urinary calculus components: initial in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiangran; Zhou, Qingchun; Yu, Juan; Xian, Zhaohui; Feng, Youzhen; Yang, Wencai; Mo, Xukai

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of reduced-radiation dual-energy (DE) protocols using 320-detector row computed tomography on the differentiation of urinary calculus components. A total of 58 urinary calculi were placed into the same phantom and underwent DE scanning with 320-detector row computed tomography. Each calculus was scanned 4 times with the DE protocols using 135 kV and 80 kV tube voltage and different tube current combinations, including 100 mA and 570 mA (group A), 50 mA and 290 mA (group B), 30 mA and 170 mA (group C), and 10 mA and 60 mA (group D). The acquisition data of all 4 groups were then analyzed by stone DE analysis software, and the results were compared with x-ray diffraction analysis. Noise, contrast-to-noise ratio, and radiation dose were compared. Calculi were correctly identified in 56 of 58 stones (96.6%) using group A and B protocols. However, only 35 stones (60.3%) and 16 stones (27.6%) were correctly diagnosed using group C and D protocols, respectively. Mean noise increased significantly and mean contrast-to-noise ratio decreased significantly from groups A to D (P calculus component analysis while reducing patient radiation exposure to 1.81 mSv. Further reduction of tube currents may compromise diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  15. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-09-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  16. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  17. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  18. Challenges related to the measurement of components composed of more than one material using computed tomography by absorption of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Diogo Cesar B.; Yamanaka, Douglas M.; Baldo, Christian R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues involved in inspecting by X-ray tomography objects composed of more than one material. It addresses the following measurement cases: continuity analysis in copper wire insulation layer, alignment analysis between a metallic shaft and its plastic body; analysis of the distribution of different materials inside a concrete sample. (author)

  19. New constructions of wire ropes for the industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŠŠaderová Jana

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The wire ropes are used in different industrial fields. Their construction depends on the type of equipment and its purpose. Most frequently we meet with ropes at different transport and hoisting equipments and very freqently in the civil industry. For users characteristics are important which must meet requirements of the individual regulations and standards of the selection of wire ropes for the concrete equipment. The most important is the factor of safety being safeguarded by the corresponding bearing capacity of the rope. The service life of rope is interesting for the user, too, because of having an influence on the economy of the equipment on which the rope is working. These problems are solved by the grant project at our department . We are aimed at questions of the optimization of construction of wire rope with regard to their geometric construction and service life. Respectively on the basis of elaborated computer software eightstrand ropes of parallel construction were disigned and produced at the Drôtov ň a Hlohovec. The results of the fatigue tests confirmed their better qualitative properties, longer service life and economy advantages for users, too. Their using is possible and suitable on the new hoisting eguipment on the surface, in the undeground and in the hole drilling industry. By the application of the computer technique is also possible to improve the parametres of six-strands` construction of rope, the classic and parallel constructions, especially their bearing capacity. This fact follows from the knowledge that for the production of rope we use calculated diameters of wires, which secure better utilization of the metal cross-section of the wire ropes.

  20. Comparison of PIV and Hot-Wire statistics of turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dróżdż, A; Uruba, V

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows a cross checking of turbulent boundary layer measurements using large field of view PIV and hot-wire anemometry techniques. The time-resolved PIV method was used for the experiments. The measuring plane was oriented perpendicularly to the wall and parallel to the mean flow. Hot wire measurement has been performed using the special probe with perpendicular hot wire. The HW point measurements were performed in the same place as PIV experiments. The hot-wire probe has the wire length of l + < 20 in considered range of Reynolds numbers. Various evaluation methods were applied on PIV data. The profiles of statistical characteristics of streamwise velocity components were evaluated from the data. Mean values, standard deviations as well as skewness and kurtosis coefficients were compared for a few values of Re θ . Reynolds number ranges from 1000 to 5500. The result shows that with the increasing Reynolds number the attenuation of fluctuations maximum in PIV measurements occurs with respect to Hot-Wire measurements, however representation of velocity fluctuations using the PIV method is satisfactory. The influence of wall-normal fluctuation component on Hot-Wire near wall peak was also investigated.

  1. Wire-wrapped rod-bundle heat-transfer analysis for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.N.C.; Todreas, N.E.

    1982-07-01

    Helical wire wraps are widely used in the LMFBR fuel and blanket assemblies to provide coolant mixing and maintain proper spacing between fuel pins. The presence of the helical wire, however, may possibly induce heat transfer problems, such as the uncertainty of the maximum clad temperature as a result of the contact between the wires and the pins. In this study, the detailed transient three dimensional velocity and temperature distributions for the coolant around the pin will be determined by solving the governing momentum and energy equation numerically. A computer code HEATRAN has been developed to perform this calculation. Before the computer code HEATRAN is applied to the wire wrapped rod bundle problem, it is used to analyze a wide range of fluid and heat transfer problem to verify its capabilities

  2. Designing an Optimal Lightning Protection Scheme for Substations Using Shielding Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodadadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal lightning protection scheme for a substation using shielding wires is investigated in this paper through computer software analysis. An economic approach is utilized by choosing a reasonable trade-off between protection, the number of shielding wires and the heights of them from the ground. This study is initially applied to a simple two-wire system and then extended to a sample substation. The solution for each problem is executed in MATLAB and 3-D realization is shown.

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  10. Rotary slanted single wire CTA – a useful tool for 3D flows investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonáš P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedure is described of experimental investigation of a statistically stationary generally nonisothermal 3D flow by means of a constant temperature anemometer (CTA using single slanted heated wire, rotary round the fixed axis. The principle of this procedure is quite clear. The change of the heated wire temperature modifies ratio of CTA sensitivities to temperature and velocity fluctuations. Turning the heated wire through a proper angle changes the sensitivity to components of the instantaneous velocity vector. Some recommendations are presented based on long time experiences, e.g. on the choice of probe, on the probe calibration, to the measurement organization and to the evaluation of results.

  11. Computer Visualizations for K-8 Science Teachers: One Component of Professional Development Workshops at the Planetary Science Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, S.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bleamaster, L. F.; Buxner, S.; Canizo, T.; Crown, D. A.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Planetary Science Institute (PSI), in partnership with the Tucson Regional Science Center, offers a series of professional development workshops targeting K-8 science teachers in southern Arizona. Using NASA data sets, research results, and a team of PSI scientists and educators, our workshops provide teachers with in-depth content knowledge of fundamental concepts in astronomy, geology, and planetary science. Current workshops are: The Earth-Moon System, Exploring the Terrestrial Planets, Impact Cratering, The Asteroid-Meteorite Connection, Volcanoes of the Solar System, Deserts of the Solar System, and Astrobiology and the Search for Extrasolar Planets. Several workshops incorporate customized computer visualizations developed at PSI. These visualizations are designed to help teachers overcome the common misconceptions students have in fundamental areas of space science. For example, the simple geometric relationship between the sun, the moon, and Earth is a concept that is rife with misconceptions. How can the arrangement of these objects account for the constantly changing phases of the moon as well as the occasional eclipses of the sun and moon? Students at all levels often struggle to understand the explanation for phases and eclipses even after repeated instruction over many years. Traditional classroom techniques have proven to be insufficient at rooting out entrenched misconceptions. One problem stems from the difficulty of developing an accurate mental picture of the Earth-Moon system in space when a student's perspective has always been firmly planted on the ground. To address this problem our visualizations take the viewers on a journey beyond Earth, giving them a so-called "god's eye" view of how the Earth-Moon system would look from a distance. To make this journey as realistic as possible we use ray-tracing software, incorporate NASA mission images, and accurately portray rotational and orbital motion. During a workshop our visualizations are

  12. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  13. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  14. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  15. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  16. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  17. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aridor, Yariv [Zichron Ya'akov, IL; Domany, Tamar [Kiryat Tivon, IL; Frachtenberg, Eitan [Jerusalem, IL; Gal, Yoav [Haifa, IL; Shmueli, Edi [Haifa, IL; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph [San Jose, CA

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  18. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  20. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  1. Quantum computational webs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Eisert, J.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the notion of quantum computational webs: These are quantum states universal for measurement-based computation, which can be built up from a collection of simple primitives. The primitive elements--reminiscent of building blocks in a construction kit--are (i) one-dimensional states (computational quantum wires) with the power to process one logical qubit and (ii) suitable couplings, which connect the wires to a computationally universal web. All elements are preparable by nearest-neighbor interactions in a single pass, of the kind accessible in a number of physical architectures. We provide a complete classification of qubit wires, a physically well-motivated class of universal resources that can be fully understood. Finally, we sketch possible realizations in superlattices and explore the power of coupling mechanisms based on Ising or exchange interactions.

  2. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  4. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  5. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  6. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  7. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  8. Materials Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRC's Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  9. Material Characterization of Additively Manufactured Components for Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert; Draper, Susan; Locci, Ivan; Lerch, Bradley; Ellis, David; Senick, Paul; Meyer, Michael; Free, James; Cooper, Ken; Jones, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    To advance Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies for production of rocket propulsion components the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is applying state of the art characterization techniques to interrogate microstructure and mechanical properties of AM materials and components at various steps in their processing. The materials being investigated for upper stage rocket engines include titanium, copper, and nickel alloys. Additive manufacturing processes include laser powder bed, electron beam powder bed, and electron beam wire fed processes. Various post build thermal treatments, including Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP), have been studied to understand their influence on microstructure, mechanical properties, and build density. Micro-computed tomography, electron microscopy, and mechanical testing in relevant temperature environments has been performed to develop relationships between build quality, microstructure, and mechanical performance at temperature. A summary of GRCs Additive Manufacturing roles and experimental findings will be presented.

  10. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  11. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  12. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  13. Insulating jacket for heat sensitive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1980-01-01

    The insulating jacket for long core components of sodium-cooled reactors consists of several layers of austenitic steel, between which a woven wire mesh of the same material is fitted. It is wound in the form of a spiral bandage on the core component. (DG) [de

  14. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  15. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  16. Design, construction, and wire calibration of PAR BPM striplines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, W.; Barr, D.; Erwin, L.

    1994-01-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) is part of the APS injection system. It receives 24 30-ns FWHM bursts of 450-MeV positrons, and compresses them into 6-nC, 290-ps rms bunches. Striplines were selected as beam position monitors (BPMs) to assure that good position sensitivity is achieved. This paper will describe the design, construction, and wire calibration of the 16 PAR BPMs. It will be demonstrated that all relevant stripline parameters can be determined by solving the two-dimensional LaPlace equation. This was done numerically using the electrostatic part of the PE2D computer program. The construction of the units will be briefly discussed. Wire calibration data on one of the final units will be compared with theory at four frequencies

  17. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  18. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  19. Ti-Al Composite Wires with High Specific Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Schultz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An alternative deformation technique was applied to a composite made of titanium and an aluminium alloy in order to achieve severe plastic deformation. This involves accumulative swaging and bundling. Furthermore, it allows uniform deformation of a composite material while producing a wire which can be further used easily. Detailed analysis concerning the control of the deformation process, mesostructural and microstructural features and tensile testing was carried out on the as produced wires. A strong grain refinement to a grain size of 250–500 nm accompanied by a decrease in 〈111〉 fibre texture component and a change from low angle to high angle grain boundary characteristics is observed in the Al alloy. A strong increase in the mechanical properties in terms of ultimate tensile strength ranging from 600 to 930 MPa being equivalent to a specific strength of up to 223 MPa/g/cm3 was achieved.

  20. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  1. Application of hot-wire technique at unconventional conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiga, V. A.; Pak, A. Yu.; Zinoviev, V. N.; Mironov, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    The problems of using the hot-wire method for studying fluctuations in flows are considered when standard approaches and conventional modes cannot be used due to constraints caused either by the flow parameters or by the characteristics and conditions of the experiments. Examples of measurements under conditions of extremely low pressures and beyond the limits of the continuity of the medium in the CO2-laser are given; The use of data of hot-wire measurements for the determination of sources of disturbances in test sections of high-speed wind tunnels is shown; the design of a probe for measurement of concentration of components of the binary gas mixture is described, etc.

  2. Creation of subsonic macro-and microjets facilities and automated measuring system (AMS-2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. M.; Grek, G. R.; Gilev, V. M.; Zverkov, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Macro-and microjets facilities for generation of the round and plane subsonic jets are designed and fabricated. Automated measuring system (AMS - 2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field is designed and fabricated. Coordinate device and unit of the measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information were integrated in the AMS. Coordinate device is intended for precision movement of the hot - wire probe in jet flow field according to the computer program. At the same time accuracy of the hot - wire probe movement is 5 microns on all three coordinates (x, y, z). Unit of measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information is intended for the hot - wire anemometric measurement of the jet flow field parameters (registration of the mean - U and fluctuation - u' characteristics of jet flow velocity), their accumulation and preservation in the computer memory, and also carries out their processing according to certain programms.

  3. A custom-made guide-wire positioning device for Hip Surface Replacement Arthroplasty: description and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clijmans Tim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA can be an alternative for total hip arthroplasty. The short and long-term outcome of hip surface replacement arthroplasty mainly relies on the optimal size and position of the femoral component. This can be defined before surgery with pre-operative templating. Reproducing the optimal, templated femoral implant position during surgery relies on guide wire positioning devices in combination with visual inspection and experience of the surgeon. Another method of transferring the templated position into surgery is by navigation or Computer Assisted Surgery (CAS. Though CAS is documented to increase accurate placement particularly in case of normal hip anatomy, it requires bulky equipment that is not readily available in each centre. Methods A custom made neck jig device is presented as well as the results of a pilot study. The device is produced based on data pre-operatively acquired with CT-scan. The position of the guide wire is chosen as the anatomical axis of the femoral neck. Adjustments to the design of the jig are made based on the orthopedic surgeon's recommendations for the drill direction. The SRA jig is designed as a slightly more-than-hemispherical cage to fit the anterior part of the femoral head. The cage is connected to an anterior neck support. Four knifes are attached on the central arch of the cage. A drill guide cylinder is attached to the cage, thus allowing guide wire positioning as pre-operatively planned. Custom made devices were tested in 5 patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty. The orthopedic surgeons reported the practical aspects of the use of the neck-jig device. The retrieved femoral heads were analyzed to assess the achieved drill place in mm deviation from the predefined location and orientation compared to the predefined orientation. Results The orthopedic surgeons rated the passive stability, full contact with neck portion of the jig and knife

  4. Comparison between C1-2 Fixation with and without Supplemental Posterior Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mai; Wadhwa, Rishi; Ziewacz, John; Mummaneni, Praveen; Chou, Dean

    2014-04-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Clinical Question Is there a difference between the screw-rod construct (SRC) procedure without wiring and the SRC procedure with wiring with respect to fusion, implant failure, reoperation, donor-site morbidity, and complication rates? Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 26 patients who underwent C1-2 fixation between 2004 and 2012 (SRC with wiring and structural bone graft, 13 patients; SRC with autograft but without wiring, 13 patients). Fusion was assessed using dynamic X-rays in all patients and computed tomographic scans in selected cases. Pseudoarthrosis was confirmed during reoperation. Results The mean follow-up time was 2 years and 5 months for the SRC without wiring group and 2 years and 1 month for the SRC with wiring group. Patients with less than 1-year follow-up time were excluded. The fusion rate, implant failure rate, and reoperation rates for the SRC without wiring group were 92, 8, and 8%, respectively. The fusion, implant failure, and reoperation rates for the SRC with wiring group were 100, 0, and 0%, respectively. There were no donor-site morbidities or complications in either group (both 0%). There were no differences in parameters we examined between the two groups (p > 0.05 for each rate, Fisher exact test). Conclusions The results suggest that supplementing the SRC procedure with wiring may increase fusion rate, but this difference is not statistically significant. Although the sample size was small, there was not a significant discrepancy in outcomes between the two groups at an average follow-up of 2 years. [Table: see text].

  5. Computing the stresses and deformations of the human eye components due to a high explosive detonation using fluid-structure interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Razaghi, Reza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu

    2016-05-01

    In spite the fact that a very small human body surface area is comprised by the eye, its wounds due to detonation have recently been dramatically amplified. Although many efforts have been devoted to measure injury of the globe, there is still a lack of knowledge on the injury mechanism due to Primary Blast Wave (PBW). The goal of this study was to determine the stresses and deformations of the human eye components, including the cornea, aqueous, iris, ciliary body, lens, vitreous, retina, sclera, optic nerve, and muscles, attributed to PBW induced by trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosion via a Lagrangian-Eulerian computational coupling model. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was employed to establish a Finite Element (FE) model of the human eye according to a normal human eye. The solid components of the eye were modelled as Lagrangian mesh, while an explosive TNT, air domain, and aqueous were modelled using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) mesh. Nonlinear dynamic FE simulations were accomplished using the explicit FE code, namely LS-DYNA. In order to simulate the blast wave generation, propagation, and interaction with the eye, the ALE formulation with Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation defining the explosive material were employed. The results revealed a peak stress of 135.70kPa brought about by detonation upsurge on the cornea at the distance of 25cm. The highest von Mises stresses were observed on the sclera (267.3kPa), whereas the lowest one was seen on the vitreous body (0.002kPa). The results also showed a relatively high resultant displacement for the macula as well as a high variation for the radius of curvature for the cornea and lens, which can result in both macular holes, optic nerve damage and, consequently, vision loss. These results may have implications not only for understanding the value of stresses and strains in the human eye components but also giving an outlook about the process of PBW triggers damage to the eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  7. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In...

  8. Automatic inspection of railway overhead wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, C.; Valkenburg, A.L.G. van

    1988-01-01

    For the Netherlands railway company a system for inspection of the degree of wear of the contact wires is being developed. With an active sensor the reflective under-surface of the overhead wire is illuminated with a laserbeam and reflected radiation is detected by fast CCD detectors. With the

  9. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  10. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  11. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  12. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  13. Research into the optimal utilization of magnetic materials in plated wire memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serindat, Henri

    1972-01-01

    Plated wire memories are particularly sensitive to two kinds of perturbations because of the absence of material separation between neighbouring memory points along a plated wire. During the read process, it is difficult to localize the magnetization rotation. Therefore we studied the field and the magnetization distribution, and computed the gathered flux. We propose new high density structures from our computer program results. During the write process, the written domain spreads during multiple writings. This may lead to the destruction of the information previously recorded in the neighbouring cells. Two processes have been proposed to avoid this drawback. (author) [fr

  14. Validation of a computer-assisted method for measurement of radiographic wear in total hip arthroplasty using all polyethylene cemented acetabular components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Zaoui, Amine; Scemama, Caroline; Martell, John; Bragdon, Charles; Hamadouche, Moussa

    2015-03-01

    Although cemented all polyethylene (PE) cups have been routinely used in total hip arthroplasty for decades, no computer-assisted method for measurement of radiographic wear has ever been specifically validated for these implants. Using a validated hip phantom model, AP plain hip radiographs were obtained consecutively for eight simulated wear positions. A version of Martell's Hip Analysis Suite software dedicated to all polyethylene sockets was used by three different examiners of varied experience. Bias (mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval limit), repeatability (standard deviation and 95% limit) and reproducibility (standard deviation and 95% limit) for two-dimensional wear measurements were assessed, as recommended by the current ASTM guidelines. Using this protocol, the dedicated software showed an overall mean bias of 0.089 ± 0.060 mm (mean ± SD), and 0.118 mm for 95% CI limit. Repeatability (intra examiner) standard deviation and 95% limit were respectively 0.106 mm and 0.292 mm. Reproducibility (inter examiner) standard deviation and 95% limit were respectively 0.112 mm and 0.308 mm. Martell Hip Analysis for all PE cemented cups is a reliable and low-cost instrument in the assessment of wear, despite being less precise than its original version dedicated to cementless components. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Development of two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann code DG2LBM for computational fluid dynamic problems in nuclear reactor safety component design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2012-01-01

    A 2-dimensional computational fluid dynamic analysis program DG2LBM by using Lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE) with momentum exchange boundary conditions is developed and it is applied to a feasibility study of nuclear reactor safety component such as a reactor building floor weir (RBFW), a simple as well as an effective option to sediment particulate materials generated after loss of coolant accident of a nuclear power plant and. The program is benchmarked against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at relatively low Reynolds numbers, the RBFW is simulated for diverse parametric conditions such as height, inclination angle, number of weirs (1 or 2) and the distance between two weirs. The weir performance is measured by the area of quiescent and/or downward reverse flow region where particles have more chance to sediment. It is found a wake causing reverse downward flow behind the weir mainly contributes to generating the quiescent flow region. And the most effective option in terms of particle sedimentation performance is found to be relatively tall double weirs separated by 2 weir heights. (orig.)

  16. A three-field model of transient 3D multiphase, three-component flow for the computer code IV A3. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    1991-12-01

    This work contains description of the physical and mathematical basis on which the IVA3 computer code relies. After describing the state of the art of the 3D modeling for transient multiphase flows, the model assumptions and the modeling technique used in IVA3 are described. Starting with the principles of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, the non averaged conservation equations are derived for each of the velocity fields which consist of different isothermal components. Thereafter averaging is applied and the working form of the system of 21 partial differential equations is derived. Special attention is paid to the strict consistence of the modeling technique used in IVA3 with the second principle of thermodynamics. The entropy concept used is derived starting with the unaveraged conservation equations and subsequent averaging. The source terms of the entropy production are carefully defined and the final form of the averaged entropy equation is given ready for direct practical applications. The idea of strong analytical thermodynamic coupling between pressure field and changes of the other thermodynamic properties, which is used for the first time in 3D multi fluid modeling, is presented in detail. After obtaining the working form of the conservation equations, the discretization procedure and the reduction to algebraic problems is presented. The mathematical solution method together with some information about the architecture of IVA3 including the local momentum decoupling and accuracy control is presented too. (orig./GL) [de

  17. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  18. Recent advances in theoretical and numerical studies of wire array Z-pinch in the IAPCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Delong; Wu, Jiming; Huang, Jun; Yin, Li; Sun, Shunkai; Xue, Chuang; Dai, Zihuan; Ning, Cheng; Shu, Xiaojian; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Hua

    2014-12-01

    Fast Z-pinch has produced the most powerful X-ray radiation source in laboratory and also shows the possibility to drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Recent advances in wire-array Z-pinch researches at the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics are presented in this paper. A typical wire array Z-pinch process has three phases: wire plasma formation and ablation, implosion and the MRT instability development, stagnation and radiation. A mass injection model with azimuthal modulation coefficient is used to describe the wire initiation, and the dynamics of ablated plasmas of wire-array Z-pinches in (r, θ) geometry is numerically studied. In the implosion phase, a two-dimensional(r, z) three temperature radiation MHD code MARED has been developed to investigate the development of the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor(MRT) instability. We also analyze the implosion modes of nested wire-array and find that the inner wire-array is hardly affected before the impaction of the outer wire-array. While the plasma accelerated to high speed in the implosion stage stagnates on the axis, abundant x-ray radiation is produced. The energy spectrum of the radiation and the production mechanism are investigated. The computational x-ray pulse shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental result. We also suggest that using alloyed wire-arrays can increase multi-keV K-shell yield by decreasing the opacity of K-shell lines. In addition, we use a detailed circuit model to study the energy coupling between the generator and the Z-pinch implosion. Recently, we are concentrating on the problems of Z-pinch driven ICF, such as dynamic hohlraum and capsule implosions. Our numerical investigations on the interaction of wire-array Z-pinches on foam convertors show qualitative agreements with experimental results on the "Qiangguang I" facility. An integrated two-dimensional simulation of dynamic hohlraum driven capsule implosion provides us the physical insights of wire

  19. Design and flight experience with a digital fly-by-wire control system in an F-8 airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, D. A.; Szalai, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    A digital fly-by-wire flight control system was designed, built, and for the first time flown in an airplane. The system, which uses components from the Apollo guidance system, is installed in an F-8 airplane as the primary control system. A lunar module guidance computer is the central element in the three-axis, single-channel, multimode, digital control system. A triplex electrical analog system which provides unaugmented control of the airplane is the only backup to the digital system. Flight results showed highly successful system operation, although the trim update rate was inadequate for precise trim changes, causing minor concern. The use of a digital system to implement conventional control laws proved to be practical for flight. Logic functions coded as an integral part of the control laws were found to be advantageous. Although software verification required extensive effort, confidence in the software was achieved.

  20. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  1. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO 2 is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO 2 and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO 2 cooling has

  2. WIRED World Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    CERN Document Server

    Ballaminut, A; Dönszelmann, M; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Köper, D; Korhonen, J; Litmaath, M; Perl, J; Theodorou, A; Whiteson, D; Wolff, E

    2000-01-01

    WIRED is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g. fish-eye, rho-phi, rho-Z, phi-Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, B...

  3. Assessment of SFR Wire Wrap Simulation Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchini, Marc-Olivier G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Popov, Emilian L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Swiler, Laura P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Predictive modeling and simulation of nuclear reactor performance and fuel are challenging due to the large number of coupled physical phenomena that must be addressed. Models that will be used for design or operational decisions must be analyzed for uncertainty to ascertain impacts to safety or performance. Rigorous, structured uncertainty analyses are performed by characterizing the model’s input uncertainties and then propagating the uncertainties through the model to estimate output uncertainty. This project is part of the ongoing effort to assess modeling uncertainty in Nek5000 simulations of flow configurations relevant to the advanced reactor applications of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program. Three geometries are under investigation in these preliminary assessments: a 3-D pipe, a 3-D 7-pin bundle, and a single pin from the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility. Initial efforts have focused on gaining an understanding of Nek5000 modeling options and integrating Nek5000 with Dakota. These tasks are being accomplished by demonstrating the use of Dakota to assess parametric uncertainties in a simple pipe flow problem. This problem is used to optimize performance of the uncertainty quantification strategy and to estimate computational requirements for assessments of complex geometries. A sensitivity analysis to three turbulent models was conducted for a turbulent flow in a single wire wrapped pin (THOR) geometry. Section 2 briefly describes the software tools used in this study and provides appropriate references. Section 3 presents the coupling interface between Dakota and a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code (Nek5000 or STARCCM+), with details on the workflow, the scripts used for setting up the run, and the scripts used for post-processing the output files. In Section 4, the meshing methods used to generate the THORS and 7-pin bundle meshes are explained. Sections 5, 6 and 7 present numerical results

  4. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  5. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  6. Studies of implosion processes of nested tungsten wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Cheng; Ding Ning; Liu Quan; Yang Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    Nested wire-array is a kind of promising structured-load because it can improve the quality of Z-pinch plasma and enhance the radiation power of X-ray source. Based on the zero-dimensional model, the assumption of wire-array collision, and the criterion of optimized load (maximal load kinetic energy), optimization of the typical nested wire-array as a load of Z machine at Sandia Laboratory was carried out. It was shown that the load has been basically optimized. The Z-pinch process of the typical load was numerically studied by means of one-dimensional three-temperature radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD) code. The obtained results reproduce the dynamic process of the Z-pinch and show the implosion trajectory of nested wire-array and the transfer process of drive current between the inner and outer array. The experimental and computational X-ray pulse was compared, and it was suggested that the assumption of wire-array collision was reasonable in nested wire-array Z-pinch at least for the current level of Z machine. (authors)

  7. The Way of Reducing Current Values in Optical Ground Wires at Asymmetrical Faults on Overhead Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egamnazarov Georgiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that the installing costs of an optical ground wire on overhead lines directly depend on its cross-section, which in turn depends on the level of fault current it should withstand, in order to reduce these current values in the optical ground wire, I suggested performing its isolated descents from the end towers of the line with its transition to an optical cable. The research was carried out on the example of a 500 kV overhead line in the National Electric Power Grid. The Method of Symmetrical Components for calculating asymmetrical fault currents was not used; therefore, calculations were carried out on the base of presenting the line as a multi-wire system for the considered case as a five-wire system (optical ground wire, steel ground wire, and three phase wires. Such approach allows taking into account the initial asymmetry of the line parameters and modeling any kind of asymmetrical faults. The analyses of calculated results were performed. The conclusive evidence that the optical ground wire isolated descents from the end towers of the line give the possibility of reducing the level of maximal fault current distribution values in it and therefore its cross section, is presented.

  8. Helical wire stress analysis of unbonded flexible riser under irregular response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Chunyan

    2017-06-01

    A helical wire is a critical component of an unbonded flexible riser prone to fatigue failure. The helical wire has been the focus of much research work in recent years because of the complex multilayer construction of the flexible riser. The present study establishes an analytical model for the axisymmetric and bending analyses of an unbonded flexible riser. The interlayer contact under axisymmetric loads in this model is modeled by setting radial dummy springs between adjacent layers. The contact pressure is constant during the bending response and applied to determine the slipping friction force per unit helical wire. The model tracks the axial stress around the angular position at each time step to calculate the axial force gradient, then compares the axial force gradient with the slipping friction force to judge the helical wire slipping region, which would be applied to determine the bending stiffness for the next time step. The proposed model is verified against the experimental data in the literature. The bending moment-curvature relationship under irregular response is also qualitatively discussed. The stress at the critical point of the helical wire is investigated based on the model by considering the local flexure. The results indicate that the present model can well simulate the bending stiffness variation during irregular response, which has significant effect on the stress of helical wire.

  9. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  10. Investigation of Axial Electric Field Measurements with Grounded-Wire TEM Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan-nan; Xue, Guo-qiang; Li, Hai; Hou, Dong-yang

    2018-01-01

    The grounded-wire transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveying is often performed along the equatorial direction with its observation lines paralleling to the transmitting wire with a certain transmitter-receiver distance. However, such method takes into account only the equatorial component of the electromagnetic field, and a little effort has been made on incorporating the other major component along the transmitting wire, here denoted as axial field. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of its fundamental characteristics and guide the designing of the corresponding observation system for reliable anomaly detection, this study for the first time investigates the axial electric field from three crucial aspects, including its decay curve, plane distribution, and anomaly sensitivity, through both synthetic modeling and real application to one major coal field in China. The results demonstrate a higher sensitivity to both high- and low-resistivity anomalies by the electric field in axial direction and confirm its great potentials for robust anomaly detection in the subsurface.

  11. Measurement of 3-axis magnetic fields induced by current wires using a smartphone in magnetostatics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, B.; Septianto, R. D.; Suhendra, D.; Iskandar, F.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the use of an inexpensive smartphone’s magnetic sensor to measure magnetic field components (B x , B y and B z ) induced by current wires in magnetostatic experiments. The variable parameters used to measure the magnetic sensor’s capabilities were: the geometrical shapes of the wire, current flow, and the distance between wire and observation point. The experimental results are in good agreement with the results obtained from calculations using an analytical and numerical approach. In addition, the 2D vectors and magnitude of the magnetic field have been successfully illustrated. This study confirmed that the inexpensive smartphone’s magnetic sensor had a good ability to accurately measure the components of a magnetic field in a magnetostatic experiment, which is especially suitable for undergraduate students.

  12. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  13. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  14. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  15. Role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of copper nano-wire under tensile load: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Hsiao, Chun-I.; Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have used atomistic simulations to investigate the role of surface on the size-dependent mechanical properties of nano-wires. In particular, we have performed computational investigation on single crystal face-centered cubic copper nano-wires with diameters ranging from 2 to 20 nm. The wire axis for all the nano-wires are considered along the [0 0 1] direction. Characterization of the initial optimized structures revealed clear differences in interatomic spacing, stress, and potential energy in all the nano-wires. The mechanical properties with respect to wire diameter are evaluated by applying tension along the [0 0 1] direction until yielding. We have discussed the stress-strain relationships, Young's modulus, and the variation in potential energy from surface to the center of the wire for all the cases. Our results indicate that the mechanical response (including yield strain, Young's modulus, and resilience) is directly related to the proportion of surface to bulk type atoms present in each nano-wire. Thus the size-dependent mechanical properties of single crystal copper nano-wire within elastic region are attributed to the surface to volume ratio (surface effect). Using the calculated response, we have formulated a mathematical relationship, which predicts the nonlinear correlation between the mechanical properties and the diameter of the wire.

  16. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.

  17. Calibration of magnetic force microscopy tips by using nanoscale current-carrying parallel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kebe, Th.; Carl, A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results on the characterization of commercially available magnetic force microscopy (MFM) thin film tips as a function of an external magnetic field are presented. Magnetic stray fields with a definitive z-component (perpendicular to the substrate) and a magnetic field strength of up to H z =±45 Oe are produced with current carrying parallel nanowires with a thickness of t=60 nm, which are fabricated by electron-beam lithography. The magnetic fields are generated by electrical dc-currents of up to ±6 mA which are directed antiparallel through the nanowires. The geometry and the dimensions of the nanowires are systematically varied by choosing different wire widths w as well as separations b between the parallel wires for two different sets of samples. On the one hand, the wire width w is varied within 380 nm< w<2460 nm while the separation b≅450 nm between the wires is kept constant. On the other hand the separation b between the parallel wires is varied within 120 nm< b<5100 nm, while the wire width w=960 nm is kept constant. For all the geometrical configurations of parallel wires the resulting magnetic contrast is imaged by MFM at various tip lift-heights. By treating the MFM tip as a point probe, the analysis of the image contrast as a function of both the magnetic field strength and the tip lift height allows one to quantitatively determine the effective magnetic dipole and monopole moments of the tip as well as their imaginary locations within the real physical tip. Our systematic study quantitatively relates the above point-probe parameters to (i) the dimensions of the parallel wires and (ii) to the characteristic decay length of the z-component of the magnetic field of parallel wires. From this the effective tip-volume of the real thin film tip is determined which is relevant in MFM-imaging. Our results confirm the reliability of earlier tip calibration schemes for which nanofabricated current carrying rings were used instead of parallel

  18. Advancement of the arc-waterjet cutting to a gouging process for contaminated surface activity of steel components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.W.; Bruening, D.

    1990-01-01

    The technique of arc-waterjet cutting had to be progressed so that it is possible to gouge the surface of metallic components of nuclear power plants. With applicable cutting parameters depending on the thickness of the contamination the surface had to be gouged and converted to a granulation that is to remove. A continously pulled out wire electrode strikes an arc to the workpeace by short circuit and melts both. A concentric around the wire placed waterjet is able to wash the liquid metal away. With a computer numeric control it is possible to remove the surface of metal up to a deep penetration of 4 to 5 mm. With arc waterjet gouging a remote-controlled removal of contaminated surface activity in shutdowned nuclear power plants under water is possible. (orig./HP) With 15 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs [de

  19. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... cable operator shall not remove the cable home wiring unless it gives the subscriber the opportunity to...

  20. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  1. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  2. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  3. Transient Response of Thin Wire above a Layered Half-Space Using TDIE/FDTD Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The TDIE/FDTD hybrid method is applied to calculate the transient responses of thin wire above a lossy layered half-space. The time-domain reflection of the layered half space is computed by one-dimensional modified FDTD method. Then, transient response of thin wire induced by two excitation sources (the incident wave and reflected wave is calculated by TDIE method. Finally numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and high efficiency of the presented scheme.

  4. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  5. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  6. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  7. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  8. Tensosensitivity of the Hot-Wire Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pak, A

    2002-01-01

    ...., on the anemometer type. In a constant current anemometer, it is possible to measure and separate out the noise moving to the electric circuit of the anemometer, it is not the case with hot-wire anemometers of other types...

  9. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  10. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  11. Manuscript for TINS Forum: A postulate on the brain’s basic wiring logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Joe Z

    2015-01-01

    How should evolution and development build the brain to be capable of flexible and generative cognition? I wish to put forth a “power-of-two”-based wiring logic that provides the basic computational principle in organizing the microarchitecture of cell assemblies that would readily enable knowledge and adaptive behaviors to emerge upon learning. PMID:26482260

  12. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  13. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  14. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  15. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  16. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle...be identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  17. Nickel release from orthodontic retention wires: the action of mechanical loading and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milheiro, A.; Kleverlaan, C.; Muris, J.; Feilzer, A.; Pallav, P.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is a potent sensitizer and may induce innate and adaptive immune responses. Ni is an important component of orthodontic appliances (8-50 wt%). Due to chemical and mechanical factors in the oral environment, Ni is released from these appliances. Retention wires are in situ for a long

  18. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  19. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  20. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  1. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm 2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h −1 and 1.40 g h −1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. (paper)

  2. Ginger components as new leads for the design and development of novel multi-targeted anti-Alzheimer’s drugs: a computational investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Faizul Azam,1,2 Abdualrahman M Amer,1 Abdullah R Abulifa,1 Mustafa M Elzwawi1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Misurata University, Misurata, Libya; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Nims Institute of Pharmacy, Nims University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale, despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer’s disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r2=0.931 between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer’s drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated

  3. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  4. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  5. Explosive component acceptance tester using laser interferometer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Richard D.; Tarbell, William W.

    1993-01-01

    Acceptance testing of explosive components requires a reliable and simple to use testing method that can discern less than optimal performance. For hot-wire detonators, traditional techniques use dent blocks or photographic diagnostic methods. More complicated approaches are avoided because of their inherent problems with setup and maintenance. A recently developed tester is based on using a laser interferometer to measure the velocity of flying plates accelerated by explosively actuated detonators. Unlike ordinary interferometers that monitor displacement of the test article, this device measures velocity directly and is commonly used with non-spectral surfaces. Most often referred to as the VISAR technique (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflecting Surface), it has become the most widely-accepted choice for accurate measurement of velocity in the range greater than 1 mm/micro-s. Traditional VISAR devices require extensive setup and adjustment and therefore are unacceptable in a production-testing environment. This paper describes a new VISAR approach which requires virtually no adjustments, yet provides data with accuracy comparable to the more complicated systems. The device, termed the Fixed-Cavity VISAR, is currently being developed to serve as a product verification tool for hot-wire detonators and slappers. An extensive data acquisition and analysis computer code was also created to automate the manipulation of raw data into final results.

  6. Quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, D.

    1992-01-01

    As computers become ever more complex, they inevitably become smaller. This leads to a need for components which are fabricated and operate on increasingly smaller size scales. Quantum theory is already taken into account in microelectronics design. This article explores how quantum theory will need to be incorporated into computers in future in order to give them their components functionality. Computation tasks which depend on quantum effects will become possible. Physicists may have to reconsider their perspective on computation in the light of understanding developed in connection with universal quantum computers. (UK)

  7. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optics has been used in computing for a number of years but the main emphasis has been and continues to be to link portions of computers, for communications, or more intrin- sically in devices that have some optical application or component (optical pattern recognition, etc). Optical digi- tal computers are still some years ...

  8. Study of Flow Deformation around Wind-Vane Mounted Three-Dimensional Hot-Wire Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Rasmussen, K.; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Jørgensen, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    Open wind tunnel tests on several different sensor systems consisting of triaxial hot-wire probes mounted on wind vanes (DISA and Riso vanes) have shown that flow deformation around the hot-wire sensor introduces errors in the measured velocity components. Though changes in the horizontal...... components proved to be negligible, flow deformation resulted in an overestimation of the vertical component from 1.1 to 1.5, depending on the direction of the vertical component. Turbulence and mean value data were adjusted by use of a linear correction derived from the wind tunnel tests. Wind vane...... construction must strike a compromise between minor flow disturbance and sufficient probe support. The final version of the DISA vane resulted in an acceptable vertical correction of about 10%....

  9. Calculating modes of quantum wire systems using a finite difference technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mardani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper, the Schrodinger equation for a quantum wire is solved using a finite difference approach. A new aspect in this work is plotting wave function on cross section of rectangular cross-sectional wire in two dimensions, periodically. It is found that the correct eigen energies occur when wave functions have a complete symmetry. If the value of eigen energy has a small increase or decrease in neighborhood of the correct energy the symmetry will be destroyed and aperturbation value at the first of wave function will be observed. In addition, the demand on computer memory varies linearly with the size of the system under investigation.

  10. Transoral screw and wire fixation for unstable anterior ½ atlas fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Keskil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Internal immobilization by this screw and wire osteosynthesis technique protects the mobility of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The main advantage is that neither the twisted wires inserted under the anterior lamina, nor the laterally placed screw heads interfere with midline wound closure; unlike the plate/cage and rod systems used together with anterior screws. A computer navigation system with intraoperative 3D imaging facilities will be of benefit for safe placement of the screw, however we preferred a free-hand technique, as the starting point was at the fracture line along the trajectory of the routinely accessible anterior lamina.

  11. Steady-State Numerical Modeling of Size Effects in Wire Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    Wire drawing processes at micron scale receive increased interest as micro wires are increasingly required in micro electrical components. At the micron scale, size effects become important and have to be taken into consideration. The goal is to optimize the semi-cone angle of the tool in terms...... of drawing force. The present study employs a steady-state modelling technique that omits the transient regime, thus creating a basis for comprehensive parameter studies. The steady-state procedure is based on the streamline integration method presented by Dean and Hutchinson [1]. This approach allows...

  12. Induced magnetic moment in stainless steel components of orthodontic appliances in 1.5 T MRI scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Nancy K.; Liang, Hui; Park, Yong Jong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Most orthodontic appliances are made of stainless steel materials and induce severe magnetic susceptibility artifacts in brain MRI. In an effort for correcting these artifacts, it is important to know the value of induced magnetic moments in all parts of orthodontic appliances. In this study, the induced magnetic moment of stainless steel orthodontic brackets, molar bands, and arch-wires from several vendors is measured. Methods: Individual stainless steel brackets, molar bands, and short segments of arch-wire were positioned in the center of spherical flask filled with water through a thin plastic rod. The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was determined by fitting the B0 map to the z-component of the magnetic dipole field using a computer routine. Results: The induced magnetic moment at 1.5 T was dominated by the longitudinal component mz, with a small contribution from the transverse components. The mz was insensitive to the orientation of the metal parts. The orthodontic brackets collectively dominated the magnetic dipole moment in orthodontic appliances. In brackets from six vendors, the total induced mz from 20 brackets for nonmolar teeth ranged from 0.108 to 0.158 (median 0.122) A ⋅ m2. The mz in eight molar bands with bracket attachment from two vendors ranged from 0.0004 to 0.0166 (median 0.0035) A ⋅ m2. Several full length arch wires had induced magnetic moment in the range of 0.006–0.025 (median 0.015) A ⋅ m2. Conclusions: Orthodontic brackets collectively contributed most to the total magnetic moment. Different types of brackets, molar bands, and arch wires all exhibit substantial variability in the induced magnetic moment. PMID:26429261

  13. Software Components for Web Services

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Muthu; Nair, T. R. Gopalakrsihnan; Selvarani, R.

    2010-01-01

    Service-oriented computing has emerged as the new area to address software as a service. This paper proposes a model for component based development for service-oriented systems and have created best practice guidelines on software component design.

  14. Mixed and dynamic response of hot wires and cold wires and measurements of turbulence statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen; Fairall, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Hot wires respond to temperature as well as to velocity, whereas cold wires respond to velocity as well as to temperature. The static and dynamic response characteristics are summarized and it is shown that the frequency transfer functions for the four different responses in general are different...

  15. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  16. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  17. Study of a large wire chamber; Etude d`une chambre de grande taille a un fil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, C.; Del Moral, R. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 Gradignan (France); Dufour, J-P. [URA451 Gradignan (France)

    1997-06-01

    We have tested a cylindrical large size single-wire chamber to check the possibility of obtaining high precision in the measurement with such detectors of the energy of the particles, dissipated entirely in the gas of the chamber. Such tests were carried out at the same time as preliminary studies of the multiwire systems devoted to measurements of individual energies, multiplicity and angular distributions for particle nuclei, with or without beta emission. The length of the chamber is 1 m, the diameter, 0.2 m and the wire diameter is 100 {mu}m. The composition of the chamber gas is 90% Ar and 10% CH{sub 4}. Several measurements were performed with this chamber and the energy spectrum from a 3 {alpha} source is given. The FWHM at 5.16 MeV is 76 keV which is a rather good value for a detector of 4 {mu}{pi} geometrical efficiency. On the basis of these results the project of a 8 wire detector was developed. The simulation of the operation of this chamber was made with the help of GARFIELD code of CERN. It was found that the field in the vicinity of the wire is very homogeneous. The paper presents also the equipotentials at 1 mm distance from the wire center. Also, are shown the gain fluctuations computed for 20 avalanches when the external tube potential and the potential center wire are matched in order to obtain a homogeneous field around the wires

  18. A Method for Avoiding Numerical Instability in FDTD-based Surge Simulations and its Application to Representation of Thin Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Akiyoshi; Noda, Taku

    The FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method, which is used for the computation of electromagnetic fields, is a useful tool for surge problems in three-dimensional arrangements, which cannot be rigorously treated by simulation methods such as EMTP (Electromagnetic Transients Programs) based on circuit theory. In the FDTD method, thin wires such as power lines are often represented by forcing the electric fields along the wires to zero. If a thin wire is represented in this way, its radius is determined by the size of the cells surrounding the wire. Although the technique for simulating an arbitrary radius has already been proposed, numerical instability often occurs in simulations when the wire radius is much smaller than the size of the cells surrounding the wire. As a conventional countermeasure against such numerical instability, the time discretization is often set to a smaller value than that based on Courant's condition. However, the smaller time discretization results in an increase in the calculation time. We propose a new technique for avoiding the numerical instability. Using this technique, in only a part of an analysis space where the numerical instability may occur, the time discretization is set to a value smaller than that based on Courant's condition, while the time discretization is set to a value close to that based on Courant's condition in the other part of the analysis space. We performed an FDTD-based simulation of a thin wire using the proposed numerical stabilization technique for validation.

  19. The Role of Overloading on the Reduction of Residual Stress by Cyclic Loading in Cold-Drawn Prestressing Steel Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestressing steel wires are commonly used as reinforcement elements in structures bearing fatigue loads. These wires are obtained by a conforming process called cold drawing, where a progressive reduction of the wire diameter is produced, causing residual stress in the commercial wire. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of diverse in-service cyclic loading conditions (cyclic loading and cyclic loading with overload on such a residual stress field. To achieve this goal, firstly, a numerical simulation of the wire drawing process of a commercial prestressing steel wire was carried out to reveal the residual stress state induced by the manufacture technique. Afterwards, a numerical simulation was performed of the in-service loading conditions of a prestressing steel wire in which the previously calculated residual stress state is included. The analysis of the obtained results shows a significant reduction of the residual stress state of about 50% for common in-service loadings and as high as 90% for certain cases undergoing overloads during cyclic loading. Therefore, an improvement of the mechanical performance of these structural components during their life in-service can be achieved.

  20. Charged particle tracking through electrostatic wire meshes using the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, L. J.; Karamyshev, O.; Welsch, C. P., E-mail: carsten.welsch@cockcroft.ac.uk [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Wire meshes are used across many disciplines to accelerate and focus charged particles, however, analytical solutions are non-exact and few codes exist which simulate the exact fields around a mesh with physical sizes. A tracking code based in Matlab-Simulink using field maps generated using finite element software has been developed which tracks electrons or ions through electrostatic wire meshes. The fields around such a geometry are presented as an analytical expression using several basic assumptions, however, it is apparent that computational calculations are required to obtain realistic values of electric potential and fields, particularly when multiple wire meshes are deployed. The tracking code is flexible in that any quantitatively describable particle distribution can be used for both electrons and ions as well as other benefits such as ease of export to other programs for analysis. The code is made freely available and physical examples are highlighted where this code could be beneficial for different applications.

  1. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  2. Nonoptimal component placement, but short processing paths, due to long-distance projections in neural systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kaiser

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that neural systems across several scales of organization show optimal component placement, in which any spatial rearrangement of the components would lead to an increase of total wiring. Using extensive connectivity datasets for diverse neural networks combined with spatial coordinates for network nodes, we applied an optimization algorithm to the network layouts, in order to search for wire-saving component rearrangements. We found that optimized component rearrangements could substantially reduce total wiring length in all tested neural networks. Specifically, total wiring among 95 primate (Macaque cortical areas could be decreased by 32%, and wiring of neuronal networks in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans could be reduced by 48% on the global level, and by 49% for neurons within frontal ganglia. Wiring length reductions were possible due to the existence of long-distance projections in neural networks. We explored the role of these projections by comparing the original networks with minimally rewired networks of the same size, which possessed only the shortest possible connections. In the minimally rewired networks, the number of processing steps along the shortest paths between components was significantly increased compared to the original networks. Additional benchmark comparisons also indicated that neural networks are more similar to network layouts that minimize the length of processing paths, rather than wiring length. These findings suggest that neural systems are not exclusively optimized for minimal global wiring, but for a variety of factors including the minimization of processing steps.

  3. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  4. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.

  5. Wiring Pathways to Replace Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The previous article in this series introduced the triune brain, the three components of which handle specialized life tasks. The survival brain, or brain stem, directs automatic physiological functions, such as heartbeat and breathing, and mobilizes fight/flight behaviour in times of threat. The emotional (or limbic) brain activates positive or…

  6. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  7. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  8. An energy-efficient failure detector for vehicular cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxi; Wu, Zhibo; Dong, Jian; Wu, Jin; Wen, Dongxin

    2018-01-01

    Failure detectors are one of the fundamental components for maintaining the high availability of vehicular cloud computing. In vehicular cloud computing, lots of RSUs are deployed along the road to improve the connectivity. Many of them are equipped with solar battery due to the unavailability or excess expense of wired electrical power. So it is important to reduce the battery consumption of RSU. However, the existing failure detection algorithms are not designed to save battery consumption RSU. To solve this problem, a new energy-efficient failure detector 2E-FD has been proposed specifically for vehicular cloud computing. 2E-FD does not only provide acceptable failure detection service, but also saves the battery consumption of RSU. Through the comparative experiments, the results show that our failure detector has better performance in terms of speed, accuracy and battery consumption.

  9. Solution of magnetohydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of radiative viscoelastic fluid with temperature dependent viscosity in wire coating analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Siddiqui, Nasir; Ullah, Murad; Shah, Qayyum

    2018-01-01

    Wire coating process is a continuous extrusion process for primary insulation of conducting wires with molten polymers for mechanical strength and protection in aggressive environments. In the present study, radiative melt polymer satisfying third grade fluid model is used for wire coating process. The effect of magnetic parameter, thermal radiation parameter and temperature dependent viscosity on wire coating analysis has been investigated. Reynolds model and Vogel's models have been incorporated for variable viscosity. The governing equations characterizing the flow and heat transfer phenomena are solved analytically by utilizing homotopy analysis method (HAM). The computed results are also verified by ND-Solve method (Numerical technique) and Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). The effect of pertinent parameters is shown graphically. In addition, the instability of the flow in the flows of the wall of the extrusion die is well marked in the case of the Vogel model as pointed by Nhan-Phan-Thien.

  10. A traffic analyzer for multiple SpaceWire links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Scige J.; Giusi, Giovanni; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Vertolli, Nello; Galli, Emanuele; Biondi, David; Farina, Maria; Pezzuto, Stefano; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Modern space missions are becoming increasingly complex: the interconnection of the units in a satellite is now a network of terminals linked together through routers, where devices with different level of automation and intelligence share the same data-network. The traceability of the network transactions is performed mostly at terminal level through log analysis and hence it is difficult to verify in real time the reliability of the interconnections and the interchange protocols. To improve and ease the traffic analysis in a SpaceWire network we implemented a low-level link analyzer, with the specific goal to simplify the integration and test phases in the development of space instrumentation. The traffic analyzer collects signals coming from pod probes connected in-series on the interested links between two SpaceWire terminals. With respect to the standard traffic analyzers, the design of this new tool includes the possibility to internally reshape the LVDS signal. This improvement increases the robustness of the analyzer towards environmental noise effects and guarantees a deterministic delay on all analyzed signals. The analyzer core is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA, programmed to decode the bidirectional LVDS signals at Link and Network level. Successively, the core packetizes protocol characters in homogeneous sets of time ordered events. The analyzer provides time-tagging functionality for each characters set, with a precision down to the FPGA Clock, i.e. about 20nsec in the adopted HW environment. The use of a common time reference for each character stream allows synchronous performance measurements. The collected information is then routed to an external computer for quick analysis: this is done via high-speed USB2 connection. With this analyzer it is possible to verify the link performances in terms of induced delays in the transmitted signals. A case study focused on the analysis of the Time-Code synchronization in presence of a SpaceWire Router is

  11. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires

  12. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  13. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  14. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  15. Mechanical evaluation of hip cement spacer reinforcement with stainless steel Kirschner wires, titanium and carbon rods, and stainless steel mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Tomonori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    In two-stage treatments for infections after total hip arthroplasty, antibiotic-loaded cement spacers help treat the infection by antibiotic elution and prevent contraction. However, such spacers are weak and may fracture while awaiting replacement, impairing functionality. We evaluated whether a Kirschner wire (K-wire) mounted into the spacer reinforced its strength along with the effects of the reinforcing material, position, and intensity. Spacers without reinforcing materials constituted the control group. As reinforcing materials, stainless steel K-wires (diameters 3 and 6 mm), titanium alloy and carbon fibers (diameter 3.175 mm), and stainless steel meshes (inner and outer diameters, 6 and 9 mm, respectively) were inserted into the spacer mold before filling with cement. The spacers complied with ISO 7206-4; a compressive load was applied using a testing machine with a velocity of 25.4 mm/min, and the maximum load was recorded. We used 1-3 K-wires positioned on the medial side, lateral side, neck only, and stem only and tested 3 specimens for each condition. The control group withstood the highest load. Stainless steel was the strongest material; 3-mm K-wires in the neck and lateral side withstood a higher load. The computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a cavity between the K-wires and cement. When K-wires were inserted along the whole length, despite cement fractures, continuity was maintained because of the reinforcing materials. It is difficult to improve the reinforcing strength of spacers using K-wires; however, K-wires prevented dislocation of cement spacer fragments, which can help prevent contraction and facilitate spacer removal during replacement.

  16. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  17. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of Service-Drop Wires and Interior-Wiring Cables for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    As the information society progresses, a variety of electronic appliances have come into wide use in common houses. If a lightning stroke causes faults or incorrect operations of these electronic appliances, a social economic loss is considered to be large. For this reason, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines in Japan has expanded to include the low-voltage side of the distribution line in addition to the high-voltage side. In order to calculate lightning overvoltages at the low-voltage side, the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables have to be modeled accurately. First, this paper describes test results of the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables. The modal surge impedances and the propagation velocities of various service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables are obtained by the test. Based on the test results obtained, this paper proposes a modeling methodology of these wires and cables for accurate EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) lightning overvoltage simulations. The proposed model is validated by comparing EMTP simulation results with field test results.

  19. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  20. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  1. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  2. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  3. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  5. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  6. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...

  7. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  8. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14859.001 PMID:27177418

  9. 2-D Fractal Wire Antenna Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Peterman, D. J.; Ewing, J. J.; Abbott, C. S.; Rizki, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    A 2-D fractal wire antenna uses a fractal (self-similar) pattern to increase its length by iteration and can receive or transmit electromagnetic radiation. 2-D fractals are shapes that, at their mathematical limit (of infinite iterations) have an infinite length. The fractal dimension describes the degree of space filling. A fundamental property of fractal antennas lies in iteration (repetition) of a fractal pattern over a range of length scales. Iteration produces fractal antennas that can be very compact, wideband and multiband. As the number of iterations increases, the antenna tends to have additional frequencies that minimize far field return loss. This differs from traditional antenna designs in that a single fractal antenna can operate well at multiple frequencies. We have created a MATLAB code to generate deterministic and stochastic modes of fractal wire antennas with a range of fractal dimensions between 1 and 2. Variation in fractal dimension, stochasticity, and number of iterations have been computationally tested using COMSOL Multiphysics software to determine their effect on antenna performance.

  10. Comparison between C1–2 Fixation with and without Supplemental Posterior Wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mai; Wadhwa, Rishi; Ziewacz, John; Mummaneni, Praveen; Chou, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective analysis. Clinical Question Is there a difference between the screw–rod construct (SRC) procedure without wiring and the SRC procedure with wiring with respect to fusion, implant failure, reoperation, donor-site morbidity, and complication rates? Patients and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 26 patients who underwent C1–2 fixation between 2004 and 2012 (SRC with wiring and structural bone graft, 13 patients; SRC with autograft but without wiring, 13 patients). Fusion was assessed using dynamic X-rays in all patients and computed tomographic scans in selected cases. Pseudoarthrosis was confirmed during reoperation. Results The mean follow-up time was 2 years and 5 months for the SRC without wiring group and 2 years and 1 month for the SRC with wiring group. Patients with less than 1-year follow-up time were excluded. The fusion rate, implant failure rate, and reoperation rates for the SRC without wiring group were 92, 8, and 8%, respectively. The fusion, implant failure, and reoperation rates for the SRC with wiring group were 100, 0, and 0%, respectively. There were no donor-site morbidities or complications in either group (both 0%). There were no differences in parameters we examined between the two groups (p > 0.05 for each rate, Fisher exact test). Conclusions The results suggest that supplementing the SRC procedure with wiring may increase fusion rate, but this difference is not statistically significant. Although the sample size was small, there was not a significant discrepancy in outcomes between the two groups at an average follow-up of 2 years. Final class of evidence (CoE)—treatment Yes Study Design  RCT  Cohort X  Case-control  Case series Methods  Concealed allocation (RCT)  Intention to treat (RCT)  Blinded/independent evaluation of primary outcome  F/U ≥ 85%  Adequate sample size  Control for confounding Overall class of evidence III PMID:24715868

  11. A semi-analytical study of positive corona discharge in wire-plane electrode configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanallah, K.; Pontiga, F.; Chen, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Wire-to-plane positive corona discharge in air has been studied using an analytical model of two species (electrons and positive ions). The spatial distributions of electric field and charged species are obtained by integrating Gauss's law and the continuity equations of species along the Laplacian field lines. The experimental values of corona current intensity and applied voltage, together with Warburg's law, have been used to formulate the boundary condition for the electron density on the corona wire. To test the accuracy of the model, the approximate electric field distribution has been compared with the exact numerical solution obtained from a finite element analysis. A parametrical study of wire-to-plane corona discharge has then been undertaken using the approximate semi-analytical solutions. Thus, the spatial distributions of electric field and charged particles have been computed for different values of the gas pressure, wire radius and electrode separation. Also, the two dimensional distribution of ozone density has been obtained using a simplified plasma chemistry model. The approximate semi-analytical solutions can be evaluated in a negligible computational time, yet provide precise estimates of corona discharge variables.

  12. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  13. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  14. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  15. Investigation on cold-drawn gold bonding wire with serial and reverse-direction drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Hyung; Rollett, A.D.; Cho, J.-S.; Park, Y.-J.; Park, S.-H.; Oh, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Gold bonding wires have been manufactured through multiple drawing steps with serial and reverse-direction drawing. The texture and microstructure of the gold bonding wires were characterized with X-ray diffraction and EBSD and compared with the predictions of finite element (FE) simulation. Initial fiber decreases during drawing and is replaced by fiber. The oriented grains are concentrated in the center and surface regions, whereas the oriented grains are located throughout the cross-section of the wire. Regions near the surface often exhibit the complex textures. A simplified forward and backward drawing process was modeled by FE analysis with ABAQUS/Standard TM . The simple two-step drawing process results in severe variation in shear strain under the surface and displays the opposite behavior in the shear components of the deformation gradient. The texture evolution was predicted using the deformation gradient calculated in the FE simulations together with a model of polycrystal plasticity. The and fibers are predicted to develop in the center part of the wire where homogeneous deformation occurs. The regions near the surface that experience repeated shear strain exhibit complex textures that deviate from the standard and fibers. The {1 1 2} and {1 1 1} components are prevalent in the higher shear strain regions. The variations of the anisotropic elastic directional moduli with position were also calculated

  16. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  17. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  18. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  19. Building Trades. Carpentry, Electrical Wiring, Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide contains 21 units of self-paced, self-contained instructional materials in the complete building trades curriculum. It is divided into vocational areas of carpentry, electrical wiring, and plumbing. The purpose of the curriculum is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering mainstream…

  20. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  1. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  2. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  3. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  4. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  5. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  6. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  7. Impact test of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)

  8. Electronic computer prediction of the type of the crystallization reaction of binary compounds on the base of electronic structure of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutolin, S.A.; Kotyukov, V.I.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the criteria permitting to predict distectic and peritectic reactions of crystallization in narrow and wide regions of homogeneity of Asub(n)Bsub(m) binary compounds. Criteria are found as a result of identification of the crystallization reaction type for one hundred of known binary compounds. Predicting function arguments are Chebishev coefficients whose polynomials describe energy distribution of s-, p-, d-atoms of bands of corresponding compound components in condensed state and also Fermi energy atate in compound components and a content. Prediction relative error of distectic (peritectic) crystallization reaction is 6%, for wide homogeneity region - not more than 12 rel.% (for narrow - up to 1 at%). Presented are the prediction results for the most part of A 3 B and AB 3 binary compounds as well as the rare earth compounds of various composition

  9. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M.; Heitzer, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  10. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  11. Component testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.; Schofield, Peter; Seymour, W.A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for non-destructive testing of an industrial component to ascertain if it is a single crystal, and to find the crystal orientations of those parts of the component which are single crystals, involves irradiating the component with a monochromatic collimated neutron beam. Diffracted neutron beams are observed live by means of LiF/ZnS composite screen, an image intensifier and a television camera and screen. (author)

  12. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  13. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  14. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  15. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  16. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  17. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of... 60092-302 (clause 7) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Wiring. Instrumentation and...

  18. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  19. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding... construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in...

  20. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...