WorldWideScience

Sample records for wire clarification act

  1. 76 FR 71060 - Clarification of Duplication of Benefits Requirements Under the Stafford Act for Community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Funds for Explicit and Eligible Purposes B. Treatment of Small Business Administration Loans VII... consultation with the Small Business Administration (SBA) and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA... duplication of benefit inquiries--the Stafford Act and applicable ``necessary and reasonable cost principles...

  2. Basic Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational…

  3. Clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-13

    A News & Comment article by Jon Cohen about an investigation of indirect costs charged by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to federal grants and contracts (22 Nov., p. 1103) reported that congressional staff members had inquired about a condominium owned by the Academy at the Watergate building. The article should have noted that NAS officials responded that the apartment, which has served as the residence of the NAS president for 25 years, is not charged to indirect costs but is paid for entirely with private funds.

  4. Wire Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  5. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    Magnetoscriptive readout wire chamber.Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  6. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Proportional multi-wire chamber. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle. Proportional wire chambers allow a much quicker reading than the optical or magnetoscriptive readout wire chambers.

  7. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Was used in ISR (Intersecting Storage Ring) split field magnet experiment. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  8. Wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  9. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  10. wire chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. Modeling the Clarification Potential of Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesize that conversational implicatures are a rich source of clarification requests, and in this paper we do two things. First, we motivate the hypothesis in theoretical, practical and empirical terms and formulate it as a concrete Clarification Potential Principle: implicatures may becom...... of situated conversations. Much of the inference required can be handled using classical planning, though as we shall note, other forms of means-ends analysis are also required. Our framework leads us to view discourse structure as emerging via opportunistic responses to task structure....

  12. Bias and Obfuscation in Kendler's (2005) "Clarification"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirk J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler misrepresented contemporary existential-humanistic psychology and conventional (or natural) scientific psychology. With regard to the former, he presented a confused, unwittingly biased, and all-too-stereotypic picture.…

  13. Values Clarification: An Aid to Adolescent Religious Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEniry, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Focuses on the contribution that values clarification can make to adolescent religious education. Summarizes the tenets of humanistic psychology that provided the matrix for values clarification and describes the substance of values clarification as expressed in its terminology, theory, process and strategies. (JAC)

  14. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30, 7217.20... galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of the Act (19 U.S...

  15. 46 CFR 28.865 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.865 Section 28.865... FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.865 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable... terminals is not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in high risk fire areas...

  16. Noncontextual Wirings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Barbara; Cabello, Adán; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Aolita, Leandro

    2018-03-01

    Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory necessary for certain models of quantum computation and communication. Serious steps have therefore been taken towards a formal framework for contextuality as an operational resource. However, the main ingredient of a resource theory—a concrete, explicit form of free operations of contextuality—was still missing. Here we provide such a component by introducing noncontextual wirings: a class of contextuality-free operations with a clear operational interpretation and a friendly parametrization. We characterize them completely for general black-box measurement devices with arbitrarily many inputs and outputs. As applications, we show that the relative entropy of contextuality is a contextuality monotone and that maximally contextual boxes that serve as contextuality bits exist for a broad class of scenarios. Our results complete a unified resource-theoretic framework for contextuality and Bell nonlocality.

  17. Goals of care: a concept clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Susan

    2017-06-01

    To report an analysis and clarification of the concept of goals of care. Goals of care have been used by healthcare providers since 1978, but no operationalized, consensual definition exists. Norris's method of concept clarification was used to create an operational definition, conceptual model and testable hypotheses of goals of care from the healthcare provider's perspective. Data came from current research reports, interviews with experts and web sites of professional organizations. Research reports were published between 2003-2013. Antecedents, definitions and consequences were systematized and organized into coherent and more abstract groups to define goals of care. A conceptual model and testable hypotheses were created from this process. Goals of care are desired health expectations that are formulated through the thoughtful interaction between a human being seeking medical care and the healthcare team in the healthcare system and are appropriate, agreed on, documented and communicated. Development of clear goals of care can increase patient satisfaction and quality of care while decreasing costs, hospital length of stay and hospital readmission. Goals of care are dynamic and should be reassessed regularly. How and when goals of care transition from implicit to explicit should be explored further, and what prompts this transition. Nurses, physicians and healthcare providers need education on how to best fill their roles in the development of goals of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. apple juice's clarification process by using cassava and rice starch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Conclusion: cassava and rice starch behaviour during cashew apples juice clarification were not similar. Nevertheless, from the results of optimization ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 95:8989 – 9002. ISSN 1997–5902 ..... action of gravity to modify clarity (Benitez & Lozano,. 2007). Clarification of in natura ...

  19. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  20. 77 FR 72884 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1197 (Final)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment hangers from Taiwan, provided for in subheading 7326.20...

  1. Proper water clarification increases oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.; Entzminger, T.; Allenson, S.

    1986-04-01

    Declining oil prices, rising environmental concerns, and tighter profit margins have made field efficiency a major concern. Of particular interest to producers is the resulting quality of the clarified water and the current reliance on compounds containing metal salts, such as zinc. Traditional reverse emulsion breakers generally are based on heavy metal compounds. Many of these products are composed primarily of zinc chloride blends and often are quite effective in resolving emulsions and oil dispersions. Unfortunately, the metal usage has simultaneously caused producers significant problems because of oil dehydration and interface pad build-up. In addition, the increasing environmental scrutiny of heavy metal compounds has raised fears about the potential danger of the metals finding their way into water used by humans and farm animals. As a result, a new type of water clarification program has been developed using a different polymer technology that produces substantial cost efficiency. The program utilizes new, high molecular-weight polymers-which are totally organic and highly efficient at low dosages-that fuction as both coagulants and reverse emulsion breakers.

  2. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  3. Promotion of role clarification in the Health Care Team Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C C; Gauvin, S; Tabanfar, R; Poffenroth, A M; Lee, J S; O'Riordan, A L

    2017-05-01

    Interprofessional collaboration has consistently been associated with positive client-care outcomes. Role clarification is one facet of interprofessional collaboration that is thought to be crucial for effective interprofessional team functioning. Given the positive outcomes associated with interprofessional collaboration, educators have begun to integrate formal interprofessional education events into healthcare curricula. The Health Care Team Challenge (HCTC) is a collaborative competition designed to promote interprofessional competencies among students in healthcare fields. The current study empirically investigated whether this event promoted role clarification among participants. Sixteen participants in five healthcare professions (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, clinical psychology, nursing, and medicine) completed two questionnaires to assess role clarification before and after participating in this event. Results indicate that participants' understanding of their own and other professions' roles improved after participating in this team activity. These results suggest that the HCTC is effective in promoting role clarification and collaboration among healthcare students.

  4. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  5. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  6. PS wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    A wire chamber used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron accelerator in the 1970s. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  7. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  8. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  9. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  10. Charpak hemispherical wire chamber

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    pieces. Mesures are of the largest one. Multi-wire detectors contain layers of positively and negatively charged wires enclosed in a chamber full of gas. A charged particle passing through the chamber knocks negatively charged electrons out of atoms in the gas, leaving behind positive ions. The electrons are pulled towards the positively charged wires. They collide with other atoms on the way, producing an avalanche of electrons and ions. The movement of these electrons and ions induces an electric pulse in the wires which is collected by fast electronics. The size of the pulse is proportional to the energy loss of the original particle.

  11. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development

  12. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  13. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  14. Automating wiring formboard design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Increase in aircraft wiring complexity call for manufacturing design improvements to reduce cost and lead-time. To achieve such improvements, a joint research project was performed by the Flight Performance and Propulsion (FPP) group and Fokker Elmo BV, the second largest aircraft wiring harness

  15. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, G P

    2004-01-01

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there

  16. Extraction and clarification of apple juice with polygalacturonase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pectinase is used commercially in the clarification and extraction of fruit juice from different fruits. Green apples and Red apples obtained from the fruits section of a supermarket, Idiroko road, Ota were surface sterilized and inoculated with Aspergillus niger. The stock culture was subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose agar ...

  17. Clarification and 3-D visualization of immunolabeled human placenta villi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, George; Schwenk, Valerie; Shah, Ruchit G; Necaise, Phillip; Salafia, Carolyn M

    2017-05-01

    We report here the successful 3D visualization of human placenta villous structures on the order of ∼1 mm 3 by a combination of immunolabeling, rapid tissue clarification and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The resultant image sets exhibit a complex arrangement of villi and their contained vasculature that mirrors their arrangement in situ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0606; FRL-9839-7] RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  19. Thermosonic wire bonding of IC devices using palladium wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shze, J.H.; Poh, M.T.; Tan, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of replacing gold wire by palladium wire in thermosonic wire bonding of CMOS and bipolar devices are studied in terms of the manufacturability, physical, electrical and assembly performance. The results that palladium wire is a viable option for bonding the bipolar devices but not the CMOS devices

  20. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryogenic Pressure Seal for Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    High-pressure-seal formed by forcing polyurethane into space surrounding wire or cable in special fitting. Wire or cable routed through fitting then through a tightly fitting cap. Wire insulation left intact. Cap filled with sealant and forced onto the fitting: this pushes sealant into fitting so it seals wire or cable in fitting as well as in cap.

  2. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  3. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  4. Generalization as creative and reflective act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca

    2013-01-01

    It is argued that generalization in psychology is a creative, interpretative, and reflective act of thought, by accessing a higher level of abstraction from meaningful events. In the context of clarification of this claim, a fresh look at Lewin’s argumentation about the “Aristotelian” and “Galile......It is argued that generalization in psychology is a creative, interpretative, and reflective act of thought, by accessing a higher level of abstraction from meaningful events. In the context of clarification of this claim, a fresh look at Lewin’s argumentation about the “Aristotelian...

  5. Wired to freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kim Sune Karrasch; Bertilsson, Margareta

    2017-01-01

    dimension of life science through a notion of public politics adopted from the political theory of John Dewey. We show how cochlear implantation engages different social imaginaries on the collective and individual levels and we suggest that users share an imaginary of being “wired to freedom” that involves...... new access to social life, continuous communicative challenges, common practices, and experiences. In looking at their lives as “wired to freedom,” we hope to promote a wider spectrum of civic participation in the benefit of future life science developments within and beyond the field of Cochlear...

  6. Wiring and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Wiring and Lighting provides a comprehensive guide to DIY wiring around the home. It sets out the regulations and legal requirements surrounding electrical installation work, giving clear guidelines that will enable the reader to understand what electrical work they are able to carry out, and what the testing and certification requirements are once the work is completed. Topics covered include: Different types of circuits; Types of cables and cable installation under floors and through joists; Isolating, earthing and bonding; Accessory boxes and fixings; Voltage bands; Detailed advice on safe

  7. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  8. Modern wiring practice

    CERN Document Server

    Steward, W E

    2012-01-01

    Continuously in print since 1952, Modern Wiring Practice has now been fully revised to provide an up-to-date source of reference to building services design and installation in the 21st century. This compact and practical guide addresses wiring systems design and electrical installation together in one volume, creating a comprehensive overview of the whole process for contractors and architects, as well as electricians and other installation engineers. Best practice is incorporated throughout, combining theory and practice with clear and accessible explanation, all

  9. Practical wiring in SI units

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Henry A

    2013-01-01

    Practical Wiring, Volume 1 is a 13-chapter book that first describes some of the common hand tools used in connection with sheathed wiring. Subsequent chapters discuss the safety in wiring, cables, conductor terminations, insulating sheathed wiring, conductor sizes, and consumer's control equipments. Other chapters center on socket outlets, plugs, lighting subcircuits, lighting accessories, bells, and primary and secondary cells. This book will be very valuable to students involved in this field of interest.

  10. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  11. Wire chambers: Trends and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard

    1992-01-01

    The subtitle of this year's Vienna Wire Chamber Conference - 'Recent Trends and Alternative Techniques' - signalled that it covered a wide range of science and technology. While an opening Vienna talk by wire chamber pioneer Georges Charpak many years ago began 'Les funerailles des chambres a fils (the burial of wire chambers)', the contrary feeling this year was that wire chambers are very much alive!

  12. Command Wire Sensor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate CWIE Command Wire-Improvised Explosive Device EMI Electromagnetic Induction GPR Ground Penetrating Radar...this, some type of constant false alarm rate ( CFAR ) receiver is required. CFAR automatically raises the threshold level to keep clutter echoes and

  13. Transport in quantum wires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transport in quantum wires. SIDDHARTHA LAL, SUMATHI RAO£ and DIPTIMAN SEN. Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. £ Harish-chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Abstract. With a brief introduction to one-dimensional channels ...

  14. Wire chamber conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartl, W.; Neuhofer, G.; Regler, M.

    1986-02-01

    This booklet contains program and the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference, most of them dealing with performance testing of various types of wire chambers. The publication of proceedings is planned as a special issue of 'Nuclear instruments and methods' later on. All abstracts are in English. An author index for the book of abstracts is given. (A.N.)

  15. Relations between must clarification and organoleptic attributes of wine varietes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blowdown musts is important operation performed in winemaking, which can have a major impact on the future quality of the wine. Blowdown of the wine removes components that may carry elements that negatively affect the hygienic and sensory quality of the wine. Fining of musts and wines is carried either by a static method or using different fining preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different methods of decanting on the wine quality varieties of Sauvignon. The overall sensory quality was evaluated (100 - points system, and semantic differential and the aromatic profile (profile method. All sensory evaluations were practiced by skilled sensory panel in controled conditions of Faculty sensory lab. Wine samples were clarified by static manner or with the assistance of the preparation applied to the clarification of wine in two different doses. By the results and their visualization of flavour and smell profile by spider plots we could conclude that pure cultures have positive effect on processed wine. Based on the results we found a beneficial effect of clearing by the clarification of the preparation based on cellulose, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, gelatin and mineral adsorbents at 100 g.100 L-1  of the sensory quality of the wine.

  16. Clarification process: Resolution of decision-problem conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of a general process which occurs in both decisionmaking and problem-solving tasks is presented. It is called the clarification model and is highly dependent on information flow. The model addresses the possible constraints of individual indifferences and experience in achieving success in resolving decision-problem conditions. As indicated, the application of the clarification process model is only necessary for certain classes of the basic decision-problem condition. With less complex decision problem conditions, certain phases of the model may be omitted. The model may be applied across a wide range of decision problem conditions. The model consists of two major components: (1) the five-phase prescriptive sequence (based on previous approaches to both concepts) and (2) the information manipulation function (which draws upon current ideas in the areas of information processing, computer programming, memory, and thinking). The two components are linked together to provide a structure that assists in understanding the process of resolving problems and making decisions.

  17. Values clarification as a technique for family planning education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, J V; Valenzuela, G J

    1983-02-01

    A Spanish language family planning education program utilizing the dynamics of values clarification has been designed and implemented in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The design of the program features three basic personality identification activities to help individuals identify other dimensions of adult life expression than child rearing. In addition, a series of simple and precise scenarios specifically related to family planning are presented. Each scenario is accompanied by a set of valuing questions that direct the learner to respond to the scenario. The activity booklet is entitled, "Clarification De Valores En La Planificacion Familar." The booklet requires the learner to make responses to the learning materials. Responses are then used as a basis for inferring that people are comprehending and above all personalizing knowledge about themselves and their culture and family planning. The program is cross cultural and can be used in Spanish speaking communities in the U.S. Its English language form can be used with English speaking target populations. Statistical analysis of seven critical categories of the program indicated that the shifts in attitudes from pre-to post-values, whether positive or negative (desirable or undesirable), were not significant at the .05 level of confidence. It should, however, be noted that small shifts in the rate of natural increase, or rate of natural decrease for population growth can have a dramatic effect on population growth when multiplied by time.

  18. Phenomenology and the life sciences: Clarifications and complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine

    2015-12-01

    This paper first clarifies phenomenology in ways essential to demonstrating its basic concern with Nature and its recognition of individual and cultural differences as well as commonalities. It furthermore clarifies phenomenological methodology in ways essential to understanding the methodology itself, its purpose, and its consequences. These clarifications show how phenomenology, by hewing to the dynamic realities of life itself and experiences of life itself, counters reductive thinking and "embodiments" of one kind and another. On the basis of these clarifications, the paper then turns to detailing conceptual complementarities between phenomenology and the life sciences, particularly highlighting studies in coordination dynamics. In doing so, it brings to light fundamental relationships such as those between mind and motion and between intrinsic dynamics and primal animation. It furthermore highlights the common concern with origins in both phenomenology and evolutionary biology: the history of how what is present is related to its inception in the past and to its transformations from past to present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Dental Arch Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  20. Wire chamber gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1992-04-01

    In this paper, we describe new developments in gas mixtures which have occurred during the last 3--4 years. In particular, we discuss new results on the measurement and modeling of electron drift parameters, the modeling of drift chamber resolution, measurements of primary ionization and the choice of gas for applications such as tracking, single electron detection, X-ray detection and visual imaging. In addition, new results are presented on photon feedback, breakdown and wire aging

  1. Vienna Wire Chamber Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    After those of 1978 and 1980, a third Wire Chamber Conference was held from 15-18 February in the Technical University of Vienna. Eight invited speakers covered the field from sophisticated applications in biology and medicine, via software, to the state of the art of gaseous detectors. In some forty other talks the speakers tackled in more detail the topics of gaseous detectors, calorimetry and associated electronics and software

  2. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  3. Dual wire welding torch and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  4. [Intramedullary osteosynthesis of distal metacarpal fractures with curved wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, M; Winkel, R; Porcher, R; Haas, H G

    1997-07-01

    When intramedullary pinning is used to treat metacarpal fractures, as recently described by Förstner (1994) and Foucher (1995), the closed reduction technique developed by Jahss (1938) is applied in the same way as for conservative fracture treatment. It is not always possible to achieve complete anatomical reduction using this closed technique. The intramedullary pinning technique, that we have applied since 1989, involves a Kirschner wire which is bent at one end. Apart from reducing the fracture, the pre-set Kirschner wire serves as a butressing internal fixator. The elastic clamping of the wire acts as an internal wire spring splint, permitting early mobilisation. We have operated on 62 metacarpal fractures using the above-mentioned technique over a period of 6 years until 1995. Anatomic reduction was realized in 50 of 62 fractures. In the follow-up of 32 fractures, we noticed four complications: one infection, two paraesthesias, and one non-union.

  5. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  6. Clarification of TMI action plan requirements. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This document, NUREG-0737, is a letter from D.G. Eisenhut, Director of the Division of Licensing, NRR, to licensees of operating power reactors and applicants for operating licenses forwarding post-TMI requirements which have been approved for implementation. Following the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2, the NRC staff developed the Action Plan, NUREG-0660, to provide a comprehensive and integrated plan to improve safety at power reactors. Specific items from NUREG-0660 have been approved by the Commission for implementation at reactors. In this NRC report, these specific items comprise a single document which includes additional information about schedules, applicability, method of implementation review, submittal dates, and clarification of technical positions. It should be noted that the total set of TMI-related actions have been collected in NUREG-0660, but only those items that the Commission has approved for implementation to date are included in this document, NUREG-0737

  7. Uranium Analysis by Radiometry for Clarification of Nuclear Material Accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf Nampira

    2004-01-01

    The uranium was used in the activity of the development of nuclear fuel. Using of the fissile material incurred by regulation of safeguard that is implemented by accounting of nuclear material. Referring to this mentioned, so the stream of the nuclear material used in the development require to be clarified its existence. In order to this clarification has been done by analysis of uranium in elementary material, product of development process and also the waste yielded. Pursuant to nature of radionuclide of uranium which decays by transmitted alpha and gamma radiation, the uranium can be analyzed by radiometry method. The uranium analysis use radiometry methods shall give information of total content and isotopic abundance of nuclear material. (author)

  8. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  9. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  10. 77 FR 9701 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan And Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that there is a reasonable indication that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment hangers, provided for in...

  11. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Dario; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-01-01

    retainers in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain...

  12. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  13. Wiring regulations in brief

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Tired of trawling through the Wiring Regs?Perplexed by Part P?Confused by cables, conductors and circuits?Then look no further! This handy guide provides an on-the-job reference source for Electricians, Designers, Service Engineers, Inspectors, Builders, Students, DIY enthusiastsTopic-based chapters link areas of working practice - such as cables, installations, testing and inspection, special locations - with the specifics of the Regulations themselves. This allows quick and easy identification of the official requirements relating to the situati

  14. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  15. Epitaxial semiconductor quantum wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Chen, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2008-07-01

    The investigation on the direct epitaxial quantum wires (QWR) using MBE or MOCVD has been persuited for more than two decades, more lengthy in history as compared with its quantum dot counterpart. Up to now, QWRs with various structural configurations have been produced with different growth methods. This is a reviewing article consisting mainly of two parts. The first part discusses QWRs of various configurations, together with laser devices based on them, in terms of the two growth mechanisms, self-ordering and self-assembling. The second part gives a brief review of the electrical and optical properties of QWRs.

  16. 46 CFR 111.60-11 - Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire. 111.60-11 Section 111.60-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-11 Wire. (a) Wire must be in an enclosure. (b) Wire must be...

  17. Corrosion of Wires on Wooden Wire-Bound Packaging Crates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Stan Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Wire-bound packaging crates are used by the US Army to transport materials. Because these crates may be exposed to harsh environments, they are dip-treated with a wood preservative (biocide treatment). For many years, zinc-naphthenate was the most commonly used preservative for these packaging crates and few corrosion problems with the wires were observed. Recently,...

  18. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  19. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  20. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    , therefore, we’ve drawn conclusions and recommendations for future editions of the event, also generalizable to other experiences of gamification especially in events. This report details the methodology and working elements from the design phase, human resources and organization of production......This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...... proposed new ones (viralization of the event on social networks and improvement of the integration of international attendees). On the other hand we defined a set of research objectives related to the study of gamification in an eminently social place like an event. Most of the goals have been met and...

  2. DISORGANIZATION, FEAR AND ATTACHMENT: WORKING TOWARDS CLARIFICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschinsky, Robbie

    2018-01-01

    In 1990, M. Main and J. Solomon introduced the procedures for coding a new "disorganized" infant attachment classification for the Ainsworth Strange Situation procedure (M.D.S. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978). This classification has received a high degree of interest, both from researchers and from child welfare and clinical practitioners. Disorganized attachment has primarily been understood through the lens of E. Hesse and M. Main's concept of "fright without solution," taken to mean that an infant experiences a conflict between a desire to approach and flee from a frightening parent when confronted by the Strange Situation. Yet, looking back, it can be observed that the way Hesse and Main's texts were formulated and read has generated confusion; there have been repeated calls in recent years for renewed theory and clarification about the relationship between disorganization and fear. Responding to these calls, this article revisits the texts that introduced the idea of fright without solution, clarifying their claims through articulating more precisely the different meanings of the term fear. This clarified account will then be applied to consideration of pathways to infant disorganized behaviors. © 2018 The Authors. Infant Mental Health Journal published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  3. Peer-assisted learning: time for nomenclature clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaussen, Alexander; Reddy, Priya; Irvine, Susan; Williams, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is used throughout all levels of healthcare education. Lack of formalised agreement on different PAL programmes may confuse the literature. Given the increasing interest in PAL as an education philosophy, the terms need clarification. The aim of this review is to 1) describe different PAL programmes, 2) clarify the terminology surrounding PAL, and 3) propose a simple pragmatic way of defining PAL programmes based on their design. A review of current PAL programmes within the healthcare setting was conducted. Each programme was scrutinised based on two aspects: the relationship between student and teacher, and the student to teacher ratio. The studies were then shown to fit exclusively into the novel proposed classification. The 34 programmes found, demonstrate a wide variety in terms used. We established six terms, which exclusively applied to the programmes. The relationship between student and teacher was categorised as peer-to-peer or near-peer. The student to teacher ratio suited three groupings, named intuitively 'Mentoring' (1:1 or 1:2), 'Tutoring' (1:3-10), and 'Didactic' (1:>10). From this, six novel terms - all under the heading of PAL - are suggested: 'Peer Mentoring', 'Peer Tutoring', 'Peer Didactic', 'Near-Peer Mentoring', 'Near-Peer Tutoring', and 'Near-Peer Didactic'. We suggest herein a simple pragmatic terminology to overcome ambiguous terminology. Academically, clear terms will allow effective and efficient research, ensuring furthering of the educational philosophy.

  4. Conceptual clarifications regarding Chilean Act 20850 on public funding of high-cost diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hugo Kottow Lang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En 2015 se publica en Chile la Ley 20850, cuyo objetivo declarado es el financiamiento público de enfermedades raras y de aquellas de alto costo diagnóstico y terapéutico. Inserto en la ley hay un articulado a introducir en el Código Sanitario, que exige de las investigaciones clínicas que mantengan los beneficios médicos determinados por el estudio, para los pacientes investigados, por todo el tiempo que sea médicamente necesario; amparado por extensos seguros para cubrir eventuales complicaciones y efectos indeseados. La redacción de la ley había motivado intensas polémicas, debido a su imprecisa redacción que permite interpretar que la protección exigida es extensible a todo estudio clínico; siendo que la lectura atenta y el contexto de este articulado claramente lo refieren a terapias experimentales. Este artículo distingue entre uso compasivo y terapias experimentales genuinas, que enlazan Fase I (delimita dosis máximas no tóxicas en individuos sanos y Fase II (estudia efectividad en pequeños grupos de pacientes, investigando tanto farmacodinamia como efectos terapéuticos para enfermedades graves, en deterioro progresivo y huérfanas de tratamiento, con el objetivo ético y médico de la disponibilidad de efectos benéficos, más allá de terminado el estudio.

  5. 78 FR 58202 - Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) Medical Malpractice Program Regulations: Clarification of FTCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... and the states, or the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of..., schools, or elsewhere in the community. (E) Migrant Camp Outreach: Health center staff travel to a migrant...

  6. 76 FR 10825 - Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) Medical Malpractice Program Regulations: Clarification of FTCA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... States, on the relationship between the National Government and the States, or on the distribution of... event may be held at the health center, schools, or elsewhere in the community. (v) Migrant Camp Outreach. Health center staff travel to a migrant farmworker residence camp to conduct intake screening to...

  7. 77 FR 3742 - India Infrastructure Business Development Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration India Infrastructure Business Development Mission--Clarification and Amendment AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade...

  8. 78 FR 58500 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications Proposed Rule; Public Meeting and Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed rule ``Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications,'' which was published... the federal water quality standards (WQS) regulation at 40 CFR Part 131 which helps implement the..., the proposed rule will lead to improved water quality standard development, implementation and...

  9. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  10. Effects of goal clarification on impulsivity and academic procrastination of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Muñoz-Olano; Camilo Hurtado-Parrado

    2017-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the college population struggles with academic procrastination, which is an impulsivity problem that often leads to emotional difficulties and college dropout. This study aimed to assess whether an online intervention on clarification of academic goals could reduce impulsivity and academic procrastination in college students. Forty-eight participants were assigned to three different types of interventions: (a) SMART-type goal clarification treatment (setting specific, measurable...

  11. Clarification of vaccines: An overview of filter based technology trends and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata

    2016-01-01

    Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pediatric emergency department discharge prescriptions requiring pharmacy clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle C; Gittelman, Michael A; Widecan, Michelle L; Luria, Joseph W

    2015-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze and classify reasons why retail pharmacies need to contact the pediatric emergency department (PED) for clarification on outpatient prescriptions generated using an electronic prescribing system and to categorize the severity of errors captured. A retrospective chart review was conducted at a PED that cares for approximately 92,000 patients annually. All pharmacy callbacks documented in the electronic medical record between August 1, 2008 and July 31, 2009 were included. A datasheet was used to capture patient demographics (age, sex, race, insurance), prescriptions written, and reason for callback. Each call was then assigned a severity level, and time to respond to all calls was estimated. Frequencies were used to analyze the data. A total of 731 errors for 695 callbacks were analyzed from 49,583 prescriptions written at discharge. The most common errors included administrative/insurance issues 342/731 (47%) and prescription writing errors 298/731 (41%). The errors were classified as insignificant (340/729 [47%]), problematic (288/729 [40%]), significant (77/729 [11%]), serious (12/729 [1.64%]), and severe (12/729 [1.64%]). Almost 96% of errant prescriptions were not able to be filled as originally written and required a change by the prescriber. These calls required approximately 127 hours to complete. Prescription errors requiring a pharmacy callback are typically insignificant. However, 13.8% of callbacks about an error were considered significant, serious, or severe. Automated dose checking and verifying insurance coverage of prescribed medications should be considered essential components of prescription writing in a PED.

  13. Peer-assisted learning: time for nomenclature clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaussen, Alexander; Reddy, Priya; Irvine, Susan; Williams, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is used throughout all levels of healthcare education. Lack of formalised agreement on different PAL programmes may confuse the literature. Given the increasing interest in PAL as an education philosophy, the terms need clarification. The aim of this review is to 1) describe different PAL programmes, 2) clarify the terminology surrounding PAL, and 3) propose a simple pragmatic way of defining PAL programmes based on their design. Methods A review of current PAL programmes within the healthcare setting was conducted. Each programme was scrutinised based on two aspects: the relationship between student and teacher, and the student to teacher ratio. The studies were then shown to fit exclusively into the novel proposed classification. Results The 34 programmes found, demonstrate a wide variety in terms used. We established six terms, which exclusively applied to the programmes. The relationship between student and teacher was categorised as peer-to-peer or near-peer. The student to teacher ratio suited three groupings, named intuitively ‘Mentoring’ (1:1 or 1:2), ‘Tutoring’ (1:3–10), and ‘Didactic’ (1:>10). From this, six novel terms – all under the heading of PAL – are suggested: ‘Peer Mentoring’, ‘Peer Tutoring’, ‘Peer Didactic’, ‘Near-Peer Mentoring’, ‘Near-Peer Tutoring’, and ‘Near-Peer Didactic’. Conclusions We suggest herein a simple pragmatic terminology to overcome ambiguous terminology. Academically, clear terms will allow effective and efficient research, ensuring furthering of the educational philosophy. PMID:27415590

  14. Research integrity and misconduct: a clarification of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, T D; Duma, S; Fakude, L P; Mbombo, N; Daniels, F; Sabone, M S

    2006-03-01

    The commercialization of research and the ever changing scientific environment has led scholars to shift the focus from promoting research integrity to regulating misconduct. As a result, most literature explains research integrity in terms of avoidance of misconduct. The purpose of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion on research integrity and research misconduct. This article explores the meaning of research integrity and research misconduct, and how research integrity can be promoted to ensure safer research and scholarship. We believe that the discussion can help clarify some hazy areas in the research and publication processes, and appreciate some crucial aspects that they may have seen taken for granted. The purpose of this article is to share with the readers some clarification or analysis of the two concepts namely: research integrity and misconduct. The objectives are: (1) To explore and analyse the concepts of research integrity and research misconduct from the educational or developmental perspective and not the legal perspective as others in literature have done. (2) To stimulate the reflection and discussion on strategies to promote research integrity and thus prevent research misconduct Literature review and concept analysis was undertaken to clarify the two concepts. We argue that the two concepts can be viewed along a continuum, i.e. where research integrity ends, research misconduct starts. We also argue that it is the responsibility of the research community at large to always ensure that the scientific ethics balance is maintained throughout the research process to ensure research integrity and avoid research misconduct. We also argue that research integrity is interlinked with morality while misconduct is interlinked with immorality.

  15. Peer-assisted learning: time for nomenclature clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Olaussen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL is used throughout all levels of healthcare education. Lack of formalised agreement on different PAL programmes may confuse the literature. Given the increasing interest in PAL as an education philosophy, the terms need clarification. The aim of this review is to 1 describe different PAL programmes, 2 clarify the terminology surrounding PAL, and 3 propose a simple pragmatic way of defining PAL programmes based on their design. Methods: A review of current PAL programmes within the healthcare setting was conducted. Each programme was scrutinised based on two aspects: the relationship between student and teacher, and the student to teacher ratio. The studies were then shown to fit exclusively into the novel proposed classification. Results: The 34 programmes found, demonstrate a wide variety in terms used. We established six terms, which exclusively applied to the programmes. The relationship between student and teacher was categorised as peer-to-peer or near-peer. The student to teacher ratio suited three groupings, named intuitively ‘Mentoring’ (1:1 or 1:2, ‘Tutoring’ (1:3–10, and ‘Didactic’ (1:>10. From this, six novel terms – all under the heading of PAL – are suggested: ‘Peer Mentoring’, ‘Peer Tutoring’, ‘Peer Didactic’, ‘Near-Peer Mentoring’, ‘Near-Peer Tutoring’, and ‘Near-Peer Didactic’. Conclusions: We suggest herein a simple pragmatic terminology to overcome ambiguous terminology. Academically, clear terms will allow effective and efficient research, ensuring furthering of the educational philosophy.

  16. Clarification of Employer’s Continuing Obligation To Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of Each Recordable Injury and Illness. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Under the Congressional Review Act, Congress has passed, and the President has signed, Public Law 115-21, a resolution of disapproval of OSHA's final rule titled, "Clarification of Employer's Continuing Obligation to Make and Maintain an Accurate Record of each Recordable Injury and Illness." OSHA published the rule, which contained various amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations, on December 19, 2016. The amendments became effective on January 18, 2017. Because Public Law 115-21 invalidates the amendments to OSHA's recordkeeping regulations contained in the rule promulgated on December 19, 2016, OSHA is hereby removing those amendments from the Code of Federal Regulations.

  17. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring systems. Electrical wiring shall be installed and maintained to conform to SAE J1292—Automobile, Truck, Truck-Tractor...

  18. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topology Optimized Photonic Wire Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Borel, Peter Ingo; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm.......Photonic wire splitters have been designed using topology optimization. The splitters have been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material and display broadband low-loss 3dB splitting in a bandwidth larger than 100 nm....

  20. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  1. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames...

  2. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  3. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  4. Synthesise of Zn O nano wires by direct oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbod, M.; Ahangarpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    Zn O is a semiconductor which has a direct and wide energy band which is about 3.37 eV at room temperature. It has various applications from UV lasers, sensitive sensors, solar cells to photo catalysis applications. Zn O has different nano structures such as nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes and nano belts. The one dimensional Zn O nano structures such as nano wires are very important because of their applications in nano electronics and nano photonics so different methods have been proposed to synthesize them. In this work large scale of Zn O nano wires are produced by direct oxidation a Zn substrate (which was cleaned by chemical methods) in air or oxygen atmosphere at 400 d eg C . Nano wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray measurements. Their diameter is about 30-150 nanometer and their length is about several micrometer. This method which acts without any catalyst is a convenient method to synthesis semiconductor nano wires.

  5. WIRED — World Wide Web interactive remote event display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaminut, A.; Colonello, C.; Dönszelmann, M.; van Herwijnen, E.; Köper, D.; Korhonen, J.; Litmaath, M.; Perl, J.; Theodorou, A.; Whiteson, D.; Wolff, E.

    2001-10-01

    WIRED ( http://wired.cern.ch/) is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g., fisheye, ρ- φ, ρ- Z, φ- Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. A special Java interpreter allows physicists to write small scripts to interact with their data and its display. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, BaBar, D0 and ZEUS). WIRED event displays have also proven to be useful to explain High Energy Physics to the general public. Both CERN, in its traveling exhibition and MicroCosm, and RAL, during its open days, have displays set up.

  6. Torque resistance of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Dario T; Dalstra, Michel; Verna, Carlalberta

    2016-06-01

    Movements of teeth splinted by fixed retention wires after orthodontic treatment have been observed. The aetiological factors for these movements are unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the resistance to torque of different stainless steel wires commonly used for fixed retainers in orthodontics. Torquing moments acting on a retainer wire were measured in a mechanical force testing system by applying buccal crown torque to an upper lateral incisor in both a 3-teeth and in a 2-teeth setup. Seven stainless steel wires with different shape, type (plain, braided, coaxial, or chain) and dimensions were selected for this study. For a torquing angle of 16.2° in the 3-teeth setup torsion moments can vary between 390 cNmm and 3299 cNmm depending on the retainer wire. For the 2-teeth setup the torsion moments are much smaller. Exposure to the flame of a butane-gas torch for 10 seconds to anneal the wire reduces the stiffness of the retainer wire. Clinicians must select wires for fixed retainers very carefully since the difference in resistance to torque is large. A high level of torque control can be achieved with a plain 0.016 × 0.016-inch or a braided 0.016 × 0.022-inch stainless steel wire. A tooth attached by a retainer wire to only one neighbouring tooth is less resistant to torque than a tooth connected to two neighbouring teeth. Annealing a retainer wire with a flame reduces the stiffness of the wire markedly and can lead to a non-uniform and non-reproducible effect.

  7. South Africa's abortion values clarification workshops — an opportunity to deepen democratic communication missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Louise

    2011-01-01

    A rich literature exists on local democracy and participation in South Africa. While the importance of participation is routinely built into the rhetoric of government, debate has increasingly focused on the dysfunctionality of participatory mechanisms and institutions in post-apartheid South Africa. Processes aimed ostensibly at empowering citizens, act in practice as instruments of social control, disempowerment and cooptation. The present article contributes to these debates by way of a critique of the approach used by the South African state, in partnership with the non-governmental sector, in what are called abortion "values clarification" (VC) workshops. This article examines the workshop materials, methodology and pedagogical tools employed in South African abortion VC workshops which emanate from the organization Ipas — a global body working to enhance women's sexual and reproductive rights and to reduce abortion-related deaths and injuries. VC workshops represent an instance of a more general trend in which participation is seen as a tool for generating legitimacy and "buy-in" for central state directives rather than as a means for genuinely deepening democratic communication. The manipulation of participation by elites may serve as a means to achieve socially desirable goals in the short term but the long-term outlook for a vibrant democracy invigorated by a knowledgeable, active and engaged citizenry that is accustomed to being required to exercise careful reflection and to its views being respected, is undermined. Alternative models of democratic communication, because they are based on the important democratic principles of inclusivity and equality, have the potential both to be more legitimate and more effective in overcoming difficult social challenges in ways that promote justice.

  8. 76 FR 34044 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Extension of Time Limits... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod from Mexico...) and 777(i)(1) of the Act. Dated: June 3, 2011. Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for...

  9. Crystal-Phase Quantum Wires: One-Dimensional Heterostructures with Atomically Flat Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfdir, Pierre; Li, Hong; Marquardt, Oliver; Gao, Guanhui; Molas, Maciej R; Zettler, Johannes K; van Treeck, David; Flissikowski, Timur; Potemski, Marek; Draxl, Claudia; Trampert, Achim; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Grahn, Holger T; Brandt, Oliver

    2018-01-10

    In semiconductor quantum-wire heterostructures, interface roughness leads to exciton localization and to a radiative decay rate much smaller than that expected for structures with flat interfaces. Here, we uncover the electronic and optical properties of the one-dimensional extended defects that form at the intersection between stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries in GaN nanowires. We show that they act as crystal-phase quantum wires, a novel one-dimensional quantum system with atomically flat interfaces. These quantum wires efficiently capture excitons whose radiative decay gives rise to an optical doublet at 3.36 eV at 4.2 K. The binding energy of excitons confined in crystal-phase quantum wires is measured to be more than twice larger than that of the bulk. As a result of their unprecedented interface quality, these crystal-phase quantum wires constitute a model system for the study of one-dimensional excitons.

  10. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resista...

  11. Sample of superconducting wiring (Niobium Titanium)

    CERN Multimedia

    About NbTi cable: The cable consists of 36 strands of superconducting wire, each strand has a diameter of 0.825 mm and houses 6300 superconducting filaments of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti, a superconducting alloy). Each filament has a diameter of about 0.006 mm, i.e. 10 times smaller than a typical human hair. The filaments are embedded in a high-purity copper matrix. Copper is a normal conducting material. The filaments are in the superconductive state when the temperature is below about -263ºC (10.15 K). When the filaments leave the superconductive state, the copper acts as conductor transports the electrical current. Each strand of The NbTi cable (at superconducting state) has a current density of up to above 2000 A/mm2 at 9 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). A cable transport a current of about 13000 A at 10 T and -271ºC (2.15 K). About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistan...

  12. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  13. Wire Rupture Optimization in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining using Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Ibrahem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM is one of the most important nontraditional machining process that is well-known for cutting difficult to machine materials. The wire electrode along with machining parameters control the WEDM process. This research work focuses on optimizing WEDM parameters using Taguchi technique to minimize wire rupture. Experiments have been done using the L18 orthogonal array. Each experiment is repeated three times to ensure accurate readings of the wire rupture. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (S/N ratio is applied to study effects of peak current, pulse width, charging time, wire speed, and wire tension on wire rupture. As a results, the peak current, pulse width, and wire tension have the most significant effect on wire rupture followed by charging time and wire speed. The developed analysis can be used in the metal cutting field to identify the optimum machining parameters for less wire rupture.

  14. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (≤19%), proteins (≤82%), phosphorus (≤53%), and SiO2 (≤23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (≤136%) and sulfur (≤200%).

  15. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  16. Enhancing wire-composite bond strength of bonded retainers with wire surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, L J; Shellhart, W C; Henderson, S

    2001-06-01

    Bonded orthodontic retainers with wires embedded in composite resin are commonly used for orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to test, in vitro, various wire surface treatments to determine the optimal method of enhancing the wire-composite bond strength. Coaxial wires and stainless steel wires with different surface treatments were bonded to bovine enamel and then pulled along their long axes with an Instron universal testing machine. Wire surface treatments included placing a right-angle bend in the wire, microetching the wire, and treating the wire with adhesion promoters; combinations of treatments were also examined. The results demonstrated a 24-fold increase in the wire-composite bond strength of wire that was microetched (sandblasted), compared with that of untreated straight wire. The difference between the amount of force required to break the bond produced by microetching alone (246.1 +/- 46.0 MPa) and that required for the bonds produced by the retentive bend (87.8 +/- 16.3 MPa), the adhesion promoters (silane, 11.0 +/- 3.1 MPa; Metal Primer, 28.5 +/- 15.8 MPa), or for any combination of surface treatments, was statistically significant. Microetching a stainless steel wire produced a higher wire-composite bond strength than that obtained from a coaxial wire (113.5 +/- 27.5 MPa). The results of this study indicate that microetching or sandblasting a stainless steel wire significantly increases the strength of the wire-composite bond.

  17. A strain gradient plasticity theory with application to wire torsion

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, J. X.

    2014-06-05

    Based on the framework of the existing strain gradient plasticity theories, we have examined three kinds of relations for the plastic strain dependence of the material intrinsic length scale, and thus developed updated strain gradient plasticity versions with deformation-dependent characteristic length scales. Wire torsion test is taken as an example to assess existing and newly built constitutive equations. For torsion tests, with increasing plastic strain, a constant intrinsic length predicts too high a torque, while a decreasing intrinsic length scale can produce better predictions instead of the increasing one, different from some published observations. If the Taylor dislocation rule is written in the Nix-Gao form, the derived constitutive equations become singular when the hardening exponent gets close to zero, which seems questionable and calls for further experimental clarifications on the exact coupling of hardening due to statistically stored dislocations and geometrically necessary dislocations. Particularly, when comparing the present model with the mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity, the present model satisfies the reciprocity relation naturally and gives different predictions even under the same parameter setting. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  19. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  20. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  1. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Chain; Priyank Seth; Namrata Rastogi; Kenneth Tan; Mayank Gupta; Richa Singh

    2015-01-01

    Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our invento...

  2. Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bo...

  3. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Schummer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1 Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2 developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3 evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N. We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°. All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1 Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2 EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3 and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3 all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold.

  4. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  5. Health care's 100 most wired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key."

  6. Multi-anode wire straw tube tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Wang, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We report on a test of a straw tube detector design having several anode (sense) wires inside a straw tube. The anode wires form a circle inside the tube and are read out independently. This design could solve several shortcomings of the traditional single wire straw tube design such as double hit capability and stereo configuration.

  7. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  8. On the preparation of superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topare, R.J.; Chinchure, A.D.; Shah, S.S.; Hadole, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The different methods of preparation of superconducting wires have been discussed. The powder-in-tube technique is followed for the preparation of YBCO and BISCCO superconducting wires. The results are discussed. The present status of the industries in preparing the superconducting wires having the maximum J c values is discussed. (author). 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Pre-wired systems prove their worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The 'new generation' of modular wiring systems from Apex Wiring Solutions have been specified for two of the world's foremost teaching hospitals - the Royal London and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as part of a pounds sterling 1 billion redevelopment project, to cut electrical installation times, reduce on-site waste, and provide a pre-wired, factory-tested, power and lighting system. HEJ reports.

  10. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for..., producers, or exporters in China of wire decking, and that such ] products are being sold in the United...

  11. All Values Are Equal, But Some Are More Equal Than Others: A Critique and Redefinition of Values Clarification. Monograph Series No. 102 Code C-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Richard

    This literature review presents the essentials of the theory of Values Clarification and its fundamental terms, and makes a critical analysis of the Values Clarification Theory of Valuation. (Author/JLL)

  12. The effectiveness of a math game: The impact of integrating conceptual clarification as support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandercruysse, Sylke; ter Vrugte, Judith; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Wouters, Pieter; van Oostendorp, Herre; Verschaffel, Lieven; Moeyaert, Mariola; Elen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of integrating conceptual clarifications as support in an educational math game, and explores the impact of adding this (internal vs. external) support on students’ game and mathematical performance, intrinsic motivation, and game perception. Three conditions are

  13. 75 FR 71548 - Clarification of the Post Office Box Lock Replacement Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Clarification of the Post Office Box Lock Replacement Fee AGENCY... of the lock replacement fee for Post Office TM boxes to reflect current practice. DATES: January 2... Standards for Domestic Mailing Services (75 FR 39477-39492). The applicability of the lock replacement fee...

  14. Alternatives to Address Role Clarification at the U.S. Army Community Hospital, Fort Polk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Study on Conflict in Two Hospitals," Health Services Manager, 11 (December 1978): 1-9. 2 Richard Beckhard , Explorations on the Teaching and Learning of...ward to seeing you on the 21st of March. RICHARD B. STUART, M.D. COL, m Commanding 78 APPENDIX E AFTER ACTION REPORT ON ROLE CLARIFICATION WORKSHOP 79

  15. Increasing Customer Service Behaviors Using Manager-Delivered Task Clarification and Social Praise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anna; Austin, John; Gravina, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This project assessed an intervention to improve employee customer service behaviors (correct greetings and closing behaviors). A combination of task clarification and manager-delivered social praise resulted in increased correct greeting from 11.5% to 66% and correct closing from 8% to 70%. The effect was maintained at a 48-week follow-up for…

  16. 78 FR 48367 - TRICARE Program; Clarification of Benefit Coverage of Durable Equipment and Ordering or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... replacement of durable equipment is allowed when the durable equipment is not serviceable because of normal... use, and replacement of lost or stolen durable equipment, are excluded from coverage. In addition... TRICARE Program; Clarification of Benefit Coverage of Durable Equipment and Ordering or Prescribing...

  17. 76 FR 61660 - Cost Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Accounting Standards: Clarification of the Exemption From Cost Accounting Standards for Firm-Fixed-Price... Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Cost Accounting Standards Board. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP), Cost Accounting Standards (CAS...

  18. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... approved seat or berth and no restraining device for the child is used. In contrast, for commercial... proposed clarification also emphasizes that the proper restraint method for children during operations... Interpretations You can get an electronic copy using the Internet by-- (1) Searching the Federal eRulemaking...

  19. 76 FR 11078 - Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision and Clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 541 [Docket No. BOP-1118-F] RIN 1120-AB18 Inmate Discipline Program/Special Housing Units: Subpart Revision and Clarification AGENCY: Bureau of... Discipline Program and Special Housing Units (SHU) regulations (28 CFR part 541, subpart A and subpart B...

  20. 29 CFR 101.17 - Initiation of representation cases and petitions for clarification and amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of representation cases and petitions for clarification and amendment. 101.17 Section 101.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS... question as to whether a union represents a majority of an appropriate grouping of employees is initiated...

  1. Convention on nuclear safety. Final act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Diplomatic Conference, which was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994, adopted the Convention on Nuclear Safety reproduced in document INFCIRC/449 and the Final Act of the Conference. The text of the Final Act of the Conference, including an annexed document entitled ''Some clarification with respect to procedural and financial arrangements, national reports, and the conduct of review meetings, envisaged in the Convention on Nuclear Safety'', is reproduced in the Attachment hereto for the information of all Member States

  2. Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Chain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.

  3. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  4. Aging, tumor suppression and cancer: High-wire act!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campisi, Judith

    2004-08-15

    Evolutionary theory holds that aging is a consequence of the declining force of natural selection with age. We discuss here the evidence that among the causes of aging in complex multicellular organisms, such as mammals, is the antagonistically pleiotropic effects of the cellular responses that protect the organism from cancer. Cancer is relatively rare in young mammals, owing in large measure to the activity of tumor suppressor mechanisms. These mechanisms either protect the genome from damage and/or mutations, or they elicit cellular responses--apoptosis or senescence--that eliminate or prevent the proliferation of somatic cells at risk for neoplastic transformation.We focus here on the senescence response, reviewing its causes, regulation and effects. In addition, we describe recent data that support the idea that both senescence and apoptosis may indeed be the double-edged swords predicted by the evolutionary hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy--protecting organisms from cancer early in life, but promoting aging phenotypes, including late life cancer, in older organisms.

  5. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  6. Modifications in straight wire treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Alvin

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments have been modified with each new generation of clinicians. Today the emphasis is on facial esthetics and healthy temporomandibular joints. With orthopedic treatment, we can develop dental arches to get the necessary space to align the teeth and we can reach adequate function and esthetics, all within relatively good stability. By combining two-phase treatment with low friction fixed orthodontics and super elastic wires we produce light but continuous forces and we can provide better treatment than before. These types of forces cause physiological and functional orthopedic orthodontic reactions. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate our fixed orthopedic and orthodontic approach called "Modified Straight Wire" or "Physiologic Arch Technique." This technique is very successful with our patients because it can exert slow and continuous forces with minimal patient cooperation.

  7. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  8. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  9. Analytical and Numerical Investigation of Lacing Wire Damage Induced Mistuning in Turbine Blade Packet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh S. Kotambkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of modal parameters for a mistuned packet of turbine blades due to lacing wire damage are reported using analytical and numerical studies with a simplified model. The turbine blade is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam connected with a lacing wire which is modeled as a mass less linear elastic spring. Thus, the blade is considered as a continuous system and lacing wire as a discrete system. The analytical results using Eigen value analysis are compared with numerical results obtained using commercial finite element package. In real life situation, though not reported in the literature, it is the failure of lacing wire that occurs quite often compared to the turbine blade and acts as precursor to the subsequent blade damage if it goes undetected. Therefore, studying the modal parameters of the grouped turbine blades in the context of lacing wire failure becomes important. The effect of variation of lacing wire location and stiffness indicative of damage resulting in the loss of stiffness on modal parameters is investigated. The study reveals a lot of fundamental understandings pertaining to dynamic behavior of grouped blades compared to the stand-alone blade under the influence of damaged lacing wire.

  10. Wear of dragline wire ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayawansa, D.; Kuruppu, M.; Mashiri, F.; Bartosiewicz, H. [Monash University (Caulfield Campus), Caulfield East, Vic. (Australia). Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    2005-07-01

    Wire ropes are one of the most heavily used components in a dragline. Hoist ropes are subjected to fatigue due to the cyclic nature of load handling as well as due to rope bending over the sheaves and the drum under load. This leads to wire breaks due to fatigue. Accumulation of a number of wire breaks close to each other can have a detrimental effect on the rope. Furthermore, to allow for the increasing demand for higher load capacity coupled with the inconvenience of having very large ropes, the factor of safety is often compromised, which increases the wear rate. Drag ropes are also subjected to heavy loads. More importantly, they are allowed to drag along the rough mine surface subjecting them to external physical abrasion. This makes the life of drag ropes one of the lowest among those used in a dragline. Suspension and IBS ropes are relatively uniformly loaded during their regular usage although they need to withstand dynamic load cycles as well as bending. Hence they tend to last for a number of years on average. The paper analyses the wear types and their severity of each of these rope applications, and suggests methods to determine rope wear rates and the resulting rope life. The paper further gives suggestions for good operating and maintenance practice that can extend the rope life and help reduce the large expenditure associated with every major rope change in a dragline. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Wave-to-wire Modelling of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco

    different techniques to reduce the cost of energy are compared: the former maximises the system revenue (income) by acting on the control logic, while the second extends the first methods adding a penalty term due to the effect of the control logic on the structural design. Both methods are once more based...... applicable, efficient and reliable wave-to-wire model tool is needed. A wave-to-wire model identifies the relation from the source of energy of a particular location to the expected device productivity. The latter being expressed in terms of electricity fed into the grid. The model needs to output a coarse...... the best of what we have", the numerical model used is entirely based on well established methods. The experimental data is used as a check point to verify the direction of the numerical path. Second, shed light on what should be the objective of the sector: minimisation of the cost of energy. Two...

  12. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  13. Electro-mechanics of drift tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milburn, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The position and stability of the sense wires in very long drift tubes are affected by both gravitational and electrostatic forces, as well as by the wire tension. For a tube to be used as an element of a high-resolution detector all these forces and their effects must be understood in appropriately precise detail. In addition, the quality control procedures applied during manufacture and detector installation must be adequate to ensure that the internal wire positions remain within tolerances. It may be instructive to practitioners to review the simple theory of a taut wire in the presence of anisotropic gravitational and electrostatic fields to illustrate the conditions for stability, the equilibrium wire displacement from straightness, and the effect of the fields on the mechanical vibration frequencies. These last may be used to monitor the wire configuration externally. A number of practical formulae result and these are applied to illustrative examples. (orig.)

  14. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, S T

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent development and interest in the photonics of metallic wire structures, the relatively simple concepts and physics often remain obscured or poorly explained to those who do not specialize in the field. Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures provides a clear and coherent guide to understanding these phenomena without excessive numerical calculations.   Including both background material and detailed derivations of the various different formulae applied, Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures describes how to extend basic circuit theory relating to voltages, currents, and resistances of metallic wire networks to include situations where the currents are no longer spatially uniform along the wire. This lays a foundation for a deeper understanding of the many new phenomena observed in meta-electromagnetic materials.   Examples of applications are included to support this new approach making Electromagnetic Behaviour of Metallic Wire Structures a comprehensive and ...

  15. Phosphorus in antique iron music wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodway, M

    1987-05-22

    Harpsichords and other wire-strung musical instruments were made with longer strings about the beginning of the 17th century. This change required stronger music wire. Although these changes coincided with the introduction of the first mass-produced steel (iron alloyed with carbon), carbon was not found in samples of antique iron harpsichord wire. The wire contained an amount of phosphorus sufficient to have impeded its conversion to steel, and may have been drawn from iron rejected for this purpose. The method used to select pig iron for wire drawing ensured the highest possible phosphorus content at a time when its presence in iron was unsuspected. Phosphorus as an alloying element has had the reputation for making steel brittle when worked cold. Nevertheless, in replicating the antique wire, it was found that lowcarbon iron that contained 0.16 percent phosphorus was easily drawn to appropriate gauges and strengths for restringing antique harpsichords.

  16. Influence de colorants dissous sur le point de clarification de phases nématiques

    OpenAIRE

    Diot , P.; Foitzik , J.K.; Haase , W.

    1985-01-01

    Les systèmes « guest-host » dopés avec des colorants dichroïques sont importants pour certains types d'afficheurs. Ce travail rapporte l'influence des propriétés des colorants dissous sur le comportement de clarification. Les phases nématiques suivantes ont été choisies : CB-7, PCH-7 et ZLI-1083, un mélange eutectique ternaire de PCH-3, PCH-5 et PCH-7; quatre dérivés anthraquinoniques ont été choisis comme colorants. L'influence des colorants sur le comportement de clarification est discutée ...

  17. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdalany, Bill S., E-mail: bmajdala@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Elliott, Eric D., E-mail: eric.elliott@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Michaels, Anthony J., E-mail: Anthony.michaels@osumc.edu; Hanje, A. James, E-mail: James.Hanje@osumc.edu [The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine (United States); Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: wsaad@med.umich.edu [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application.

  18. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  19. Minimisation of the wire position uncertainties of the new CERN vacuum wire scanner

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069346; Barjau Condomines, A

    In the next years the luminosity of the LHC will be significantly increased. This will require a much higher accuracy of beam profile measurement than actually achievable by the current wire scanner. The new fast wire scanner is foreseen to measure small emittance beams throughout the LHC injector chain, which demands a wire travelling speed up to 20 ms-1 and position measurement accuracy of the order of a few microns. The vibrations of the mechanical parts of the system, and particularly the vibrations of the thin carbon wire, were identified as the major error sources of wire position uncertainty. Therefore the understanding of the wire vibrations is a high priority for the design and operation of the new device. This document presents the work performed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in one of the existing wire scanner and the new proposed design.

  20. Applying critical thinking skills to character education and values clarification with students who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, Susan R; Scheetz, Nanci A

    2004-01-01

    Students who are deaf or hard of hearing must learn to think critically. Character education (CE) refers to the effort to teach basic values and moral reasoning (Doyle & Ponder, 1977). Values clarification (VC) is the process of examining one's basic values and moral reasoning (Rokeach, 1973). Character education and values clarification as subject matter foster the development of critical thinking (CT), a tool used both to develop and to modify values and moral reasoning. These three areas mutually support one another. The development of a set of values and their underlying moral reasoning is the foundation for thinking critically about values. The authors examine the components of critical thinking, character education, and values clarification, summarize the literature, and provide a template for appropriate lesson plans. They also describe strategies that promote the development of critical thinking, character education, and values clarification.

  1. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids : A critical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, A.H.; de Vries, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background  Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that

  2. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Industrial juice clarification is accomplished by a combination of enzymatic depectinization, gelatin–silica sol, and/or bentonite treatment. The gelatin–silica sol treatment step is particularly slow, mischievous, and requires comprehensive downstream processing to obtain clarified juice...

  3. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  4. submitter Dynamical Models of a Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Barjau, Ana; Dehning, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of the beam profile measurements achievable by the current wire scanners at CERN is limited by the vibrations of their mechanical parts. In particular, the vibrations of the carbon wire represent the major source of wire position uncertainty which limits the beam profile measurement accuracy. In the coming years, due to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, a wire traveling speed up to 20 $m s^{−1}$ and a position measurement accuracy of the order of 1 μm will be required. A new wire scanner design based on the understanding of the wire vibration origin is therefore needed. We present the models developed to understand the main causes of the wire vibrations observed in an existing wire scanner. The development and tuning of those models are based on measurements and tests performed on that CERN proton synchrotron (PS) scanner. The final model for the (wire + fork) system has six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). The wire equations contain three different excitation terms: inertia...

  5. FE modeling of Cu wire bond process and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.A.; Weltevreden, E.R.; Akker, P. van den; Kregting, R.; Vreugd, J. de; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Copper based wire bonding technology is widely accepted by electronic packaging industry due to the world-wide cost reduction actions (compared to gold wire bond). However, the mechanical characterization of copper wire differs from the gold wire; hence the new wire bond process setting and new bond

  6. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an MDU...

  7. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 ...

  8. Intra-wire resistance and AC loss in multi-filamentary MgB2 wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Chao; Offringa, Wietse; Bergen, Anne-Henriette; Wessel, Wilhelm A.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.; Sumption, M.D.; Collings, E.W.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Nijhuis, Arend

    2013-01-01

    Intra-wire resistance and AC loss of various multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with filaments surrounded by Nb barriers have been measured and analyzed. The intra-wire resistance is measured with a direct four-probe voltage–current method at various temperatures. The AC loss is acquired by both vibrating

  9. THERMO-MECHANICALLY PROCESSED ROLLED WIRE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH ON-BOARD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lutsenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at twisting of wire of diameter 1,83 mm, produced by direct wire drawing of thermomechanically processed rolled wire of diameter 5,5 mm of steel 90, metal stratification is completely eliminated at decrease of carbon, manganese and an additional alloying of chrome.

  10. The use of clarification sessions in the treatment of incest victims and their families: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Christine M; Davis, Joanne L; Smith, Daniel W

    2006-01-01

    The "clarification session" has been implicated as an important component of the treatment of families affected by incest. On the basis of information presented in clinical literature, however, the specific nature of this intervention varies widely. This exploratory study examined the practices and attitudes regarding clarification sessions of select members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers. Surveys were completed by 483 members. Results indicated that approximately 77% of respondents had experience in conducting clarification sessions. The top two reported reasons for conducting clarification sessions were for the perpetrator to assume all responsibility for the abuse and to decrease the level of self-blame of the victim. The majority of respondents concurred that several activities needed to occur prior to the clarification session, whereas less consensus was indicated for activities that were deemed essential during the clarification session. Respondents' practices, attitudes, and beliefs are discussed in terms of the current state of limited, empirically based knowledge in this area. Directions for future research are suggested.

  11. Mechanical behaviour of copper 15% volume niobium microcomposite wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Nb microcomposites are attractive in magnet pulsed field technology applications due to their anomalous mechanism of mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity. In this sense, recently it was conceived the use of Cu 15% vol. Nb wires to operate as a high tensile strength cable for a diamond cutting tool (diamond wires for marble and granite slabbing. The multifilamentary Cu 15% vol. Nb composite was obtained using a new processing route, starting with niobium bars bundled into copper tubes, without arc melting. Cold working techniques, such as swaging and wire drawing, combined with heat treatments such as sintering and annealing, and tube restacking were employed. The tensile property of the composite was measured as a function of the niobium filaments dimensions and morphology into the copper matrix, in the several processing steps. An ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 960 MPa was obtained for an areal reduction (R = Ao/A, with Ao-initial cross section area, and A-final cross section area of 4x10(8 X, in which the niobium filaments reached thickness less than 20 nm. The anomalous mechanical strength increase is attributed to the fact that the niobium filaments acts as a barrier to copper dislocations.

  12. WIRED World Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    CERN Document Server

    Ballaminut, A; Dönszelmann, M; Van Herwijnen, Eric; Köper, D; Korhonen, J; Litmaath, M; Perl, J; Theodorou, A; Whiteson, D; Wolff, E

    2000-01-01

    WIRED is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g. fish-eye, rho-phi, rho-Z, phi-Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, B...

  13. WiredKids: From Safety and Privacy to Literacy and Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Art

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of children's Internet access focuses on WiredKids, an organization devoted to helping to empower children to use the Internet safely and in age-appropriate ways. Topics include the Children's Online Privacy and Protection Act (COPPA); parental, school, library, and commercial organization involvement; and middle school student Internet…

  14. In vitro friction of stainless steel arch wire-bracket combinations in air and different aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, S; Berradja, A; Celis, J-P; Willems, G

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the in vitro coefficient of friction of stainless steel arch wire-bracket combinations under fretting contact test conditions performed in air and in different aqueous solutions, like Ringer solution, Ringer with addition of a buffer, Ringer with addition of glucose, and Coca Cola. The fretting test set-up used allowed to control on-line the contact configuration and the positioning of the contacting parts. A specific positioning method was used to achieve a parallel alignment of arch wire and bracket slot. The effect of arch wire size, roughness, and test environment were investigated. It was found that the aqueous solutions act as a lubricant compared to air. Friction was affected by the arch wire width while the roughness was found to have a limited effect. Stainless steel 0.018'' x 0.025'' arch wires exhibited higher frictional forces than stainless steel 0.017'' x 0.025'' arch wires on sliding against stainless steel 0.018'' x 0.025'' brackets in the selected test environments when tested under identical fretting test conditions. The wear damage on the arch wire after these in-vitro fretting tests was investigated. It revealed that these in-vitro tests are governed by a competition between oxidational wear and abrasive wear taking place at contact areas between brackets and arch wires. For all aqueous solutions a lower coefficient of friction was found compared to tests performed in ambient air.

  15. Recoverable Wire-Shaped Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Volumetric Energy Density for Multifunctional Portable and Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Minjie; Yang, Cheng; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Lian

    2017-05-24

    Wire-shaped supercapacitors (SCs) based on shape memory materials are of considerable interest for next-generation portable and wearable electronics. However, the bottleneck in this field is how to develop the devices with excellent electrochemical performance while well-maintaining recoverability and flexibility. Herein, a unique asymmetric electrode concept is put forward to fabricate smart wire-shaped SCs with ultrahigh energy density, which is realized by using porous carbon dodecahedra coated on NiTi alloy wire and flexible graphene fiber as yarn electrodes. Notably, the wire-shaped SCs not only exhibit high flexibility that can be readily woven into real clothing but also represent the available recoverable ability. When irreversible plastic deformations happen, the deformed shape of the devices can automatically resume the initial predesigned shape in a warm environment (about 35 °C). More importantly, the wire-shaped SCs act as efficient energy storage devices, which display high volumetric energy density (8.9 mWh/cm 3 ), volumetric power density (1080 mW/cm 3 ), strong durability in multiple mechanical states, and steady electrochemical behavior after repeated shape recovery processes. Considering their relative facile fabrication technology and excellent electrochemical performance, this asymmetric electrode strategy produced smart wire-shaped supercapacitors desirable for multifunctional portable and wearable electronics.

  16. DNA G-Wire Formation Using an Artificial Peptide is Controlled by Protease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Kenji; Okada, Arisa; Sakashita, Shungo; Shimooka, Masayuki; Tsuruoka, Takaaki; Nakano, Shu-Ichi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Mashima, Tsukasa; Katahira, Masato; Hamada, Yoshio

    2017-11-16

    The development of a switching system for guanine nanowire (G-wire) formation by external signals is important for nanobiotechnological applications. Here, we demonstrate a DNA nanostructural switch (G-wire particles) using a designed peptide and a protease. The peptide consists of a PNA sequence for inducing DNA to form DNA-PNA hybrid G-quadruplex structures, and a protease substrate sequence acting as a switching module that is dependent on the activity of a particular protease. Micro-scale analyses via TEM and AFM showed that G-rich DNA alone forms G-wires in the presence of Ca 2+ , and that the peptide disrupted this formation, resulting in the formation of particles. The addition of the protease and digestion of the peptide regenerated the G-wires. Macro-scale analyses by DLS, zeta potential, CD, and gel filtration were in agreement with the microscopic observations. These results imply that the secondary structure change (DNA G-quadruplex DNA/PNA hybrid structure) induces a change in the well-formed nanostructure (G-wire particles). Our findings demonstrate a control system for forming DNA G-wire structures dependent on protease activity using designed peptides. Such systems hold promise for regulating the formation of nanowire for various applications, including electronic circuits for use in nanobiotechnologies.

  17. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  18. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... recommended by the equipment or the wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements. In...

  19. Automatic inspection of railway overhead wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smorenburg, C.; Valkenburg, A.L.G. van

    1988-01-01

    For the Netherlands railway company a system for inspection of the degree of wear of the contact wires is being developed. With an active sensor the reflective under-surface of the overhead wire is illuminated with a laserbeam and reflected radiation is detected by fast CCD detectors. With the

  20. Wire compensation: Performance, SPS MDs, pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Dorda, U

    2008-01-01

    A wire compensation (BBLR) scheme has been proposed in order to improve the long range beam-beam performance of the nominal LHC and its phase 1 and phase 2 upgrades[1]. In this paper we present experimental experience of the CERN SPS wires (BBLR) and report on progress with the RF BBLR.

  1. WIRED magazine announces rave awards nominees

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    WIRED Magazine has anounced the nominees for its fourth annual WIRED Rave Awards, celebrating innovation and the individuals transforming commerce and culture. Jeffrey Hangst of the University of Aarhus has been nominated in the science category, for his work on the ATHENA Experiment, CERN (1/2 page).

  2. Kirschner Wire Breakage during Removal Requiring Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuen Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wires (K-wires are widely used for fixation of fractures and dislocations in the hand as they are readily available, reliable, and cost-effective. Complication rates of up to 18% have been reported. However, K-wire breakage during removal is rare. We present one such case illustrating a simple technique for retrieval. A 35-year-old male presented with a distal phalanx fracture of his right middle finger. This open fracture was treated with K-wire fixation. Postoperatively, he developed a pin site infection with associated finger swelling. The K-wire broke during removal with the proximal piece completely retained in his middle phalanx. To minimise risk of osteomyelitis, the K-wire was removed with a novel surgical technique. He had full return of hand function. Intraoperative K-wire breakage has a reported rate of 0.1%. In our case, there was no obvious cause of breakage and the patient denied postoperative trauma. On the other hand, pin site infections are much more common with reported rates of up to 7% in the hand or wrist. K-wire fixation is a simple method for bony stabilisation but can be a demanding procedure with complications often overlooked. It is important to be aware of the potential sequelae.

  3. Hot-wire anemometer for spirography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakk, P; Liik, P; Kingisepp, P H

    1998-01-01

    The use of a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer flow sensor for spirography is reported. The construction, operating principles and calibration procedure of the apparatus are described, and temperature compensation method is discussed. Frequency response is studied. It is shown that this hot-wire flow transducer satisfies common demands with respect to accuracy, response time and temperature variations.

  4. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  5. Single wire drift chamber design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  6. Improved sugar cane juice clarification by understanding calcium oxide-phosphate-sucrose systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William O S

    2011-03-09

    It is accepted that the efficiency of sugar cane clarification is closely linked with sugar juice composition (including suspended or insoluble impurities), the inorganic phosphate content, the liming condition and type, and the interactions between the juice components. These interactions are not well understood, particularly those between calcium, phosphate, and sucrose in sugar cane juice. Studies have been conducted on calcium oxide (CaO)/phosphate/sucrose systems in both synthetic and factory juices to provide further information on the defecation process (i.e., simple liming to effect impurity removal) and to identify an effective clarification process that would result in reduced scaling of sugar factory evaporators, pans, and centrifugals. Results have shown that a two-stage process involving the addition of lime saccharate to a set juice pH followed by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a final juice pH or a similar two-stage process where the order of addition of the alkalis is reversed prior to clarification reduces the impurity loading of the clarified juice compared to that of the clarified juice obtained by the conventional defecation process. The treatment process showed reductions in CaO (27% to 50%) and MgO (up to 20%) in clarified juices with no apparent loss in juice clarity or increase in residence time of the mud particles compared to those in the conventional process. There was also a reduction in the SiO2 content. However, the disadvantage of this process is the significant increase in the Na2O content.

  7. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay–polymer nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N.

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6 h: coagulation—neutralizing the colloids, flocculation—aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay–polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Highlights: ► Nanocomposites yielded clarification of olive mill (OMW) and winery effluents (WW). ► In smectite based nanocomposites intercalation of the polymer was measured. ► In sepiolite based nanocomposites no changes in the spacing were observed. ► Colloidal neutralization is the main clarification process in WW but not in OMW. ► Several cycles of effluents might be added to an initial dose of nanocomposites.

  8. 78 FR 33112 - Sunshine Act Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meetings AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: United States International Trade Commission...)(Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from China, Mexico, and Thailand). The Commission is currently...

  9. Development of a promising filtration method for liquid clarification in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Byrd, L.A.; Ross, R.G.; Savage, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conclusions reached are that deep beds of diatomaceous earths are especially attractive for clarification of radioactive solutions, or slurries containing insoluble radioactive material, because the diatomaceous material provides a noncompressible medium that is retentive for a wide variety of particle sizes. Also, the diatomaceous material, because of its inorganic composition, is resistant to degradation by radiation from the retained particulate matter. Its silicious character is especially appropriate for conversion to vitrified or cement-type waste forms. This paper studied the use of diatomaceous earth to filter synthetic TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, and zinc bromide solutions (hot-cell shielding)

  10. Minimum quench energy measurement for superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, K.; Morita, M.; Nakamura, S.; Yamada, T.; Jizo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of measuring minimum quench energy (MQE) of superconducting wire. There have been conventional methods using heating wires, whose diameters are ∼0.1mm and are glued by epoxy resin. When they induce a pulse heat to superconducting wires, a duration of the pulse must be several hundreds micro seconds to demonstrate actual disturbances (for instance wire motion) in a superconducting magnet. In spite of this fact, thermal diffusion time constants of the conventional heaters are larger than the duration of the actual disturbance, because of these electrical insulator of the heating wire and the epoxy bind. Therefore, this kind of heater is not able to demonstrate the actual disturbance. To solve this problem, they have proposed a new constitution of a heater. In the method, heat generation is introduced in high resistive layer on a surface of a superconducting wire. The high resistive layer is consist of carbon paste. The thickness of the carbon paste layer is ∼20microm, thus a time constant of this heater is expected to be small enough to demonstrate the actual disturbance. Adopting the new method to the MQE measurement, they successfully evaluate MQE of superconducting wires with high precision. Several results are introduced in this paper

  11. Wire pad chamber for LHCb muon system

    CERN Document Server

    Botchine, B; Lazarev, V A; Sagidova, N; Vorobev, A P; Vorobyov, A; Vorobyov, Alexei

    2000-01-01

    2000-003 Wire pad chambers (WPC) have been proposed for the outer Region 4 of the LHCb Muon System. These are double gap MWPCs with small wire spacing allowing to obtain 99% detection efficiency in a 20 ns time window. The chambers have a rectangular shape with the vertical dimension from 20 cm in Station 1 to 30 cm in Station 5. The horizontal dimensions will be different with the maximal size of 3 meters in Station 5. The wires are in the vertical direction. The short wire length allows to use small wire spacing needed for high time resolution. Also, this helps to obtain the uniform gas gain over the whole chamber area. The WPC has one row of the wire pads formed by grouping wires in separate readout channels. Four WPC prototypes have been built at PNPI and tested in the PS beam at CERN. Here we report on the results from these tests. Also, the results of simulation of the WPC performance are presented.

  12. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  13. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  14. Problems associated with iridium-192 wire implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, S.J.; Law, J.; Ash, D.; Flynn, A.; Paine, C.H.; Durrant, K.R.; Barber, C.D.; Dixon-Brown, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three incidents are reported, from different radiotherapy centres, in which an implanted iridium-192 wire remained in the tissues of a patient after withdrawal of the plastic tubing in which it was contained. In each case the instrument used to cut the wire had probably formed a hook on the end of the wire which caused it to catch in the tissues. Detailed recommendations are made for avoiding such incidents in the future, the most important of which is that the patient should be effectively monitored after the supposed removal of all radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  16. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of green asparagus juice using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehong; Xu, Feng; Qin, Weidong; Ma, Lihua; Zheng, Yonghua

    2012-06-01

    Enzymatic clarification conditions for green asparagus juice were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The asparagus juice was treated with pectinase at different temperatures (35 °C-45 °C), pH values (4.00-5.00), and enzyme concentrations (0.6-1.8 v/v%). The effects of enzymatic treatment on juice clarity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity were investigated by employing a 3-factor central composite design coupled with RSM. According to response surface analysis, the optimal enzymatic treatment condition was pectinase concentration of 1.45%, incubation temperature of 40.56 °C and pH of 4.43. The clarity, juice yield, and soluble solid contents in asparagus juice were significantly increased by enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was maintained at the level close to that of raw asparagus juice. These results indicated that enzymatic treatment could be a useful technique for producing green asparagus juice with high clarity and high-antioxidant activity. Treatment with 1.45% pectinase at 40.56 ° C, pH 4.43, significantly increased the clarity and yield of asparagus juice. In addition, enzymatic treatment maintained antioxidant activity. Thus, enzymatic treatment has the potential for industrial asparagus juice clarification. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Performance of Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes in the Clarification of Blood Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Conidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The clarification of blood orange juice by ultrafiltration (UF was investigated by using three hollow fiber membrane modules characterized by different membrane materials (polysulfone (PS and polyacrylonitrile (PAN and molecular weight cut-off (MWCO (50 and 100 kDa. The performance of selected membranes was investigated in terms of productivity and selectivity towards total anthocyanin content (TAC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant activity (TAA. All selected membranes allowed a good preservation of antioxidant compounds; however, the most suitable membrane for the clarification of the juice was found to be the PS 100 kDa membrane. In optimized operating conditions this membrane exhibited steady-state fluxes of 7.12 L/m2h, higher than those measured for other investigated membranes. Rejections towards TPC and TAA were of the order of 17.5% and 15%, respectively. These values were lower than those determined for PS 50 kDa and PAN 50 kDa membranes. In addition, the PS 100 kDa membrane exhibited a lower rejection (7.3% towards TAC when compared to the PS 50 kDa membrane (9.2%.

  18. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  19. Polyelectrolyte flocculation of grain stillage for improved clarification and water recovery within bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkhaus, Todd J; Anderson, Jason; Lane, Samuel; Waddell, Evan

    2010-04-01

    Polyelectrolytes were investigated for flocculation of a corn whole stillage stream to improve solid-liquid clarification operations and reduce downstream utility requirements for evaporation and drying within a bioethanol process. Despite a negative zeta potential for the stillage solids, an anionic polyelectrolyte was found to provide the best flocculation. At the optimal dosage of 1.1mg polymer/g dry suspended solids, an anionic flocculant provided a clarified stream with only 0.15% w/w suspended solids (equivalent to a total dissolved solid to total suspended solid ratio greater than 40, and a viscosity reduction of 39% compared to an unflocculated "clarified" stream). The resulting solids cake had greater than 40% w/w solids, and more than 80% water recovery was found in the clarified stream. Addition of flocculant improved filtration flux by six fold and/or would allow for up to a 4-times higher flow rate if using a decanting centrifuge for clarification of corn stillage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 47 CFR 76.802 - Disposition of cable home wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of cable home wiring. 76.802... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.802 Disposition of cable home wiring... cable operator shall not remove the cable home wiring unless it gives the subscriber the opportunity to...

  1. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  2. 47 CFR 32.2321 - Customer premises wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer premises wiring. 32.2321 Section 32... Customer premises wiring. (a) This account shall include all amounts transferred from the former Account 232, Station Connections, inside wiring subclass. (b) Embedded Customer Premises Wiring is that...

  3. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  4. Wire Bonder: Kulicke and Soffa Model 4526

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Wire BonderNeeds Description.Scientific Opportunities / Applications:Wedge bonderSemi-automatic and manual modesIndependent Z-axis control,...

  5. Beam Profiling through Wire Chambing Tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, W

    2013-01-01

    This note describes the calibration of the Delay Wire Chambers (DWCs) used during test runs of CALICE’s Tungsten Digital Hadron Calorimeter (W-DHCAL) prototype in CERN’s SPS beam line (10 – 300 GeV).

  6. Copyright and Wire Broadcasting Under Belgian Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namurois, Albert

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of a case whereby substantial damages, if not criminal proceedings, will sanction, according to circumstances, both television organizations and those who in certain conditions distribute their programs by wire or communicate them to the public. (Author/HB)

  7. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  8. Highly stretchable wrinkled gold thin film wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joshua; Park, Sun-Jun; Nguyen, Thao; Chu, Michael; Pegan, Jonathan D; Khine, Michelle

    2016-02-08

    With the growing prominence of wearable electronic technology, there is a need to improve the mechanical reliability of electronics for more demanding applications. Conductive wires represent a vital component present in all electronics. Unlike traditional planar and rigid electronics, these new wearable electrical components must conform to curvilinear surfaces, stretch with the body, and remain unobtrusive and low profile. In this paper, the piezoresistive response of shrink induced wrinkled gold thin films under strain demonstrates robust conductive performance in excess of 200% strain. Importantly, the wrinkled metallic thin films displayed negligible change in resistance of up to 100% strain. The wrinkled metallic wires exhibited consistent performance after repetitive strain. Importantly, these wrinkled thin films are inexpensive to fabricate and are compatible with roll to roll manufacturing processes. We propose that these wrinkled metal thin film wires are an attractive alternative to conventional wires for wearable applications.

  9. Tensosensitivity of the Hot-Wire Probe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pak, A

    2002-01-01

    ...., on the anemometer type. In a constant current anemometer, it is possible to measure and separate out the noise moving to the electric circuit of the anemometer, it is not the case with hot-wire anemometers of other types...

  10. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  11. Effect of TMAH Etching Duration on the Formation of Silicon Nano wire Transistor Patterned by AFM Nano lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Lew, K.C.

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography was applied to produce nano scale pattern for silicon nano wire transistor fabrication. This technique takes advantage of imaging facility of AFM and the ability of probe movement controlling over the sample surface to create nano patterns. A conductive AFM tip was used to grow the silicon oxide nano patterns on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. The applied tip-sample voltage and writing speed were well controlled in order to form pre-designed silicon oxide nano wire transistor structures. The effect of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching duration on the oxide covered silicon nano wire transistor structure has been investigated. A completed silicon nano wire transistor was obtained by removing the oxide layer via hydrofluoric acid etching process. The fabricated silicon nano wire transistor consists of a silicon nano wire that acts as a channel with source and drain pads. A lateral gate pad with a nano wire head was fabricated very close to the channel in the formation of transistor structures. (author)

  12. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-08-09

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 × 0.022 in² and 0.019 × 0.025 in² (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bending properties were evaluated in a modified three-point bending system for orthodontics. The static friction between the orthodontic wire and the bracket was also measured. The load-deflection curves were similar among Ni-Ti and PEEK wires, except for 16PEEK with slot-lid ligation. The bending force of 19-25PEEK wire was comparable with that of Ni-Ti wire. 19-25PEEK showed the highest load at the deflection of 1500 μm ( p 0.05). No significant difference was seen in static friction between all three PEEK wires and Ni-Ti wire ( p > 0.05). It is suggested that 19-25PEEK will be applicable for orthodontic treatment with the use of slot-lid ligation.

  13. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  14. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  15. Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....

  16. Novel use of the "buddy"wire.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, A

    2008-12-29

    Summary: During interventional procedures the tortuosity of the vasculature hampers catheter stability. The buddy wire may be used to aid and maintain vascular access.We describe a case of acute subarachnoid haemorrhage secondary to dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery.We discuss the value of the buddy wire during balloon occlusion of the vertebral artery not as it is typically used, but to actually prevent the balloon repeatedly entering the posterior inferior cerebellar artery during the procedure.

  17. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfeng He

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/ÖHz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor.

  18. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  19. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Reunions des specialistes des techniques de estion du cycle de vie pour vehicules aeriens vieillissants ] To order the complete compilation report, use...Ageing Mechanisms and Control. Specialists’ Meeting on Life Management Techniques for Ageing Air Vehicles [Les mecanismes vieillissants et le controle...be identified. Additionally, wiring failures tend to be intermittent in nature and can take considerable time to isolate. Wire modifications and

  20. Subchannel Analysis of Wire Wrapped SCWR Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of wire wrap spacers in SCWR can reduce pressure drop and obtain better mixing capability. As a consequence, the required coolant pumping power is decreased and the coolant temperature profile inside the fuel bundle is flattened which will obviously decrease the peak cladding temperature. The distributed resistance model for wire wrap was developed and implemented in ATHAS subchannel analysis code. The HPLWR wire wrapped assembly was analyzed. The results show that: (1 the assembly with wire wrap can obtain a more uniform coolant temperature profile than the grid spaced assembly, which will result in a lower peak cladding temperature; (2 the pressure drop in a wire wrapped assembly is less than that in a grid spaced assembly, which can reduce the operating power of pump effectively; (3 the wire wrap pitch has significant effect on the flow in the assembly. Smaller Hwire/Drod will result in stronger cross flow a more uniform coolant temperature profile, and also a higher pressure drop.

  1. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  2. Si Wire-Array Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    Micron-scale Si wire arrays are three-dimensional photovoltaic absorbers that enable orthogonalization of light absorption and carrier collection and hence allow for the utilization of relatively impure Si in efficient solar cell designs. The wire arrays are grown by a vapor-liquid-solid-catalyzed process on a crystalline (111) Si wafer lithographically patterned with an array of metal catalyst particles. Following growth, such arrays can be embedded in polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS) and then peeled from the template growth substrate. The result is an unusual photovoltaic material: a flexible, bendable, wafer-thickness crystalline Si absorber. In this paper I will describe: 1. the growth of high-quality Si wires with controllable doping and the evaluation of their photovoltaic energy-conversion performance using a test electrolyte that forms a rectifying conformal semiconductor-liquid contact 2. the observation of enhanced absorption in wire arrays exceeding the conventional light trapping limits for planar Si cells of equivalent material thickness and 3. single-wire and large-area solid-state Si wire-array solar cell results obtained to date with directions for future cell designs based on optical and device physics. In collaboration with Michael Kelzenberg, Morgan Putnam, Joshua Spurgeon, Daniel Turner-Evans, Emily Warren, Nathan Lewis, and Harry Atwater, California Institute of Technology.

  3. Needleless electrospinning with twisted wire spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopainen, Jani; Penttinen, Toni; Santala, Eero; Ritala, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    A needleless electrospinning setup named ‘Needleless Twisted Wire Electrospinning’ was developed. The polymer solution is electrospun from the surface of a twisted wire set to a high voltage and collected on a cylindrical collector around the wire. Multiple Taylor cones are simultaneously self-formed on the downward flowing solution. The system is robust and simple with no moving parts aside from the syringe pump used to transport the solution to the top of the wire. The structure and process parameters of the setup and the results on the preparation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and bioglass fibers with the setup are presented. PVP fiber sheets with areas of 40 × 120 cm 2 and masses up to 1.15 g were prepared. High production rates of 5.23 g h −1 and 1.40 g h −1 were achieved for PVP and HA respectively. The major limiting factor of the setup is drying of the polymer solution on the wire during the electrospinning process which will eventually force to interrupt the process for cleaning of the wire. Possible solutions to this problem and other ways to develop the setup are discussed. The presented system provides a simple way to increase the production rate and area of fiber sheet as compared with the conventional needle electrospinning. (paper)

  4. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  5. Empolder and application of LiveWire program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Li Jing; Wang Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    LiveWire is a specific module of Netscape Web server to actualize CGI function; through LiveWire application program one can create dynamic web page on web site. This article introduces how to write LiveWire application code, have to compile, debug and manage LiveWire application programs, and how to apply LiveWire application program on Netscape Web server to create a dynamic web page. (authors)

  6. Wiring design for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    1995-01-01

    Wiring design is only one important aspect of EMI control. Other important areas for EMI are: circuit design, filtering, grounding, bonding, shielding, lighting, electrostatic discharge (ESD), transient suppression, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Topics covered include: wire magnetic field emissions at low frequencies; wire radiated magnetic field emissions at frequencies; wire design guidelines for EMI control; wire design guidelines for EMI control; high frequency emissions from cables; and pulse frequency spectra.

  7. Mammalian Cell Culture Clarification: A Case Study Using Chimeric Anti-CEA Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular expression of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs in mammalian cell culture provides both opportunities and restrictions for the design of robust harvest and clarification operations. With advances in cell culture media and cell lines, it is now possible to achieve high titers of over 5 g/l for mAbs. However, Mammalian cells are sensitive to breakage due to shear stress that can result in release of proteases and other host cell proteins (HCPs which eventually affects product stability and purity. There is larger number of mAbs undergoing clinical development and it has placed significant importance on platform technologies of process development. Generally, Centrifugation and microfiltration are the primary harvest techniques used in the industry and depth filtration is also used as a step operation on clarification. This study compares the unit operations; centrifugation, microfiltration and depth filtration for maximum recovery of monoclonal antibodies. The results have shown that the depth filtration as more suitable operation for mammalian cell culture clarification since it gives 96% recovery of mAbs in comparison to centrifugation and microfiltration. ABSTRAK: Pengungkapan luar sel dari antibodi monoklon (monoclonal antibodies ((mAbs dalam kultur sel mamalia memberi ruang dan batasan terhadap reka bentuk penuaian yang cekap dan penerangan operasi. Dengan kemajuan dalam media sel kultur dan cell lines (produk yang berupa sel kekal yang digunakan untuk tujuan kajian biologi, kini adalah berkemungkinan untuk memperolehi titer tinggi melebihi 5g/l untuk mAbs [2]. Walaupun begitu, sel mamalia sensitif terhadap retakan disebabkan tegasan ricih yang menyebabkan pengeluaran protease dan hos sel protein yang lain, (host cell proteins (HCPs akhirnya mempengaruhi kestabilan dan keaslian produk. Terdapat mAbs dalam jumlah besar yang masih menjalani pembangunan klinikal dan sesungguhnya ini penting sebagai satu landasan teknologi dalam

  8. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  9. Mixed and dynamic response of hot wires and cold wires and measurements of turbulence statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen; Fairall, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Hot wires respond to temperature as well as to velocity, whereas cold wires respond to velocity as well as to temperature. The static and dynamic response characteristics are summarized and it is shown that the frequency transfer functions for the four different responses in general are different...

  10. Modeling and simulation of the fluid flow in wire electrochemical machining with rotating tool (wire ECM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, F.; Herrig, T.; Zeis, M.; Klink, A.

    2017-10-01

    Combining the working principle of electrochemical machining (ECM) with a universal rotating tool, like a wire, could manage lots of challenges of the classical ECM sinking process. Such a wire-ECM process could be able to machine flexible and efficient 2.5-dimensional geometries like fir tree slots in turbine discs. Nowadays, established manufacturing technologies for slotting turbine discs are broaching and wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM). Nevertheless, high requirements on surface integrity of turbine parts need cost intensive process development and - in case of wire-EDM - trim cuts to reduce the heat affected rim zone. Due to the process specific advantages, ECM is an attractive alternative manufacturing technology and is getting more and more relevant for sinking applications within the last few years. But ECM is also opposed with high costs for process development and complex electrolyte flow devices. In the past, few studies dealt with the development of a wire ECM process to meet these challenges. However, previous concepts of wire ECM were only suitable for micro machining applications. Due to insufficient flushing concepts the application of the process for machining macro geometries failed. Therefore, this paper presents the modeling and simulation of a new flushing approach for process assessment. The suitability of a rotating structured wire electrode in combination with an axial flushing for electrodes with high aspect ratios is investigated and discussed.

  11. STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.

    2011-01-01

    An FPGA module leverages the previous work from Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) relating to NASA s Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) project. The STRS SpaceWire FPGA Module is written in the Verilog Register Transfer Level (RTL) language, and it encapsulates an unmodified GSFC core (which is written in VHDL). The module has the necessary inputs/outputs (I/Os) and parameters to integrate seamlessly with the SPARC I/O FPGA Interface module (also developed for the STRS operating environment, OE). Software running on the SPARC processor can access the configuration and status registers within the SpaceWire module. This allows software to control and monitor the SpaceWire functions, but it is also used to give software direct access to what is transmitted and received through the link. SpaceWire data characters can be sent/received through the software interface, as well as through the dedicated interface on the GSFC core. Similarly, SpaceWire time codes can be sent/received through the software interface or through a dedicated interface on the core. This innovation is designed for plug-and-play integration in the STRS OE. The SpaceWire module simplifies the interfaces to the GSFC core, and synchronizes all I/O to a single clock. An interrupt output (with optional masking) identifies time-sensitive events within the module. Test modes were added to allow internal loopback of the SpaceWire link and internal loopback of the client-side data interface.

  12. ACT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content View Sources Ask Us Also Known As ACT Activated Coagulation Time Formal Name Activated Clotting Time ... What is being tested? The activated clotting time (ACT) is a test that is used primarily to ...

  13. Clarification? Yes! Standarization? No. Or: What Kind of Cooperation for the Sociology of Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Christian Smith's paper "The Incoherence of 'Culture' in American Sociology" is a valuable provocation that can prompt us to reflect on the role of concepts and on the role of agreement on the definition of concepts in scientific research. In this comment paper, I raise questions about Smith's empirical expectation that sociologists should agree on a concept of culture based on debates in the sociology of science. I also suggest that in terms of the future agenda for the sociology of culture, we should distinguish between dialogue and clarification on the one hand, which I agree is needed, and standardization on the other hand, which seems incompatible with open-minded empirical research. Rather than work on agreement on what culture is, we might work on clarifying relevant distinctions among dimensions of culture.

  14. Strength of stainless steel surgical wire in various fixation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R S; Boger, J W; Dunn, H K

    1985-09-01

    Although wire is a commonly used fixation device in orthopedics, little is known about the effects of fastening methods and configurations on the strength of wiring systems. Three sizes of stainless steel surgical wire were tested in noncyclic tensile loading. Load failure levels increased with enlarging wire diameter. Fastening twists were stronger than knots or the ASIF bend technique. The failure mode for twists was untwisting. More than two twists gave no additional strength to the system. Two commercial wire tightening devices gave stronger and more reproducible twists than did ordinary pliers. The addition of a tension equalizing loop opposite the fastening loop weakened the wire system by 10%-15%. The combination of two single wire loops was stronger than a continuous double loop of wire. The results from this study are intended to help the orthopedic surgeon optimize the use of wire.

  15. Economic evaluation of schema therapy and clarification-oriented psychotherapy for personality disorders: A multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamelis, L.L.M.; Arntz, A.; Wetzelaer, P.; Verdoorn, R.; Evers, S.M.A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare from a societal perspective the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of schema therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy, and treatment as usual for patients with avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, and/or narcissistic personality disorder. Method:

  16. The Effects of Task Clarification, Feedback, and Goal Setting on Student Advisors' Office Behaviors and Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittelbach, Danielle; DeAngelis, Maureen; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feedback, task clarification and goal-setting on office behaviors and customer service of ten undergraduate participants that served as university advisors. A multiple baseline design was implemented across three target behaviors: client greeting, front-desk behaviors, and punctuality. During intervention the…

  17. Clarification of assumptions in the relationship between the Bayes Decision Rule and the whitened cosine similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengjun

    2008-06-01

    This paper first clarifies Assumption 3 (which misses a constant) and Assumption 4 (where the whitened pattern vectors refer to the whitened means) in paper "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures" (IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence), vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, 2007), and then provides examples to show that the assumptions after the clarification are consistent.

  18. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that deliberation is advantageous. Research suggests that simple, fast and frugal heuristic decision strategies sometimes result in better judgments and decisions. Durand et al. have developed two fast and frugal heuristic-based VCMs. To critically analyse the suitability of the 'take the best' (TTB) and 'tallying' fast and frugal heuristics in the context of patient decision making. Analysis of the structural similarities between the environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have been proven successful and the context of patient decision making and of the potential of these heuristic decision processes to support patient decision making. The specific nature of patient preference-sensitive decision making does not seem to resemble environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have proven successful. Encouraging patients to consider less rather than more relevant information potentially even deteriorates their values clarification process. Values clarification methods promoting the use of more intuitive decision strategies may sometimes be more effective. Nevertheless, we strongly recommend further theoretical thinking about the expected value of such heuristics and of other more intuitive decision strategies in this context, as well as empirical assessments of the mechanisms by which inducing such decision strategies may impact the quality and outcome of values clarification. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 78 FR 36412 - Notice of Policy Clarification for the Registration of Aircraft to U.S. Citizen Trustees in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... clarification is consistent with the FAA's regulations. It is also in accord with the FAA's duties under... transfers the right to possess, use and operate the Aircraft from Owner Trustee to Trustor. ``Trust Estate'' means all estate, right, title and interest of Owner Trustee in and to the Aircraft, the Lease, the...

  20. The Effects of Task Clarification, Visual Prompts, and Graphic Feedback on Customer Greeting and Up-Selling in a Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, James; Wilder, David A.; Fixsen, Amanda; Hess, Erica; Rost, Kristen; Curran, Ryan; Zonneveld, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    An intervention consisting of task clarification, visual prompts, and graphic feedback was evaluated to increase customer greeting and up-selling in a restaurant. A combination multiple baseline and reversal design was used to evaluate intervention effects. Although all interventions improved performance over baseline, the delivery of graphic…

  1. Corrections and clarifications to the descriptions of Biendongella and Sovvityazius (Perciformes: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Edward O

    2017-06-09

    Prokofiev (2015a) described two new genera and species of Amblyopinae and reported new amblyopine records from waters off Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In reviewing Prokofiev's figures and reading the descriptions of his new genera, Biendongella Prokofiev, 2015 and Sovvityazius Prokofiev, 2015, it appeared likely that these new taxa were based on species also under examination by Koichi Shibukawa and me. However, some differences existed between our specimens and those described by Prokofiev in the pterygiophore formula (DF), the presence/absence of hypural 5, and the number of epurals. The data and information on these characters were not abundantly clear from the text and clarification was needed. For example, on page 786 of Prokofiev (2015a) the following diagnostic feature of Biendongella was provided, "DF 3 1221, vacant interneural gap between spined and soft parts of D present; two first pterygiophores of soft part of D each located in its interneural gap…". Similar wording exists for Sovvityazius on page 789, "DF 3 1221, vacant gap between spined and soft parts of D present; two first pterygiophores of soft part of D each in its interneural space…". As for hypural 5 and the number of epurals, the same statement is given for both Biendongella and Sovvityazius on pages 786 and 789, respectively, "Hypural 5 and epural 2 absent." These character states struck me as remarkable as they are atypical for amblyopines. With respect to the DF character above, amblyopine gobies with a pterygiophore formula of 3-1221 have no interneural gap and the interneural space immediately posterior to the pterygiophore of the ultimate spinous ray contains two pterygiophores (Murdy 2011). As for the latter characters, hypural 5 and two epurals are present in amblyopine gobies (Shibukawa and Murdy 2012). In a detailed email to Prokofiev, I asked for clarification of these discrepancies and whether Biendongella and Sovvityazius have the amblyopine synapomorphy of the

  2. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  3. EVALUATION OF INDUCTANCE WITH ELECTRICAL WIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kudry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper proved the possibility of developing passive electronic inductive elements based replace metal wire that is wound inductor, the wire is made of electret. The relative permeability of the electret S  10 000, several orders of magnitude greater than the permeability of conventional insulation materials, i < 10, resulting current in the wire acquires properties bias current. The essence of innovation is to replace the source of of magnetic induction flow that pervades the core of the coil. According to the theory of electrodynamics, current bias, in contrast to conduction current, generated no movement of charge along the wire, but the change of the charge in the local volume.Equivalence bias current and conduction current is manifested in the possibility of forming a magnetic field. The flow through magnetic induction coil core regardless of the current it generates, creates voltage at its ends.The paper also shows the numeric characteristics that determine the effective frequency range, specified the reason why electric a wire with і < 10 can not generate magnetic flux through the core and serve as a passive reactive component.

  4. Percutaneous tension band wiring for patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Akhilesh; Swamy, M K S; Prasantha, I; Consul, Ashu; Bansal, Abhishek; Bahl, Vibhu

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate outcome of percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella. 16 men and 7 women aged 27 to 65 (mean, 40) years underwent percutaneous tension band wiring for transverse fractures of the patella with a displacement of >3 mm. Pain, operating time, mobility, functional score, and complications were evaluated. 20 patients underwent successful percutaneous tension band wiring. The remaining 3 patients in whom closed reduction failed underwent open reduction and tension band wiring. The mean operating time was 46 (range, 28-62) minutes. The mean follow-up period was 20 (range, 15-30) months. At the latest follow-up, all patients had regained full extension. The objective score was excellent in 20 patients and good in 3, whereas the subjective score was excellent in 17, good in 5, and fair in one. All patients had radiological union at week 8. One patient had patellofemoral arthritis (secondary to a postoperative articular step). Two patients developed superficial infections, which resolved after antibiotic therapy. Mean thigh muscle wasting was 0.7 (range, 0.4-1) cm. Three patients encountered hardware problems (impingement/irritation of the skin over the knee) necessitating implant removal. Percutaneous tension band wiring is a viable option for transverse fractures of the patella.

  5. Effect of Size on Tensile Strength of Fine Polycrystalline Nickel Wires

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubenstein, Lester

    1966-01-01

    .... The tensile strength of recrystallized wires was diameter independent. The proportional limit stress of recrystallized wires was inversely related to power functions of wire diameter and grain size...

  6. Magnetic wires in MEMS and bio-medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbic, Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic wires of appropriate design have special features making them useful to micro-electromechanical systems and bio-medical applications. Several applications that exploit the properties of magnetic wires are reviewed including: (a) a magnetic micro-manipulation technique that utilizes integrated micro-coils and magnetic micro-wires for localized positioning of micron-sized magnetic objects, (b) integrated micro-coil/micro-wire system operating as a micro-fluidic micro-motor, (c) mechanical tweezers using magneto-static interaction between two magnetic micro-wires, and (d) ultra-high gradient magnetic separation system based on porous membranes partially filled with magnetic wires

  7. A comparison of a 'J' wire and a straight wire in successful antegrade cannulation of the superficial femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, D.A.T.; Edwards, A.J.; Puckett, M.A.; Roobottom, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the success of two different types of wire in common use in their ability to successfully cannulate the superficial femoral artery (SFA) using antegrade puncture. METHODS: 50 consecutive patients in whom antegrade infra-inguinal intervention was planned, underwent common femoral arterial puncture and then cannulation with either a standard 3 mm 'J' wire or a floppy tipped straight wire (William Cook--Europe). The frequency with which each type of wire entered the SFA or profunda femoris artery without image guidance was recorded. Further analysis was also made of the success of manipulation of the wire into the SFA following profunda cannulation and the use of alternative guide wires. RESULTS: In 19 out of 25 (76%) patients the 'J' wire correctly entered the SFA without image guidance. Only 5 out of 25 (25%) of straight wires entered the SFA with the initial pass (p<0.0001). Following further manipulation with the same wire all except 1 'J' wire was successfully negotiated into the SFA. The same was true for only 9 of the remaining straight wires with 11 patients requiring an alternative guide wire. CONCLUSIONS: When performing antegrade cannulation of the SFA a 'J' wire is more likely to be successful than a straight guide wire

  8. Cockpit canopy shattering using exploding wire techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Downs, P R; Marston, P; Fahey, D

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the principal experimental results provided by a preliminary investigation into the possibility of using exploding wire (EW) techniques to shatter the plastic cockpit canopy of a modern jet aircraft. The data provided forms the basis for a qualitative understanding of the physics of interaction between the plasma produced by an EW and the surrounding elasto-plastic material in which the wire is embedded. To optimize the shock-wave 'clean cutting' effect, the significance of the material, the dimensions of the exploding wire and the amplitude of the current and voltage pulses are all considered. This leads to important conclusions concerning both the characteristics of the EW and the optimum arrangement of the electrical circuit, with the single most important optimization factor being the peak electrical power input to the EW, rather than the dissipated Joule energy. A full-scale system relevant to an actual cockpit canopy shattering is outlined and relevant results are presented and discussed

  9. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  10. Use of Kirschner wires with eyelets for tension band wiring of olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Young Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Lee, Sang Lim; Lee, Sang Ki; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of tension band wiring of displaced olecranon fractures treated using Kirschner wires with eyelets to assess their clinical performance with respect to complications such as backing out of the K-wires, restriction of forearm rotation, and neurovascular injury. The authors retrospectively reviewed 44 patients treated for an isolated, displaced olecranon fracture and checked range of motion, postoperative pain, complications, and incidence of hardware removal. The mean follow-up period was 41 months (range, 26-73 mo). All fractures united, and anatomical reduction was achieved in all cases at final follow-up. Mean elbow flexion was 135° (range, 115° to 140°), and mean elbow extension was 4° (range, 0° to 15°). No pin migration, restriction of forearm rotation, or neurovascular injury occurred. Hardware removal was performed in 8 cases (18%). Compared to previous results with conventional Kirschner wires, no meaningful improvement in postoperative pain level or in the rate of hardware removal was observed. Tension band wiring using the pin studied produced excellent clinical and radiologic outcomes for the treatment of isolated, displaced Mayo type IIA and some type IIB olecranon fractures. The pin was effective in preventing the backing out of Kirschner wires and avoiding the complications associated with anterior cortical engagement of Kirschner wires, such as neurovascular injury or restriction of forearm rotation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  12. Modeling of Service-Drop Wires and Interior-Wiring Cables for Lightning Overvoltage Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Susumu; Noda, Taku; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sakai, Hiroshi

    As the information society progresses, a variety of electronic appliances have come into wide use in common houses. If a lightning stroke causes faults or incorrect operations of these electronic appliances, a social economic loss is considered to be large. For this reason, the focus of lightning protection measures for distribution lines in Japan has expanded to include the low-voltage side of the distribution line in addition to the high-voltage side. In order to calculate lightning overvoltages at the low-voltage side, the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables have to be modeled accurately. First, this paper describes test results of the surge characteristics of service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables. The modal surge impedances and the propagation velocities of various service-drop wires and interior-wiring cables are obtained by the test. Based on the test results obtained, this paper proposes a modeling methodology of these wires and cables for accurate EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program) lightning overvoltage simulations. The proposed model is validated by comparing EMTP simulation results with field test results.

  13. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final Phase of...) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in...

  14. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...)] Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in the United States is materially injured or threatened with material injury, or the establishment of an industry in the United...

  15. 76 FR 33218 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Initiation of Anti-Circumvention Inquiry of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY...-circumvention inquiry with regard to two Mexican firms, Deacero S.A. de C.V. (Deacero) and Ternium Mexico S.A... Alterations Anti-Circumvention Proceeding Section 781(c) of the Act provides that the Department may find...

  16. 76 FR 68422 - Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Mexico: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final... United States at less than fair value (LTFV), as provided in section 733(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as.... Fair Value Comparisons To determine whether respondents' sales of galvanized wire from Mexico to the...

  17. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Wire-Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wapperom, Peter; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    A finite element program has been used to analyze the wire-coating process of an MDPE melt. The melt is modeled by a nonisothermal Carreau model. The emphasis is on predicting an accurate temperature field. Therefore, it is necessary to include the heat conduction in the metal parts. A comparison...... is made with the results of a simulation that models the heat conduction in the metal head by means of a Biot boundary condition. The influence of the wire velocity, inlet temperature and power-law index will be examined....

  19. Astrophysically relevant radiatively cooled hypersonic bow shocks in nested wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampleford, David

    2009-11-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments which introduce obstructions into hypersonic plasma flows to study the formation of shocks. Astrophysical observations have demonstrated many examples of equivalent radiatively cooled bow shocks, for example the head of protostellar jets or supernova remnants passing through the interstellar medium or between discrete clumps in jets. Wire array z-pinches allow us to study quasi-planar radiatively cooled flows in the laboratory. The early stage of a wire array z-pinch implosion consists of a steady flow of the wire material towards the axis. Given a high rate of radiative cooling, these flows reach high sonic- Mach numbers, typically up to 5. The 2D nature of this configuration allows the insertion of obstacles into the flow, such as a concentric ``inner'' wire array, as has previously been studied for ICF research. Here we study the application of such a nested array to laboratory astrophysics where the inner wires act as obstructions perpendicular to the flow, and induce bow shocks. By varying the wire array material (W/Al), the significance of radiative cooling on these shocks can be controlled, and is shown to change the shock opening angle. As multiple obstructions are present, the experiments show the interaction of multiple bow shocks. It is also possible to introduce a magnetic field around the static object, increasing the opening angle of the shocks. Further experiments can be designed to control the flow density, magnetic field structure and obstruction locations. In collaboration with: S.V. Lebedev, M.E. Cuneo, C.A. Jennings, S.N. Bland, J.P. Chittenden, A. Ciardi, G.N. Hall, S.C. Bott, M. Sherlock, A. Frank, E. Blackman

  20. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You Na; Ha, Keong Jun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2015-08-01

    Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA) was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578), major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99), minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279), or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00). Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068). The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  1. Comparison of subtransverse process wiring and sublaminar wiring in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Ramazan; Kemal Us, Ali

    2013-04-01

    A retrospective study. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of an alternative segmental spinal instrumentation technique, termed subtransverse process wiring, and compare it with a sublaminar wiring technique in the treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. High rates of neurological complications and the need for high experience limit the use of the sublaminar wiring technique, although it is an effective segmental spinal instrumentation technique in the treatment of scoliosis. This is the first study to correlate sublaminar wiring and subtransverse process wiring techniques clinically. In a retrospective study, 64 patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis were chosen randomly. Nineteen patients were treated with subtransverse process wires (group A), and 45 patients were treated with sublaminar wires (group B). The mean follow-up period was 50.9 months (25 to 90 mo) in group A and 57.9 months (26 to 108 mo) in group B. The average deformity correction was 26.5 degrees (52.9%) in group A and 28.9 degrees (54.1%) in group B. The average correction loss was 2.9 degrees (17.2%) in group A and 6.4 degrees (27%) in group B. None of the patients developed neurological complications in group A. In group B, 5 (11.1%) intraoperative dural tears, 4 (8.9%) neurological deficits, and 8 (14.4%) transient dysesthesia syndromes were seen. The average operation time was 3.6 hours (3 to 4 h) in group A and 4.9 hours (3.75 to 8 h) in group B. The average replacement of blood (erythrocyte suspension) was 2.9 U (2 to 5 U) in group A and 3.1 U (2 to 6 U) in group B. Sublaminar wiring is a time-consuming technique with high risks of neurological complications, whereas subtransverse process wiring is an easy and neurologically safe method, which maintains effective deformity correction and stability of the correction.

  2. Multifilament Cable Wire versus Conventional Wire for Sternal Closure in Patients Undergoing Major Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Na Oh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stainless steel wiring remains the most popular technique for primary sternal closure. Recently, a multifilament cable wiring system (Pioneer Surgical Technology Inc., Marquette, MI, USA was introduced for sternal closure and has gained wide acceptance due to its superior resistance to tension. We aimed to compare conventional steel wiring to multifilament cable fixation for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 1,354 patients who underwent sternal closure after major cardiac surgery, using either the multifilament cable wiring system or conventional steel wires between January 2009 and October 2010. The surgical outcomes of these two groups of patients were compared using propensity score matching based on 18 baseline patient characteristics. Results: Propensity score matching yielded 392 pairs of patients in the two groups whose baseline profiles showed no significant differences. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in the rates of early mortality (2.0% vs. 1.3%, p=0.578, major wound complications requiring reconstruction (1.3% vs. 1.3%, p>0.99, minor wound complications (3.6% vs. 2.0%, p=0.279, or mediastinitis (0.8% vs. 1.0%, p=1.00. Patients in the multifilament cable group had fewer sternal bleeding events than those in the conventional wire group, but this tendency was not statistically significant (4.3% vs. 7.4%, p=0.068. Conclusion: The surgical outcomes of sternal closure using multifilament cable wires were comparable to those observed when conventional steel wires were used. Therefore, the multifilament cable wiring system may be considered a viable option for sternal closure in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery.

  3. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  4. EDITORIAL More than a wire More than a wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Nanowires are the natural evolution of the connections in circuits when scaled down to nanometre sizes. On closer inspection, of course, the role of nanowires in developing new technologies is much more than just a current-bearing medium. By sizing the diameters of these objects down to the nanoscale, their properties become increasingly sensitive to factors such as the gas composition, temperature and incident light of their surrounding environment, as well as defects and variations in diameter. What becomes important in modern electronics innovations is not just what is connected, but how. Nanowires had already begun to attract the attention of researchers in the early 1990s as advances in imaging and measurement devices invited researchers to investigate the properties of these one-dimensional structures [1, 2]. This interest has sparked ingenious ways of fabricating nanowires such as the use of a DNA template. A collaboration of researchers at Louisiana Tech University in the US hs provided an overview of various methods to assemble conductive nanowires on a DNA template, including a summary of different approaches to stretching and positioning the templates [3]. Work in this area demonstrates a neat parallel for the role of DNA molecules as the building blocks of life and the foundations of nanoscale device architectures. Scientists at HP Labs in California are using nanowires to shrink the size of logic arrays [4]. One aspect of electronic interconnects that requires particular attention at nanoscale sizes is the effect of defects. The researchers at HP Labs demonstrate that their approach, which they name FPNI (field-programmable nanowire interconnect), is extremely tolerant of the high defect rates likely to be found in these nanoscale structures, and allows reduction in size and power without significantly sacrificing the clock rate. Another issue in scaling down electronics is the trend for an increasing resistivity with decreasing wire width. Researchers

  5. Evolution of cementite morphology in pearlitic steel wire during wet wire drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    decreasing from 19 nm (ε = 0) to 2 nm (ε = 3.7) in correspondence with the reduction in wire diameter. The deformation of the cementite is strongly related to plastic deformation in the ferrite, with coarse slip steps, shear bands and cracks in the cementite plates/particles observed parallel to either {110...... microscope observations show that cementite plates become increasingly aligned with the wire axis as the drawing strain is increased. Measurements in the transmission electron microscope show that the cementite deforms plastically during wire drawing , with the average thickness of the cementite plates...

  6. Load-Deflection and Friction Properties of PEEK Wires as Alternative Orthodontic Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Yoshifumi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2017-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is now attracting attention as an alternative to metal alloys in the dental field. In the present study, we evaluated the load-deflection characteristics of PEEK wires in addition to their frictional properties. Three types of PEEK wires are used: two sizes of rectangular shape, 0.016 ? 0.022 in2 and 0.019 ? 0.025 in2 (19-25PEEK), and rounded shape, diameter 0.016 in (16PEEK). As a control, Ni-Ti orthodontic wire, diameter 0.016 in, was used. The three-point bendin...

  7. Modeling of electric and heat processes in spot resistance welding of cross-wire steel bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatcheva, Ilona; Darzhanova, Denitsa; Manilova, Marina

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is the modeling of coupled electric and heat processes in a system for spot resistance welding of cross-wire reinforced steel bars. The real system geometry, dependences of material properties on the temperature, and changes of contact resistance and released power during the welding process have been taken into account in the study. The 3D analysis of the coupled AC electric and transient thermal field distributions is carried out using the finite element method. The novel feature is that the processes are modeled for several successive time stages, corresponding to the change of contact area, related contact resistance, and reduction of the released power, occurring simultaneously with the creation of contact between the workpieces. The values of contact resistance and power changes have been determined on the basis of preliminary experimental and theoretical investigations. The obtained results present the electric and temperature field distributions in the system. Special attention has been paid to the temperature evolution at specified observation points and lines in the contact area. The obtained information could be useful for clarification of the complicated nature of interrelated electric, thermal, mechanical, and physicochemical welding processes. Adequate modeling is also an opportunity for proper control and improvement of the system.

  8. STRUCTURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PATENTED HIGH-CARBON WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ju. Borisenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of bainite structure on mechanical characteristics of wire of steel 80 after patenting is studied. The quantity and structure state of bainite, providing high complex of mechanical characteristics of high-carbon wire, is determined.

  9. Spectroscopic properties of colloidal indium phosphide quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Wang, Fudong; Yu, Heng; Li, Jingbo; Hang, Qingling; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Janes, David B.; Buhro, William E.

    2008-07-11

    Colloidal InP quantum wires are grown by the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) method, and passivated with the traditional quantum dots surfactants 1-hexadecylamine and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide. The size dependence of the band gaps in the wires are determined from the absorption spectra, and compared to other experimental results for InP quantum dots and wires, and to the predictions of theory. The photoluminescence behavior of the wires is also investigated. Efforts to enhance photoluminescence efficiencies through photochemical etching in the presence of HF result only in photochemical thinning or photo-oxidation, without a significant influence on quantum-wire photoluminescence. However, photo-oxidation produces residual dot and rod domains within the wires, which are luminescent. The results establish that the quantum-wire band gaps are weakly influenced by the nature of the surface passivation, and that colloidal quantum wires have intrinsically low photoluminescence efficiencies.

  10. The Effect of Wire Dimension, Type and Thickness of Coating Layer on Friction of Coated Stainless-Steel Arch Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdulhussain Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Esthetic coated arch wires are the desired types to match esthetic brackets in the clinical orthodontics, but the presence of coating layer is greatly affect friction during sliding mechanics. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of total wire dimension with the type and thickness of coating layer on friction of coated stainless-steel wires. Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 140 segments of coated stainless-steel arch wires involving two wire dimensions (0.016 × 0.022 inch and 0.019 × 0.025 inch. The samples were supplied from seven companies (DB, RMO, TP, DANY, G&H, Highland and Hubit and the uncoated control samples were supplied from IOS company. Wire dimensions and thickness of coating layer were measured by the metallurgical light incident microscope and the static frictional force was measured using pulling the wire through set of ceramic brackets by the universal testing machine. The data were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests. Results: Generally measured wire dimensions do not match the stated dimensions by the manufacturer. The frictional forces of coated wires differ from uncoated control being higher in the labially coated wires and lesser in the fully Teflon coated wires owing to differences in the wire dimension, thickness of coating layer, and physical properties of coating materials. Conclusion: when tested in vitro, Teflon fully coated wires produce the least amount of friction.

  11. Bandwidth improvement for germanium photodetector using wire bonding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyu; Yu, Yu; Deng, Shupeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-05

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh speed germanium photodetector by introducing gold wires into the discrete ground electrodes with standard wire bonding technology. To engineer the parasitic parameter, the physical dimension of the gold wire used for wire bonding is specially designed with an inductance of about 450 pH. Simulation and experimental results show that the bandwidth of the photodetector can be effectively extended from less than 30 GHz to over 60 GHz.

  12. Signals analysis of fluxgate array for wire rope defaults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wei; Chu Jianxin

    2005-01-01

    In order to detecting the magnetic leakage fields of the wire rope defaults, a transducer made up of the fluxgate array is designed, and a series of the characteristic values of wire rope defaults signals are defined. By processing the characteristic signals, the LF or LMA of wire rope are distinguished, and the default extent is estimated. The experiment results of the new method for detecting the wire rope faults are introduced

  13. MDT WIRE TENSION MEASUREMENT USING AN ELECTROSTATIC METHOD

    CERN Document Server

    Balla, A; Esposito, B; Felici, G; Nedosekin, A; Ponzio, B; Russo, V; Spitalieri, M C

    1998-01-01

    An automated system to measure wire tension in MDT tubes is presented.The method uses electrostatic forces between wire and tube to excite mechanical oscillation around the wire harmonic resonance. A LC oscillating circuit is used to measure capacitance variation due towire oscillation. Wire tension is determined by the frequency at which the wirereaches the maximum oscillation amplitude. Both the excitation and measuring circuits are controlled by a computer.

  14. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  15. Building Trades. Carpentry, Electrical Wiring, Plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum guide contains 21 units of self-paced, self-contained instructional materials in the complete building trades curriculum. It is divided into vocational areas of carpentry, electrical wiring, and plumbing. The purpose of the curriculum is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering mainstream…

  16. Description of CBETA magnet tuning wire holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-07-19

    A non-­magnetic insert will be placed directly inside the permanent magnet blocks in every CBETA Halbach magnet in order to hold a set of iron “tuning wires”. These wires have various lengths around the perimeter of the aperture in order to cancel multipole field errors from the permanent magnet blocks.

  17. Selective deposition by hot wire ALD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexey Y.; Yang, Mengdi; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2018-01-01

    A method for selectively depositing a metal nlm onto a substrate is disclosed. In particular, the method comprising nowing a metal precursor onto the substrate and nowing a non-metal precursor onto the substrate,while contacting the non-metal precursor with a hot wire. Specincally, a reaction

  18. Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb$_{3}$Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb$_{3}$Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  19. Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2099575

    2015-01-01

    Studying superconducting Nb3Sn wire. From the current experience from LHC and HL-LHC we know that the performance requirements for Nb3Sn conductor for future circular collider are challenging and should exceed that of present state-of-the-art materials.

  20. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Two wire samples, both for carrying 13'000Amperes. I sample is copper. The other is the Niobium Titanium wiring used in the LHC magnets. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable ...

  1. Two-wire Interface for Digital Microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2003-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  2. Two-Wire interface for digital microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothedde, Wouter; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Eschauzier, Rudolphe Gustave Hubertus; van Rijn, Nico

    2005-01-01

    A two-wire interface for a digital microphone circuit includes a power line and a ground line. The interface utilizes the ground line as a "voltage active line" to transmit both clock and data signals between the digital microphone circuit and a receiving circuit. The digital microphone circuit

  3. Structured Wiring Systems: Bringing Sanity to Network Cabling!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn, Larry L., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    While most organizations, including libraries, can benefit from a structured wiring system, few likely have the expertise and resources to place, specify, and install network cabling by themselves. This article reviews common wiring plans, addresses basic concepts of structured wiring systems, and discusses the importance and benefits of such a…

  4. Modeling, simulation and parametric optimization of wire EDM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present work, quadratic mathematical models have been derived to represent the process behavior of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) operation. Experiments have been conducted with six process parameters: discharge current, pulse duration, pulse frequency, wire speed, wire tension and dielectric flow ...

  5. Bonding of a niobium wire to a niobium thin film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaszczuk, W.; Jaszczuk, W.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Flokstra, Jakob; Veldhuis, Dick; Stammis, R.; Rogalla, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A method for bonding a niobium wire to a niobium thin film is described. The bonds are to be used as superconducting connections between wire-wound gradiometers and thin-film coupling coils on DC SQUIDS. The method is characterized by two steps. Firstly, the hardness of the niobium wire is reduced

  6. 76 FR 29266 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...)] Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... reason of imports from China and Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30... subsidized imports of galvanized steel wire from China and Mexico. Accordingly, effective March 31, 2011, the...

  7. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements of... 60092-302 (clause 7) (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). (b) Wiring. Instrumentation and...

  8. Basic Wiring. Third Edition. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary; Blasingame, Don; Batson, Larry; Ipock, Dan; Carroll, Charles; Friesen, Wade; Fleming, Glenn

    This publication contains both a teacher edition and a student edition of materials for a foundation course in an electrical wiring program. The course introduces basic concepts and skills that are prerequisites to residential wiring and commercial and industrial wiring courses. The contents of the materials are tied to measurable and observable…

  9. 29 CFR 1926.404 - Wiring design and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wiring design and protection. 1926.404 Section 1926.404... Requirements § 1926.404 Wiring design and protection. (a) Use and identification of grounded and grounding... construction sites, which are not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure and which are in...

  10. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring. 129.340 Section 129.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than...

  11. 46 CFR 28.370 - Wiring methods and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring methods and materials. 28.370 Section 28.370... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.370 Wiring methods and materials. (a) All cable and... not more than 10 percent. (c) Cable and wiring not serving equipment in a high risk fire area such as...

  12. Interpolation Algorithm for Fast Evaluation of EM Coupling between Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasini, C.; Lepelaars, E.S.A.M.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and accurate evaluation of the EM field radiated by a current flowing along a wire is essential to solve the electromagnetic coupling between arbitrary oriented wires. In this paper, a numerically efficient algorithm for the evaluation of coupling is presented. The currents along the wires

  13. 77 FR 1504 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on stainless steel wire rod From India would be likely to lead to continuation or... contained in USITC Publication 4300 (January 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Wire Rod From India...

  14. Experimental investigation of industrial copper deformed by wire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drawing on microstructure and physical properties of industrial copper wires. Copper wires were provided by E.N.I.CA.Biskra (Algeria). We investigated some wires with different strain levels (as received, 1.20, 2.10, and ε = 3.35).

  15. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser. Abstract. A new laser-wire has been installed in the extraction line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to ...

  16. A laser-wire system for the International Linear Collider

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... line of the ATF at KEK. It aims at demonstrating that laser-wires can be used to measure micrometre scale beam size. In parallel, studies have been made to specify a laser suitable for the ILC laser-wires. Keywords. Laser-wire; accelerator test facility; laser; optical system; Compton; beam emittance; MOPA; fiber laser.

  17. Lunar Module Wiring Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the considerations for the design of wiring for the Lunar Module. Included are a review of the choice of conductors and insulations, the wire splicing (i.e., crimping, and soldering), the wire connectors, and the fabrication of the wire harnesses. The problems in fabrication include the wires being the wrong length, the damage due to the sharp edges, the requried use of temproary protective covers and inadequate training. The problems in the wire harness installation include damge from sharp eges, work on adjacent harnesses, connector damage, and breaking wires. Engineering suggestions from the Apollo-era in reference to the conductors that are reviewed include: the use of plated conductors, and the use of alloys for stronger wiring. In refernce to insulation, the suggestions from Apollo era include the use of polymer tape-wrap wire insulation due to the light weight, however, other types of modern insulation might be more cost-effective. In reference to wire splices and terminal boards the suggestions from the Apollo Era include the use of crimp splices as superior to solder splices, joining multiple wire to a common point using modular plug-ins might be more reliable, but are heavier than crimp splicing. For connectors, the lessons from the Apollo era indicate that a rear environmental seal that does not require additional potting is preferred, and pins should be crimped or welded to the incoming wires and be removable from the rear of the connector.

  18. Load-deflection characteristics of superelastic nickel-titanium wires.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Senn, C.; Wichelhaus, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanical properties of commercially available thermodynamic wires and to classify these wires mathematically into different groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples examined were 48 nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloy orthodontic wires commercially available from five

  19. 30 CFR 77.705 - Guy wires; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires; grounding. 77.705 Section 77.705... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.705 Guy wires; grounding. Guy wires from poles supporting high-voltage transmission lines shall be...

  20. An X-ray scanner for wire chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, T.; Arik, E.; Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Benjamin, D.; Bertelsen, H.; Bytchkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeans-Garrido, M.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, A.; Cwetanski, P.; Danielsson, H.; Dittus, F.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dressnandt, N.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Farthouat, P.; Froidevaux, D.; Grichkevitch, Y.; Hajduk, Z.; Hansen, J. R.; Keener, P. K.; Kekelidze, G.; Konovalov, S.; Kowalski, T.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kruger, K.; Lundberg, B.; Luehring, F.; Manara, A.; McFarlane, K.; Mitsou, V. A.; Morozov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Newcomer, F. M.; Olszowska, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Peshekhonov, V.; Price, M.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rust, D. R.; Schegelsky, V.; Sapinski, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnova, L. N.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Soutchkov, S.; Spiridenkov, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; VanBerg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V.; Wang, C.; Williams, H. H.

    2003-07-01

    The techniques to measure the position of sense wires and field wires, the gas gain and the gas flow rate inside wire chambers using a collimated and filtered X-ray beam are reported. Specific examples are given using barrel modules of the Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment.

  1. Electronic conductance of quantum wire with serial periodic potential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Hisham M.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-08-01

    A theory based on the total transfer matrix is presented to investigate the electronic conductance in a quantum wire with serial periodic potentials. We apply the formalism in computation of the electronic conductance in a wire with different physical parameters of the wire structure. The numerical results could be used in designing some future quantum electronic devices. (author)

  2. Communication and wiring in the cortical connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Julian M L; Kisvárday, Zoltán F

    2012-01-01

    In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimize communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction) and temporal (routing) costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fiber tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for cortical wiring patterns.

  3. Behavior of palladium and its impact on intermetallic growth in palladium-coated Cu wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Qin, Ivy; Clauberg, Horst; Chylak, Bob; Acoff, Viola L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of palladium in palladium-coated Cu (PdCu) wire bonding and its impact on bond reliability by utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A Pd layer approximately 80 nm thick, which is coated on the surface of Cu wire, dissolves into the Cu matrix during ball formation (under N 2 gas protection) when the wire tip is melted to form a ball. As a result of dissolving the very thin Pd layer into the ball, Pd is almost undetectable along the entire bond interface between the ball and the Al pad. The behavior of Pd during thermal aging in air, however, is different for central and peripheral interfaces. At the central interface, less than 5 at.% Pd is present after 168 h aging at 175 °C. At the periphery, however, Pd diffuses back and congregates, reaching a level of ∼12 at.% after 24 h, and a Pd-rich (Cu,Pd) 9 Al 4 layer (>40 at.% Pd) forms after 168 h. Pd acts substitutionally in Cu 9 Al 4 but cannot penetrate into the CuAl 2 or CuAl. By comparison of intermetallic thickness and interfacial morphology between PdCu and bare Cu wire bonds, it is concluded that the presence of Pd reduces intermetallic growth rate, and is associated with numerous nanovoids in PdCu bonds.

  4. Curatorial Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a self-critical inquiry into my own recent work of co-curating and the experience of seeing my video work being curated by others, this article examines acts of framing as performative acts that seek to transform visitors' preconceptions. This affective effect is pursued by means of immersion,

  5. Research regarding wires elastic deformations influence on joints positioning of a wire-driven robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the influence of driving wires deformation on positioning precision of joints from an elephant's trunk robotic arm. Robotic arms driven by wires have the joint accuracy largely depending on wires rigidity. The joint moment of resistance causes elastic deformation of wires and it is determined by: manipulated object load, weight loads previous to the analyzed joint and inherent resistance moment of joint. Static load analysis emphasizes the particular wires elastic deformation of each driven joint from an elephant's trunk robotic arm with five degrees of freedom. We consider the case of a constant manipulated load. Errors from each driving system of joints are not part of the closed loop system. Thus, precision positioning depends on wires elastic deformation which is about microns and causes angle deviation of joints about tens of minutes of sexagesimal degrees. The closer the joints to base arm the smaller positioning precision of joint. The obtained results are necessary for further compensation made by electronic corrections in the programming algorithm of the elephant's trunk robotic arm to improve accuracy.

  6. U.S. Navy Wire-Rope Handbook. Volume 1. Design and Engineering of Wire-Rope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    percent nickel and are designated "Type 304 " and "Type 302" by the American Iron and Steel Institute ( AISI ). Type 304 stainless steel rope may be...from AISI Specifica- tion XYZ14 on Alloy Steel Wire) .... ............ ... 3-2 3-2. Typical Load-Elongation Behavior of Wire Rope .... ...... 3-9 3...Cosecants .......... ................... ... 10-S 10-11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wire ............ . .. 10-10 10-12. Wire Gauges

  7. Immobilization of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pectinmethylesterase in calcium alginate beads and its application in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogra, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashwani; Kuhar, Kalika; Panwar, Surbhi; Singh, Randhir

    2013-11-01

    Clarity of fruit juices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruit juice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C.

  8. Clarifications Regarding the Topographical Location of the Vascular, Lymphatic and Nervous Formations from the Thorax Aperture in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our studies are intended to bring some clarification on the topographic situation of lymphatic vascular and nerve formations in the thoracic aperture to the dog. Data from the literature are less relevant because the other factions by surprise earlier in the mediastinum without to make a correlation between them [6, 7, 8]. The study was performed on 20 corpses of dog different breeds, ages and gender. Vascular formations were injected with a mixture prepare the laboratory of anatomy of the discipline. Photographic paper presents several models dissected setting with as much precision topographic situation of the anatomical formations and has a highly application in human medicine, bringing clarification on topography thoracic duct lymph in the large vessels transport underlying heart. Lymphatic ducts is attached the entire length of the front right mediastinal aorta. That is opening in cranial vena cava without having a secundar channel.

  9. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 μmol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Beer Clarification by Novel Ceramic Hollow-Fiber Membranes: Effect of Pore Size on Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    In this work, the crossflow microfiltration performance of rough beer samples was assessed using ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membrane modules with a nominal pore size ranging from 0.2 to 1.4 μm. Under constant operating conditions (that is, transmembrane pressure difference, TMP = 2.35 bar; feed superficial velocity, v S = 2.5 m/s; temperature, T = 10 °C), quite small steady-state permeation fluxes (J * ) of 32 or 37 L/m 2 /h were achieved using the 0.2- or 0.5-μm symmetric membrane modules. Both permeates exhibited turbidity beer quality parameters. Moreover, it exhibited J * values of the same order of magnitude of those claimed for the polyethersulfone HF membrane modules currently commercialized. The 1.4-μm asymmetric membrane module yielded quite a high steady-state permeation flux (196 ± 38 L/m 2 /h), and a minimum decline in permeate quality parameters, except for the high levels of turbidity at room temperature and chill haze. In the circumstances, such a membrane module might be regarded as a real valid alternative to conventional powder filters on condition that the resulting permeate were submitted to a final finishing step using 0.45- or 0.65-μm microbially rated membrane cartridges prior to aseptic bottling. A novel combined beer clarification process was thus outlined. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Clarification of olive mill and winery wastewater by means of clay-polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytwo, Giora; Lavi, Roy; Rytwo, Yuval; Monchase, Hila; Dultz, Stefan; König, Tom N

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted effluents from olive mills and wineries, among others, are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants due to the large amounts of organic and suspended matter. Efficiency of all management practices for such effluents depends on an effective pretreatment that lowers the amount of suspended solids. Such pretreatments are usually based on three separate stages, taking a total of 2 to 6h: coagulation-neutralizing the colloids, flocculation-aggregating the colloids into larger particles, and separation via filtration or decanting. Previous studies have presented the concept of coagoflocculation based on the use of clay-polymer nanocomposites. This process adds a higher density clay particle to the flocs, accelerating the process to between 15 and 60 min. This study examined suitable nanocomposites based on different clays and polymers. The charge of the compounds increased proportionally to the polymer-to-clay ratio. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that in sepiolite-based nanocomposites there is no change in the structure of the mineral, whereas in smectite-based nanocomposites, the polymer intercalates between the clay layers and increases the spacing depending on the polymer-to-clay ratio. Efficiency of the coagoflocculation process was studied with a dispersion analyzer. Sequential addition of olive mill or winery effluents with a boosting dose of nanocomposites may yield a very efficient and rapid clarification pretreatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New design centrifugal contactor remotely controlled for solvent extraction operations for feed clarification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelieri, T.; Gerardi, A.; Petrigliano, G.; Siepe, V.

    1987-01-01

    The project concept of the nuclear facilities has gone through an important evolution in the past years in relation to the need of: garantiing the remote maintenance reducing workers exposure when operating in high-risk areas; making easier final decommissioning operations of the plants. In this way the ITREC pilot plant (built in 1970s') for its modular characteristic based on Rack Removal System (R.R.S.) was the first example of this new concept of project. A further development, in the field of remote maintenance and decommissioning operations, we can obtain associating to the R.R.S. concept that of projecting the single components (only for the critical ones) remotely demountable in their higher radioactive parts to consent the maintenance-substitution and/or decommissioning operations without interfering with remaining parts of the plant which it is connected. All of this helps in the realization of the aim making better plant operations reducing drastically work time and therefore non-functioning period of the plants. These principles have been applicated in the realization of two important components in reprocessing plant: the centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction and feed clarification centrifuge

  13. Democracy and understandable justice. The clarification of legal discourse in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Montolío Durán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modernization of the Spanish legal discourse and it comprises seven sections. In the first, we propose the relationship between the legal discourse and the historicity and literalness, which has led to the stagnation of such communicative language in all known traditions. In the second section, we present a brief overview and the current status of the clarification of this kind of discourse on the international scene. In the third one, we describe the situation of the legal discourse in Spain and, in particular, the initiative that has led to the publication of the Report of the Interministerial Commission for modernization of the legal discourse. In the fourth, we raise the sociological reasons that explain the need for a communicative change in the Justice Administration in Spain. The fifth section is devoted to describing one of the six academic researches that underpin this report, specifically, the longest and most comprehensive of them: Estudio de campo: el lenguaje escrito. The following section presents the ten most innovative contributions that this research brings and describes in some detail one of them, on the methodology used. In the last section we present some brief conclusions.

  14. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapati Bhanja Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103 using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL, maximum clarity (%T660nm = 97.0% of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 ºC in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  15. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Several alternative strategies were examined for improving conventional juice fining procedures for cherry juice clarification and fining in laboratory-scale experiments: Centrifugation of freshly pressed juice from 1000g to 35000g induced decreased turbidity according to a steep, negative power...... function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...

  16. Near-field optical spectroscopy of single quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Gershoni, D.; Grober, R. D.; Pfeiffer, L.; West, K.; Chand, N.

    1996-02-01

    Low temperature near-field scanning optical microscopy is used for spectroscopic studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. A direct experimental comparison between a two dimensional system and a single genuinely one dimensional quantum wire system, inaccessible to conventional far field optical spectroscopy, is enabled by the enhanced spatial resolution. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of 3 absorption enhancement for these wires compared to the wells is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  17. Laparoscopic extraction of fractured Kirschner wire from the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaykumar N Thati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirschner wire is a sharp stainless steel guide wire commonly used in fixation of fractured bone segments. There are case reports of migrated K wire from the upper limb into the spine and chest, and from the lower limb in to the abdomen and pelvis. Here, we present a case report of accidental intra-operative fracture of K wire during percutaneous femoral nailing for sub-trochanteric fracture of right femur, which migrated in to the pelvis when the orthopaedician tried to retrieve the broken segment of the K wire. This case highlights the use of laparoscopy as minimally invasive surgical option.

  18. Enhanced THz guiding properties of curved two-wire lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jingshu; Kim, Geun Ju; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-03-21

    We present experimental and simulation studies of enhanced terahertz (THz) guiding properties of curved two-wire lines for several surface conditions. When a THz-wave propagates through curved two-wire lines, a rough wire surface with dielectric coating contributes to a lower bending loss compared to a smooth or rough wire surface without coating. Dielectric coating and rough surface confine the THz field to the wire surface making the bending loss low. The guiding property at a curve depth of 30 mm of a rough wire surface with 25-μm-thick coating is improved by 34% compared to that of a smooth wire without coating. Furthermore, computer simulation technology (CST) software visually shows the bending loss as same as the experimental studies.

  19. Judicial activism, the Biotech Directive and its institutional implications – Is the Court acting as a legislator or a court when defining the ‘human embryo’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2015-01-01

    a number of questions about the limits to the Court’s jurisdiction and whether was acting as a legislator rather than in a judicial capacity. As a consequence of the Court’s judicial activism, biotechnological inventions manoeuvre in a new, more restrictive legal environment than before. However......, this autonomous interpretation of ‘human embryo’ and the flexibility allowed to the national courts needed further clarification. This clarification was recently given by the Court’s Grand Chamber in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General Patents where the Court concluded that a non...

  20. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  1. Heat Transfer Analysis in Wire Bundles for Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, S. L.; Iamello, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Design of wiring for aerospace vehicles relies on an understanding of "ampacity" which refers to the current carrying capacity of wires, either, individually or in wire bundles. Designers rely on standards to derate allowable current flow to prevent exceedance of wire temperature limits due to resistive heat dissipation within the wires or wire bundles. These standards often add considerable margin and are based on empirical data. Commercial providers are taking an aggressive approach to wire sizing which challenges the conventional wisdom of the established standards. Thermal modelling of wire bundles may offer significant mass reduction in a system if the technique can be generalized to produce reliable temperature predictions for arbitrary bundle configurations. Thermal analysis has been applied to the problem of wire bundles wherein any or all of the wires within the bundle may carry current. Wire bundles present analytical challenges because the heat transfer path from conductors internal to the bundle is tortuous, relying on internal radiation and thermal interface conductance to move the heat from within the bundle to the external jacket where it can be carried away by convective and radiative heat transfer. The problem is further complicated by the dependence of wire electrical resistivity on temperature. Reduced heat transfer out of the bundle leads to higher conductor temperatures and, hence, increased resistive heat dissipation. Development of a generalized wire bundle thermal model is presented and compared with test data. The steady state heat balance for a single wire is derived and extended to the bundle configuration. The generalized model includes the effects of temperature varying resistance, internal radiation and thermal interface conductance, external radiation and temperature varying convective relief from the free surface. The sensitivity of the response to uncertainties in key model parameters is explored using Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. Disorder and Interaction Effects in Quantum Wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L W; Ritchie, D A; Farrer, I; Griffiths, J P; Jones, G A C; Thomas, K J; Pepper, M

    2012-01-01

    We present conductance measurements of quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires affected by random disorder in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. In addition to quantised conductance plateaux, we observe structure superimposed on the conductance characteristics when the channel is wide and the density is low. Magnetic field and temperature are varied to characterize the conductance features which depend on the lateral position of the 1D channel formed in a split-gate device. Our results suggest that there is enhanced backscattering in the wide channel limit, which gives rise to quantum interference effects. When the wires are free of disorder and wide, the confinement is weak so that the mutual repulsion of the electrons forces a single row to split into two. The relationship of this topological change to the disorder in the system will be discussed.

  3. Superconducting wire turns to electrical power

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, P

    2003-01-01

    Two years after the discovery that magnesium diboride is a superconductor, engineers and entrepreneurs are keen to transform its properties into profit. The discovery of superconductivity at 39 K in the metallic compound magnesium diboride two years ago created quite a stir. Since then, physicists and chemists have come a long way in understanding the curious set of circumstances that lead to such a high critical temperature in this widely available material. At the same time, metallurgists, engineers and entrepreneurs have been focusing on the commercial potential of magnesium diboride as superconducting wire, which was the subject of a one-day meeting in Cambridge, UK, in April. Superconducting wire made from magnesium diboride could make 'second- generation' electrical machines commercially viable. (U.K.)

  4. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plomp, J.; Barker, J.G.; Haan, V.O. de; Bouwman, W.G.; Well, A.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction

  5. Neutron refraction by cylindrical metal wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, J. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.plomp@tudelft.nl; Barker, J.G. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Haan, V.O. de [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Bouwman, W.G. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Well, A.A. van [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-05-01

    Undesired Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) from interior features of an object can be minimised by reducing the sample thickness. However, refraction effects produced by the exterior shape of the object depend upon the scattering cross-section and not on the thickness of the object. In the field of polarised neutrons a wire coil is often used to manipulate the polarisation vector of the neutron. In this paper, we show that the cylindrical shape of the wire together with the refractive index introduces an angular distribution in the neutron beam. This can be observed in instrumentation sensitive to SANS. We show results measured on three different SANS instruments: Ultra Small-Angle Neutrons Scattering (USANS), Spin-Echo Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SESANS) and a Time-of-Flight (TOF) SESANS. These results are all in good agreement with the theory of refraction.

  6. From barbed wire to radar traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Several million DM are required already to protect the building sites of power plants. From the very beginning concrete, wood, and barbed wire are used to make a protective wall against intruders, or in official German, 'unauthorized persons'. This expensive provisional set-up is later supplanted by electronic alarm and safety systems. A review of available systems helps to give a picture of power plant protection. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  7. Visible emission from exploding wire in water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Prukner, Václav; Schmidt, Jiří; Koláček, Karel; Štraus, Jaroslav; Frolov, Oleksandr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2007), s. 53-53 ISSN 0003-0503. [The 61st Annual Gaseous Electronic Conference. Dallas, Texas , 13.10.2008-17.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Exploding wire * emission Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Wire chambers with their magnetostrictive readout

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This set of wire chamber planes shaped as a cylinder sector was installed inside the magnet of a polarized spin target modified to allow as well momentum analysis of the produced particles. The experiment (S126) was set up by the CERN-Trieste Collaboration in the PS beam m9 to measure spin effects in the associated production of of a positive kaon and a positive Sigma by interaction of a positive pion with polarized protons.

  9. Inverter design for four-wire microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Pagès Giménez, Marc; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a PQ four quadrant four-wire three-phase inverter for microgrids integration. The inverter is based in two full-bridge IGBT modules connected in a three-phase configuration plus a threephase parallelized neutral branch. This topology is galvanically isolated through a single-phase transformer bank. The converter operates as a non-ideal voltage-controlled voltage source inverter under AC droop strategy with hot-swap capability based on a dynamic virtual impedance.

  10. METHOD OF MAKING WIRE FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrow, J.L.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for making a nuclear reactor fuel element in the form of a uranium-bearing wire clad with zirconium. A uranium bar is enclosed in a zirconium sheath which is coated with an oxide of magnesium, beryllium, or zirconium. The sheathed bar is then placed in a steel tube and reduced to the desired diameter by swaging at 800 to 900 deg C, after which the steel and oxide are removed.

  11. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Metals Coupled with a Wire Beam Electrode: The Influence of Temperature and Relative Geometrical Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ju

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The local electrochemical properties of galvanic corrosion for three coupled metals in a desalination plant were investigated with three wire-beam electrodes as wire sensors: aluminum brass (HAl77-2, titanium (TA2, and 316L stainless steel (316L SS. These electrodes were used with artificial seawater at different temperatures. The potential and current–density distributions of the three-metal coupled system are inhomogeneous. The HAl77-2 wire anodes were corroded in the three-metal coupled system. The TA2 wires acted as cathodes and were protected; the 316L SS wires acted as secondary cathodes. The temperature and electrode arrangement have important effects on the galvanic corrosion of the three-metal coupled system. The corrosion current of the HAl77-2 increased with temperature indicating enhanced anode corrosion at higher temperature. In addition, the corrosion of HAl77-2 was more significant when the HAl77-2 wires were located in the middle of the coupled system than with the other two metal arrangement styles.

  12. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Metals Coupled with a Wire Beam Electrode: The Influence of Temperature and Relative Geometrical Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hong; Yang, Yuan-Feng; Liu, Yun-Fei; Liu, Shu-Fa; Duan, Jin-Zhuo; Li, Yan

    2018-02-28

    The local electrochemical properties of galvanic corrosion for three coupled metals in a desalination plant were investigated with three wire-beam electrodes as wire sensors: aluminum brass (HAl77-2), titanium (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). These electrodes were used with artificial seawater at different temperatures. The potential and current-density distributions of the three-metal coupled system are inhomogeneous. The HAl77-2 wire anodes were corroded in the three-metal coupled system. The TA2 wires acted as cathodes and were protected; the 316L SS wires acted as secondary cathodes. The temperature and electrode arrangement have important effects on the galvanic corrosion of the three-metal coupled system. The corrosion current of the HAl77-2 increased with temperature indicating enhanced anode corrosion at higher temperature. In addition, the corrosion of HAl77-2 was more significant when the HAl77-2 wires were located in the middle of the coupled system than with the other two metal arrangement styles.

  13. Mapping the Galvanic Corrosion of Three Metals Coupled with a Wire Beam Electrode: The Influence of Temperature and Relative Geometrical Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Fei; Liu, Shu-Fa; Duan, Jin-Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    The local electrochemical properties of galvanic corrosion for three coupled metals in a desalination plant were investigated with three wire-beam electrodes as wire sensors: aluminum brass (HAl77-2), titanium (TA2), and 316L stainless steel (316L SS). These electrodes were used with artificial seawater at different temperatures. The potential and current–density distributions of the three-metal coupled system are inhomogeneous. The HAl77-2 wire anodes were corroded in the three-metal coupled system. The TA2 wires acted as cathodes and were protected; the 316L SS wires acted as secondary cathodes. The temperature and electrode arrangement have important effects on the galvanic corrosion of the three-metal coupled system. The corrosion current of the HAl77-2 increased with temperature indicating enhanced anode corrosion at higher temperature. In addition, the corrosion of HAl77-2 was more significant when the HAl77-2 wires were located in the middle of the coupled system than with the other two metal arrangement styles. PMID:29495617

  14. Numerical Investigation of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongho Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a numerical model of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminate (CWML capturing all its complexities such as nonlinear material properties, nonlinear geometry and large deformation behaviour, and frictional behaviour. Development of such a model will facilitate numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of the wire mesh structure under various types of loading as well as the variation of the CWML configuration parameters to tailor its mechanical properties to suit the intended application. Starting with a single strand truss model consisting of four waves with a bilinear stress-strain model to represent the plastic behaviour of stainless steel, the finite element model is gradually built up to study single-layer structures with 18 strands of corrugated wire meshes consistency and double- and quadruple-layered laminates with alternating crossply orientations. The compressive behaviour of the CWML model is simulated using contact elements to model friction and is compared to the load-deflection behaviour determined experimentally in uniaxial compression tests. The numerical model of the CWML is then employed to conduct the aim of establishing the upper and lower bounds of stiffness and load capacity achievable by such structures.

  15. Contact conductance between graphene and quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haidong; Zheng Yisong

    2009-01-01

    The contact conductance between graphene and two quantum wires which serve as the leads to connect graphene and electron reservoirs is theoretically studied. Our investigation indicates that the contact conductance depends sensitively on the graphene-lead coupling configuration. When each quantum wire couples solely to one carbon atom, the contact conductance vanishes at the Dirac point if the two carbon atoms coupling to the two leads belong to the same sublattice of graphene. We find that such a feature arises from the chirality of the Dirac electron in graphene. Such a chirality associated with conductance zero disappears when a quantum wire couples to multiple carbon atoms. The general result irrelevant to the coupling configuration is that the contact conductance decays rapidly with the increase of the distance between the two leads. In addition, in the weak graphene-lead coupling limit, when the distance between the two leads is much larger than the size of the graphene-lead contact areas and the incident electron energy is close to the Dirac point, the contact conductance is proportional to the square of the product of the two graphene-lead contact areas, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two leads

  16. Results of the Fermilab wire production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, B.P.; Remsbottom, R.H.; Reardon, P.J.; Curtis, C.W.; McDonald, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    In examining the various schedules of wire drawing and heat treating, the Critchlow type of schedule provided the highest and most uniform data from billet to billet. It consists of a long anneal at 400 +- 20 0 C at a cold work point giving about 99 percent reduction in area from the extrusion size. Several quick copper anneals at 300 0 C may be interspersed to aid in fabrication. A final anneal at finished size both peaks up the resistivity ratio of the copper as well as the critical current of the alloy by moving dislocations to subcell walls. Using this method, critical currents of 1.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 could be maintained in all billets. The copper cladding and sinking method looks promising and should save production costs. In spite of this, it was important to attain good packing density in the billets to assure uniform filament pattern and reduce breakage in wire drawing. Overall, a procedure was found for fabricating wire in large production lots that would be acceptable for constructing dipole magnets. It is felt that this method could be peaked up with time

  17. Reliability of the wire drawing dies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.K.; Khany, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    A wear based model is proposed for the dies used in wire drawing process. Using this wear model, it is possible to predict life of the die corresponding to a wear limit criterion. Since various quantities in the model are random in nature the resulting die life will also be random quantity characterized by an appropriate distribution. Using a probabilistic characterization of the parameters of the predictive model, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to establish the die life distribution. To asses the sensitivity of life distribution with respect to various contributing variables (parameters), the simulation runs were conducted at different levels of these variables (parameters). It is shown that wire drawing die life is Weibull distributed. To compare the simulated results with actual time to failure, data of dies was obtained from a large wire drawing company and was compared with corresponding scenario generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations were very close to the actual time to failure data. (author)

  18. NA48: Wiring up for Change

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NA48 Collaboration is rebuilding its drift chambers ready for the experiment to start up again this coming July. An intricate task involving the soldering of over 24,000 wires! The future of the NA48 experiment is coming right down to the wire, that is, the wires which the Collaboration is installing in the clean room of Hall 887 on the Prévessin site. Six days a week, technicians are working in shifts to rebuild the experiment's drift chambers. The original chambers were damaged when a section of a vacuum tube imploded at the end of 1999. A year ago, CERN gave the green light for this essential part of the spectrometer to be rebuilt, so the NA48 experiment, which studies CP violation (see box), still has a bright future ahead of it. Three years of data-taking ahead The NA48 experiment aims to penetrate the secrets of CP (Charge Parity) violation. Charge and parity are two parameters which distinguish a particle from an antiparticle. In other words, an electron possesses a negative electric ...

  19. Thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pad using the saturated interfacial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Aoh, Jong-Hing; Wang, Chang-Ming

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been used to replace conventional aluminium interconnection to improve the performance of deep submicron integrated circuits. This study used the saturated interfacial phenomena found in thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto aluminium pad to investigate thermosonic ball bonding of gold wire onto copper pad. The effects of preheat temperatures and ultrasonic powers on the bonding force were investigated by using a thermosonic bonding machine and a shear tester. This work shows that under proper preheat temperatures, the bonding force of thermosonic wire bonding can be explained based on interfacial microcontact phenomena such as energy intensity, interfacial temperature and real contact area. It is clearly shown that as the energy intensity is increased, the shear force increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. After saturation, i.e. the establishment of maximum atomic bonding, any type of additional energy input will damage the bonding, decreasing the shear force. If the preheat temperature is not within the proper range, the interfacial saturation phenomenon does not exist. For a preload of 0.5 N and a welding time of 15 ms in thermosonic wire bonding of gold wire onto copper pads, a maximum shear force of about 0.33 N is found where the interfacial energy intensity equals 1.8×106 J m-2 for preheat temperatures of 150°C and 170°C. Moreover, the corresponding optimal ultrasonic power is about 110 units.

  20. Selection and use of pectinolytic yeasts for improving clarification and phenolic extraction in winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Ignacio; Conchillo, Lorena B; Ruiz, Javier; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio

    2016-04-16

    Pectinase enzymes have shown a considerable influence in both, sensitive and technological properties of wines. They can help to improve clarification process, releasing more color and flavor compounds entrapped in grape skin, facilitating the liberation of phenolic compounds. This work aims to find yeasts that, because of their native pectinases, can be applied on combined fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining significant benefits over single-inoculated traditional fermentations. 462 yeast strains isolated from wineries were identified and tested for several enzymatic activities of recognized interest for enology industry. Considering the 7 identified species, only Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Metschnikowia fructicola showed polygalacturonase activity. Because of its interest in winemaking, due to its reported incidence in wine flavor, the impact of M. pulcherrima as a source of pectinolytic enzymes was analyzed by measuring its influence in filterability, turbidity and the increase on color, anthocyanin and polyphenol content of wines fermented in combination with S. cerevisiae. Among the strains screened, M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was selected, due to its polygalacturonase activity, for further characterization in both, laboratory and semi-industrial scale assays. The kinetics concerning several metabolites of enological concern were followed during the entire fermentation process at microvinification scale. Improved results were obtained in the expected parameters when M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was used, in comparison to wines fermented with S. cerevisiae alone and combined with other pectinolytic and non-pectinolytic yeasts (A. pullulans and Lachancea thermotolerans, respectively), even working better than commercial enzymes preparations in most parameters. Additionally, M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was used at a semi-industrial scale combined with three different S. cerevisiae strains, confirming its potential application for

  1. Values clarification in a decision aid about fertility preservation: does it add to information provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvelink, Mirjam M; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Stiggelbout, Anne M; de Vries, Marieke

    2014-08-09

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of a decision aid (DA) with information only compared to a DA with values clarification exercise (VCE), and to study the role of personality and information seeking style in DA-use, decisional conflict (DC) and knowledge. Two scenario-based experiments were conducted with two different groups of healthy female participants. Dependent measures were: DC, knowledge, and DA-use (time spent, pages viewed, VCE used). Respondents were randomized between a DA with information only (VCE-) and a DA with information plus a VCE(VCE+) (experiment 1), or between information only (VCE-), information plus VCE without referral to VCE(VCE+), and information plus a VCE with specific referral to the VCE, requesting participants to use the VCE(VCE++) (experiment 2). In experiment 2 we additionally measured personality (neuroticism/conscientiousness) and information seeking style (monitoring/blunting). Experiment 1. There were no differences in DC, knowledge or DA-use between VCE- (n=70) and VCE+ (n=70). Both DAs lead to a mean gain in knowledge from 39% at baseline to 73% after viewing the DA. Within VCE+, VCE-users (n=32, 46%) reported less DC compared to non-users. Since there was no difference in DC between VCE- and VCE+, this is likely an effect of VCE-use in a self-selected group, and not of the VCE per se. Experiment 2. There were no differences in DC or knowledge between VCE- (n=65), VCE+ (n=66), VCE++ (n=66). In all groups, knowledge increased on average from 42% at baseline to 72% after viewing the DA. Blunters viewed fewer DA-pages (R=0.38, pinformation seeking styles with aspects of DC. More research is needed to make clear recommendations regarding the need for tailoring of information provision to personality characteristics, and to assess the effect of VCE use in actual patients.

  2. Optimization of the Single Staggered Wire and Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsana I Made

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and tube heat exchanger consists of a coiled tube, and wire is welded on the two sides of it in normal direction of the tube. Generally,wire and tube heat exchanger uses inline wire arrangement between the two sides, whereas in this study, it used staggered wire arrangement that reduces the restriction of convection heat transfer. This study performed the optimization of single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger to increase the capacity and reduce the mass of the heat exchanger. Optimization was conducted with the Hooke-Jeeves method, which aims to optimize the geometry of the heat exchanger, especially on the diameter (dw and the distance between wires (pw. The model developed to present heat transfer correlations on single staggered wire and tube heat exchanger was valid. The maximum optimization factor obtained when the diameter wire was 0.9 mm and the distance between wires (pw was 11 mm with the fref value = 1.5837. It means that the optimized design only using mass of 59,10 % and could transfer heat about 98,5 % from the basis design.

  3. Applications of surface analysis in the wire industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, David A.

    The quality of wire is judged not only by its physical properties such as tensile strength and fatigue resistance, but also by its surface finish. The surface roughness, oxide formation, cleanliness, and plating homogeneity and porosity are just a few of the surface properties than can influence the performance of a wire product. Coupled to this is the large amount of surface area generated in drawing wire. For example, a ten pound spool holds nine miles of 0.006″ diameter stainless steel wire. For these reasons surface analysis has become important both to the manufacturer and consumer of wire products. When surface analysis equipment such as AES, ESCA, and SIMS was first becoming commercially available in the late sixties and early seventies, the wire industry was beginning to enter a phase of technological development for many of its products. Wire manufacturers and users began using surface analysis to investigate such topics as adhesion of brass plated automobile tire cord to rubber and diffusion of layered deposits. Examples of surface analysis used for process control, problem solving, and project development include discoloration problems on stainless steel wire, welding problems with composite wires, diffusion formed brass coatings, and diffusion problems with solder coated and Cu plated steel wire.

  4. A new design of wire locators for drift tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2004-01-01

    Every position-sensitive wire detector needs to solve the problem of wire positioning with a defined accuracy all over its sensitive volume. In particular, thin-walled drift tubes ("straws"), which are currently being attached to large detector units of several tens of square meters of surface, need to be equipped with wire locators along their signal wires. A wire locator has been developed together with an insertion device, especially for medium-sized drift tube systems, which significantly reduces the production time and avoids the danger of applying epoxy glue to the signal wire. The wire locator is being inserted in one single time-saving production step together with the signal wire itself. The proposed design is being compared to the rigid wire locators in use in the COMPASS straw tracking system at CERN. The investigation comprises both wire- centering capability and influence on the efficiency of adjacent detector regions, demonstrating the competitive performance of the proposed new system. Its suff...

  5. WIRELESS TENSION BAND WIRING FOR OLECRANON FRACTURES. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukoz, Sami; Bayoud, Wael

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the results of wireless tension band wire (WTBW) which is a modified technique of tension band wires (TBW) for Mayo type II A and III A olecranon fractures. In this technique the K-wires of the TBW are replaced by a cerclage wire while keeping the figure of eight wiring. We reviewed retrospectively our WTBW cases done between 2000 and 2015 where we replaced the K-wires by a cerclage wire. In this technique no hardware migration is possible. Patients were evaluated clinically, radiographicaly and a DASH score was measured. Seventeen patients were reviewed with a mean age of 58.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 58.5 months. The mean DASH score was 12 with 7 patients having a DASH score of zero. Joint mobility was near normal compared to the other side with loss of a mean of 4º in elbow extension and a mean of 3º in elbow flexion. In comparison with other series, in addition to good results, hardware removal for medical reasons was the lowest in our technique. It was needed in three patients for pain on elbow contact and in one with ulnar nerve irritation. This represents a rate of 23.5%. Undesirable events related to the use of K-wires in standard tension band wiring, such as wire migration, wire protrusion through the skin and wire impingement, are absent in the wireless tension band wiring. The high rate of patient satisfaction, good clinical results as well as low rate of needed hardware removal make this technique preferable for fixing Mayo Type II A olecranon fractures.

  6. Aesthetic nickel titanium wires--how much do they deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphoor, Anil Abdul; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the force levels of aesthetic Ni-Ti wires to regular Ni-Ti wires of the same dimension and evaluate their mechanical properties. Aesthetic and regular maxillary superelastic Ni-Ti wires (0.016 × 0.022) from four different manufacturers (G&H Wire Company, TP Orthodontics, GAC International, and Ortho Organizers) were selected and grouped I-IV. The loading and unloading values were compared using a three-point bending test. The unloading end values were also recorded to evaluate the recovery of archwires after each deflection. The unloading values were recorded at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm after loading deflections of 1, 2, and 3 mm, respectively. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the coating thickness of aesthetic wires. The results, statistically analysed, showed a significant decrease in force values for the aesthetic wires in groups I, III, and IV (P wires of the same dimension from the same manufacturer. There was no significant difference in force values for group II wires. A statistically significant decrease in force values of epoxy-coated wires was observed in groups I, III, and IV only. This is of obvious clinical significance during wire selection. The group II coated wires, however, exhibited forces comparable to their regular Ni-ti wires with a difference that was statistically insignificant. The end values of aesthetic wires showed almost complete recovery for groups I, II, and III after 2 and 3 mm deflections.

  7. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  8. FiberWire is superior in strength to stainless steel wire for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P B; Kosmopoulos, V; Coté, R E; Tayag, T J; Nana, A D

    2009-11-01

    The metal implants used to achieve fixation of displaced transverse patellar fractures are associated with implant failure, postoperative pain and a significant re-operation rate. Recent studies have examined braided suture as a possible alternative to stainless steel wire to increase patient satisfaction and decrease re-operation rates, but suture has not demonstrated clearly superior fixation strength. FiberWire is a reinforced braided polyblend suture that has demonstrated superior characteristics to the previous sutures studied and has not to our knowledge been examined as a material for tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures. Materials testing was performed on repeated samples of No. 5 FiberWire suture and 18-gauge stainless steel wire. The strength and stiffness of each material was measured. The two materials were then used for tension band fixation on a novel transverse patellar fracture model and tested to failure by three-point bending. The constructs included a single stainless steel wire, a single-strand FiberWire tied with a sliding knot, double-strand FiberWire tied with sliding knots and double-strand FiberWire tied with a Wagoner's Hitch. The fixation strength and stiffness of the constructs were measured. Unlike stainless steel, FiberWire maintained its initial stiffness until failure. Furthermore, during three-point-bend testing, double-strand FiberWire was found to have a significantly higher failure load than stainless steel wire when the suture was tied and locked under the tension produced by a modified Wagoner's Hitch. FiberWire is a potentially superior alternative to stainless steel wire in tension band fixation of transverse patellar fractures.

  9. IAS IN SPEECH ACT STUDIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent, a full clarification would take us far beyond the scope of this paper.9. I will there- fore concentrate on one particular account of politeness. In this account,. Brown and Levinson. (1987) define politeness as the manifestation of respect.

  10. System and method for evaluating a wire conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panozzo, Edward; Parish, Harold

    2013-10-22

    A method of evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment having an insulated intermediate portion and non-insulated ends includes passing the insulated portion of the wire segment through an electrically conductive brush. According to the method, an electrical potential is established on the brush by a power source. The method also includes determining a value of electrical current that is conducted through the wire segment by the brush when the potential is established on the brush. The method additionally includes comparing the value of electrical current conducted through the wire segment with a predetermined current value to thereby evaluate the wire segment. A system for evaluating an electrically conductive wire segment is also disclosed.

  11. Successful removal of an intravesical electrical wire cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Son, Hwancheol

    2014-08-01

    A few previous reports have described cases wherein electrical wire cables were inserted into the male urethra and bladder. Electrical wire cables are available at home and are easy to insert. However, after they coil in the patient's bladder, they are difficult to remove. In February 2013, a 30-year-old man presented to the emergency room of SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center with a urethral foreign body. He had inserted an electrical wire cable into his urethra for the purpose of masturbation, despite having a regular sex partner and no underlying disease. A kidney-ureter-bladder radiography showed a tangled wire in his bladder and urethra. On the next day, we tried to remove the wire cystoscopically, but this proved to be impossible because of complex coiling and the slippery surface of the wire. A Pfannenstiel incision was made to remove the foreign body. No postoperative complications were noted.

  12. Surface cleaning of metal wire by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Buttapeng, C.; Furuya, S.; Harada, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the possible application of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma for the annealing of metallic wire is examined and presented. The main purpose of the current study is to examine the surface cleaning effect for a cylindrical object by atmospheric pressure plasma. The experimental setup consists of a gas tank, plasma reactor, and power supply with control panel. The gas assists in the generation of plasma. Copper wire was used as an experimental cylindrical object. This copper wire was irradiated with the plasma, and the cleaning effect was confirmed. The result showed that it is possible to remove the tarnish which exists on the copper wire surface. The experiment reveals that atmospheric pressure plasma is usable for the surface cleaning of metal wire. However, it is necessary to examine the method for preventing oxidization of the copper wire.

  13. Flexible, polymer-supported, Si wire array photoelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Lewis, Nathan S. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2010-08-10

    Arrays of oriented, crystalline Si wires are transferred into flexible, transparent polymer films. The polymer-supported Si wire arrays in liquid-junction photoelectrochemical cells yield current-potential behavior similar to the Si wires attached to the brittle growth substrate. These systems offer the potential for attaining high solar energy-conversion efficiencies using modest diffusion length, readily grown, crystalline Si in a flexible, processable form. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. The wire array Z pinch programme at Imperial College

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, M.G.; Lebedev, S.V.; Chittenden, J.P.; Bland, S.N.; Beg, F.N.; Dangor, A.E.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma formation and implosion dynamics of wire array z-pinches have been studied experimentally using the MAGPIE generator (1.4MA, 240ns) at Imperial College. Simulations and theory verify much of the data. Both laser probing and x-ray radiography show after an initial volumetric heating of the wires the presence of dense wire cores surrounded by low density coronal plasma. Radiography shows development of perturbations on the dense core of each wire, while laser probing shows inward jetting of the coronal plasma caused by the global JxB force, and these plasma streams are axially non-uniform on the same spatial scale as later seen in the wire cores. The spatial scale of these perturbations (∼0.5mm for Al, ∼0.25mm for W) increases with the size of the wire cores (∼0.25mm for Al, ∼0.1mm for W). The inward flow of the coronal plasma is usually field free and leads to formation on the array axis of a straight plasma column, the dynamics of which is strongly affected by radiation cooling. Images obtained by optical streak camera show that the wire cores start their inward motion late and the implosion trajectory deviates significantly from the expected from 0-D analysis. An increase of the number of wires (decrease of inter-wire gap) resulted in a transition to 0-D trajectory for aluminium wire arrays, but not for tungsten. In experiments with nested wire arrays two modes of behaviour are observed; in the first the inner array is transparent to the imploding outer array, but the current transfers to it, leading to a fast implosion. The second mode occurs when a significant fraction of current is flowing in the inner array and the two arrays apparently implode simultaneously. In both modes the x-ray pulse is significantly sharpened in comparison with that generated in implosion of a single wire array. (author)

  15. The sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered wire media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the sub-wavelength imaging performance of disordered thin wire media is undertaken, in order to understand how its performance may be affected by manufacturing errors. The structure is found to be extremely robust to disorder which keeps the wires parallel. Variation in the orientation of the wires and their longitudinal position causes more significant degradation in the image quality, which is quantified numerically

  16. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  17. Moral Hard-Wiring and Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ingmar; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-05-01

    We have argued for an urgent need for moral bioenhancement; that human moral psychology is limited in its ability to address current existential threats due to the evolutionary function of morality to maximize cooperation in small groups. We address here Powell and Buchanan's novel objection that there is an 'inclusivist anomaly': humans have the capacity to care beyond in-groups. They propose that 'exclusivist' (group-based) morality is sensitive to environmental cues that historically indicated out-group threat. When this is not present, we are inclusivist. They conclude that moral bioenhancement is unnecessary or less effective than socio-cultural interventions. We argue that Powell and Buchanan underestimate the hard-wiring features of moral psychology; their appeal to adaptively plastic, conditionally expressed responses accounts for only a fragment of our moral psychology. In addition to restrictions on our altruistic concern that their account addresses - such as racism and sexism - there are ones it is ill-suited to address: that our concern is stronger for kin and friends and for concrete individuals rather than for statistical lives; also our bias towards the near future. Hard-wired features of our moral psychology that are not clearly restrictions in altruistic concern also include reciprocity, tit-for-tat, and others. Biomedical means are not the only, and maybe not the most important, means of moral enhancement. Socio-cultural means are of great importance and there are currently no biomedical interventions for many hard-wired features. Nevertheless research is desirable because the influence of these features is greater than our critics think. © 2017 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Minimally invasive tension band wiring technique for olecranon fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Naoya; Kato, Kenji; Fukuta, Makoto; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2013-12-01

    Some types of implants, such as plates, screws, wires, and nails, have been used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. A ≥ 10 cm longitudinal incision is used for open reduction and internal fixation of olecranon fractures. According to previous studies, tension band wiring is a popular method that gives good results. However, back out of the wires after the surgery is one of the main postoperative complications. Moreover, if the Kirschner wires are inserted through the anterior ulnar cortex, they may impinge on the radial neck, supinator muscle, or biceps tendon. Herein, we describe the minimally invasive tension band wiring technique using Ring-Pin. This technique can be performed through a 2 cm incision. Small skin incisions are advantageous from an esthetic viewpoint. Ring-Pin was fixed by using a dedicated cable wire that does not back out unless the cable wire breaks or slips out of the dedicated metallic clamp. As the pins are placed in intramedullary canal, this technique does not lead to postoperative complications that may occur after transcortical fixation by conventional tension band wiring. Minimally invasive tension band wiring is one of the useful options for the treatment of olecranon fractures with some advantages.

  19. Research on quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Sihao; Liu, Lei; Diao, Yu; Kong, Yike

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of three-dimensional continuity equation in semiconductors and finite difference method, the carrier concentration and the quantum efficiency of GaN wire photocathode as a function of incident photon energy are achieved. Results show that the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode is largely enhanced compared with the conventional planar photocathode. The superiority of the wire photocathode is reflected in its structure with surrounding surfaces. The quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode largely depends on the wire width, surface reflectivity, surface escape probability and incident angle of light. The back interface recombination rate, however, has little influences on the quantum efficiency of the wire photocathode. The simulation results suggest that the optimal width for photoemission is 150-200 nm. Besides, the quantum efficiency increases and decreases linearly with increasing surface escape probability and surface reflectivity, respectively. With increasing ratio of wire spacing to wire height, the optimal incident angle of light is reduced. These simulations are expected to guide the preparation of a better performing GaN wire photocathode.

  20. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima JABER

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control. CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3 and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3, respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  1. Reduction of friction during wire drawing by electrode control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.-Y.; Marek, M.

    1995-04-01

    In wire drawing, the wire is drawn through a series of dies sprayed with or immersed in an emulsion lubricant. The surface conditions of the wire play a vital part in the mechanism of lubrication, and the conditions can be affected by electrochemical parameters. The electrochemical behavior of copper in selected emulsions was studied, and laboratory friction as well as pilot plant tests were performed. Reduction of friction was detected at various potentials depending on the lubricant composition. Surface quality of the wire was improved by the electrode control.

  2. Metallurgical investigation of wire breakage of tyre bead grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyas Palit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tyre bead grade wire is used for tyre making application. The wire is used as reinforcement inside the polymer of tyre. The wire is available in different size/section such as 1.6–0.80 mm thin Cu coated wire. During tyre making operation at tyre manufacturer company, wire failed frequently. In this present study, different broken/defective wire samples were collected from wire mill for detailed investigation of the defect. The natures of the defects were localized and similar in nature. The fracture surface was of finger nail type. Crow feet like defects including button like surface abnormalities were also observed on the broken wire samples. The defect was studied at different directions under microscope. Different advanced metallographic techniques have been used for detail investigation. The analysis revealed that, white layer of surface martensite was formed and it caused the final breakage of wire. In this present study we have also discussed about the possible reason for the formation of such kind of surface martensite (hard-phase.

  3. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Niwa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization. (paper)

  4. Fabrication of mesoscopic floating Si wires by introducing dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Mitsuya; Shimizu, Kazuya; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Niwa, Masaaki

    2014-12-01

    We fabricated a mesoscopic Si wire by introducing dislocations in a silicon wafer before HF anodization. The dislocations formed along the (111) crystal plane. The outline of the dislocation line was an inverted triangle. The resulting wire floated on a bridge girder and had a hybrid structure consisting of a porous layer and crystalline Si. The cross section of the wire had an inverted triangle shape. The wire formation mechanism is discussed in terms of carrier transport, crystal structure, and dislocation formation during anodization.

  5. Printed Wiring Board Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment: Making Holes Conductive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents comparative risk, competitiveness, and resource requirements on technologies for performing the “making holes conductive” function during printed wiring board manufacturing.

  6. Elastic anisotropy in multifilament Nb$_3$Sn superconducting wires

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Alknes, P; Arnau, G; Bjoerstad, R; Bordini, B

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy caused by the texture in the Nb3Sn filaments of PIT and RRP wires has been calculated by averaging the estimates of Voigt and Reuss, using published Nb3Sn single crystal elastic constants and the Nb3Sn grain orientation distribution determined in both wire types by Electron Backscatter Diffraction. At ambient temperature the calculated Nb3Sn E-moduli in axial direction in the PIT and the RRP wire are 130 GPa and 140 GPa, respectively. The calculated E-moduli are compared with tensile test results obtained for the corresponding wires and extracted filament bundles.

  7. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Laura Cavalcante Lima; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  8. Ultrahigh-strength submicron-sized metallic glass wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.B.; Lee, C.C.; Yi, J.; An, X.H.; Pan, M.X.; Xie, K.Y.; Liao, X.Z.; Cairney, J.M.; Ringer, S.P.; Wang, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    In situ deformation experiments were performed in a transmission electron microscope to investigate the mechanical properties of submicron-sized Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass (MG) wires. Results show that the submicron-sized MG wires exhibit intrinsic ultrahigh tensile strength of ∼2.8 GPa, which is nearly twice as high as that in their bulk counterpart, and ∼5% elastic strain approaching the elastic limits. The tensile strength, engineering strain at failure and deformation mode of the submicron-sized MG wires depend on the diameter of the wires

  9. Seeded perturbations in wire array Z-Pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Fedin, Dmitry; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Ouart, Nicholas D.; LePell, Paul David; Safronova, Alla S.; Shrestha, I.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Sotnikov, Vladimir Isaakovich; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Jones, B.; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Yilmaz, M. Faith; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher; Pokala, S.; Nalajala, V.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled seeding of perturbations is employed to study the evolution of wire array z-pinch implosion instabilities which strongly impact x-ray production when the 3D plasma stagnates on axis. Wires modulated in radius exhibit locally enhanced magnetic field and imploding bubble formation at discontinuities in wire radius due to the perturbed current path. Wires coated with localized spectroscopic dopants are used to track turbulent material flow. Experiments and MHD modeling offer insight into the behavior of z-pinch instabilities.

  10. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  11. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  12. The HayWired earthquake scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Shane T.; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-04-24

    ForewordThe 1906 Great San Francisco earthquake (magnitude 7.8) and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (magnitude 6.9) each motivated residents of the San Francisco Bay region to build countermeasures to earthquakes into the fabric of the region. Since Loma Prieta, bay-region communities, governments, and utilities have invested tens of billions of dollars in seismic upgrades and retrofits and replacements of older buildings and infrastructure. Innovation and state-of-the-art engineering, informed by science, including novel seismic-hazard assessments, have been applied to the challenge of increasing seismic resilience throughout the bay region. However, as long as people live and work in seismically vulnerable buildings or rely on seismically vulnerable transportation and utilities, more work remains to be done.With that in mind, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners developed the HayWired scenario as a tool to enable further actions that can change the outcome when the next major earthquake strikes. By illuminating the likely impacts to the present-day built environment, well-constructed scenarios can and have spurred officials and citizens to take steps that change the outcomes the scenario describes, whether used to guide more realistic response and recovery exercises or to launch mitigation measures that will reduce future risk.The HayWired scenario is the latest in a series of like-minded efforts to bring a special focus onto the impacts that could occur when the Hayward Fault again ruptures through the east side of the San Francisco Bay region as it last did in 1868. Cities in the east bay along the Richmond, Oakland, and Fremont corridor would be hit hardest by earthquake ground shaking, surface fault rupture, aftershocks, and fault afterslip, but the impacts would reach throughout the bay region and far beyond. The HayWired scenario name reflects our increased reliance on the Internet and telecommunications and also alludes to the

  13. Optical absorption in a thin nickel wire

    OpenAIRE

    INAGAKI, Takashi; Goudonnet, J.P.; ARAKAWA, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of a 633-nm phonton in a cylindrical nickel wire with diameter 13 m was measured by a photoacoustic method as a function of angle of phonton incidence . A good photoacoustic signal was obtained with a 6-m W He-Ne laser as a light source without employing focusing optics. The absorption measured for p-polarized phontons was found to be in good agreement with geometrical optics calculation. For s-polarized light, however, significant excess absorption was found for >35.

  14. Circummandibular wiring made easy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeet Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures are less common in children as compared to adults. The treatment plan in children has to be modified as compared to adults considering the presence of tooth buds and potential disturbances in growth. Use of acrylic splints has been one of the popular techniques in children because of its relatively easy placement and reduced risk of hindrances to growth of jaw. These splints have been traditionally been fixed with the help of cements and circummandibular wires. We describe the use of intravenous cannula stilete instead of traditional bone awl to secure the splint in place.

  15. Statistical design of personalized medicine interventions: The Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage Brian F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently much interest in pharmacogenetics: determining variation in genes that regulate drug effects, with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety and efficacy. The ability to determine such variation motivates the application of personalized drug therapies that utilize a patient's genetic makeup to determine a safe and effective drug at the correct dose. To ascertain whether a genotype-guided drug therapy improves patient care, a personalized medicine intervention may be evaluated within the framework of a randomized controlled trial. The statistical design of this type of personalized medicine intervention requires special considerations: the distribution of relevant allelic variants in the study population; and whether the pharmacogenetic intervention is equally effective across subpopulations defined by allelic variants. Methods The statistical design of the Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG trial serves as an illustrative example of a personalized medicine intervention that uses each subject's genotype information. The COAG trial is a multicenter, double blind, randomized clinical trial that will compare two approaches to initiation of warfarin therapy: genotype-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using clinical information and genotypes for polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1; and clinical-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using only clinical information. Results We determine an absolute minimum detectable difference of 5.49% based on an assumed 60% population prevalence of zero or multiple genetic variants in either CYP2C9 or VKORC1 and an assumed 15% relative effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin initiation for those with zero or multiple genetic variants. Thus we calculate a sample size of 1238 to achieve a power level of 80% for the primary outcome. We show that reasonable departures from these

  16. Statistical design of personalized medicine interventions: the Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Benjamin; Joo, Jungnam; Geller, Nancy L; Kimmel, Stephen E; Rosenberg, Yves; Anderson, Jeffrey L; Gage, Brian F; Johnson, Julie A; Ellenberg, Jonas H

    2010-11-17

    There is currently much interest in pharmacogenetics: determining variation in genes that regulate drug effects, with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety and efficacy. The ability to determine such variation motivates the application of personalized drug therapies that utilize a patient's genetic makeup to determine a safe and effective drug at the correct dose. To ascertain whether a genotype-guided drug therapy improves patient care, a personalized medicine intervention may be evaluated within the framework of a randomized controlled trial. The statistical design of this type of personalized medicine intervention requires special considerations: the distribution of relevant allelic variants in the study population; and whether the pharmacogenetic intervention is equally effective across subpopulations defined by allelic variants. The statistical design of the Clarification of Optimal Anticoagulation through Genetics (COAG) trial serves as an illustrative example of a personalized medicine intervention that uses each subject's genotype information. The COAG trial is a multicenter, double blind, randomized clinical trial that will compare two approaches to initiation of warfarin therapy: genotype-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using clinical information and genotypes for polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1; and clinical-guided dosing, the initiation of warfarin therapy based on algorithms using only clinical information. We determine an absolute minimum detectable difference of 5.49% based on an assumed 60% population prevalence of zero or multiple genetic variants in either CYP2C9 or VKORC1 and an assumed 15% relative effectiveness of genotype-guided warfarin initiation for those with zero or multiple genetic variants. Thus we calculate a sample size of 1238 to achieve a power level of 80% for the primary outcome. We show that reasonable departures from these assumptions may decrease statistical power to 65%. In a

  17. Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.

    2000-05-23

    Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.

  18. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramji Lal

    2013-09-01

    Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire) were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years) were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  19. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed

  20. Thermopower modulation clarification of the intrinsic effective mass in transparent oxide semiconductor BaSnO3

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchela, Anup V.; Onozato, Takaki; Feng, Bin; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    The exact intrinsic carrier effective mass m* of a well-studied transparent oxide semiconductor BaSnO3 is unknown because the reported m* values are scattered from 0.06m(0) to 3.7m(0). This paper identifies the intrinsic m* of BaSnO3, m* = 0.40 +/- 0.01m(0), by the thermopower modulation clarification method and determines the threshold of the degenerate/nondegenerate semiconductor. At the threshold, the thermopower values of both the La-doped BaSnO3 and BaSnO3 thin-film transistor structures...

  1. Thermopower modulation clarification of the intrinsic effective mass in a transparent oxide semiconductor, BaSnO3

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchela, Anup V.; Onozato, Takaki; Feng, Bin; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Although there are so many reports on the carrier effective mass (m*) of a transparent oxide semiconductor BaSnO3, it is almost impossible to know the intrinsic m* value because the reported m* values are scattered from 0.06 to 3.7 m0. Here we successfully clarified the intrinsic m* of BaSnO3, m*=0.40 0.01 m0, by the thermopower modulation clarification method. We also found the threshold of degenerate/non-degenerate semiconductor of BaSnO3; At the threshold, the thermopower value of both La-...

  2. OPTIMISATION DES ETAPES DE CLARIFICATION DE LA STATION DE TRAITEMENT DE L’EAU POTABLE DE LA VILLE DE SKIKDA

    OpenAIRE

    B MEGHZILI; Z MARSA; M. S MEDJRAM

    2008-01-01

    Le traitement de l’eau par floculation est d’usage très répandu. Ce traitement permet de réduire la couleur et la turbidité normalement causées par les contaminants organiques et inorganiques aux niveaux acceptables pour l’eau potable ou pour les eaux usées. Les coagulants utilisés peuvent être de nature organique ou inorganique. Le but principal de cette étude porte sur le suivi des paramètres de qualité et l’ optimisation des étapes de la clarification de la Station de Traitement des Eau...

  3. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for complex bifurcated lesions with combination of "Reverse wire technique" and "Reverse bent wiring with the crusade catheter" novel wire manipulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tetsuya; Higuchi, Yusuke; Kato, Taku

    2016-04-01

    We encountered a case of percutaneous coronary intervention for complex bifurcated lesions in the mid portion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. The diagonal artery branched from the LAD artery with a markedly angulated pattern and there was severe stenosis from just proximal to this diagonal artery. The "reverse wire technique facilitated with the Crusade catheter" enabled us to cross a guidewire through to the markedly angulated diagonal side branch (SB). Next, we adopted a mini-crushing stent strategy for this true bifurcated lesion. Thereafter, we adopted "reverse bent wiring with the Crusade catheter" for wire re-crossing to the incarcerated side branch, and successfully completed all procedures. This technique for successful wire re-crossing is simple but can be very effective in specific situations in practical percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Many PCI operators may empirically adopt this kind of wire manipulation technique. However, this case is the first report in the world describing the application of a "reverse bent wiring with the Crusade catheter" for wire re-crossing through a double-folded stent strut to a SB at the optimal point of the bifurcation. In this case, we made the most of the Crusade catheter. This catheter is a very useful device for multifactorial use in practical PCI. It can help us to perform complex PCI procedures successfully. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Clarification and filtration of the floculated partuicles suspension from a chemical treatment of waste oil-in-water emulsions from a non-ferrous metalworking plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the coagulation/floculation conditions on clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension obtained by the chemical treatment of the waste oil-in-water emulsion (OWE from a non-ferrous metalworking plant were studied. The treatment involved the addition of aluminum(III sulfate and lime to the OWE. The main goal was to define the optimum conditions for clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension. The factors involved were amounts lime (i.e. pH and filter aid added the OWE on clarification and filtration rates. At pH>10, the clarification rate was increased and the final volume of the concentrated suspension (sludge was reduced, while filter aid affected negatively the clarification rate. The filtration rate was also increased when the coagulation was carried out at pH>10. The floculated particle suspension should be concentrated before filtration in order to decrease the filtration duration. The most efficient filter aid was Celite standard super-cel, its optimum initial concentration being found to be 2 g/dm3.

  5. A New Superconducting Wire for Future Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CARE/NED project has developed a new superconducting wire that can achieve very high currents (1400 amps) at high magnetic fields (12 teslas). Cross-section of the CARE/NED wire produced by SMI. As we prepare to enter a new phase of particle physics with the LHC, technological development is a continuous process to ensure the demands of future research are met. The next generation of colliders and upgrades of the present ones will require significantly larger magnetic fields for bending and focusing the particle beams. NED (Next European Dipole) is one of the projects taking on this challenge to push technology beyond the present limit (see: More about NED). The magnets in the LHC rely on niobium titanium (NbTi) as the superconducting material, with a maximum magnetic field of 8 to 10T (tesla). In order to exceed this limitation, a different material together with the corresponding technology needs to be developed. NED is assessing the suitability of niobium tin (Nb3Sn), which has the potential to at le...

  6. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  7. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  10. Sample of superconducting wiring from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9’000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12’500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots wh...

  11. Antiadherent and antibacterial properties of stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic wires coated with silver against Lactobacillus acidophilus--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Arun Rameshwar; Shetty, Pradeep Chandra; Bhat, N Sham; Ramachandra, C S; Laxmikanth, S M; Nagarahalli, Kiran; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of surface-modified stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic wires with silver against Lactobacillus acidophilus. This study was done on 80 specimens of stainless steel and NiTi orthodontic wires. The specimens were divided into eight test groups. Each group consisted of 10 specimens. Groups containing uncoated wires acted as a control group for their respective experimental group containing coated wires. Surface modification of wires was carried out by the thermal vacuum evaporation method with silver. Wires were then subjected to microbiological tests for assessment of the antiadherent and antibacterial properties of silver coating against L. acidophilus. Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the colony-forming units (CFUs) in control and test groups; and Student's t test (two-tailed, dependent) was used to find the significance of study parameters on a continuous scale within each group. Orthodontic wires coated with silver showed an antiadherent effect against L. acidophilus compared with uncoated wires. Uncoated stainless steel and NiTi wires respectively showed 35.4 and 20.5 % increase in weight which was statistically significant (P  0.001). The groups containing surface-modified wires showed statistically significant decrease in the survival rate of L. acidophilus expressed as CFU and as log of colony count when compared to groups containing uncoated wires. It was 836.60 ± 48.97 CFU in the case of uncoated stainless steel whereas it was 220.90 ± 30.73 CFU for silver-modified stainless steel, 748.90 ± 35.64 CFU for uncoated NiTi, and 203.20 ± 41.94 CFU for surface-modified NiTi. Surface modification of orthodontic wires with silver can be used to prevent the accumulation of dental plaque and the development of dental caries during orthodontic treatment.

  12. ePLAS modeling of hot electron transport in nail-wire targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Ma, T.; Wei, M. S.; Beg, F. N.; Key, M. H.; Stephens, R. B.

    2010-08-01

    Relativistic electron transport in short-pulse laser illuminated nail-wire and foil targets has been studied with the e-PLAS implicit/hybrid plasma simulation code in a cylindrical geometry. The intensities are typical of the Vulcan and Titan petawatt lasers (1.06 μm, 1.7×1020 W/cm2) in 10 μm diameter Gaussian spots, producing hot electrons at a relativistic γ = 3.4 according to Beg scaling, and with 20% absorption assumed. The targets are 200 μm long nail-headed copper wires 20 μm in diameter, and copper foils 120 μm thick. The code dumps energy at constant intensity for a picosecond at the critical surface into an isotropic relativistic Maxwellian particle-in-cell hot electron distribution. The emitted hot particles draw a cold electron return current scattering off the background ions taken as ionized at a fixed Z = 15. Transport of the hot electrons is impeded by the electric field from a Spitzer resistivity acting on the cold electron return current. Assumed emission angle is shown to seriously affect hot e- penetration in the wires.

  13. Modal characteristics of turbine blade packets under lacing wire damage induced mistuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Kotambkar, Mangesh S.

    2015-05-01

    Effect of mistuning on turbo machine blade vibration in a packeted blade-disk system has become an important area of research in the recent past, mainly due to the critical applications in aero engines and power plant turbines. It has been shown that even a small mistuning can lead to stress build up through mode localization under forced vibration. Such mistuning can come from initial geometric blade to blade variation due to manufacturing tolerances or from a crack growing in the bladed disk system during operational life stages. The literature review indicates that researchers have mainly considered blade damage as a cause of mistuning. However, lacing wire damage, although not as catastrophic as blade damage, are more frequent in occurrences and often act as a precursor to subsequent blade damage. Detection of lacing wire damage is therefore equally important. Present work has investigated nature of mistuning induced by lacing wire damage and its effect on the characteristic modal properties. A damage severity index has been introduced and effect of damage on the blade group natural frequencies is investigated. Scope of developing a damage identification methodology in packeted blade-disk system is also discussed.

  14. Numerical model for electrical explosion of copper wires in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Kern; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Deok-Kyu

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a simple but quite accurate numerical model for analyzing electrical explosion of copper wires in water. The numerical model solves a circuit equation coupled with one-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the help of appropriate wide-range equation of state (EOS) and electrical conductivity for copper. The MHD equations are formulated in a Lagrangian form to identify the interface between the wire and surrounding water clearly. A quotidian EOS (QEOS) that is known as the simplest form of EOS is utilized to build wide-range EOS for copper. In the QEOS, we consider the liquid-vapor phase transition, which is critical in analyzing the wire explosion system. For the electrical conductivity of copper, a semi-empirical set of equations covering from solid state to partially ionized plasma state are employed. Experimental validation has been performed with copper wires of various diameters, which are exploded by a microsecond timescale pulsed capacitive discharge. The simulation results show excellent agreements with the experimental results in terms of temporal motions of a plasma channel boundary and a shock front as well as current and voltage waveforms. It is found that the wire explodes (vaporizes) along the liquid branch of a binodal curve irrespective of wire dimension and operating voltage. After the explosion, the wire becomes a plasma state right away or after the current pause (dwell), depending on the operating conditions. It is worth noting that such a peculiar characteristic of wire explosion, i.e., current pause and restrike, is well simulated with the present numerical model. In particular, it is shown that the wire cools down along the vapor branch of the binodal curve during the current dwell, due to a significant difference of thermodynamic characteristics across the binodal curve. The influence of radiation for studying nonideal plasmas with a wire explosion technique and a physical process for shock wave formation

  15. Wire Position Monitoring with FPGA based Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Lysenko, O.

    2009-01-01

    This fall the first Tesla-style cryomodule cooldown test is being performed at Fermilab. Instrumentation department is preparing the electronics to handle the data from a set of wire position monitors (WPMs). For simulation purposes a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. FPGA based digitizer scans the WPM and transmits the data to a PC via VME interface. The data acquisition is based on the PC running LabView. In order to increase the accuracy and convenience of the measurements some modifications were required. The first is implementation of an average and decimation filter algorithm in the integrator operation in the FPGA. The second is the development of alternative tool for WPM measurements in the PC. The paper describes how these modifications were performed and test results of a new design. The last cryomodule generation has a single chain of seven WPMs (placed in critical positions: at each end, at the three posts and between the posts) to monitor a cold mass displacement during cooldown. The system was developed in Italy in collaboration with DESY. Similar developments have taken place at Fermilab in the frame of cryomodules construction for SCRF research. This fall preliminary cryomodule cooldown test is being performed. In order to prepare an appropriate electronic system for the test a prototype pipe with a WMP has been developed and built, figure 1. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by 320 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPM. The 0.5 mm diameter Cu wire is stretched along the pipe with a tensioning load of 9.07 kg and has a length of 1.1 m. The WPM consists of four 50 (Omega) striplines spaced 90 o apart. An FPGA based digitizer

  16. [Separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiang, X Y; Huang, X W

    2016-06-18

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and outcomes of two separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in the treatment of displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella. From January 2013 to January 2015, 15 consecutive patients (mean age 54.5 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella were retrospectively included in this study. All the patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire through longitudinal incision, 4.5 d (range: 3.1-5.9 d) after initial injury. A safety check for early knee range of motion was performed before wound closure. The complications including infection, nonunion, loss of fixation and any wire breakage or irritation from implant were recorded. Anteroposterior and lateral views of the knee joint obtained during the follow-up were used to assess bony union based on the time when the fracture line disappeared. At the time of the final outpatient follow up, functional evaluation of the knee joint was conducted by Bostman system. The follow-up time was 13.1 months (range: 12-19 months) after surgery on average, immediate motion without immobilization in all the cases was allowed and there was no case of reduction loss of the fracture and wire breakage. There was no case of irritation from the implant. At the final follow-up, the average range of motion (ROM) arc was 126.7° (range: 115°-140°), the average ROM lag versus contralateral healthy leg was 10.3° (range: 0°-35°). The mean Bostman score at the last follow-up was 28.9 (range: 27-30), and graded excellent in most cases. Two separate vertical wiring is an easy and effective method to reduce the displaced inferior pole fracture of patella. Augmentation of separate vertical wiring with tension band and Kirschner-wire plus cerclage wire in these patients provides enough strength to protected the early exercise of the knee joint and

  17. Pectinase production by Aspergillus niger using banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate and its effect on clarification of banana juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sumi; Sit, Nandan; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-06-01

    Optimization of substrate concentration, time of incubation and temperature for crude pectinase production from A. niger was carried out using Bhimkol banana (Musa balbisiana) peel as substrate. The crude pectinase produced was partially purified using ethanol and effectiveness of crude and partially purified pectinase was studied for banana juice clarification. The optimum substrate concentration, incubation time and temperature of incubation were 8.07 %, 65.82 h and 32.37 °C respectively, and the polygalacturonase (PG) activity achieved was 6.6 U/ml for crude pectinase. The partially purified enzyme showed more than 3 times of polygalacturonase activity as compared to the crude enzyme. The SDS-PAGE profile showed that the molecular weight of proteins present in the different pectinases varied from 34 to 42 kDa. The study further revealed that highest clarification was achieved when raw banana juice was incubated for 60 min with 2 % concentration of partially purified pectinase and the absorbance obtained was 0.10.

  18. Effect of membrane property and operating conditions on phytochemical properties and permeate flux during clarification of pineapple juice

    KAUST Repository

    Laorko, Aporn

    2010-10-01

    The effects of membrane property on the permeate flux, membrane fouling and quality of clarified pineapple juice were studied. Both microfiltration (membrane pore size of 0.1 and 0.2 μm) and ultrafiltration (membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 30 and 100 kDa) membranes were employed. Membrane filtration did not have significant effects on the pH, reducing sugar and acidity of clarified juice whereas the suspended solids and microorganism were completely removed. The 0.2 μm membrane gave the highest permeate flux, total vitamin C content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity as well as the highest value of irreversible fouling. Based on these results, the membrane with pore size of 0.2 μm was considered to be the most suitable membrane for the clarification of pineapple juice. The optimum operating conditions for the clarification pineapple juice by membrane filtration was a cross-flow velocity of 3.4 ms-1 and transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 0.7 bar. An average flux of about 37 lm-2 h-1 was obtained during the microfiltration of pineapple juice under the optimum conditions using batch concentration mode. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A tentative opinion of modeling plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ning

    2002-01-01

    Numerous experiments in both single wire and in wire arrays have attracted much attention. For the wire array Z-pinch implosions the plasma formation in the metallic wire Z pinches is a key question. By means of analyzing a number of single-wire and multi-wire experiments, two models to describe the behavior of a wire array Z-pinch in initial phase are suggested. In this phase each wire carries a rising current and behaves independently in a way similar to that found in single wire Z-pinch experiments in which a comparable current in one wire is employed. Based on one- or/and two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) theory, one model is used to simulate the electrical explosion stage of the metallic wire, another is used to simulate the wire-plasma formation stage

  20. Transmission channels through Na and Al atom wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, N.; Brandbyge, Mads; Tsukada, M.

    1999-01-01

    First-principles calculations of the transmission channels of single-atom-width Na and Al atom wires bridged between metallic jellium electrodes are presented. For the Na wire, a single channel contributes to the conduction with an almost full quantization value, 2e(2)/h. The conductance...

  1. A KBE Application for Automatic Aircraft Wire Harness Routing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Z.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; La Rocca, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wire harness design is an increasingly complex task. Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) and optimization techniques can be used to support designers in handling this complexity. The wire harness design process can be divided in three main parts, namely electrical design, configuration design and

  2. Wiring the Schools: South Dakota Does It Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Describes a statewide project in South Dakota to wire its elementary and secondary school classrooms for distance education courses. Discusses the use of minimum-security inmates from state prisons to do the wiring; the rural environment; the governor's role; upgrading the electrical infrastructure; security concerns; political issues; inmate…

  3. Tension band wiring fi xation is associated with good functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tension band wiring (TBW) is a widely accepted technique for olecranon fractures. Various investigators have reported a significant rate of complications especially hardware prominence. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiological outcome after tension band wiring of olecranon ...

  4. Wave-to-wire Modelling of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco

    applicable, efficient and reliable wave-to-wire model tool is needed. A wave-to-wire model identifies the relation from the source of energy of a particular location to the expected device productivity. The latter being expressed in terms of electricity fed into the grid. The model needs to output a coarse...

  5. 46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring requirements. 120.340 Section 120.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.340 Cable and wiring requirements. (a) If individual...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814 Section 3280.814 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint...

  7. 46 CFR 183.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable and wiring requirements. 183.340 Section 183.340 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.340 Cable and wiring...

  8. 78 FR 7452 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of steel wire garment... Garment Hangers From Vietnam; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty orders on steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam. Background The Commission instituted these...

  9. Development of the Cylindrical Wire Electrical Discharge Machining Process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpadden, SB

    2002-01-22

    Results of applying the wire Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process to generate precise cylindrical forms on hard, difficult-to-machine materials are presented. A precise, flexible, and corrosion-resistant underwater rotary spindle was designed and added to a conventional two-axis wire EDM machine to enable the generation of free-form cylindrical geometries. A detailed spindle error analysis identifies the major source of error at different frequency. The mathematical model for the material removal of cylindrical wire EDM process is derived. Experiments were conducted to explore the maximum material removal rate for cylindrical and 2D wire EDM of carbide and brass work-materials. Compared to the 2D wire EDM, higher maximum material removal rates may be achieved in the cylindrical wire EDM. This study also investigates the surface integrity and roundness of parts created by the cylindrical wire EDM process. For carbide parts, an arithmetic average surface roughness and roundness as low as 0.68 and 1.7 {micro}m, respectively, can be achieved. Surfaces of the cylindrical EDM parts were examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to identify the craters, sub-surface recast layers and heat-affected zones under various process parameters. This study has demonstrated that the cylindrical wire EDM process parameters can be adjusted to achieve either high material removal rate or good surface integrity.

  10. Optimum driving of magnetostrictive amorphous wire micro-motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Honda, Takashi; Yamasaki, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Characteristics of a magnetostrictive vibration micro-motor were investigated in relation to a supporting position of a magnetostrictive amorphous wire for optimization of the motor. It was found that a vibration of the wire resembled a vibration mode of both ends free and a maximum rotational speed was obtained by supporting the nodes of vibration

  11. Notched K-wire for low thermal damage bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Belmont, Barry; Wang, Yiwen; Tai, Bruce; Holmes, James; Shih, Albert

    2017-07-01

    The Kirschner wire (K-wire) is a common bone drilling tool in orthopedic surgery to affix fractured bone. Significant heat is produced due to both the cutting and the friction between the K-wire and the bone debris during drilling. Such heat can result in high temperatures, leading to osteonecrosis and other secondary injuries. To reduce thermal injury and other high-temperature associated complications, a new K-wire design with three notches along the three-plane trocar tip fabricated using a thin micro-saw tool is studied. These notches evacuate bone debris and reduce the clogging and heat generation during bone drilling. A set of four K-wires, one without notches and three notched, with depths of 0.5, 0.75, and 1mm, are evaluated. Bone drilling experiments conducted on bovine cortical bone show that notched K-wires could effectively decrease the temperature, thrust force, and torque during bone drilling. K-wires with notches 1mm deep reduced the thrust force and torque by approximately 30%, reduced peak temperatures by 43%, and eliminated blackened burn marks in bone. This study demonstrates that a simple modification of the tip of K-wires can effectively reduce bone temperatures during drilling. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 30 CFR 75.516 - Power wires; support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... All power wires (except trailing cables on mobile equipment, specially designed cables conducting high-voltage power to underground rectifying equipment or transformers, or bare or insulated ground and return... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power wires; support. 75.516 Section 75.516...

  13. Liquid Metal Machine Triggered Violin-Like Wire Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiaohu; Ding, Yujie; Tan, Sicong; Yi, Liting; He, Zhizhu; Liu, Jing

    2016-10-01

    The first ever oscillation phenomenon of a copper wire embraced inside a self-powered liquid metal machine is discovered. When contacting a copper wire to liquid metal machine, it would be swallowed inside and then reciprocally moves back and forth, just like a violin bow. Such oscillation could be easily regulated by touching a steel needle on the liquid metal surface.

  14. Loss of Guide Wire: A Lesson Learnt Review of Literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was stabilized, she underwent chest X-ray, plain abdominal radiography, and ultrasonography and the patient was .... Figure 1: Chest X-ray showing guide wire of catheter had entered in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the right .... Consider a guide wire to be a delicate and fragile instrument. • When resistance to insertion is ...

  15. Multi responses optimization of wire EDM process parameters using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wire EDM was known as for its better efficiency to machining hardest material and give precise and accurate result comparing to other machining process. The intent of this experimental paper is to optimize the machining parameters of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) on En45A Alloy Steel with the ...

  16. Safe corridors for K-wiring in phalangeal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rex

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: K-wiring through the safe corridor has proved to yield the best clinical results because of least tethering of soft tissues as evidenced by performing "on-table active finger movement test" at the time of surgery. We strongly recommend K-wiring through safe portals in all phalangeal fractures.

  17. Low temperature annealing of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are nanostructured and the flow stress at room temperature can reach values above 6 GPa. A typical characteristic of the nanostructured metals, is the low ductility and thermal stability. In order to optimize both the processing and application of the wires, the t...

  18. Representations of Education in HBO's "The Wire", Season 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2010-01-01

    "The Wire" is a crime drama that aired for five seasons on the Home Box Office (HBO) cable channel from 2002-2008. The entire series is set in Baltimore, Maryland, and as Kinder (2008) points out, "Each season "The Wire" shifts focus to a different segment of society: the drug wars, the docks, city politics, education, and the media" (p. 52). In…

  19. Water-cooled grid ''wires'' for direct converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwer, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of internal convective cooling of grid ''wires'' for direct converters. Detailed computer calculations reveal that the use of small diameter water cooled tubes as grid ''wires'' is feasible for a considerable range of lengths and thermal fluxes

  20. Recent development of drastically innovative BSCCO wire (DI-BISCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Kato, T.; Ohkura, K.; Ayai, N.; Fujikami, J.; Fujino, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ueno, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamade, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sato, K.; Nagai, T.; Matsui, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Up to this day, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 superconducting wires have been widely investigated and the long wires about 1000 m have been produced by using powder-in-tube (PIT) method on a commercial basis in the various facilities or companies. Although the wires are used for some applications such as HTS cables, magnets, motor and so on, the Bi2223 wires not only require much more improvements of the superconducting properties such as critical current, mechanical properties, but also longer and more uniform wires. Recently, the performances of Bi2223 wires have been drastically improved by using Controlled Over Pressure (CT-OP) sintering process. CT-OP process increased critical current (I c ) by more than 60% at 77 K and self field and improved the mechanical strength by more than 70%. The maximum I c was increased up to 166 A. These drastic improvements were caused by the higher density of Bi2223 filament up to almost 100% and better connectivity of the Bi2223 grains. The dense structure of the Bi2223 filaments prevents the ballooning phenomenon which is caused by the gasification of the trapped liquid nitrogen during temperature rise. Additionally, higher uniformity and higher production yield of long length wire were also achieved by exterminating defects during sintering. These high performance levels in CT-OP wires have contributed commercial level applications. We call as Drastically Innovative BSCCO (DI-BSCCO)

  1. Ultrasound-guided wire localization of lesions detected on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wire localization for planned surgical treatment in the management of breast cancer is underutilized in our environment. The objective of this study is to assess the role of ultrasound-guided wire localization of breast masses detected on screening mammography and its impact on biopsy and breast ...

  2. Exciton dephasing in ZnSe quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    The homogeneous linewidths of excitons in wet-etched ZnSe quantum wires of lateral sizes down to 23 nm are studied by transient four-wave mixing. The low-density dephasing time is found to increase with decreasing wire width. This is attributed mainly to a reduction of electron-exciton scattering...

  3. Crewmember repairing the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Ken Bowersox, busy at work on the wiring harness for the Regenerative Carbon Dioxide Removal System located under the mid deck floor. Photo shows Bowersox splicing wires together to 'fool' a faulty sensor that caused the 'air conditioner' to shut down.

  4. Control of flow past a circular cylinder via a spanwise surface wire: effect of the wire scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekmekci, Alis [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rockwell, Donald [Lehigh University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Flow phenomena induced by a single spanwise wire on the surface of a circular cylinder are investigated via a cinema technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The primary aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of the wire scale. To this end, consideration is given to wires with different diameters that are 0.5, 1.2, and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter. The Reynolds number has a subcritical value of 10,000. Compared to the thickness of the unperturbed boundary layer developing around the cylinder between 5 and 75 from the forward stagnation point, the former two wires have smaller scales and the latter has a larger scale. Two angular locations of the wire, defined with respect to the forward stagnation point of the cylinder, are found to be critical. When the wire is located at these critical angles, either the most significant extension or the contraction of the time-mean separation bubble occurs in the near wake. These critical angles depend on the wire scale: the smaller the wire, the larger the critical angle. The small-scale and large-scale wires that have diameters of 1.2 and 2.9% of the cylinder diameter induce bistable shear-layer oscillations between different separation modes when placed at their respective critical angles corresponding to maximum extension of the near-wake bubble. These oscillations have irregular time intervals that are much longer than the time scale associated with the classical Karman instability. Moreover, the large-scale wire can either significantly attenuate or intensify the Karman mode of vortex shedding at the critical states; in contrast, the small-scale wires do not notably alter the strength of the Karman instability. (orig.)

  5. Electronic transport in Si:P δ-doped wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, J. S.; Drumm, D. W.; Budi, Akin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of Si:P δ-doped wires for modern nanoelectronics, there are currently no computational models of electron transport in these devices. In this paper we present a nonequilibrium Green’s function model for electronic transport in a δ-doped wire, which is described by a tight......-binding Hamiltonian matrix within a single-band effective-mass approximation. We use this transport model to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a number of δ-doped wires, achieving good agreement with experiment. To motivate our transport model we have performed density-functional calculations...... for a variety of δ-doped wires, each with different donor configurations. These calculations also allow us to accurately define the electronic extent of a δ-doped wire, which we find to be at least 4.6 nm....

  6. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...... in the structure and crystallography when a randomly oriented cementite structure in a patented wire during wire drawing is transformed into a lamellar structure parallel to the drawing axis. Changes in the interlamellar spacing and in the misorientation angle along and across the ferrite lamellae show significant...... through-diameter variations in wires drawn to large strains P 1.5. The structural evolution is hierarchical as the structural variations have their cause in a different macroscopic orientation of the cementite in the initial (patented) structure with respect to the wire axis. The through...

  7. Near-field optical spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, D.; Harris, T. D.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss low temperature near-field scanning optical spectroscopical studies of single, nanometer dimension, cleaved edge overgrown quantum wires. We use the enhanced spatial resolution of near-field microscopy, to spectroscopically investigate these single wires, which are inaccessible to conventional far-field optical spectroscopy. We thus performed a direct experimental comparison between a two-dimensional quantum system and a single genuine one-dimensional quantum system. We show that the photoluminescence of a single quantum wire is easily distinguished from that of the surrounding quantum well. Emission from localized centers is shown to dominate the photoluminescence from both wires and wells at low temperatures. A factor of three enhancement in the optical absorption of a wire, in comparison with that of a similar well, is concluded from the photoluminescence excitation data.

  8. Towards slide enhancement with the titanium-molybdenum wire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Pol; Barthélémi, Stéphane

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to improve the tribological properties of titanium-molybdenum wire. Following an analysis of the wire/bracket/ligation friction parameters and an overview of the technological research into means of reducing such friction,we set up several types of surface treatment in the laboratory by physical deposition in the vapor phase and using cold plasma technology. The specimens obtained underwent two types of tribological tests and were then subjected to traction and bending tests in order to determine the variations in their mechanical properties induced by the different types of treatment. For purposes of comparison, all the tests were conducted on untreated wire, TMA® Low-friction® wire and stainless steel wire and with two types of elastomeric ties. We were able to demonstrate some remarkable slide performances obtained using cold plasma nitriding while preserving the mechanical properties. A significant difference was observed relative to the other surface treatments.

  9. Single Wire Detector Performance Over One Year of Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hervas Aguilar, David Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract When ionizing radiation passes through gas chambers in single wire detectors gas molecules separate into ions and electrons. By applying a strong localized electric field near the single wire an avalanche of electrons is created and it can be collected. The current produced in the wire is then proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Nevertheless, many factors can contribute to detector aging effects which are visible in a loss of gain caused by deposition of contaminants on the collecting wire. This study consists on novel data analysis techniques used to process large amounts of data produced by two simultaneously running single wire detectors. Aging effects are analyzed while environmental fluctuations are corrected for. A series of scripts carry out data filtering, data matching, corrections, and finally trend plotting by using ROOT’s extensive libraries developed at CERN.

  10. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  11. Self-organization of mesoscopic silver wires by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long, straight mesoscale silver wires have been fabricated from AgNO3 electrolyte via electrodeposition without the help of templates, additives, and surfactants. Although the wire growth speed is very fast due to growth under non-equilibrium conditions, the wire morphology is regular and uniform in diameter. Structural studies reveal that the wires are single-crystalline, with the [112] direction as the growth direction. A possible growth mechanism is suggested. Auger depth profile measurements show that the wires are stable against oxidation under ambient conditions. This unique system provides a convenient way for the study of self-organization in electrochemical environments as well as for the fabrication of highly-ordered, single-crystalline metal nanowires.

  12. Development of environmental-friendly wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam technology has been used in many industrial fields as a method of conventional polymer modification or optimum processability. The main industrial fields of radiation crosslinking are wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubings, plastic foams, precuring of tires, floppy disk curing, foods packaging films, and so on. The radiation crosslinking of wire and cable was started in 1961 in Japan and 15 wire and cable companies are now using electron beam accelerators for production or R and D. The dominant characteristics of crosslinking of insulation materials are application at high temperature, good oil and chemical resistibility and high mechanical properties. These radiation crosslinking wire and cable are applied widely in electronics equipments and automobiles. Recently, electronics manufacturers have indicated deep concern over the effects on the environment. Wire and cable also are required to be applicable for environmental preservation. (J.P.N.)

  13. Razjašnjenje definisanja transportnog lanca / Clarification of a term transport chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar B. Cakić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available U radu je pregledno prikazano na koji način se u savremenoj naučnoj praksi definiše pojam transportnog lanca i njegova optimizacija. Radi pojašnjenja dato je poređenje sa logističkim i snabdevačkim lancem, i definisane su razlike i sličnosti u ovim pojmovima radi razgraničenja različitog definisanja pojmova. Takođe, upoređeni su pojmovi optimizacije transportnih i optimizacije logističkih lanaca i danas vrlo prisutnog pojma upravljanja snabdevačkim lancima - supply chain management (SCM. / INTRODUCTION This paper describes a few different approaches to define the terms 'transport chain' and 'supply chain' aiming at their clarification. TERM TRANSPORT CHAIN The author gives a survey of 'transport' definitions from international, civilian and military, and national literature. Then he gives his definition of a transport chain as a sequence of overall operations, necessary for exchange of goods in time and space within the framework of goods flow during transit from the source to the consumption point. The transport chain is connected neither with the limits of production organizations, particular industrial branches nor other structures of national economy. Transport chains also exist in the Army of Serbia (AS. Optimization of transport chains during peace time has a goal to enable easy and fast selection of an optimal transportation chain. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES IN DEFINING THE TERMS OF LOGISTIC, SUPPLY AND TRANSPORT CHAIN Modern authors define differently the terms which generally represent similar processes and activities while having almost an identical function. These terms are logistic chain, supply chain and transport chain. For better clarification, these terms are compared herein. Term supply chain The terms supply and supply chain dominate in world literature, as well as supply chain management (SCM, as a specific scientific field. This field is subject to special attention due to its importance in decision

  14. S v Litako 2014 SACR 431 (SCA): a clarification on extra curial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The court in Ndhlovu applied section 3 of the Law of Evidence Amendment Act 45 of 1988 and found that the hearsay extra curial admission could be admitted in the interests of justice. In Litako the court found that section 3 did not overrule an existing common law rule, which is that the extra curial statement of an accused ...

  15. 77 FR 52610 - Pesticides; Microbial Pesticide Definitions and Applicability; Clarification and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) (21 U.S.C. 346a). C. Electronic Access to the OCSPP Test Guidelines To access the... Test substance Test guideline No. Data requirement All use Test patterns MP EP notes Product Chemistry... guideline No. Data requirement All use patterns Test MP EP notes Product Chemistry and Composition 885.1100...

  16. Magnetic domain propagation in Pt/Co/Pt micro wires with engineered coercivity gradients along and across the wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosz, A., E-mail: arctgh@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Gaul, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Urbaniak, M. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Ehresmann, A. [Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel, Heinrich-Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel (Germany); Stobiecki, F. [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. M. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Electron lithography and ion bombardment were used to modify the Co/Pt micro-wires. • Two-dimensional perpendicular magnetic anisotropy gradient was engineered. • Engineered anisotropy gradient allowed to control domain wall positions in the wires. • Simulations confirm the influence of defects on a remanent state of the wires. - Abstract: Pt(15 nm)/[Co(0.6 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)]{sub 4} multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were patterned into several-micrometer wide wires by electron-beam lithography. Bombarding the wires with He{sup +} ions with a fluence gradient along the wire results in a spatial gradient of switching fields that allows a controllable positioning of domain walls. The influence of the reduced anisotropy near the wire edges causes a remanent state in which the reversal close to the long edges precedes that in the middle of the wires. Experiments using Kerr microscopy prove this effect and micromagnetic simulations corroborate that a decrease of the anisotropy at the edges is responsible for the effect.

  17. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  18. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-09-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  19. Multicellular computing using conjugation for wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts in synthetic biology have focussed on the implementation of logical functions within living cells. One aim is to facilitate both internal "re-programming" and external control of cells, with potential applications in a wide range of domains. However, fundamental limitations on the degree to which single cells may be re-engineered have led to a growth of interest in multicellular systems, in which a "computation" is distributed over a number of different cell types, in a manner analogous to modern computer networks. Within this model, individual cell type perform specific sub-tasks, the results of which are then communicated to other cell types for further processing. The manner in which outputs are communicated is therefore of great significance to the overall success of such a scheme. Previous experiments in distributed cellular computation have used global communication schemes, such as quorum sensing (QS), to implement the "wiring" between cell types. While useful, this method lacks specificity, and limits the amount of information that may be transferred at any one time. We propose an alternative scheme, based on specific cell-cell conjugation. This mechanism allows for the direct transfer of genetic information between bacteria, via circular DNA strands known as plasmids. We design a multi-cellular population that is able to compute, in a distributed fashion, a Boolean XOR function. Through this, we describe a general scheme for distributed logic that works by mixing different strains in a single population; this constitutes an important advantage of our novel approach. Importantly, the amount of genetic information exchanged through conjugation is significantly higher than the amount possible through QS-based communication. We provide full computational modelling and simulation results, using deterministic, stochastic and spatially-explicit methods. These simulations explore the behaviour of one possible conjugation-wired cellular computing

  20. Arthrodesis of distal interphalangeal joints in the hand with interosseous wiring and intramedullary K-wire fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soo Hong; Cha, Yoon Sik; Song, Won Tae

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wire fixation and interosseous wiring in the arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint with description of surgical procedure. We retrospectively analyzed 9 cases (7 women and 2 men) of DIP joint arthrodesis. The average age of patients was 44.2 years (range, 21 to 71 years) and the mean follow-up period was 19.6 months. Joint union was evaluated on the follow-up radiographs together with postoperative complications. All cases achieved radiologic union of the arthrodesis site. There was no surgical complication except for one case of skin irritation by the interosseous wire knot which was removed during the follow-up period. Intramedullary K-wire fixation and interosseous wiring could be an alternative procedure of arthrodesis in the DIP joint.

  1. The role of temperature in copper wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseda, Corrado

    Wire is produced by drawing, which consists of pulling a rod of the material to be processed through a series of funnel-shaped holes, or dies, of decreasing size. Drawing involves plastic deformation and friction within the contact zone between the wire and the die. These occurrences contribute to the generation of heat in the wire, which may affect its final properties. High drawing speeds and the use of several dies in one production line---to improve productivity---may accentuate heating to a point where recrystallization of the wire material sets in and its properties are affected. Also, excessive temperatures may lead to an accelerated deterioration of the lubricants used, to the point that the optimum lubrication mechanism is no longer prevailing, with consequent negative effects on the surface quality of the processed wire. A number of analytical models estimating the temperature increase in drawn wires, due to the dissipation of plastic deformation energy and to the friction between wire and die, were reviewed. While all models agree on the contribution of plastic deformation to heating, some discrepancies exist as to the effect of friction. The original treatment, developed in Germany in 1943, provided slightly higher peak temperature values than other models for the parameters used in the calculations, which are simulative of commercial practice on copper wire. A finite element study conducted in the framework of this research showed that the axial heat flow within the wire, which was assumed to be negligible in the reviewed analytical theories, could, in fact, not be disregarded. It also showed that a purely isothermal process cannot be obtained in practice, whatever adjustment of the process parameters is undertaken. In order to unequivocally correlate the effects of heating on the properties of wire and the temperature it experiences during commercial drawing, electrolytic tough pitch copper wire was drawn under independently controlled, quasi

  2. Straightforward Downsizing of Inclusions in NiTi Alloys: A New Generation of SMA Wires with Outstanding Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Alberto; Cadelli, Andrea; Zanella, Matteo; Fumagalli, Luca

    2018-03-01

    One of most debated aspects around Nitinol quality is microcleanliness, nowadays considered as the main factor affecting fatigue life. Recent results demonstrate that fatigue is undoubtedly associated with inclusions which can act as crack initiators. However, type, size, and distribution of such particles have been observed to strongly depend on Ni/Ti ratio as well as melting and thermo-mechanical processes. Therefore, if a general reduction of non-metallic inclusions is expected to generate a beneficial effect in improving lifetime of Nitinol, on the other hand this necessarily involves a hard review of both material melting and processing. In this work, the characterization of the fatigue behavior of SMA wires with diameter below 100 µm is presented. The wires were prepared by a peculiar, non-standard combination of melting and thermo-mechanical processes (Clean Melt technology). Thermo-mechanical cycling was carried out and the fracture surfaces of all failed wires were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. A robust set of data was collected and analyzed by using the statistics of extremes. Results clearly demonstrate that in the new NiTi Clean Melt alloy the maximum inclusion size and area fraction are significantly reduced compared to standard Nitinol. This offers meaningful improvement in fatigue resistance over standard wires.

  3. Towards a Kieselguhr- and PVPP-Free Clarification and Stabilization Process of Rough Beer at Room-Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Alessio; Moresi, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the main constraint (that is, beer chilling and chill haze removing) of the current beer conditioning techniques using Kieselguhr filtration and Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) treatment was overcome by developing a novel higher-throughput conditioning process, operating at room temperatures with no use of filter aids. The effect of filtration temperature (T F ) in the range of 0 to 40 °C on the hydraulic permeability of ceramic hollow-fiber (HF) membranes with nominal pore size of 0.2 to 1.4 μm, as well as on their limiting permeation flux (J * ) when feeding precentrifuged rough beer, was preliminarily assessed. When using the 1.4-μm HF membrane operating at T F ≥ 20 °C, it was possible to enhance the average permeation flux at values (676 to 1844 L/m 2 /h), noticeably higher than those (250 to 500 L/m 2 /h) characteristics of conventional powder filtration. Despite its acceptable permanent haze, the resulting beer permeate still exhibited colloidal instability. By resorting to the commercial enzyme preparation Brewers Clarex® before beer clarification, it was possible to significantly improve its colloidal stability as measured using a number of European Brewing Convention forcing tests, especially with respect to that of precentrifuged rough beer by itself. By combining the above enzymatic treatment with membrane clarification at 30 °C across the ceramic 1.4-μm HF membrane module, it was possible to limit the haze development due to chilling, sensitive proteins, and alcohol addition to as low as 0.78, 4.1, and 4.0 EBC-U, respectively, the enzymatic treatment being by far more effective than that using PVPP. A novel Kieselguhr- and PVPP-free rough beer conditioning process at room temperatures was set up. By submitting precentrifuged rough beer to commercial preparation Brewers Clarex ® and then to membrane clarification at 30 °C across a ceramic 1.4-μm hollow-fiber membrane module, it was possible to obtain a clear and stable beer with

  4. Electrically isolated, high melting point, metal wire arrays and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Cunningham, Joseph P.; D'Urso, Brian R.; Hendricks, Troy R.; Schaeffer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    A method of making a wire array includes the step of providing a tube of a sealing material and having an interior surface, and positioning a wire in the tube, the wire having an exterior surface. The tube is heated to soften the tube, and the softened tube is drawn and collapsed by a mild vacuum to bring the interior surface of the tube into contact with the wire to create a coated wire. The coated wires are bundled. The bundled coated wires are heated under vacuum to fuse the tube material coating the wires and create a fused rod with a wire array embedded therein. The fused rod is cut to form a wire array. A wire array is also disclosed.

  5. Flexural magneto-elastic vibrations of thin metal wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, A; Molokov, S

    2004-01-01

    Flexural vibrations of thin metal wires owing to a high, pulsed electric current have been investigated. The current is sufficiently low to inhibit melting but sufficiently high to induce stresses, leading to the wire fragmentation. The problem is treated numerically on the basis of the theory of three-dimensional linear elasticity. The model has been verified on the well-known exact, eigenmode solution for the flexural vibrations of an infinite wire. The agreement is excellent. Further, the model has been used to study vibrations owing to two sources. The first one is perturbations of wires owing to the Lorentz force leading to a kink-type instability similar to that in plasmas. As the main cause of the wire fragmentation has been previously found to be the thermal expansion of material owing to Joule heating, this problem mainly serves to compare results between the three-dimensional and the one-dimensional, thin-rod models. Comparison of the growth rate of the instability obtained by the two models has shown an excellent agreement. The second source of vibrations is the magnetic fields induced in the external electric circuit. The results show that depending on the shape of the circuit, the induced stresses may exceed 20 MPa for the aluminium wires used in the low-current experiments. Although the external fields are not the main source of the wire fragmentation, these values alone may cause the fracture process at elevated temperatures

  6. Experience of precision measuring distances by invar wires at accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubaj, N.I.

    1977-01-01

    With a view to determining the deformations and displacements of the ring foundation of the ITEP accelerator, the method of very accurate distance measurements by means of invar wires and strips is described. Measurement errors are analyzed. This method has allowed to measure distances up to 40 m with a mean-square error of less than 40 μm. The calibration accuracy of 3 and 25-m measuring wires has been determined to be +- 27 μm. Time instability of the wires is +- 16 μm. It is shown that strips are more stable in time than wires. Elongation of 6, 19, 25 and 38 m invar wires has been measured as function of the tension time. The error due to tension of a 38-m wire may be tangible. Data on thermal coefficient variation in time has been obtained for invar wires and strips. The multiannual measurements of the ring foundation deformations show that variations of the mean radius are caused by increases of concrete temperature. Temperature increase by only 1 deg caused mean radius increase of 0.3 mm

  7. Thermal performance in circular tube fitted with coiled square wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promvonge, Pongjet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of wires with square cross section forming a coil used as a turbulator on the heat transfer and turbulent flow friction characteristics in a uniform heat flux, circular tube are experimentally investigated in the present work. The experiments are performed for flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 5000 to 25,000. Two different spring coiled wire pitches are introduced. The results are also compared with those obtained from using a typical coiled circular wire, apart from the smooth tube. The experimental results reveal that the use of coiled square wire turbulators leads to a considerable increase in heat transfer and friction loss over those of a smooth wall tube. The Nusselt number increases with the rise of Reynolds number and the reduction of pitch for both circular and square wire coils. The coiled square wire provides higher heat transfer than the circular one under the same conditions. Also, performance evaluation criteria to assess the real benefits in using both coil wires of the enhanced tube are determined

  8. Composite ceramic superconducting wires for electric motor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, John W.

    1990-07-01

    Several types of HTSC wire have been produced and two types of HTSC motors are being built. Hundreds of meters of Ag- clad wire were fabricated from YBa2Cu3O(7-x) (Y-123) and Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3O10 (BiSCCO). The dc homopolar motor coils are not yet completed, but multiple turns of wire have been wound on the coil bobbins to characterize the superconducting properties of coiled wire. Multifilamentary conductors were fabricated as cables and coils. The sintered polycrystalline wire has self-field critical current densities (Jc) as high as 2800 A/sq cm, but the Jc falls rapidly with magnetic field. To improve Jc, sintered YBCO wire is melt textured with a continuous process which has produced textures wire up to 0.5 meters long with 77K transport Jc above 11, 770 A/sq cm2 in self field and 2100 A/sq cm2 at 1 telsa. The Emerson Electric dc homopolar HTSC motor has been fabricated and run with conventional copper coils. A novel class of potential very powerful superconducting motors have been designed to use trapped flux in melt textures Y-123 as magnet replicas in an new type of permanent magnet motor. The stator element and part of the rotor of the first prototype machine exist, and the HTSC magnet replica segments are being fabricated.

  9. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  10. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-12-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb3Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb3Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb3Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb3Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb3Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system.

  11. Strain sensing systems tailored for tensile measurement of fragile wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman

    2005-01-01

    Fundamental stress versus strain measurements were completed on superconducting Nb 3 Sn wires within the framework of IEC/TC90 and VAMAS/TWA16. A key task was the assessment of sensing systems regarding resolution, accuracy, and precision when measuring Young's modulus. Prior to actual Nb 3 Sn wire measurements metallic wires, consisting of copper and stainless steel having diameters similar to the Nb 3 Sn wire, were extensively investigated with respect to their elastic line properties using different types of extensometers. After these calibration tests Nb 3 Sn wire measurements of different companies resulted in several important facts with respect to total size and weight of the used extensometers. The size could be correlated to the initial stage of stress versus strain behaviour. In fact, the effect of wire curls resulting from the production line had a profound effect on Young's modulus measurements. Within this context, the possibility of determining Young's modulus from unloading compliance lines in the plastic regime of the stress-strain curve was considered. The data obtained using this test methodology were discussed under consideration of the composite nature of Nb 3 Sn wire. In addition, a non-contacting sensing system based on a double-beam laser extensometer was used to investigate the potential of this new sensing system

  12. Deflection load characteristics of laser-welded orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Etsuko; Stigall, Garrett; Elshahawy, Waleed; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2012-07-01

    To compare the deflection load characteristics of homogeneous and heterogeneous joints made by laser welding using various types of orthodontic wires. Four kinds of straight orthodontic rectangular wires (0.017 inch × 0.025 inch) were used: stainless-steel (SS), cobalt-chromium-nickel (Co-Cr-Ni), beta-titanium alloy (β-Ti), and nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Homogeneous and heterogeneous end-to-end joints (12 mm long each) were made by Nd:YAG laser welding. Two types of welding methods were used: two-point welding and four-point welding. Nonwelded wires were also used as a control. Deflection load (N) was measured by conducting the three-point bending test. The data (n  =  5) were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance/Tukey test (P wires measured were as follows: SS: 21.7 ± 0.8 N; Co-Cr-Ni: 20.0 ± 0.3 N; β-Ti: 13.9 ± 1.3 N; and Ni-Ti: 6.6 ± 0.4 N. All of the homogeneously welded specimens showed lower deflection loads compared to corresponding control wires and exhibited higher deflection loads compared to heterogeneously welded combinations. For homogeneous combinations, Co-Cr-Ni/Co-Cr-Ni showed a significantly (P wires provide a deflection load that is comparable to that of homogeneously welded orthodontic wires.

  13. The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masur, L.J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J

    2003-10-15

    This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 x the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC's first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC's second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

  14. Shape memory alloy wire-based smart natural rubber bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati Dezfuli, F; Shahria Alam, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of smart elastomeric bearings are presented using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. Due to the unique characteristics of SMAs, such as the superelastic effect and the recentering capability, the residual deformation in SMA-based natural rubber bearings (SMA-NRBs) is significantly reduced whereas the energy dissipation capacity is increased. Two different configurations of SMA wires incorporated in elastomeric bearings are considered. The effect of several parameters, including the shear strain amplitude, the type of SMA, the aspect ratio of the base isolator, the thickness of SMA wire, and the amount of pre-strain in the wires on the performance of SMA-NRBs is investigated. Rubber bearings are composed of natural rubber layers bonded to steel shims as reinforcement. Results show that ferrous SMA wire, FeNiCuAlTaB, with 13.5% superelastic strain and a very low austenite finish temperature (−62 °C), is the best candidate to be used in SMA-NRBs subjected to high shear strain amplitudes. In terms of the lateral flexibility and wire strain level, the smart rubber bearing with a cross configuration of SMA wires is more efficient. Moreover, the cross configuration can be implemented in high-aspect-ratio elastomeric bearings since the strain induced in the wire does not exceed the superelastic range. When cross SMA wires with 2% pre-strain are used in a smart NRB, the dissipated energy is increased by 74% and the residual deformation is decreased by 15%. (paper)

  15. Arthroscopic Removal of a Wire Fragment from the Posterior Septum of the Knee following Tension Band Wiring of a Patellar Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yasuaki; Nakayama, Takashi; Kita, Kenichiro; Miyatake, Katsutosi; Kawasaki, Yoshiteru; Fujii, Koji; Takeda, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    Tension band wiring with cerclage wiring is most widely used for treating displaced patellar fractures. Although wire breakage is not uncommon, migration of a fragment of the broken wire is rare, especially migration into the knee joint. We describe here a rare case of migration of a wire fragment into the posterior septum of the knee joint after fixation of a displaced patellar fracture with tension band wiring and cerclage wiring. Although it was difficult to determine whether the wire fragment was located within or outside the knee joint from the preoperative plain radiographs or three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT), we found it arthroscopically through the posterior transseptal portal with assistance of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Surgeons who treat such cases should bear in mind the possibility that wire could be embedded in the posterior septum of the knee joint.

  16. Wire in the Cable-Driven System of Surgical Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Lv, N.; Mu, H. Z.; Xue, L. J.

    2017-07-01

    During the evolution of the surgical robot, cable plays an important role. It translates motion and force precisely from surgeon’s hand to the tool’s tips. In the paper, the vertical wires, the composition of cable, are mathematically modeled from a geometric point of view. The cable structure and tension are analyzed according to the characteristics of wire screw twist. The structural equations of the wires in different positions are derived for both non-bent cable and bent cable, respectively. The bending moment formula of bent cable is also obtained. This will help researchers find suitable cable and design more matched pulley.

  17. Gamma spectrometry on MANITU 271-01 gamma scan wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassel, G.; Buurveld, H.A.; Minkema, J.

    1994-08-01

    A series of irradiation experiments (271-series) is being performed of the sustain programme for material development and characterization of the NET (Next European Torus). In the framework of the first irradiation experiment 271-01, with irradiation up to 0.2 dpa, four gamma scan wires have been examined by gamma scanning. The purpose of the gamma scan wires (GSW) is to get information about the neutron fluence distribution in the capsules during irradiation. In the stainless steel wires the nuclides Co-58, Mu-54, Fe-59 and Co-60 are produced, are characteristic for fast and thermal neutron reactions. (orig./HP)

  18. Structural and phase studies of stainless wire after electroplastic drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Kir'yanchev, N.E.; Ryzhkov, V.G.; Kalugin, V.D.; Sokolov, N.V.; Klekovkin, A.A.; Klevtsur, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and phase properties of the 12Kh18N10T steel wire are studied after usual and electroplastic drawing from 0.40 up to 0.11 mm with 18-22% reduction per pass with passing 250 A/mm 2 electric current. The earlier made observation on a sharp decrease in content of deformation-induced martensite of α-phase takes place in the wire from stainless metastable austenitic steel as a result of electroplastic drawing. Distribution of the remained α-phase by the wire cross section is established

  19. Wire Array Solar Cells: Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joshua Michael

    Despite demand for clean energy to reduce our addiction to fossil fuels, the price of these technologies relative to oil and coal has prevented their widespread implementation. Solar energy has enormous potential as a carbon-free resource but is several times the cost of coal-produced electricity, largely because photovoltaics of practical efficiency require high-quality, pure semiconductor materials. To produce current in a planar junction solar cell, an electron or hole generated deep within the material must travel all the way to the junction without recombining. Radial junction, wire array solar cells, however, have the potential to decouple the directions of light absorption and charge-carrier collection so that a semiconductor with a minority-carrier diffusion length shorter than its absorption depth (i.e., a lower quality, potentially cheaper material) can effectively produce current. The axial dimension of the wires is long enough for sufficient optical absorption while the charge-carriers are collected along the shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array. This thesis explores the wire array solar cell design by developing potentially low-cost fabrication methods and investigating the energy-conversion properties of the arrays in photoelectrochemical cells. The concept was initially investigated with Cd(Se, Te) rod arrays; however, Si was the primary focus of wire array research because its semiconductor properties make low-quality Si an ideal candidate for improvement in a radial geometry. Fabrication routes for Si wire arrays were explored, including the vapor-liquid-solid growth of wires using SiCl4. Uniform, vertically aligned Si wires were demonstrated in a process that permits control of the wire radius, length, and spacing. A technique was developed to transfer these wire arrays into a low-cost, flexible polymer film, and grow multiple subsequent arrays using a single Si(111) substrate. Photoelectrochemical measurements on Si wire array

  20. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-07-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains the results of experiments performed in collaboration with Tecnatom SA, Spain, to compare several cable condition monitoring techniques including LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis) (au)

  1. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, P.F.

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains the results of experiments performed in collaboration with Tecnatom SA, Spain, to compare several cable condition monitoring techniques including LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis) (au)

  2. Measurement of the saturation magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.; Vazquez, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of the magnetostriction constant of amorphous wire by conventional techniques is very difficult because of its small diameter. However, accurate determination of the magnetostriction constant is important in the study of amorphous wires. Here the saturation magnetostriction constant (λ s ) for a low-magnetostriction amorphous wire of nominal composition (Fe 6.3 Co 92.7 Nb 1 ) 77.5 Si 7.5 B 15 has been determined by means of the small-angle magnetization-rotation method. λ s has been evaluated to be 2.1x10 -7 for its as-received state. The dependence of thermal treatment is also reported

  3. Thermal poling of multi-wire array optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lin; An, Honglin; Hayashi, Juliano G.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate in this paper thermal poling of multi-wire array fibers, which extends poling of fibers with two anodes to similar to 50 and similar to 500 wire array anodes. The second harmonic microscopy observations show that second order nonlinearity (SON) layers are developed surrounding all...... the rings of wires in the similar to 50 anode array fiber with poling of 1.8kV, 250 degrees C and 30min duration, and the outer rings of the similar to 500 anode array fiber at lower poling temperature. Our simulations based on a two-dimensional charge dynamics model confirm this can be explained...

  4. The Wire Flyer Towed Profiling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C.; Ullman, D. S.; Hebert, D.

    2016-02-01

    The Wire Flyer is an autonomous profiling vehicle that slides up and down a standard towed cable in a controlled manner using the lift created by wing foils. The vehicle is able to create high resolution water-column sections within a specified depth band in an automated manner. The Wire Flyer is different than standard undulating tow bodies in that it decouples the vehicle's motion from the tow cable dynamics. Due to this separation the vehicle is able to profile with nearly 1:1 horizontal to vertical motion. A heavy depressor weight is fixed to the end of the cable and the cable shape remains relatively static during operation. The vehicle uses a closed loop wing angle controller to achieve desired vertical velocities between 0 and 2.5 m/s for ship speeds between 1.5 and 2.5 m/s. During typical operations, updated commands and condensed data samples can be sent to and from the vehicle via an acoustic modem to adjust the profiling pattern to ensure the desired coverage. The current 1000 meter rated vehicle is equipped with a SBE 49 FastCAT CTD, and can carry additional sensors for oxygen, Chlorophyll fluorescence and acoustic echosounding. Results showing the vehicle performance as well as the quality of the processed CTD data will be presented from three test cruises to the New England Shelf Break Front. Many shallow and deep sections were obtained with horizontal resolution that is not otherwise achievable with undulating tow bodies, underway CTDs, standard CTD tow-yos, gliders or free swimming AUVs. A typical survey at ship speeds of 3-4 knots can profile over a depth band between 200 and 600 meters depth with a repeat cycle length of less than 1 km. The vehicle concept is depth independent and could work with a full ocean depth design. Application areas for the system include sub-meso scale observations of fronts, vent and seep plumes, oxygen minimum layers, mixing and mid-water bioacoustics.

  5. X-ray backlighting density measurements of tungsten and aluminum wire and wire array z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Greenly, J.B.; Sinars, D.B.; Mingaleev, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    Calibrated density measurements in both the coronal plasmas and dense cores of exploding W wire and wire array Z-pinches, powered by the ∼450 kA, 100 ns XP-pulser at Cornell University, have been made using two-frame x-ray backlighting in conjunction with known thickness W step wedges. The backlighting images are made by Mo wire X-pinch radiation filtered by 12.5 microm Ti impinging upon a sandwich of films (Micrat VR, Kodak GWL, Kodak DEF) which have different sensitivities to increase the dynamic range of the method. A W step wedge filter is placed in front of the films, giving absolute line density calibration of each exposure with estimated errors ranging from 20 to 50%. Assuming x-ray absorption by the W plasma is the same as for the solid material, the authors are able to measure W areal densities from 3.2 x 10 19 to 2 x 10 17 /cm 2 . These can be converted to number density assuming azimuthal symmetry. For example, for an exploded 7.5 microm wire with a 15--20 microm diameter dense core and a 1 mm corona diameter, the implied W volume density ranges from 2x10 18 to over 10 22 /cm 3 . Integration of the line density gives an estimate of the fraction of the wire mass in the corona and core. For example, with 100 kA peak current in a single 7.5 microm W wire, ∼70% (>90%) of the W mass is in the corona after 53 ns (61 ns). The authors also observe that the corona has large, roughly axisymmetric axial nonuniformity both in radius and in mass density. In addition, the coronal plasma contains more of the W mass, expands faster and is more uniform when the wire is surface-cleaned by preheating. In arrays of 2--8 wires with the same 100 kA total current, detectable coronal plasma appears after 25--35 ns, and much of it is swept toward the center of the array, forming a dense channel. The portion of the initial wire mass in the coronal plasma increases with smaller wire diameter and decreases with greater wire number: 15% for 4 x 13.5 microm, 35% for 4 x 7

  6. 46 CFR 169.673 - Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits... of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.673 Installation of wiring for power and lighting circuits. (a) Wiring must be run as high as practicable above the bilges. (b) Wiring...

  7. Structure of gold monoatomic wires connected to two electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoubkoff, Remi [Centre de Recherche en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences, CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: zoubkoff@crmcn.univ-mrs.fr; Vega, L. de la [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Rodero, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Levy Yeyati, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada C-V, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Saul, Andres [Centre de Recherche en Matiere Condensee et Nanosciences, CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-09-01

    In this work, we present calculations concerning the stability of infinite monoatomic Au wires and finite Au wires between electrodes. For the systems with the electrodes, that we represent by FCC slabs with (0 0 1) surfaces, the total energy calculations have been performed with a spd non-orthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian. For the infinite wires, the calculations were also compared to semi-empirical and first principle ones. For the infinite wires and small enough inter-atomic distances, we find that a zig-zag structure is most stable than the linear one, in agreement with previous calculations. For the system between electrodes, one gets an almost concave or a symmetric broken edges structure depending on the inter-atomic distance.

  8. Machine for winding under tension a prestressing wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.; Thillet, Georges.

    1975-01-01

    This invention concerns a machine for winding under tension a prestressing wire or cable. It is used in the wrapping of cylindrical structures, particularly concrete vessels, for the purpose of achieving radial prestressing in them [fr

  9. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  10. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. [Institutt for energiteknikk, IFE (Norway)

    2007-04-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains some test results of a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. (au)

  11. Wire Insulation Incorporating Self-Healing Polymers (WIISP), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen and Virginia Tech are developing a self-healing material for wire insulation using a class of ionomeric polymers. These ionomers exhibit self-healing...

  12. Differential evaluation of the magnetic state of wire packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Povolotskaya, A. M.; Zadvorkin, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    In an effort to estimate the applicability of magnetic methods to the evaluation of the performance of steel ropes, have been made on specimens in the form of wire packages modeling section loss due to the wear and rupture of individual wires, as well as a change in the structural state of the wires in ropes working under high temperatures. A linear relationship between saturation induction and rope section reduction both under abrasion and due to the rupture of individual wires is demonstrated. The coercive force of the rope tested or the comparison of magnetic fluxes in the rope with those in the standard specimen in the field equal to the coercive force of the standard specimen can serve as informative parameters for the determination of changes in the structural state of the metal of a steel rope.

  13. Luttinger liquid behavior of weakly disordered quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palevski, A.; Levy, E.; Karpovski, M.; Tsukernik, A.; Dwir, B.; Kapon, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The talk will be devoted to the electronic transport in quantum nano wires. The temperature dependence of the conductance in long V-groove quantum wires fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures is consistent with recent theories given within the framework of the Luttinger liquid model, in the limit of weakly disordered wires. We show that for the relatively small amount of disorder in our quantum wires, the value of the interaction parameter g is g=0.66, which is the expected value for GaAs. However, samples with a higher level of disorder show conductance with stronger temperature dependence, which exceeds the range of validity of a perturbation theory. Trying to fit such data with perturbation-theory models leads inevitably to wrong (lower) values of g

  14. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  15. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  16. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., sufficient slack shall be provided so that each aerial service wire shall reach any binding post position as... lines to buildings shall follow the shortest feasible route commensurate with the requirements of...

  18. A comparison of wire- and Kevlar-reinforced provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D B; Nicholls, J I; Yuodelis, R A; Strygler, H

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel wire 0.036 inch in diameter was compared with Kevlar 49 polyaramid fiber as a means of reinforcing a four-unit posterior provisional fixed restoration with 2 pontics. Three reinforcement patterns for wire and two for Kevlar 49 were evaluated and compared with the control, which was an unreinforced provisional restoration. A central tensile load was placed on the cemented provisional restoration and the variables were measured: (1) the initial stiffness; (2) the load at initial fracture; and (3) the unit toughness, or the energy stored in the beam at a point where the load had undergone a 1.0-mm deflection. Statistical analysis showed (1) the bent wire configuration had a significantly higher initial stiffness (P < or = .05), (2) there was no difference between designs for load at initial fracture, and (3) the bent wire had a significantly higher unit toughness value (P < or = .05).

  19. Hierarchical structures in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andrew; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and crystallography of drawn pearlitic steel wires have been quantified by a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and nanobeam diffraction, with focus on the change...

  20. Seeded perturbations in wire array z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Allen Conrad; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich; Wunsch, Scott Edward; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Safronova, Alla S.; Maxwell, J.; McKenney, John Lee; Ampleford, David J.; Rapley, J.; Bott, S.C.; Palmer, J.B.A.; Bland, Simon Nicholas; Jones, Brent Manley; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Hall, Gareth Neville; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Deeney, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The impact of 3D structure on wire array z-pinch dynamics is a topic of current interest, and has been studied by the controlled seeding of wire perturbations. First, Al wires were etched at Sandia, creating 20% radial perturbations with variable axial wavelength. Observations of magnetic bubble formation in the etched regions during experiments on the MAGPIE accelerator are discussed and compared to 3D MHD modeling. Second, thin NaF coatings of 1 mm axial extent were deposited on Al wires and fielded on the Zebra accelerator. Little or no axial transport of the NaF spectroscopic dopant was observed in spatially resolved K-shell spectra, which places constraints on particle diffusivity in dense z-pinch plasmas. Finally, technology development for seeding perturbations is discussed

  1. Aluminum/steel wire composite plates exhibit high tensile strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Composite plate of fine steel wires imbedded in an aluminum alloy matrix results in a lightweight material with high tensile strength. Plates have been prepared having the strength of titanium with only 85 percent of its density.

  2. Torsion-induced magnetoimpedance in nanocrystalline Fe-based wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.D.; Olivera, J.; Alvarez, P.; Sanchez, T.; Perez, M.J.; Sanchez, M.L.; Gorria, P.; Hernando, B.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic field influence on the real and imaginary parts of axial-diagonal (ζ zz ) and off-diagonal (ζ φz ) components of the surface magnetoimpedance (MI) tensor has been studied in amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe 73.5 Si 13.5 B 9 Cu 1 Nb 3 wires. Twisted and untwisted wires were annealed at a temperature near to that of primary crystallization. The MI response has been measured at 1MHz and 5mA rms drive current in all the samples. Even though the higher values for both components of the MI tensor are achieved for the untwisted annealed wire, the most interesting features are observed in the torsion annealed wire

  3. Researching on Control Device of Prestressing Wire Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhui; Guo, Yangbo; Liu, Maoshe

    2017-06-01

    This paper mainly introduces a device for controlling prestress and its related research methods, the advantage of this method is that the reinforcement process is easy to operate and control the prestress of wire rope accurately. The relationship between the stress and strain of the steel wire rope is monitored during the experiment, and the one - to - one relationship between the controllable position and the pretightening force of the steel wire rope is confirmed by the 5mm steel wire rope, and the results are analyzed theoretically by the measured elastic modulus. The results show that the method can effectively control the prestressing force, and the result provides a reference method for strengthening the concrete column with prestressed steel strand.

  4. Rodent Zic Genes in Neural Network Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Eloísa

    2018-01-01

    The formation of the nervous system is a multistep process that yields a mature brain. Failure in any of the steps of this process may cause brain malfunction. In the early stages of embryonic development, neural progenitors quickly proliferate and then, at a specific moment, differentiate into neurons or glia. Once they become postmitotic neurons, they migrate to their final destinations and begin to extend their axons to connect with other neurons, sometimes located in quite distant regions, to establish different neural circuits. During the last decade, it has become evident that Zic genes, in addition to playing important roles in early development (e.g., gastrulation and neural tube closure), are involved in different processes of late brain development, such as neuronal migration, axon guidance, and refinement of axon terminals. ZIC proteins are therefore essential for the proper wiring and connectivity of the brain. In this chapter, we review our current knowledge of the role of Zic genes in the late stages of neural circuit formation.

  5. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  6. Microglia Modulate Wiring of the Embryonic Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Squarzoni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of microglia, the tissue macrophages of the brain, has been associated with the etiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Consistently, microglia have been shown to regulate neurogenesis and synaptic maturation at perinatal and postnatal stages. However, microglia invade the brain during mid-embryogenesis and thus could play an earlier prenatal role. Here, we show that embryonic microglia, which display a transiently uneven distribution, regulate the wiring of forebrain circuits. Using multiple mouse models, including cell-depletion approaches and cx3cr1−/−, CR3−/−, and DAP12−/− mutants, we find that perturbing microglial activity affects the outgrowth of dopaminergic axons in the forebrain and the laminar positioning of subsets of neocortical interneurons. Since defects in both dopamine innervation and cortical networks have been linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, our study provides insights into how microglial dysfunction can impact forebrain connectivity and reveals roles for immune cells during normal assembly of brain circuits.

  7. ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films.

  8. Process for producing fine and ultrafine filament superconductor wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanithi, Hem C.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing a superconductor wire made up of a large number of round monofilament rods is provided for, comprising assembling a multiplicity of round monofilaments inside each of a multiplicity of thin wall hexagonal tubes and then assembling a number of said thin wall hexagonal tubes within an extrusion can and subsequently consolidating, extruding and drawing the entire assembly down to the desired wire size.

  9. Domain Wall Mobility in Co-Based Amorphous Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kladivova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of the domain wall between opposite circularly magnetized domains in amorphous cylindrical sample with circular easy direction is theoretically studied. The wall is driven by DC current. Various mechanisms which influence the wall velocity were taken into account: current magnitude, deformation of the mowing wall, Hall effect, axially magnetized domain in the middle of the wire. Theoretical results obtained are in a good agreement with experiments on Cobased amorphous ferromagnetic wires.

  10. Magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles prepared by exploding wire technique

    OpenAIRE

    Alqudami, Abdullah; Annapoorni, S.; Lamba, Subhalakshmi; Kothari, P C; Kotnala, R K

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles of iron were prepared in distilled water using very thin iron wires and sheets, by the electro-exploding wire technique. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the size of the nanoparticles to be in the range 10 to 50 nm. However, particles of different sizes can be segregated by using ultrahigh centrifuge. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the presence of the cubic phase of iron. These iron nanoparticles were found to exhibit fluorescence in the visible region in contrast to ...

  11. Wiring of interpolation unit of mass spectrometer oscilloscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paryzek, J.

    1981-01-01

    The combinatory logic circuit block is wired across the input terminal of oscilloscope intensity modulation and the output terminal of the sweep delay control block, the output terminal of the block for mains frequency division, and the output terminal of the pulse shaper block. It consists of a dual-input AND circuit and a dual-input OR circuit whose one input is wired to the output of one of the dual-input AND circuit. (J.P.)

  12. Electrochemical cleaning of Sv-08G2S wire surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.I.; Degtyarev, V.G.; Novikov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of industrial tests of the Sv-08G2S wire with different state of surface fwith technological lubrication, after mechanical cleaning, with electrochemically cleaned surface) are presented. Advantages of welding-technological properties of the wire with electroe chemically cleaned surface are shown. An operation principle of the electrochemical cleaning facility is described. A brief specf ification f of the facility is given [ru

  13. Thermal analysis methods for LMFBR wire wrapped bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1976-11-01

    A note is presented which was written to stimulate an awareness and discussion of the fundamental differences in the formulation of certain existing analysis codes for LMFBR wire wrap bundles. The contention of the note is that for those array types where data exists (one wire per pin, equal start angles), the ENERGY method results for coolant temperature under forced convection conditions provide benchmarks of reliability equal to the results of codes COBRA and TH1-3D

  14. Tuning the Electrical Conductivity of Nanotube-Encapsulated Metallocene Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Suárez, Víctor M.; Ferrer, Jaime; Lambert, Colin J.

    2006-03-01

    We analyze a new family of carbon nanotube-based molecular wires, formed by encapsulating metallocene molecules inside the nanotubes. Our simulations, which are based on a combination of nonequilibrium Green function techniques and density functional theory, indicate that these wires can be engineered to exhibit desirable magnetotransport effects for use in spintronics devices. The proposed structures should also be resilient to room-temperature fluctuations, and are expected to have a high yield.

  15. Copper-Based Torpedo Guidance Wire: Applications and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    1 1.1 HISTORY OF U.S. WIRE-GUIDED TORPEDOES...35 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 HISTORY OF U.S. WIRE-GUIDED TORPEDOES Since its...Beaked Whales Revealed by Echolocation ,” PLoS ONE 6(12):e28353. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028353. Baird, R. W., A.M. Gorgone, and D.L. Webster

  16. Hot wire TIG temper bead welding for nuclear repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.A.; Gilston, P.F.

    1989-08-01

    A preliminary assessment has been carried out to determine the suitability of the hot wire tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process for the repair of thick section, ferritic steel nuclear pressure vessels. The objective has been to identify a hot wire TIG temper bead procedure, suitable for repairs without post weld heat treatment. This procedure involves depositing two weld layers with carefully selected welding parameters such that overlapping thermal cycles produce a refined and tempered heat affected zone, HAZ, microstructure. (author)

  17. Textured YBCO films grown on wires: application to superconducting cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechoux, N; Jiménez, C; Chaudouët, P; Rapenne, L; Sarigiannidou, E; Robaut, F; Petit, S; Garaudée, S; Porcar, L; Soubeyroux, J L; Odier, P; Bruzek, C E; Decroux, M

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to fabricate superconducting wires made of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) on La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) buffered and biaxially textured Ni-5 at.%W (NiW) are described. Wires were manually shaped from LZO buffered NiW tapes. Different diameters were produced: 1.5, 2 and 3 mm. The wires were further covered with YBCO grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We developed an original device in which the round substrate undergoes an alternated rotation of 180° around its axis in addition to a reel-to-reel translation. This new approach allows covering the whole circumference of the wire with a YBCO layer. This was confirmed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis coupled to a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For all wire diameters, the YBCO layer thickness varied from 300 to 450 nm, and the cationic composition was respected. Electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) measurements were performed directly on an as-deposited wire without surface preparation allowing the investigation of the crystalline quality of the film surface. Combining EBSD with XRD results we show that YBCO grows epitaxially on the LZO buffered NiW wires. For the first time, superconductive behaviors have been detected on round substrates in both the rolling and circular direction. J c reached 0.3 MA cm −2 as measured at 77 K by transport and third-harmonic detection. Those preliminary results confirm the effectiveness of the MOCVD for complex geometries, especially for YBCO deposition on small diameter wires. This approach opens huge perspectives for the elaboration of a new generation of YBCO-based round conductors. (paper)

  18. Research regarding stiffness optimization of wires used for joints actuation from an elephant's trunk robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofu, C.; Stan, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elephant's trunk robotic arms driven by wires and pulley mechanisms have issues with wires stiffness because of the entailed elastic deformations that is causing errors of positioning. Static and dynamic loads from each joint of the robotic arm affect the stiffness of driving wires and precision positioning. The influence of wires elastic deformation on precision positioning decreases with the increasing of wires stiffness by using different pre-tensioning devices. In this paper, we analyze the variation of driving wires stiffness particularly to each wire driven joint. We obtain optimum wires stiffness variation by using an analytical method that highlights the efficiency of pre-tensioning mechanism. The analysis of driving wires stiffness is necessary for taking appropriate optimization measures of robotic arm dynamic behavior and, thus, for decreasing positioning errors of the elephant's trunk robotic arm with inner actuation through wires/cables.

  19. Wiring cost and topological participation of the mouse brain connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinov, Mikail; Ypma, Rolf J F; Watson, Charles; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-08-11

    Brain connectomes are topologically complex systems, anatomically embedded in 3D space. Anatomical conservation of "wiring cost" explains many but not all aspects of these networks. Here, we examined the relationship between topology and wiring cost in the mouse connectome by using data from 461 systematically acquired anterograde-tracer injections into the right cortical and subcortical regions of the mouse brain. We estimated brain-wide weights, distances, and wiring costs of axonal projections and performed a multiscale topological and spatial analysis of the resulting weighted and directed mouse brain connectome. Our analysis showed that the mouse connectome has small-world properties, a hierarchical modular structure, and greater-than-minimal wiring costs. High-participation hubs of this connectome mediated communication between functionally specialized and anatomically localized modules, had especially high wiring costs, and closely corresponded to regions of the default mode network. Analyses of independently acquired histological and gene-expression data showed that nodal participation colocalized with low neuronal density and high expression of genes enriched for cognition, learning and memory, and behavior. The mouse connectome contains high-participation hubs, which are not explained by wiring-cost minimization but instead reflect competitive selection pressures for integrated network topology as a basis for higher cognitive and behavioral functions.

  20. Dendritic and Axonal Wiring Optimization of Cortical GABAergic Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.