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Sample records for wipp air effluent

  1. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  2. WIPP Pecos Management Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reviews and evaluations compiled by Pecos Management Services, Inc. encompass the current and future WIPP activities in the program areas of TRU waste characterization, transportation, and disposal.

  3. WIPP Repository Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    On August 30, 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided a proposed planned change request that will relocate Panels 9 and 10 from the main north-south access drifts to south of the existing Panels 4 and 5 in the WIPP repository.

  4. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  5. WIPP Project Records Management Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Records Management Handbook provides the WIPP Project Records Management personnel with a tool to use to fulfill the requirements of the WIPP Records Program and direct their actions in the important area of records management. The handbook describes the various project areas involved in records management, and how they function. The handbook provides the requirements for Record Coordinators and Master Record Center (MRC) personnel to follow in the normal course of file management, records scheduling, records turnover, records disposition, and records retrieval. More importantly, the handbook provides a single reference which encompasses the procedures set fourth in DOE Order 1324.2A, ''Records Disposition'' ASME NQA-1, ''Quality Assurance Program Requirements for Nuclear Facilities'' and DOE-AL 5700.6B, ''General Operations Quality Assurance.'' These documents dictate how an efficient system of records management will be achieved on the WIPP Project

  6. Wet effluent diffusion technique and determination of C1-C5 alcohols in air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Pařízek, Petr; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2001), s. 121-127 ISSN 1231-7098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(BE) SUB-AERO EVK2-1999-000327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : wet effluent difussion denuder * determination * air Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  7. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqing; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the processed effluent, manganese ion present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F, SO 4 2- , etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/1 in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn 2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO 4 2- etc.), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH) 2 . The manganese hydroxide is easily to oxide to form MnO(OH) 2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower 1.11 Bq/1 in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency; (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation air-aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge; (3) The current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has a very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured. (author)

  8. Optimization of waste operations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.W.; Cole, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP) will receive nuclear waste in late 1988. The unique material-handling of contact- and remote-handled transuranic waste containers has resulted in handling systems with unique features and complications. Optimum waste handling at WIPP requires cooperation and design considerations at the waste generator site, the transportation system, and at WIPP. This cooperation reduces costs for all three parties. Best WIPP handling considerations require (1) maximizing transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT) payload, (2) minimizing operational steps, (3) minimizing lifting operations (slide loads instead of lifting), and (4) automating processes where practical. Conclusions and recommendations reached for WIPP operations are presented

  9. Enhanced wet air oxidation : synergistic rate acceleration upon effluent recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Birchmeier; Charles G. Hill; Carl J. Houtman; Rajai H. Atalla; Ira A. Weinstock

    2000-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) reactions of cellobiose, phenol, and syringic acid were carried out under mild conditions (155°C; 0.93MPa 02; soluble catalyst, Na5[PV2Mo10O40]). Initial oxidation rates were rapid but decreased to small values as less reactive oxidation products accumulated. Recalcitrant oxidation products were consumed more rapidly, however, if additional...

  10. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  11. Unexpected O and O3 production in the effluent of He/O2 microplasma jets emanating into ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerweg, D; Von Keudell, A; Benedikt, J

    2012-01-01

    Microplasma jets are commonly used to treat samples in ambient air. The effect of admixing air into the effluent may severely affect the composition of the emerging species. Here, the effluent of a He/O 2 microplasma jet has been analyzed in a helium and in an air atmosphere by molecular beam mass spectrometry. First, the composition of the effluent in air was recorded as a function of the distance to determine how fast air admixes into the effluent. Then, the spatial distribution of atomic oxygen and ozone in the effluent was recorded in ambient air and compared with measurements in a helium atmosphere. Additionally, a fluid model of the gas flow with reaction kinetics of reactive oxygen species in the effluent was constructed. In ambient air, the O density declines only slightly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. In contrast, the O 3 density in ambient air increases significantly faster with distance compared with a helium atmosphere. This unexpected behavior cannot be explained by simple recombination reactions of O atoms with O 2 molecules. A reaction scheme involving the reaction of plasma-produced excited O 2 * species of unknown identity with ground state O 2 molecules is proposed as a possible explanation for these observations. (paper)

  12. WIPP 2004 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-09-30

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to safely and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States (U.S.). In 2004, 8,839 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were emplaced at WIPP. From the first receipt of waste in March 1999 through the end of 2004, 25,809 m3 of TRU waste had been emplaced at WIPP. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of WIPP environmental resources. DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program; DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes environmental data from 2004 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2004 (DOE, 2005). The order and the guidance require that DOE facilities submit an annual SER to the DOE Headquarters Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) further requires that the SER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  13. WIPP: why are we waiting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, K.

    1991-01-01

    Rooms cut into salt almost half a mile below the state of New Mexico could become the United States' first underground repository for defence generated transuranic waste. The Department of Energy (DoE) was hoping to ship the first waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) this August, but the $800 million project has faced bureaucratic delays and a definite date has yet to be set. The state of New Mexico established the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) to perform an independent technical evaluation of the project with respect to potential radiation exposure for people or environmental degradation in the area around the WIPP site. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has two objectives: to perform scientific investigations into the behaviour of salt rock and its interactions with transuranic and mixed waste under a variety of conditions; and to demonstrate that transuranic waste can be safely handled, transported and stored in a geologic repository. The EEG is unhappy about proposed in-repository tests to assess the long term performance of WIPP. (author)

  14. HVAC fault tree analysis for WIPP integrated risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, P.; Iacovino, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the public health risk from operation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) due to potential radioactive releases, a probabilistic risk assessment of waste handling operations was conducted. One major aspect of this risk assessment involved fault tree analysis of the plant heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which comprise the final barrier between waste handling operations and the environment. 1 refs., 1 tab

  15. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term ( 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation

  16. Successes and Experiences of the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Weart, Wendell D.

    2000-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with all of the applicable regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, and transuranic radioactive waste. The WIPP, a transuranic waste repository, is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal regulations and be certified to receive wastes. Many lessons were learned throughout the 25-year history of the WIPP--from site selection to the ultimate successful certification. The experiences and lessons learned from the WIPP may be of general interest to other repository programs in the world. The lessons learned include all facets of a repository program: programmatic, managerial, regulatory, technical, and social. This paper addresses critical issues that arose during the 25 years of WIPP history and how they influenced the program

  17. WIPP Gas-Generation Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank S. Felicione; Steven M. Frank; Dennis D. Keiser

    2007-05-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750 ml headspace in each vessel was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure estimated in the repository were it to be inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30°C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generated by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6 1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. Up to 4.2% hydrogen, by volume, was measured. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in vessels containing carbon steel. Visual examination of carbon-steel coupons confirmed the correspondence between the extent of observable corrosion and hydrogen generation. Average corrosion penetration rates

  18. Purification/deodorization of indoor air and gaseous effluents by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichat, P.; Disdier, J.; Hoang-Van, C.; Mas, D.; Goutailler, G.; Gaysse, C. [Laboratoire ' Photocatalyse, Catalyse et Environnement' , CNRS UMR ' IFoS' , Ecole Centrale de Lyon, BP 163, 69131 Ecully Cedex (France)

    2000-12-25

    Our objective was to further assess the capabilities of TiO{sub 2} to purify/deodorize indoor air and industrial gaseous effluents. Using a laboratory photoreactor including a lamp emitting around 365nm and a TiO{sub 2}-coated fiber glass mesh, we first determined that the removal rate of three very different pollutants (CO, n-octane, pyridine) was 5-10{mu}mol per Wh consumed by the lamp for 50-2000ppmv concentrations and 25-50lh{sup -1} flow rates (dry air or O{sub 2}). We inferred that this order of magnitude allows, by use of a reasonable-size apparatus, the abatement of pollutants in constantly renewed indoor air, except CO and CH{sub 4} that are too concentrated. Using a TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis-based individual air purifier prototype, we showed, through distinctive analytical measurements, that the average concentrations of benzene, toluene and xylenes were indeed reduced by a factor of 2-3 in an ordinary non-airtight room. We also showed that O{sub 3} addition in O{sub 2} very markedly increases the mineralization percentage of n-octane, under otherwise identical conditions, in the laboratory photoreactor without photoexcitation of O{sub 3}; this property of O{sub 3} can expand the application field of photocatalytic air purification in industry, at least in some cases.

  19. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum F. HVAC systems energy analysis for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning requirements of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facilities proposed to be constructed in southeastern New Mexico. This report analyzes a total of ten WIPP structures to determine the most energy and economic efficient means of providing heating, ventilating, and air conditioning services. Additional analyses were performed to determine the merits of centralized versus dispersed refrigeration and heating facilities, and of performing supplemental domestic hot water heating with solar panels

  20. Development and modelling of a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process with CO2-enriched air from an upstream bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Patricia; Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Boutet, Étienne; Lida, Félix; Comeau, Yves

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process by acidification with CO 2 -enriched air coming from a bioprocess. Sub-objectives were to evaluate the neutralization capacity of different configurations of neutralization units in lab-scale conditions and to propose a design model of steel slag effluent neutralization. Two lab-scale column neutralization units fed with two different types of influent were operated at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Tested variables were mode of flow (saturated or percolating), type of media (none, gravel, Bionest and AnoxKaldnes K3), type of air (ambient or CO 2 -enriched) and airflow rate. One neutralization field test (saturated and no media, 2000-5000 ppm CO 2 , sequential feeding, hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h) was conducted for 7 days. Lab-scale and field-scale tests resulted in effluent pH of 7.5-9.5 when the aeration rate was sufficiently high. A model was implemented in the PHREEQC software and was based on the carbonate system, CO 2 transfer and calcite precipitation; and was calibrated on ambient air lab tests. The model was validated with CO 2 -enriched air lab and field tests, providing satisfactory validation results over a wide range of CO 2 concentrations. The flow mode had a major impact on CO 2 transfer and hydraulic efficiency, while the type of media had little influence. The flow mode also had a major impact on the calcite surface concentration in the reactor: it was constant in saturated mode and was increasing in percolating mode. Predictions could be made for different steel slag effluent pH and different operation conditions (hydraulic retention time, CO 2 concentration, media and mode of flow). The pH of the steel slag filter effluent and the CO 2 concentration of the enriched air were factors that influenced most the effluent pH of the neutralization process. An increased concentration in CO 2 in the enriched air reduced calcite precipitation

  1. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  2. The cosmic ray muon flux at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, E.-I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States) and II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig Univeritaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: ernst@lanl.gov; Bowles, T.J [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hime, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Pichlmaier, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Reifarth, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-3, MS H855, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wollnik, H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig Univeritaet Giessen, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-02-11

    In this work, a measurement of the muon intensity at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, USA is presented. WIPP is a salt mine with a depth of 655m. The vertical muon flux was measured with a two panel scintillator coincidence setup to {phi}{sub vert}=(3.10{sub -0.07}{sup +0.05})10{sup -7}s{sup -1}cm{sup -}2sr{sup -1}.

  3. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  4. Pretest characterization of WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.; Davis, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the storage and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country. The Performance Assessment (PA) studies for WIPP address compliance of the repository with applicable regulations, and include full-scale experiments to be performed at the WIPP site. These experiments are the bin-scale and alcove tests to be conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Prior to conducting these experiments, the waste to be used in these tests needs to be characterized to provide data on the initial conditions for these experiments. This characterization is referred to as the Pretest Characterization of WIPP Experimental Waste, and is also expected to provide input to other programmatic efforts related to waste characterization. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pretest waste characterization activities currently in progress for the WIPP bin-scale waste, and to discuss the program plan and specific analytical protocols being developed for this characterization. The relationship between different programs and documents related to waste characterization efforts is also highlighted in this paper

  5. WIPP fire hazards and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to conduct a fire hazards risk analysis of the Transuranic (TRU) contact-handled waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The technical bases and safety envelope for these operations are defined in the approved WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Although the safety documentation for the initial phase of the Test Program, the dry bin scale tests, has not yet been approved by the Department of Energy (DOE), reviews of the draft to date, including those by the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Facility Safety (ACNFS), have concluded that the dry bin scale tests present no significant risks in excess of those estimated in the approved WIPP FSAR. It is the opinion of the authors and reviewers of this analysis, based on sound engineering judgment and knowledge of the WIPP operations, that a Fire Hazards and Risk Analysis specific to the dry bin scale test program is not warranted prior to first waste receipt. This conclusion is further supported by the risk analysis presented in this document which demonstrates the level of risk to WIPP operations posed by fire to be extremely low. 15 refs., 41 figs., 48 tabs

  6. The WIPP journey to waste receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.J.; Whatley, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    In the early 1970s the federal government selected an area in southeastern New Mexico containing large underground salt beds as potentially suitable for radioactive waste disposal. An extensive site characterization program was initiated by the federal government. This site became the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, better known as WIPP. It is now 1997, over two decades after the initial selection of the New Mexico site as a potential radioactive waste repository. Numerous scientific studies, construction activities, and environmental compliance documents have been completed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has addressed all relevant issues regarding the safety of WIPP and its ability to isolate radioactive waste from the accessible environment. Throughout the last two decades up to the present time, DOE has negotiated through a political, regulatory, and legal maze with regard to WIPP. New regulations have been issued, litigation initiated, and public involvement brought to the forefront of the DOE decision-making process. All of these factors combined to bring WIPP to its present status--at the final stages of working through the licensing requirements for receipt of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal. Throughout its history, the DOE has stayed true to Congress' mandates regarding WIPP. Steps taken have been necessary to demonstrate to Congress, the State of New Mexico, and the public in general, that the nation's first radioactive waste repository will be safe and environmentally sound. DOE's compliance demonstrations are presently under consideration by the cognizant regulatory agencies and DOE is closer than ever to waste receipt. This paper explores the DOE's journey towards implementing a permanent disposal solution for defense-related TRU waste, including major Congressional mandates and other factors that contributed to program changes regarding the WIPP project

  7. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts to perform a safety assessment of the WIPP facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico are summarized. This preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. No attempt has been made to extend the consequences to population dose or to weight the dose with probability of the events. The general methodology, geosphere transport, and biosphere transport are described. The consequences of the various models developed to represent the loss of containment are summarized

  8. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m 3 for 241 Am and 10.2 μBq/m 3 for 239+240 Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m 3 of 241 Am and 5.8 μBq/m 3 of 239+240 Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  9. A Historical Review of WIPP Backfill Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brush, L.H.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Molecke, M.A.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-15

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. It's introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  10. Effects of microbial processes on gas generation under expected WIPP repository conditions: Annual report through 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, A.J.; Gillow, J.B.

    1993-09-01

    Microbial processes involved in gas generation from degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic waste under conditions expected at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository are being investigated at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These laboratory studies are part of the Sandia National Laboratories -- WIPP Gas Generation Program. Gas generation due to microbial degradation of representative cellulosic waste was investigated in short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (> 6 months) experiments by incubating representative paper (filter paper, paper towels, and tissue) in WIPP brine under initially aerobic (air) and anaerobic (nitrogen) conditions. Samples from the WIPP surficial environment and underground workings harbor gas-producing halophilic microorganisms, the activities of which were studied in short-term experiments. The microorganisms metabolized a variety of organic compounds including cellulose under aerobic, anaerobic, and denitrifying conditions. In long-term experiments, the effects of added nutrients (trace amounts of ammonium nitrate, phosphate, and yeast extract), no nutrients, and nutrients plus excess nitrate on gas production from cellulose degradation.

  11. WIPP's Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Renewal Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most, W.A.; Kehrman, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous waste permits issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) have a maximum term of 10-years from the permit's effective date. The permit condition in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) governing renewal applications, directs the Permittees to submit a permit application 180 days prior to expiration of the Permit. On October 27, 1999, the Secretary of the NMED issued to the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the owner and operator of WIPP, and to Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), the Management and Operating Contractor and the cooperator of WIPP, a HWFP to manage, store, and dispose hazardous waste at WIPP. The DOE and WTS are collectively known as the Permittees. The HWFP is effective for a fixed term not to exceed ten years from the effective date of the Permit. The Permittees may renew the HWFP by submitting a new permit application at least 180 calendar days before the expiration date, of the HWFP. The Permittees are not proposing any substantial changes in the Renewal Application. First, the Permittees are seeking the authority to dispose of Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled TRU mixed waste in Panel 8. Panels 4 through 7 have been approved in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit as it currently exists. No other change to the facility or to the manner in which hazardous waste is characterized, managed, stored, or disposed is being requested. Second, the Permittees also seek to include the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan, as Attachment Q in the HWFP. This Plan has existed as a separate document since May 2000. The NMED has requested that the Plan be submitted as part of the Renewal Application. The Permittees have been operating to the Mine Ventilation Rate Monitoring Plan since the Plan was submitted. Third, some information submitted in the original WIPP RCRA Part B Application has been updated, such as demographic information. The Permittees will submit this information in the

  12. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP

  13. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 30 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    WIPP 30 was drilled in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NW 1/4, Sec. 33, T21S, R31E, to obtain drill core for the study of dissolution of near-surface rocks. The borehole encountered from top to bottom, the Dewey Lake Red Beds (449' including artificial fill for drill pad), Rustler Formation (299'), and the upper 160' of the Salado Formation. Continuous core was cut from the surface to total depth. Geophysical logs were taken the full length of the borehole to measure acoustic velocities, density, and distribution of potassium and other radioactive elements. Information from this borehole will be included in an interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw based on combined borehole data, surface mapping and laboratory analyses of rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt. Administration policy as of February 1980 is to hold the WIPP site in reserve until the first disposal site can be chosen from several potential sites, including the WIPP.

  14. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue

  15. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially-designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracing system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels.'' The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that it was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 23 states through which it traveled

  16. The WIPP transportation system: Demonstrated readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially- designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE ''TRANSCOM'' vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly-trained drivers. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed the transportation system and concluded that: ''The system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The next challenge facing the DOE was demonstrating that this system was ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and in the safest manner possible. Not only did the DOE feel that is was necessary to convince itself that the system was safe, but also representatives of the 20 states through which it would travel

  17. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 32 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    WIPP 32 is an exploratory borehole drilled to examine the subsurface at a small topographic high in Nash Draw. The borehole is located in east-central Eddy County, New Mexico, in NE 1/4 SE 1/4 Sec. 33, T.22S., R.29E. and was drilled in August, 1979. The hole was drilled to a depth of 390 feet, and encountered, from top to bottom, the Rustler Formation (166') and the upper Salado Formation (224'). Core was taken from 4 to 353 feet. Geophysical logs were run the full length of the hole to measure formation properties. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  18. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum L. Mine safety code review for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    An initial review of New Mexico and Federal mining standards and regulations has been made to determine their applicability to the WIPP conceptual design. These standards and regulations are reviewed point by point and the enclosed listing includes comments and recommendations for those which will affect the design and/or eventual operations of WIPP. The majority of the standards, both federal and state, are standard safe mining practices. Those standards are listed which are thought should be emphasized for development of the design; also those that would increase the hazard risk by strict compliance. Because the WIPP facility is different in many respects from mines for which the regulations were intended, strict compliance in some respects would provide an increased hazard, while in other instances the regulations are less strict than is desirable. These are noted in the attached review

  19. 40 CFR 421.123 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... and Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant... and Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BAT Effluent Limitations...

  20. 40 CFR 421.122 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Filtration of Film Stripping Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations... Filtration of Photographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or... Precipitation of Nonphotographic Solutions Wet Air Pollution Control. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  1. Determination of nitrous acid in air using wet effluent diffusion denuder–FIA technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, Pavel; Motyka, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2008), s. 635-641 ISSN 0039-9140. [International Conference on Flow Injection Analysis and Related Techniques. Berlin, 02.09.2007-07.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1B7/189/07 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : nitrous acid * wet effluent diffusion denuder * FIA Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.206, year: 2008

  2. Wet effluent diffusion denuder technique and the determination of volatile organic compounds in air. II. Monoterpenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Broškovičová, Anna; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 973, 1-2 (2002), s. 211-216 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Grant - others:SPSDII(XE) EV/02/11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : wet effluent denuder technique * volatile organic compounds * monoterpenes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.098, year: 2002

  3. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 19 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 19 is an exploratory borehole whose objective was to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between April 6 and May 4, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1038.2 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (7', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (82'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (494'), the Rustler Formation (315'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (143'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 19 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt

  4. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  5. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  6. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 28 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 28 was drilled in Nash Draw (NE 1/4, sec. 18, T.21S., R.31E.) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Mescalero caliche (12 ft with fill material for pad), Dewey Lake Red Beds (203 ft), Rustler Formation (316 ft), and the upper 270 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 58 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (801 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  7. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 26 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    WIPP 26 was drilled in Nash Draw (SE 1/4 NE 1/4, sec. 29, T22S, R30E) in Eddy County, New Mexico, to determine subsurface stratigraphy and examine dissolution features above undisturbed salt in the Salado Formation. Determination of dissolution rates will refine previous estimates and provide short-term (geologically) rates for WIPP risk assessments. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, surficial deposits (10 ft with full materials for pad), Rustler Formation (299 ft), and the upper 194 ft of the Salado Formation. A dissolution residue, 11 ft thick, is at the top of the Salado Formation overlying halite-rich beds. In addition to obtaining nearly continuous core from the surface to total depth (503 ft), geophysical logs were taken to measure acoustic velocities, density, radioactivity, and formation resistivity. An interpretive report on dissolution in Nash Draw will be based on combined borehole basin data, surface mapping, and laboratory analyses of Nash Draw rocks and fluids. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes and to then be converted to a repository. The WIPP will also provide research facilities for interactions between high-level waste and salt

  8. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum A. Design calculations for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The design calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented. The following categories are discussed: general nuclear calculations; radwaste calculations; structural calculations; mechanical calculations; civil calculations; electrical calculations; TRU waste surface facility time and motion analysis; shaft sinking procedures; hoist time and motion studies; mining system analysis; mine ventilation calculations; mine structural analysis; and miscellaneous underground calculations.

  9. WIPP: construction and progress on a successful nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.R.; Sankey, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. The facility will retrievably store transuranic waste from defense activities of the United States and conduct experiments with Defense high-level waste which will be retrieved at the end of the experiments. This paper describes the progress and the present status of activities at WIPP. 4 refs

  10. WIPP Magnesium Oxide (MgO) - Planned Change Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 10, 2006, the DOE submitted a planned change request pertaining to the amount of MgO emplaced in the WIPP repository. MgO is an engineered barrier that DOE included as part of the original WIPP Certification Decision.

  11. Achieving WIPP certification for software. A white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.D.; Adams, K.; Twitchell, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The NMT-1 and NMT-3 organizations within the Chemical and Metallurgical Research (CMR) facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is working to achieve Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) certification to enable them to transport their TRU waste to WIPP. In particular, the NMT-1 management is requesting support from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to assist them in making the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) software WIPP certifiable. Thus, LIMS must be compliant with the recognized software quality assurance (SQA) requirements stated within the QAPD. Since the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has achieved WIPP certification, INEEL personnel can provide valuable assistance to LANL by sharing lessons learned and recommendations. Thus, this white paper delineates the particular software quality assurance requirements required for WIPP certification

  12. Source term estimation and the isotopic ratio of radioactive material released from the WIPP repository in New Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P

    2016-01-01

    After almost 15 years of operations, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) had one of its waste drums breach underground as a result of a runaway chemical reaction in the waste it contained. This incident occurred on February 14, 2014. Moderate levels of radioactivity were released into the underground air. A small portion of the contaminated underground air also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected approximately 1 km away from the facility. According to the source term estimation, the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP site was less than 1.5 mCi. The highest activity detected on the surface was 115.2 μBq/m(3) for (241)Am and 10.2 μBq/m(3) for (239+240)Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m(3) of (241)Am and 5.8 μBq/m(3) of (239+240)Pu at a monitoring station located approximately 1 km northwest of the WIPP facility. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. Air monitoring across the WIPP site intensified following the first reports of radiation detection underground to determine the extent of impact to WIPP personnel, the public, and the environment. In this paper, the early stage monitoring data collected by an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) and an oversight monitoring program conducted by the WIPP's management and operating contractor, the Nuclear Waste Partnership (NWP) LLC were utilized to estimate the actual amount of radioactivity released from the WIPP underground. The Am and Pu isotope ratios were measured and used to support the hypothesis that the release came from one drum identified as having breached that represents a specific waste stream with this radionuclide ratio in its inventory. This failed drum underwent a heat and gas producing reaction that overpowered its vent and

  13. Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Min; Hu, Yi-Qiang; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2010-07-15

    Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts were evaluated through the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent in a packed-bed reactor. Active carbon-ceramic sphere and ruthenium catalysts were characterized by N(2) adsorption and chemisorption measurements. BET surface area and total pore volume of active carbon (AC) in the active carbon-ceramic sphere increase with increasing KOH-to-carbon ratio, and AC in the sample KC-120 possesses values as high as 1100 m(2) g(-1) and 0.69 cm(3) g(-1) (carbon percentage: 4.73 wt.%), especially. Active carbon-ceramic sphere supported ruthenium catalysts were prepared using the RuCl(3) solution impregnation onto these supports, the ruthenium loading was fixed at 1-5 wt.% of AC in the support. The catalytic activity varies according to the following order: Ru/KC-120>Ru/KC-80>Ru/KC-60>KC-120>without catalysts. It is found that the 3 wt.% Ru/KC-120 catalyst displays highest stability in the CWAO of resin effluent during 30 days. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal were about 92% and 96%, respectively at the reaction temperature of 200 degrees C, oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa, the water flow rate of 0.75 L h(-1) and the oxygen flow rate of 13.5 L h(-1). 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Science to compliance: The WIPP success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Chu, M.S.; Shephard, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed to provide in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. The success of the program, however, is defined by the regulator in the context of compliance with performance criteria, rather than by the in-depth technical understanding typical of most scientific programs. The WIPP project was successful in making a transformation from science to compliance by refocusing and redirecting programmatic efforts toward the singular goal of meeting regulatory compliance requirements while accelerating the submittal of the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by two months from the April 1994 Disposal Decision Plan (DDP) date of December 1996, and by reducing projected characterization costs by more than 40%. This experience is unparalleled within the radioactive waste management community and has contributed to numerous lessons learned from which the entire community can benefit

  15. 9+ years of disposal experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, Norbert T.; Nelson, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    With almost a decade of operating experience, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has established an enviable record by clearly demonstrating that a deep geologic repository for unconditioned radioactive waste in rock salt can be operated safely and in compliance with very complex regulations. WIPP has disposed of contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999 and remote-handled TRU waste since 2007. Emplacement methods range from directly stacking unshielded 0.21-4.5 m 3 containers inside disposal rooms to remotely inserting highly radioactive 0.89 m 3 canisters into horizontally drilled holes (shield plugs placed in front of canisters protect workers inside active disposal rooms). More than 100 000 waste containers have been emplaced, and one-third of WIPP's authorized repository capacity of 175,000 m 3 has already been consumed. Principal surface operations are conducted in the waste handling building, which is divided into CH and RH waste handling areas. Four vertical shafts extend from the surface to the disposal horizon, 655 m below the surface in a 1000 m thick sequence of Permian bedded salt. The waste disposal area of about 0.5 km 2 is divided into ten panels, each consisting of seven rooms. Vertical closure (creep) rates in disposal rooms range up to 10 cm per year. While one panel is being filled with waste, the next one is being mined. Mined salt is raised to the surface in the salt shaft, and waste is lowered down the waste shaft. Both of these shafts also serve as principal access for personnel and materials. Underground ventilation is divided into separate flow paths, allowing simultaneous mining and disposal. A filter building near the exhaust shaft provides the capability to filter the exhaust air (in reduced ventilation mode) through HEPA filters before release to the atmosphere. WIPP operations have not exposed employees or the public to radiation doses beyond natural background variability. They consistently meet or exceed regulatory

  16. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system

  17. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  18. Geotechnical Perspectives on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francke, Chris T.; Hansen, Frank D.; Knowles, M. Kathyn; Patchet, Stanley J.; Rempe, Norbert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first nuclear waste repository certified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Success in regulatory compliance resulted from an excellent natural setting for such a repository, a facility with multiple, redundant safety systems, and from a rigorous, transparent scientific and technical evaluation. The WIPP story, which has evolved over the past 25 years, has generated a library of publications and analyses. Details of the multifaceted program are contained in the cited references. Selected geotechnical highlights prove the eminent suitability of the WIPP to serve its congressionally mandated purpose

  19. WIPP/SRL in-situ tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamsey, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Interface Interactions Test (MIIT) is the only in-situ program involving the burial of simulated high-level waste forms operating in the United States. Fifteen glass and waste form compositions and their proposed package materials, supplied by 7 countries, are interred in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A joint effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Savannah River Laboratory, MIIT is the largest international cooperative in-situ venture yet undertaken. The objective of the current study is to document the waste form compositions used in the MIIT program and then to examine compositional correlations based on structural considerations, bonding energies, and surface layer formation. These correlations show important similarities between the many different waste glass compositions studied world wide and suggest that these glasses would be expected to perform well and in a similar manner

  20. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-01-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ''B'' package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ''TRANSCOM''

  1. Radionuclide transport in sandstones with WIPP brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weed, H.C.; Bazan, F.; Fontanilla, J.; Garrison, J.; Rego, J.; Winslow, A.M.

    1981-02-01

    Retardation factors (R) have been measured for the transport of 3 H, /sup 95m/Tc, and 85 Sr in WIPP brine using St. Peter, Berea, Kayenta, and San Felipe sandstone cores. If tritium is assumed to have R=1, /sup 95m/Tc has R=1.0 to 1.3 and therefore is essentially not retarded. Strontium-85 has R = 1.0 to 1.3 on St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta, but R=3 on San Felipe. This is attributed to sorption on the matrix material of San Felipe, which has 45 volume % matrix compared with 1 to 10 volume % for the others. Retardation factors (R/sub s/) for 85 Sr calculated from static sorption measurements are unity for all the sandstones. Therefore, the static and transport results for 85 Sr disagree in the case of San Felipe, but agree for St. Peter, Berea, and Kayenta

  2. Outfall 51 air stripping feasibility study for the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Within the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant there are a number of industrial wastewater discharge points or outfalls that empty into East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). EFPC originates within and runs continuously throughout the plant site and subsequently flows out the east end of the Y-12 Plant into the City of Oak Ridge. Mercury is present in outfall discharges due to contact of water with the soils surrounding past mercury-use buildings. As a result, the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent (RMPE) Project was developed to achieve and maintain environmental compliance with regards to mercury, and, in particular with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit for the Y-12 Plant. To achieve a reduction in mercury loading to EFPC, a number of options have already been studied and implemented as part of the RMPE project. With the successful implementation of these options, Outfall 51 remains as a significant contributor to mercury load to EFPC. The primary purpose of this project is to determine the feasibility of removing mercury from contaminated spring water using air stripping. In order to accomplish this goal, a number of different areas were addressed. A pilot-scale unit was tested in the field using actual mercury-contaminated source water. Properties which impact the mercury removal via air stripping were reviewed to determine their effect. Also, enhanced testing was performed to improve removal efficiencies. Finally, the variable outfall flow was studied to size appropriate processing equipment for full-scale treatment

  3. Environmental monitoring and cooperative resource management at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This poster session by the Environmental Monitoring Section of the US DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is to demonstrate that the DOE is committed to sound environmental management. This WIPP poster session demonstrates radiological as well as nonradiological environmental monitoring activities conducted routinely at the WIPP. And how data collected prior to the WIPP being operational is used to establish a preoperational baseline for environmental studies in which the samples collected during the operational phase will be compared. Cooperative Resource Management is a relatively new concept for governments agencies. It allows two or more agencies the ability to jointly share in funding a program or project and yet both agencies can benefit from the outcome. These programs are usually a biological type study. The WIPP cooperative agreement between the US BLM, DOE and its contractors is to continue the ongoing documentation of the diversity of the Chihuahuan desert

  4. Test Plan: WIPP bin-scale CH TRU waste tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    This WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program described herein will provide relevant composition and kinetic rate data on gas generation and consumption resulting from TRU waste degradation, as impacted by synergistic interactions due to multiple degradation modes, waste form preparation, long-term repository environmental effects, engineered barrier materials, and, possibly, engineered modifications to be developed. Similar data on waste-brine leachate compositions and potentially hazardous volatile organic compounds released by the wastes will also be provided. The quantitative data output from these tests and associated technical expertise are required by the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) program studies, and for the scientific benefit of the overall WIPP project. This Test Plan describes the necessary scientific and technical aspects, justifications, and rational for successfully initiating and conducting the WIPP Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test program. This Test Plan is the controlling scientific design definition and overall requirements document for this WIPP in situ test, as defined by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), scientific advisor to the US Department of Energy, WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO). 55 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Effect of air infiltration in the reactor refrigerant on the radiation measurement systems of gaseous effluents treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla, S.; Padilla, I.

    1991-01-01

    The system of treatment of gassy effluents of the CLV, well-known as the off-gas this gifted one in turn of a mensuration system and registration (monitoring) that consists of diverse established radiation monitors in the discharge point to the atmosphere and in other intermediate points of the process. The purpose of the monitoring system is to maintain continually informed to the operators about the effectiveness of the treatment system, to take registrations of the total quantity of liberated radioactive materials and to give warning by means of an alarm system of any abnormal situation that could end in an approach to the limits marked by the technical specifications. In September 1989 an event happened in the one that the high alarms corresponding to the post-treatment of the off-gas were activated. For this situation the personnel proceeded to diminish the power of the reactor to be able to investigate the causes that gave place to the event. It was observed that the alarms of the monitor were activated by significant infiltrations of air in the primary circuit of the refrigerant, for what it was proceeded to enlarge the scales of the implied monitor or to reduce the sensibility of their readings

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended (42 USC 6901, et seq.), and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (Section 74-4-1 et seq., NMSA 1978), Permit is issued to the owner and operator of the US DOE, WIPP site (hereafter called the Permittee(s)) to operate a hazardous waste storage facility consisting of a container storage unit (Waste Handling Building) and two Subpart X miscellaneous below-ground storage units (Bin Scale Test Rooms 1 and 3), all are located at the above location. The Permittee must comply with all terms and conditions of this Permit. This Permit consists of the conditions contained herein, including the attachments. Applicable regulations cited are the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, as amended 1992 (HWMR-7), the regulations that are in effect on the date of permit issuance. This Permit shall become effective upon issuance by the Secretary of the New Mexico Environment Department and shall be in effect for a period of ten (10) years from issuance. This Permit is also based on the assumption that all information contained in the Permit application and the administrative record is accurate and that the activity will be conducted as specified in the application and the administrative record. The Permit application consists of Revision 3, as well as associated attachments and clarifying information submitted on January 25, 1993, and May 17, 1993

  7. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by 14 C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well

  8. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 15 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    WIPP 15 is a borehole drilled in Marformation.h, 1978, in section 18, T.23S., R. 35E. of south-central Lea County. The purpose of WIPP 15 was to examine fill in San Simon Sink in order to extract climatic information and to attempt to date the collapse of the sink. The borehole was cored to total depth (810.5 feet) and encountered, from top to bottom, Quaternary calcareous clay, marl and sand, the claystones and siltstones of the Triassic Santa Rosa Formation. Neutron and gamma ray geophysical logs were run to measure density and radioactivity. The sink was about 547 feet of Quaternary fill indicating subsidence and deposition. Diatomaceous beds exposed on the sink margin yielded samples dated by /sup 14/C at 20,570 +- 540 years BP and greater than 32,000 years BP; these beds are believed stratigraphically equivalent to ditomaceous beds at 153 to 266 feet depth in the core. Aquatic fauna and flora from the upper 98 feet of core indicate a pluvial period (probably Tohokan) followed by an arid or very arid time before the present climate was established. Aquifer pump tests performed in the Quaternary sands and clays show transmissivities to be as high as 600 feet squared per day. As the water quality was good, the borehole was released to the lessee as a potential water well.

  9. Brine inflow to WIPP disposal rooms: Data, modeling, and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, E.J.; McTigue, D.F.; Beraun, R.

    1988-09-01

    A WIPP data base that characterizes brine movement and accumulation is summarized and analyzed. The data are interrupted in terms of a model for flow in a saturated porous medium. The model, summarized in this report, embodies the Darcy-flow assumption and storage due to linearly elastic compression of the salt and brine. Comparisons between model calculations and brine inflow rates measured in the WIPP show order-of-magnitude agreement for permeabilities in the range of 10/sup/minus/21/ to 10/sup/minus/20/ m/sup 2/ (1-10 nanodarcies) 2/. These values of permeability are in accord with independent, in situ determinations of permeability in the salt. Expected accumulations of brine in typical WIPP waste disposal rooms were calculated by numerical methods using a mathematical description for the brine inflow model. The expected brine accumulation in a disposal room was calculated to be in the range of 4 m/sup 3/ to 43 m/sup 3/ in 100 years. WIPP disposal rooms, filled with waste and backfilled, are expected to be virtually completely reconsolidated due to host rock creep in about 100 years, preventing further accumulation of brine. Calculations show that water-absorbing tailored backfill materials can readily absorb the maximum expected brine accumulations in WIPP disposal rooms while maintaining adequate mechanical strength. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Concentration of uranium in the drinking and surface water around the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaing, H.; Lemons, B.G.; Thakur, P.

    2016-01-01

    Activity concentration of uranium isotopes ( 238 U, 234 U and 235 U) were analyzed in drinking and surface water samples collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site using alpha spectroscopy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in uranium concentrations (if any) in the vicinity of the WIPP site and whether the February 14, 2014 radiation release event at the WIPP had any detectable impact on the water bodies around the WIPP. (author)

  11. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024

  12. WIPP - Pre-Licensing and Operations: Developer and Regulator Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, Tom; Patterson, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a disposal system for defense-related transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. Developed by the Department of Energy (DOE), WIPP is located in Southeastern New Mexico: radioactive waste is disposed of 2,150 feet underground in an ancient layer of salt with a total capacity of 6.2 million cubic feet of waste. Congress authorized the development and construction of WIPP in 1980 for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States. This paper makes a historical review of the site development, site operations (waste disposal operations started in 1999), communications between US EPA and DOE, the chronology of pre-licensing and pre-operations, the operational phase and the regulatory challenges, and the lessons learned after 12 years of operations

  13. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) integrated project management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olona, D.; Sala, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project of the Department of Energy (DOE), tasked with the mission of demonstrating the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes. This unique project was authorized by Congress in 1979 in response to the national need for long-term, safe methods for disposing of radioactive by-products from our national defense programs. The WIPP was originally established in December of 1979, by Public Law 96-164, DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Since the inception of the WIPP Project, work has continued to prepare the facility to receive TRU wastes. Studies continue to be conducted to demonstrate the safety of the WIPP facility in accordance with federal and state laws, state agreements, environmental regulations, and DOE Orders. The objectives of implementing an integrated project management system are to assure compliance with all regulatory and federal regulations, identify areas of concern, provide justification for funding, provide a management tool for control of program workscope, and establish a project baseline from which accountability and performance will be assessed. Program management and project controls are essential for the success of the WIPP Project. The WIPP has developed an integrated project management system to establish the process for the control of the program which has an expected total dollar value of $2B over the ten-year period from 1990-2000. The implementation of this project management system was motivated by the regulatory requirements of the project, the highly public environment in which the project takes place, limited funding and resources, and the dynamic nature of the project. Specific areas to be addressed in this paper include strategic planning, project organization, planning and scheduling, fiscal planning, and project monitoring and reporting

  14. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  15. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites' compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site

  16. Review of the WIPP draft application to show compliance with EPA transuranic waste disposal standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Clemo, T.M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The EEG was established in 1978 with funds provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to the State of New Mexico. Public Law 100-456, the National Defense Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989, Section 1433, assigned EEG to the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and continued the original contract DE-AC04-79AL10752 through DOE contract DE-AC04-89AL58309. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1994, Public Law 103-160, continues the authorization. EEG performs independent technical analyses of the suitability of the proposed site; the design of the repository, its planned operation, and its long-term integrity; suitability and safety of the transportation systems; suitability of the Waste Acceptance Criteria and the generator sites` compliance with them; and related subjects. These analyses include assessments of reports issued by the DOE and its contractors, other federal agencies and organizations, as they relate to the potential health, safety and environmental impacts from WIPP. Another important function of EEG is the independent environmental monitoring of background radioactivity in air, water, and soil, both on-site and off-site.

  17. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository.

  18. Evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    Five years of earth science characterization of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site provide a high level of assurance that the area is satisfactory for development of a geologic repository. Ecological investigations and socioeconomic studies have indicated only relatively benign impacts will occur from construction, operation and long-term aspects of the repository

  19. The influence of aerosol particle collection mechanisms on the WIPP alpha-6 CAM detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-6 continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the underground salt mine proposed for transuranic waste disposal near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Previous reviews of CAM operational data indicate that alpha spectra, background subtract methods, and alpha detection efficiency are significantly affected by salt aerosol. Gravimetric analyses of CAM sampling filters indicate that sampling-filter salt deposits are of sufficient magnitude to cause spectral degradation and efficiency losses. It was previously assumed that salt aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of the sampling filter, but other aerosol collection mechanisms, such as electrostatic, diffusional, and inertial impaction, cannot be ruled out. Microscopic observations of the sampling filters indicate that particle form complex structures on the sampling filter surface, and that electrostatic, diffusional, and inertial impaction are occurring. Aerosol particles are likely to penetrate the complex surface salt matrix, and alpha particle energy will be lost before reaching the CAM detector. Penetration of a polydisperse aerosol into the sampling-filter salt deposits accounts for degraded spectra and efficiency loss observed at the WIPP. It was recommended that CAMs should not be considered operational when 0.5 to 2.0 mg cm -2 of sampling-filter salt is present on the sampling filter

  20. In-Situ Testing and Performance Assessment of a Redesigned WIPP Panel Closure - 13192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Thomas; Patterson, Russell; Camphouse, Chris; Herrick, Courtney; Kirchner, Thomas; Malama, Bwalya; Zeitler, Todd; Kicker, Dwayne

    2013-01-01

    operations and a greater understanding of the waste and the behavior of the underground salt formation, the DOE has established a revised panel closure design. This revised design meets both the short-term NMED Permit requirements for the operational period, and also the Federal requirements for long-term repository performance. This new design is simpler, easier to construct and has less of an adverse impact on waste disposal operations than the originally approved Option D design. The Panel Closure Redesign is based on: (1) the results of in-situ constructability testing performed to determine run-of-mine salt reconsolidation parameters and how the characteristics of the bedded salt formation affect these parameters and, (2) the results of air flow analysis of the new design to determine that the limit for the migration of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be met at the compliance point. Waste panel closures comprise a repository feature that has been represented in WIPP performance assessment (PA) since the original Compliance Certification Application of 1996. Panel closures are included in WIPP PA models principally because they are a part of the disposal system, not because they play a substantive role in inhibiting the release of radionuclides to the outside environment. The 1998 rulemaking that certified WIPP to receive transuranic waste placed conditions on the panel closure design to be implemented in the repository. The revised panel closure design, termed the Run-of-Mine (ROM) Panel Closure System (ROMPCS), is comprised of 30.48 meters of ROM salt with barriers at each end. The ROM salt is generated from ongoing mining operations at the WIPP and may be compacted and/or moistened as it is emplaced in a panel entry. The barriers consist of bulkheads, similar to those currently used in the panels as room closures. A WIPP performance assessment has been completed that incorporates the ROMPCS design into the representation of the repository, and compares

  1. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs

  2. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  3. Waste characterization program plan for WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This program plan is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) to reflect the current status of the waste characterization program. Not all methods of compliance with the requirements imposed by the regulators have been fully developed. Although the Environmental Protection Agency has issued the Conditional No-Migration Determination for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), several activities have to be studied for recommendations of optimum courses of action. Therefore, as the DOE determines compliance methodologies for the requirements of the No-Migration Determination and for the requirements of the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division, this program plan will be revised and reissued as often as necessary. It should also be understood that the DOE will comply with all regulations prior to making any shipment of transuranic waste to the WIPP for the experiments. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  5. New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group - experience in reviewing WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent evaluation of the potential radiation exposure to people from WIPP--a radioactive waste facility intended to permanently dispose transuranic radioactive waste generated from the nation's nuclear weapons program. The concept of a State review of a proposed radioactive waste facility has been endorsed by both Federal and State legislative and executive agencies, and the experiences and interactions of the past four years to solve problems of this first-of-a-kind radioactive waste facility has led to many innovations in conflict resolution. The multidisciplinary Group's position is neither pro nor anti-WIPP and results are published and given broad dissemination to insure technical and public scrutiny of its work

  6. Assessment of allowable transuranic activity levels for WIPP wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This study provides a technical evaluation for the establishment of an upper limit on the transuranic content of waste packages to be received. To accomplish this, the predicted radiological performance of WIPP is compared to the radiological performance requirements applicable to WIPP. These performance requirements include radiation protection standards for both routine facility operations and credible operational accidents. These requirements are discussed in Chapter 2.0. From the margin between predicted performance and the performance requirements, the maximum allowable transuranic content of waste packages can then be inferred. Within the resulting compliance envelope, a waste acceptance criterion can be established that delineates the allowable level of transuranic radioactivity content for contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste packages. 13 refs., 8 tabs

  7. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP): Technical Assistance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollander, A.

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Office (WIPO) launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of low-income residences without the utilization of additional taxpayer funding. Sixteen WIPP grantees were awarded a total of $30 million in Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds in September 2010. These projects focused on: including nontraditional partners in weatherization service delivery; leveraging significant non-federal funding; and improving the effectiveness of low-income weatherization through the use of new materials, technologies, behavior-change models, and processes.

  8. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.W.; Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report

  9. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  10. Identification of issues relevant to the first recertification of WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Matthew K. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Channell, James K. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2002-09-30

    One goal of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act was to assure the safe disposal of the nation’s defense transuranic waste into a deep repository in southeast New Mexico. The governing legislation required the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyses of the anticipated performance of the repository. Disposal operations could not begin until the EPA determined that the project demonstrated compliance with EPA Standards (40 CFR 191) and EPA Criteria (40 CFR 194) for such disposal. The Land Withdrawal Act inherently recognized that the EPA Certification would have to rely on best available knowledge at the time when the application was submitted. The Act also recognized that after the initial certification of WIPP and start of disposal operations, operating experience and ongoing research would result in new technical and scientific information. Thus, the legislation requires recertification of the WIPP every five years, following the first receipt of waste. This report updates issues that the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) considers important as the Department of Energy (DOE) works towards the first recertification. These issues encompass a variety of technical areas including actinide solubility, fluid injection scenarios, solution mining, Culebra flow and transport, spallings modeling, and non-random waste emplacement. Given the 24,000-year half life of 239Pu, understanding the characteristics of plutonium in the WIPP environment is obviously important to the validity of long-term performance assessment of the repository. Some uncertainty remains in the understanding of the persistence of higher oxidation states because of reliance on modeling (with its associated assumptions) and limited experimental results. The EEG recommends additional experimental work towards parameters for a proposed conceptual kinetic model of plutonium solubility. In addition, the EEG recommends an intrusion scenario

  11. WIPP: a perspective from ten years of operating success - 16189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located 35 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA is the first and, to the author's knowledge, only facility in the world for the permanent disposal of defense related transuranic (TRU) waste. Soon after plutonium was first synthesized in 1940 by a team of scientists at the University of California Berkeley Laboratory, the need to find a permanent repository for plutonium contaminated waste was recognized due to the more than 24,000 year half-life of Plutonium-239 ( 239 Pu). In 1957 the National Academy of Sciences published a report recommending deep geological burial in bedded salt as a possible solution. However, more than 50 years passed before the solution was achieved when in 1999 WIPP received the first shipment of TRU waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ten years later, more than 7,600 shipments of TRU waste have been disposed of in rooms mined in an ancient salt bed more than 2,000 feet underground. This paper provides a brief history of WIPP with an overview of the technical, regulatory, and political hurdles that had to be overcome before the idea of a permanent disposal facility became reality. The paper focuses primarily on the safe, uneventful transportation program that has moved 100,000- plus containers of TRU waste from various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) generator and/or storage sites across the Unites States to southeastern New Mexico. (author)

  12. The WIPP transportation system -- ''Safer than any other''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ''the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels'' (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety

  13. WIPP gets thumbs up; Ward Valley time runs out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Legislation passed in late September clears the way for the Department of Energy to begin shipment of national defense transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, NM, as early as November 1997. On September 23, President Clinton signed the Fiscal Year 1997 Defense Authorization Bill, which contained amendments to the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The implementation of the law will help the DOE in its cleanup sites nationwide, and will enhance public health and safety by providing for the disposal of the waste in a 2150-ft underground salt formation, far away from population centers. Key components of the legislation include the following: (1) The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will continue as primary regulator of WIPP. (2) The EPA will have one year to review the Compliance Certification Application, which the DOE was to submit by October 31, 1996. Upon EPA certification (expected in October 1997), the DOE will begin shipping transuranic waste in November 1997. (3) A six-month waiting period for waste shipments has been removed (previously, the DOE was required to wait 180 days after the Energy Secretary's decision to begin disposal operations). (4) New Mexico will receive $20 million immediately, and annually for 14 years, with the funds to be used for infrastructure and road improvements in the state

  14. A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehgartner, B.

    1991-06-01

    Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Actinide Solubility and Speciation in the WIPP [PowerPoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The presentation begins with the role and need for nuclear repositories (overall concept, international updates (Sweden, Finland, France, China), US approach and current status), then moves on to the WIPP TRU repository concept (design, current status--safety incidents of February 5 and 14, 2014, path forward), and finally considers the WIPP safety case: dissolved actinide concentrations (overall approach, oxidation state distribution and redox control, solubility of actinides, colloidal contribution and microbial effects). The following conclusions are set forth: (1) International programs are moving forward, but at a very slow and somewhat sporadic pace. (2) In the United States, the Salt repository concept, from the perspective of the long-term safety case, remains a viable option for nuclear waste management despite the current operational issues/concerns. (3) Current model/PA prediction (WIPP example) are built on redundant conservatisms. These conservatisms are being addressed in the ongoing and future research to fill existing data gaps--redox control of plutonium by Fe(0, II), thorium (analog) solubility studies in simulated brine, contribution of intrinsic and biocolloids to the mobile concentration, and clarification of microbial ecology and effects.

  16. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 2: Parameter documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program and were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probability models require input parameters that are defined by a statistical distribution. Developing parameters begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. Parameter development may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling laboratory or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformations. Documentation of parameter development is designed to answer two questions: What source information was used to develop this parameter? and Why was this particular data set/information used? Therefore, complete documentation requires integrating information from code sponsors, parameter task leaders, performance assessment analysts, and experimental principal investigators. This paper, Part 2 of 2 parts, contains a discussion of the WIPP CCA PA Parameter Tracking System, document traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  17. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2000-02-25

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED’s guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA

  18. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII,Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a). This work plan describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit. The scope of work for the RFI Work Plan or SAP is being developed by the Permittees. The final content of the RFI Work Plan or SAP will be coordinated with the NMED for submittal on May 24, 2000. Specific project-related planning information will be included in the RFI Work Plan or SAP. The SWMU program at WIPP began in 1994 under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory authority. NMED subsequently received regulatory authority from EPA. A

  19. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Mulholland, G P

    2011-09-01

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-α/β, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from

  20. Leveraging Radioactive Waste Disposal at WIPP for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Salt mines are radiologically much quieter than other underground environments because of ultra-low concentrations of natural radionuclides (U, Th, and K) in the host rock; therefore, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a government-owned, 655m deep geologic repository that disposes of radioactive waste in thick salt near Carlsbad, New Mexico, has for the last 15 years hosted highly radiation-sensitive experiments. Incidentally, Nature started her own low background experiment 250ma ago, preserving viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in WIPP salt. The Department of Energy continues to make areas of the WIPP underground available for experiments, freely offering its infrastructure and access to this unique environment. Even before WIPP started disposing of waste in 1999, the Room-Q alcove (25m x 10m x 4m) housed a succession of small experiments. They included development and calibration of neutral-current detectors by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a proof-of-concept by Ohio State University of a flavor-sensitive neutrino detector for supernovae, and research by LANL on small solid- state dark matter detectors. Two currently active experiments support the search for neutrino-less double beta decay as a tool to better define the nature and mass of the neutrino. That these delicate experiments are conducted in close vicinity to, but not at all affected by, megacuries of radioactive waste reinforces the safety argument for the repository. Since 2003, the Majorana collaboration is developing and testing various detector designs inside a custom- built clean room in the Room-Q alcove. Already low natural background readings are reduced further by segmenting the germanium detectors, which spatially and temporally discriminates background radiation. The collaboration also demonstrated safe copper electro-forming underground, which minimizes cosmogenic background in detector assemblies. The largest currently used experimental

  1. Origin of the brines near WIPP from the drill holes ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 based on stable isotope concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.; Updegraff, D.

    1983-03-01

    Pathways which might alter the isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 meteoric water, seawaters, and in hydration waters in gypsum to the isotopic compositions of brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are discussed. Present geologic conditions do not favor the alteration of the isotopic compositions of waters that exist near the WIPP site to those of the brines by these pathways. It is concluded that the brines encountered at ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 are probably derived from ancient ocean waters that have been isotopically enriched in oxygen-18 by exchange interaction with rock. The dehydration of gypsum as a process of origin of these brines cannot be ruled out

  2. Preoperational radiation surveillance of the WIPP project by EEG during 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, J.W.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the EEG preoperational monitoring program is to document the existing concentrations of selected radionuclides in various environmental media collected from the vicinity of the WIPP site to provide a basis of comparison of any effects of future WT-PP operations. The basic methodology for conducting environmental surveillance both on-site and off-site was outlined by Spiegler (1984). This report represents a continuation of the EEG baseline data beginning in 1985, previously reported in EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51. Such radionuclide baseline data are important in order to determine whether future WIPP operations with radioactive waste have affected concentrations of these radionuclides in the environment. EEG data are consistent with similar environmental measurements obtained by DOE beginning in 1985. Since late 1985, the EEG has collected or received as split samples 2 443 air filters with particulates, 202 water samples, 16 biota samples and 13 soil/sediment samples. A total of 5,946 specific radionuclide analyses have been performed on these samples. As reported previously by EEG (EEG-43, EEG-47, EEG-49 and EEG-51), observed concentrations of U-238 daughter radionuclides were not in equilibrium with the parent radionuclide in water samples. This observation is consistent with different radionuclide mobility in the environment. In a notice of proposed rule making for 40 CFR 141 (US EPA 1991), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations reflect this in the calculated activity-to-mass ratio of 1.3 pCi/μg of uranium using a geometric mean of the U-234:U-238 ratio in water supplies of 2.7. Ra-226 and Ra- 228 were reported in a number of water samples in concentrations similar to those previously published by EEG and DOE

  3. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Attachments: Volume 4 of 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Volume IV contains the following attachments for Module IV: VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests (Appendix D12); bin emission control and VOC monitoring system drawings; bin scale test room ventilation drawings; WIPP supplementary roof support system, underground storage area, room 1, panel 1, DOE/WIPP 91-057; and WIPP supplementary roof support system, room 1, panel 1, geotechnical field data analysis bi-annual report, DOE/WIPP 92-024.

  4. Resource conservation and recovery act draft hazardous waste facility permit: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Volume I contains the following attachments for Module II: waste analysis plan; quality assurance program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experiment Waste Characterization Program(QAPP); WIPP Characterization Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Plan)(SAP); and no migration Determination Requirement Summary (NMD)

  5. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  6. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP`s environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence.

  8. PASS: a component of Desk Top PA for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.; Swift, P.N.; Fewell, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    There is a growing recognition internationally of the need to demonstrate comprehensiveness in order to build confidence in performance assessments (PAs) for radioactive waste disposal projects. This has resulted in a number of methodologies being developed to formalize the process of defining and documenting the decision basis that underlies a PA. Such methodologies include process influence diagrams and the rock engineering system (RES) matrix. However, these methodologies focus mainly on the conceptualization of the disposal system and do not provide a ready framework to document the decisions behind the model development and parameterization of the PA system. The Performance Assessment Support System (PASS) is a flexible electronic tool designed to increase the transparency and traceability of decision making in the entire PA process. An application of PASS has been developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) where it forms an important component of Desk Top PA, a PC-based PA computational environment under development at Sandia National Laboratories to document, plan, and support management decisions and to assess performance for the WIPP recertification process. This desk-top PA environment is also aimed at providing scientifically-based decision support for assessing the performance of nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental clean-up systems

  9. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems.

  10. WIPP Compliance Certification Application calculations parameters. Part 1: Parameter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeast New Mexico has been studied as a transuranic waste repository for the past 23 years. During this time, an extensive site characterization, design, construction, and experimental program was completed, which provided in-depth understanding of the dominant processes that are most likely to influence the containment of radionuclides for 10,000 years. Nearly 1,500 parameters were developed using information gathered from this program; the parameters were input to numerical models for WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) calculations. The CCA probabilistic codes frequently require input values that define a statistical distribution for each parameter. Developing parameter distributions begins with the assignment of an appropriate distribution type, which is dependent on the type, magnitude, and volume of data or information available. The development of the parameter distribution values may require interpretation or statistical analysis of raw data, combining raw data with literature values, scaling of lab or field data to fit code grid mesh sizes, or other transformation. Parameter development and documentation of the development process were very complicated, especially for those parameters based on empirical data; they required the integration of information from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) code sponsors, parameter task leaders (PTLs), performance assessment analysts (PAAs), and experimental principal investigators (PIs). This paper, Part 1 of two parts, contains a discussion of the parameter development process, roles and responsibilities, and lessons learned. Part 2 will discuss parameter documentation, traceability and retrievability, and lessons learned from related audits and reviews

  11. WIPP Salado hydrology program data report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Domski, P.S.; Palmer, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.; Stensrud, W.A.; Jensen, A.L.

    1991-05-01

    WIPP Salado Hydrology Program Data Report number-sign 1 presents hydrologic data collected during permeability tests of the Salado Formation performed from August 1988 through December 1989. Analysis and interpretation of the test data are presented in a separate report. The report presents the results of the drilling and testing of six boreholes drilled from the WIPP underground facility 655 m below ground surface in the Salado Formation. Permeability tests were conducted using multipacker test tools with inflatable packers to isolate borehole intervals to allow formation pore-pressure buildup and subsequent pulse-withdrawal tests. Test data include pressures and temperatures in brine-filled, packer-isolated test intervals and borehole-closure and axial test-tool-movement measurements. Permeability tests were performed after installing multipacker test tools in test boreholes, inflating the packers, and allowing pressures to build up in the isolated intervals. Pulse-withdrawal tests were performed after buildup pressures approached the apparent formation pore pressure. Pulse injections were sometimes performed to increase the fluid pressures in isolated intervals. Compliance tests were conducted in lengths of steel and stainless-steel casing to evaluate the mechanical performance of the multipacker test tools. The stainless-steel compliance-test chamber was installed with externally mounted thermocouples in a downward-angled borehole in Experimental Room 4. Compliance tests included leak tests and simulated pulse-injection and pulse-withdrawal sequences. 9 refs., 143 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsill J, David; Elkins, Ned Z.; Wu, Chuan-Fu; Mewhinney, James D.; Aamodt, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ''The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic

  13. Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

    2000-01-27

    Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only

  14. Wet effluent diffusion denuder technique and determination of volatile organic compounds in air. I. Oxo compounds (alcohols and ketones)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklenská, Jana; Pařízek, Petr; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 918, č. 1 (2001), s. 153-158 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : diffusion denuders * alcohols * air analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001

  15. Hydraulic Characterization Activities in Support of the Shaft-Seals Fluid-Flow Modeling Integration into the WIPP EPA Compliance Certification Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, M.K.; Hurtado, L.D.; Dale, Tim

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Department of Energy. Disposal regions consist of panels and drifts mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 650 m below the surface. This lithology is part of the 225 million year old Delaware Basin, and is geographically located in southeastern New Mexico. Four shafts service the facility needs for air intake, exhaust, waste handling, and salt handling. As the science advisor for the project, Sandia National Laboratories developed the WIPP shaft sealing system design. This design is a fundamental component of the application process for facility licensing, and has been found acceptable by stakeholders and regulatory agencies. The seal system design is founded on results obtained from laboratory and field experiments, numerical modeling, and engineering judgment. This paper describes a field test program to characterize the fluid flow properties in the WIPP shafts at representative seal locations. This work was conducted by Duke Engineering and Services under contract to Sandia National Laboratories in support of the seal system design

  16. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  17. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  18. Survey of hazardous organic compounds in the groundwater, air and wastewater effluents near the Tehran automobile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Mahdi; Nadafi, Kazem; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Rastkari, Noushin

    2013-02-01

    Potential of wastewater treatment in car industry and groundwater contamination by volatile organic compounds include perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE) and dichloromethane (DCM) near car industry was conducted in this study. Samples were collected in September through December 2011 from automobile industry. Head-space Gas chromatography with FID detector is used for analysis. Mean PCE levels in groundwater ranged from 0 to 63.56 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 89.1 μg L(-1). Mean TCE from 0 to 76.63 μg L(-1) with maximum level of 112 μg L(-1). Due to the data obtained from pre treatment of car staining site and conventional wastewater treatment in car factory, the most of TCE, PCE and DCM removed by pre aeration. Therefor this materials entry from liquid phase to air phase and by precipitation leak out to the groundwater. As a consequence these pollutants have a many negative health effect on the workers by air and groundwater.

  19. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  20. Stochastic modelling of groundwater flow at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliffe, K.A.; Jackson, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    A stochastic approach to modelling the groundwater flow in the vicinity of the WIPP site in New Mexico is described. A geostatistical model of the transmissivity of the Culebra dolomite was constructed on the basis of experimental measurements. The uncertainty in various quantities of interest in a repository performance assessment, such as the time to travel to the boundary of the model domain, were studied using a Monte-Carlo technique. The results indicate that conditioning the transmissivity on the measured values can lead to a significant reduction in uncertainty. The issue of validation of statistical models is also addressed. Several statistical tests were applied to the models and it is suggested that hypothesis testing can be a useful technique for validation

  1. The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (PSEP) at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Permian salt beds of the WIPP facility are virtually dry. The amount of water present in the rocks exposed in the excavations that is free to migrate under pressure gradients was estimated by heating salt samples to 95 degrees C and measuring weight loss. Clear balite contains about 0.22 weight percent water and the more argillaceous units average about 0.75 percent. Measurements made since 1984 as part of the Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) indicate that small amounts of this brine can migrate into the excavations and does accumulate in the underground environment. Brine seepage into drillholes monitored since thy were drilled show that brine seepage decreases with time and that many have dried up entirely. Weeping of brine from the walls of the repository excavations also decreases after two or more years. Chemical analyses of brines shows that they are sodium-chloride saturated and magnesium-rich

  2. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  3. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-02-25

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility’s Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  4. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF EFFLUENTS FROM A DAIRY FARM IN BUENOS AIRES PROVINCE, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an alternative sanitation to the negative environmental impacts caused by the intensification of the production system and the inadequate management of waste from a dairy farm with 1050 cows, belonging to Trenque Lauquen, Buenos Aires Province of Argentina. Anaerobic digestion technology allows the biological degradation of organic material in an oxygen free environment and it is proposed to develop a treatment system that allows evaluation of the products obtained through electricity generation and biofertilizer. The working methodology includes an analysis of preliminary data from anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, characterization of the generated waste, the design of the treatment system and a technical economic analysis. This study shows that it is possible to reach the dairy sanitation with energy benefits developing a sustainable resource and environmental management

  5. Performance assessment in support of compliance certification application for the WIPP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, H.N.; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.; Helton, J.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the US Department of Energy for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP (1) for such disposal was submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, and is currently under review, with a decision anticipated in late 1997. An important component of the CCA is a performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP carried out by Sandia National Laboratories. The final outcome of the PA is a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for radionuclide releases from the WIPP to the accessible environment and an assessment of the confidence with which this CCDF can be estimated. This paper describes the computational process used to develop the CCDF. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are also presented

  6. Mineralogy in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility stratigraphic horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    Forty-six samples were selected for this study from two cores, one extending 50 ft up through the roof of the WIPP facility and the other penetrating 50 ft below the facility floor. These samples, selected from approximately every other foot of core length, represent the major lithologies present in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP facility horizon: ''clean'' halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, and mixed polyhalitic-argillaceous halite. Samples were analyzed for non-NaCl mineralogy by determining weight percents of water- and EDTA-insoluble residues, which were then identified by x-ray diffraction. In general, WIPP halite contains at most 5 wt % non-NaCl residue. The major mineral constituents are quartz, magnesite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, and clays. Results of this study confirm that, in previous descriptions of WIPP core, trace mineral quantities have been visually overestimated by approximately an order of magnitude. 9 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Environmental management assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This document contains the results of the Environmental Management Assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This Assessment was conducted by EH-24 from July 19 through July 30, 1993 to advise the Secretary of Energy of the adequacy of management systems established at WIPP to ensure the protection of the environment and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE environmental requirements. The mission of WIPP is to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. During this assessment, activities and records were reviewed and interviews were conducted with personnel from the management and operating contractors. This assessment revealed that WIPP's environmental safety and health programs are satisfactory, and that all levels of the Waste Isolation Division (WID) management and staff consistently exhibit a high level of commitment to achieve environmental excellence

  8. Geotechnical evaluation of the proposed WIPP site in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been developed; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geological and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. Geotechnical aspects of site characterization are examined. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP

  9. Use of Performance Assessment in Support of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Programmatic Activity Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BASABILVAZO, GEORGE; JOW, HONG-NIAN; LARSON, KURT W.; MARIETTA, MELVIN G.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP for such disposal was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, and was approved by EPA in May 1998. In June 1998, two separate, but related, lawsuits were filed, one against DOE and one against EPA. On March 22, 1999, the court ruled in favor of DOE, and on March 26, 1999, DOE formally began disposal operations at the WIPP for non-mixed (non-hazardous) TRU waste. Before the WIPP can begin receiving mixed (hazardous) TRU waste, a permit from the State of New Mexico for hazardous waste disposal needs to be issued. It is anticipated that the State of New Mexico will issue a hazardous waste permit by November 1999. It is further anticipated that the EPA lawsuit will be resolved by July 1999. Congress (Public Law 102-579, Section 8(f)) requires the WIPP project to be recertified by the EPA at least as frequently as once every five years from the first receipt of TRU waste at the WIPP site. As part of the DOE's WIPP project recertification strategy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has used systems analysis and performance assessment to prioritize its scientific and engineering research activities. Two 1998 analyses, the near-field systems analysis and the annual sensitivity analysis, are discussed here. Independently, the two analyses arrived at similar conclusions regarding important scientific activities associated with the WIPP. The use of these techniques for the recent funding allocations at SNL's WIPP project had several beneficial effects. It increased the level of acceptance among project scientists that management had fairly and credibly compared alternatives when making prioritization decisions. It improved the ability of SNL and its project sponsor, the Carlsbad Area Office of the DOE, to

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains Appendix D2, engineering design basis reports. Contents include: Design considerations for the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); A site-specific study of wind and tornado probabilities at the WIPP Site in southeast New Mexico; Seismic evaluation report of underground facilities; and calculations for analysis of wind loads and tornado loads for WHB, seismic calculations, calculations for VOC-10 monitoring system, and for shaft at station A

  11. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  12. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  13. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media

  14. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Ams, David A.; Norden, Diana; Simmons, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  15. Status Report on the Microbial Characterization of Halite and Groundwater Samples from the WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Juliet S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norden, Diana [Ohio State University; Simmons, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    This report summarizes the progress made in the ongoing task of characterizing the microbial community structures within the WIPP repository and in surrounding groundwaters. Through cultivation and DNA-based identification, the potential activity of these organisms is being inferred, thus leading to a better understanding of their impact on WIPP performance. Members of the three biological domains - Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya (in this case, Fungi) - that are associated with WIPP halite have been identified. Thus far, their activity has been limited to aerobic respiration; anaerobic incubations are underway. WIPP halite constitutes the near-field microbial environment. We expect that microbial activity in this setting will proceed from aerobic respiration, through nitrate reduction to focus on sulfate reduction. This is also the current WIPP performance assessment (PA) position. Sulfate reduction can occur at extremely high ionic strengths, and sulfate is available in WIPP brines and in the anhydrite interbeds. The role of methanogenesis in the WIPP remains unclear, due to both energetic constraints imposed by a high-salt environment and substrate selectivity, and it is no longer considered in PA. Archaea identified in WIPP halite thus far fall exclusively within the family Halobacteriaceae. These include Halobacterium noricense, cultivated from both low- and high-salt media, and a Halorubrum-like species. The former has also been detected in other salt mines worldwide; the latter likely constitutes a new species. Little is known of its function, but it was prevalent in experiments investigating the biodegradation of organic complexing agents in WIPP brines. Bacterial signatures associated with WIPP halite include members of the phylum Proteobacteria - Halomonas, Pelomonas, Limnobacter, and Chromohalobacter - but only the latter has been isolated. Also detected and cultivated were Salinicoccus and Nesterenkonia spp. Fungi were also isolated from halite. Although

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  18. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  19. Health Cost of a Nuclear Waste Repository, WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Erhun

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States of America’s first nuclear waste dumping site, has over the years generated a great deal of concern and controversy. The most sensitive aspect of this project is that it may impose serious health risks on future generations. The first leg of this project is about to be completed and at the time of writing the Department of Energy is planning to perform experiments with a small quantity of waste for operational demonstrations. If everything goes well, then towards the end of this decade large quantities of wastes will be transported to the site for disposal. This article reconsiders the health cost of this project from an economic perspective in light of recent developments in the field of social discounting. As in earlier studies, two cases of health risks are considered: total cancer and genetic deformity over a one million year cutoff period. The analysis shows that whereas ordinary discounting method wipes out the future health detriments, expressed in monetary terms, the modified discounting criterion retains a substantial proportion of such costs in economic analysis.

  20. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  1. Implications of the presence of petroleum resources on the integrity of the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the US Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves of potash, crude oil, and natural gas. These are attractive targets for exploratory drilling which could disrupt the integrity of the transuranic waste repository. The performance assessment calculations published to date have identified future drilling for oil and gas reserves as an event that may disrupt the repository and may release radionuclides in excess of the standards. Therefore, the probability of inadvertent human intrusion into the repository by drilling and its impact on the integrity of the repository must be carefully assessed. This report evaluates: (1) the studies funded by the DOE to examine the crude oil potential in the immediate vicinity of the WIPP; (2) the use of an elicitation exercise to predict future drilling rates for use in the calculation of the repository performance; and (3) the observed limitations of institutional controls. This report identifies the following issues that remain to be resolved: (1) the limited performance of blowout preventers after drilling into high pressure zones immediately adjacent to the WIPP Site Boundary; (2) reported problems with waterflooding operations in southeastern New Mexico; (3) reported water level rises in several wells completed in the Rustler Formation, south of the WIPP Site, possibly due to oil and gas wells or leaking injection wells; and (4) reports of inadequate well abandonment practices on BLM leases and the continued absence of enforceable regulations

  2. Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughn, P.; Butcher, B.; Helton, J.; Swift, P.

    1993-01-01

    The US DOE is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico as a facility for the long-term disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Use of the WIPP for waste disposal is contingent on demonstrations of compliance with applicable regulations of the US EPA. This paper addresses issues related to modeling gas and brine migration at the WIPP for compliance with both EPA 40 CFR 191 (the Standard) and 40 CFR 268.6 (the RCRA). At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Dept. of Sandia National Labs. (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA open-quotes disposal-unit boundaryclose quotes or the Standard's accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations

  3. Preliminary identification of interfaces for certification and transfer of TRU waste to WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Ostenak, C.A.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1982-02-01

    This study complements the national program to certify that newly generated and stored, unclassified defense transuranic (TRU) wastes meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. The objectives of this study were to identify (1) the existing organizational structure at each of the major waste-generating and shipping sites and (2) the necessary interfaces between the waste shippers and WIPP. The interface investigations considered existing waste management organizations at the shipping sites and the proposed WIPP organization. An effort was made to identify the potential waste-certifying authorities and the lines of communication within these organizations. The long-range goal of this effort is to develop practicable interfaces between waste shippers and WIPP to enable the continued generation, interim storage, and eventual shipment of certified TRU wastes to WIPP. Some specific needs identified in this study include: organizational responsibility for certification procedures and quality assurance (QA) program; simple QA procedures; and specification and standardization of reporting forms and procedures, waste containers, and container labeling, color coding, and code location

  4. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Underground and MGO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ajo, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crump, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Ekechukwu, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Gregory, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Jones, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); White, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Analysis of the recent WIPP samples are summarized in this report; WIPP Cam Filters 4, 6, 9 (3, 7, 11 were analyzed with FAS-118 in a separate campaign); WIPP Drum Lip R16 C4; WIPP Standard Waste Box R15 C5; WIPP MgO R16 C2; WIPP MgO R16 C4; WIPP MgO R16 C6; LANL swipes of parent drum; LANL parent drum debris; LANL parent drum; IAEA Swipe; Unused “undeployed” Swheat; Unused “undeployed” MgO; and Masselin cloth “smears”. Analysis showed that the MgO samples were very pure with low carbonate and water content. Other samples showed the expected dominant presence of Mg, Na and Pb. Parent drum debris sample was mildly acidic. Interpretation of results is not provided in this document, but rather to present and preserve the analytical work that was performed. The WIPP Technical Analysis Team is responsible for result interpretation which will be written separately.

  5. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  6. An evaluation of the proposed tests with radioactive waste at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) a planned repository for permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radiative waste that has resulted from the defense activities of the U.S. Government over the past 50 years. Only the waste that is currently stored in an easily retrievable mode at ten U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories around the country will be shipped to WIPP. The waste consists of various kinds of trash including paper, rubber, rags and metal that is contaminated with radionuclides with very long half-lives. The decision to dispose of the waste permanently will be made based on projections of the behavior of the waste and the repository of 10,000 years or more. DOE has proposed shipping a limited amount of waste to WIPP for a five year Test Phase to demonstrating compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standard for long-term isolation

  7. Modification of the ventilation system at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Project near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is a research and development project sponsored by the US Department of Energy, designed to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste. A mine (repository) is being developed 2,150 feet below the surface in a thick salt bed, which will serve as the disposal medium. The underground ventilation system for the WIPP project was originally designed based on a fixed project scope. The design criteria and ventilation requirements were developed for the performance of various activities as then envisioned towards the achievement of this goal. However, in light of new information and actual site-specific experience at WIPP leading to a clearer definition of the scope-related programs and activities, it was realized that the existing ventilation system may need to be modified

  8. Rationale for the H-19 and H-11 tracer tests at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Meigs, L.C.; Davies, P.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a repository for transuranic wastes constructed in bedded Permian-age halite in the Delaware Basin, a sedimentary basin in southeastern New Mexico, USA. A drilling scenario has been identified during performance assessment (PA) that could lead to the release of radionuclides to the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, the most transmissive water-saturated unit above the repository horizon. Were this to occur, the radionuclides would need to be largely contained within the Culebra (or neighboring strata) within the WIPP-site boundary through the period lasting for 10,000 years after repository closure for WIPP to remain in compliance with applicable regulations on allowable releases. Thus, processes affecting transport of radionuclides within the Culebra are of importance to PA

  9. Salt impact studies at WIPP effects of surface storage of salt on microbial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) currently under construction in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic waste in a deep geological formation (bedded salt). The Ecological Monitoring Program at WIPP is designed to detect and measure changes in the local ecosystem which may be the result of WIPP construction activities. The primary factor which may affect the system prior to waste emplacement is windblown salt from discrete stockpiles. Both vegetation and soil microbial processes should reflect changes in soil chemistry due to salt importation. Control and experimental (potentially affected) plots have been established at the site, and several parameters are measured quarterly in each plot as part of the soil microbial sampling subprogram. This subprogram was designed to monitor a portion of the biological community which can be affected by changes in the chemical properties at the soil surface

  10. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-07-01

    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  11. Assessment of near-surface dissolution at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-07-01

    The area at and near the WIPP site was examined for evidence of karst development on the geomorphic surface encompassing the site. Certain surficial depressions of initial concern were identified as blowouts in sand dune fields (shallow features unrelated to karstification). An ancient stream system active more than 500,000 yr ago contained more water than any system since. During that time (Gatuna, Middle Pleistocene), many karst features such as Clayton Basin and Nash Draw began to form in the region. Halite was probably dissolved from parts of the Rustler Formation at that time. Dissolution of halite and gypsum from intervals encountered in Borehole WIPP-33 west of the WIPP site occurred during later Pleistocene time (i.e., <450,000 yr ago). However, there is no evidence of active near-surface dissolution within a belt to the east of WIPP-33 in the vicinity of the WIPP shaft. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Hanford to WIPP - What a Trip: The Road from Hanford is now Open

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The road leading from Hanford's Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WJPP) in New Mexico developed a few bumps and detours over the past year, but it has now been successfully traversed. There were challenges obtaining Carlsbad Area Office and New Mexico Department of Ecology certification of the Hanford characterization program. After months of work, when initial certification appeared imminent, the issuance of the WIPP Hazardous Waste Permit changed the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) required for characterizing waste for acceptance at WIPP. After a ceremony dedicating the ''Washington'' room at WIPP, the inaugural shipment from WRAP to WIPP was scheduled for June 2000. This first shipment was planned based on shipping a number of containers that had been characterized before the issuance of the WIPP Mixed Waste Permit. However, the New Mexico Department of Ecology initially declined to accept the characterization data generated before the permit was issued, necessitating revision to the planned shipment. Because of the difficulties inherent in scheduling the TRUPACT-II transport and coordination with all of the states through which the shipment would pass, it was decided to proceed with the first shipment in early July with only the drums that had been characterized after Hanford compliance with the new WIPP WAP requirements had been certified. Following the initial shipment, previously certified containers were recertified using a process approved through negotiation with the New Mexico Environment Department, and additional full shipments have been successfully completed. This paper will present an overview of the challenges overcome and lessons learned in obtaining certification, coordination with the involved states, and eventual successful1 implementation of a routine shipping program

  13. WIPP Regulatory Compliance Strategy and Management Plan for demonstrating compliance to long-term disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to provide a strategy by which the WIPP will demonstrate its ability to perform as a deep geologic repository. The document communicates the DOE's understanding of the regulations related to long-term repository performance; and provides the most efficient strategy that intergrates WIPP Project elements, ensures the sufficiency of information, and provides flexibility for changes in the TRU waste generation system to facilitate the disposal of defense-generated TRU wastes. In addition, this document forms a focal point between the DOE and its various external regulators as well as other stakeholders for the purpose of arriving at compliance decisions that consider all relevant input

  14. Effluent Information System (EIS) / Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS): 1986 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1987-09-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into effluent information system (EIS) and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS). This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1986 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of information for effluents released offsite, and information for effluents retained onsite

  15. Assessment of Contaminated Brine Fate and Transport in MB139 at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Systems Analysis and Research Dept.; Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Performance Assessment Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Following the radionuclide release event of February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), actinide contamination has been found on the walls and floor in Panel 7 as a result of a release in Room 7 of Panel 7. It has been proposed to decontaminate Panel 7 at the WIPP by washing contaminated surfaces in the underground with fresh water. A cost-effective cleanup of this contamination would allow for a timely return to waste disposal operations at WIPP. It is expected that the fresh water used to decontaminate Panel 7 will flow as contaminated brine down into the porosity of the materials under the floor – the run-of-mine (ROM) salt above Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and MB139 itself – where its fate will be controlled by the hydraulic and transport properties of MB139. Due to the structural dip of MB139, it is unlikely that this brine would migrate northward towards the Waste-Handling Shaft sump. A few strategically placed shallow small-diameter observation boreholes straddling MB139 would allow for monitoring the flow and fate of this brine after decontamination. Additionally, given that flow through the compacted ROM salt floor and in MB139 would occur under unsaturated (or two-phase) conditions, there is a need to measure the unsaturated flow properties of crushed WIPP salt and salt from the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  16. The development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project's public affairs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a perspective on the value of designing flexibility into a public affairs program to enable it to grow with and complement a project's evolution from construction through to operations. This paper discusses how the WIPP public affairs program progressed through several stages to its present scope. During the WIPP construction phase, the public affairs program laid a foundation for Project acceptance in the community. A speaker's bureau, a visitors program, and various community outreach and support programs emphasized the educational and socioeconomic benefits of having this controversial project in Carlsbad. Then, in this past year as the project entered a preoperational status, the public affairs program emphasis shifted to broaden the positive image that had been created locally. In this stage, the program promoted the project's positive elements with the various state agencies, government officials, and federal organizations involved in our country's radioactive waste management and transportation program. Currently, an even broader, more aggressive public affairs program is planned. During this stage public affairs will be engaged in a comprehensive institutional and outreach program, explaining and supporting WIPP's mission in each of the communities and agencies affected by the operation of the country's first geologic repository

  17. Construction quality assurance program plan for the WIPP project, Carlsbad, NM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA) Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Major Project Participants: the Architect-Engineer (Bechtel), the Construction Manager (US Army Corps of Engineers), the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory), and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the construction, including site evaluation, design, and turnover phases of WIPP. Other work in progress during the same period is controlled by DOE documents applicable to that work effort. The prime responsibility for ensuring the quality of construction rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Construction Manager, the Construction Contractors, the Management and Operating Contractor, and the Architect-Engineer. Inspection and burden of proof of acceptability rests with the Construction Contractor as defined by the technical provisions of the contract and as otherwise specified by the DOE WIPP Project Office on an individual work-package basis. To the maximum extent possible, acceptance of work will be based upon first-hand witnessing by the Construction Manager and other representatives of the DOE organization

  18. EVALUATION OF RISKS AND WASTE CHARACTERIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE TRANSURANIC WASTE EMPLACED IN WIPP DURING 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Channell, J.K.; Walker, B.A.

    2000-05-01

    Specifically this report: 1. Compares requirements of the WAP that are pertinent from a technical viewpoint with the WIPP pre-Permit waste characterization program, 2. Presents the results of a risk analysis of the currently emplaced wastes. Expected and bounding risks from routine operations and possible accidents are evaluated; and 3. Provides conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Seismic reflection data report: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hern, J.L.; Powers, D.W.; Barrows, L.J.

    1978-12-01

    Three seismic reflection (Vibroseis) surveys conducted from 1976 through 1978 by Sandia Laboratories to support investigations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described. Volume I describes the purpose, field parameters, and data processing parameters. Volume II contains uninterpreted processed lines and shotpoint maps. Data interpretations will be the subject of the subsequent reports. The data collected during these three surveys total 77 line miles; 72 line miles of this are on or very near the WIPP site. The first of the surveys (1976 SAN) covered 25 line miles and was conducted similarly to previous petroleum industry surveys in the area. 1976 SAN supplemented existing petroleum industry data. The two subsequent surveys (1977 X and 1978 Y) used shorter geophone spacings (110'), higher signal frequencies (up to 100 Hz), and higher data sampling rates (2 ms.) to better define the shallow zone (less than 4000') of primary interest. 1977 X contained 47 line miles on or near the WIPP site and over several structural features northwest of the site. 1978 Y contains 5 line miles over a one square mile area near the center of the WIPP site. These data show increasing discrimination of shallow reflectors as data collection parameters were modified. Data tables of recording and processing parameters are included. A fourth Vibroseis survey was conducted at the WIPP site in 1978 by Grant Geophysical Company for Bechtel; the data are not in final form and are not included. Petroleum industry data and an inconclusive weight-drop survey, conducted in 1976, are also not included in this report

  20. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  1. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone

  2. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other

  3. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  4. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described

  5. Joint state of Colorado-US Department of Energy WIPP Shipment Exercise Program: TRANSAX '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In July 1990, the United States Secretary of Energy requested the DOE conduct a transportation emergency exercise before the end of CY 1990. The tasking was subsequently directed to the Director of DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) to plan and conduct an exercise, based on a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipment scenario. The state of Colorado was asked to participate. Colorado, in turn, invited the DOE to integrate the exercise into its own series of WIPP-related tabletop and field exercises for which the state had already begun planning. The result was a joint USDOE/Colorado full-scale (orientation) exercise called Transportation Accident Exercise 1990 (TRANSAX '90). The state of Colorado's exercise program was a follow-on to previously conducted classroom training. The program would serve to identify and resolve outstanding issues concerning inspections of the WIPP shipment transporter as it entered and passed through the state on the designated Interstate 25 transportation corridor; criteria for movement under various adverse weather and road conditions; and emergency response to accidents occurring in an urban or rural environment. The USDOE designed its participation in the exercise program to test selected aspects of the DOE Emergency Management System relating to response to and management of DOE off-site transportation emergencies involving assistance to state and local emergency response personnel. While a number of issues remain under study for ultimate resolution, others have been resolved and will become the basis for emergency operations plans, SOPs, mutual aid agreements, and checklist upgrades. Concurrently, the concentrated efforts at local, state, and federal levels in dealing with WIPP- related activities during this exercise program development have given renewed impetus to all parties as the beginning of actual shipments draws nearer. Three tabletop scenarios are discussed in this report

  6. Summary of 1988 WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] Facility horizon gas flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    Numerous gas flow measurements have been made at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility horizon during 1988. All tests have been pressure decay or constant pressure tests from single boreholes drilled from the underground excavations. The test fluid has been nitrogen. The data have been interpreted as permeabilities and porosities by means of a transient numerical solution method. A closed-form steady-state approximation provides a reasonable order-of-magnitude permeability estimate. The effective resolution of the measurement system is less than 10 -20 m 2 . Results indicate that beyond 1 to 5 m from an excavation, the gas flow is very small and the corresponding permeability is below the system resolution. Within the first meter of an excavation, the interpreted permeabilities can be 5 orders of magnitude greater than the undisturbed or far-field permeability. The interpreted permeabilities in the region between the undisturbed region and the first meter from an excavation are in the range of 10 -16 to 10 -20 m 2 . Measurable gas flow occurs to a greater depth into the roof above WIPP excavations of different sizes and ages than into the ribs and floor. The gas flows into the formation surrounding the smallest excavation tested are consistently lower than those at similar locations surrounding larger excavations of comparable age. Gas flow measured in the interbed layers near the WIPP excavations is highly variable. Generally, immediately above and below excavations, relatively large gas flow is measured in the interbed layers. These results are consistent with previous measurements and indicate a limited disturbed zone surrounding WIPP excavations. 31 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Supplements to the release scenario analyses for the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, F.W.; Merritt, M.L.; Tierney, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of long-term environmental impacts of the WIPP that were made subsequent to the publication of the DEIS in response to agency and public comments. Three supplemental scenarios are described in which activity is transported to the biosphere by groundwater. The scenarios are entitled: brine pocket rupture scenario, effects of water on domestic wells; and agricultural use of the Pecos River Water

  8. Analysis of the potential formation of a Breccia chimney beneath the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1982-05-01

    This report evaluates the potential formation of a Breccia pipe beginning at the Bell Canyon aquifer beneath the WIPP repository and the resulting release of radioactivity to the surface. Rock mechanics considerations indicate that the formation of a Breccia pipe by collapse of a cavern is not reasonable. Even if rock mechanics is ignored, the overlying strata act as a barrier and would prevent the release of radioactivity to the biosphere. Gradual formation of a Breccia pipe is so slow that the plutonium-239 in the waste (one of the most important long-lived components) would decay during formation. If Bell Lake and San Simon Sinks are the surface manifestation of a regional deep dissolution wedge, such a wedge is too far removed to represent pipe forming activity near the WIPP site. The formation of a Breccia pipe under the WIPP repository is highly unlikely. If it did occur, the concentration of plutonium-239 in brine reaching the surface would be less than the maximum permissible concentration in water specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 10, part 20

  9. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  10. Position paper on flammability concerns associated with TRU waste destined for WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), in southeastern New Mexico,is an underground repository, designed for the safe geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes generated from defense-related activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The WIPP storage rooms are mined in a bedded salt (halite) formation, and are located 2150 feet below the surface. After the disposal of waste in the storage rooms, closure of the repository is expected to occur by creep (plastic flow) of the salt formation, with the waste being permanently isolated from the surrounding environment. This paper has evaluated the issue of flammability concerns associated with TRU waste to be shipped to WIPP, including a review of possible scenarios that can potentially contribute to the flammability. The paper discusses existing regulations that address potential flammability concerns, presents an analysis of previous flammability-related incidents at DOE sites with respect to the current regulations, and finally, examines the degree of assurance these regulations provide in safeguarding against flammability concerns during transportation and waste handling. 50 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  11. The Revised WIPP Passive Institutional Controls Program - A Conceptual Plan - 13145

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Russ; Klein, Thomas; Van Luik, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Energy/Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) is responsible for managing all activities related to the disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed waste in the geologic repository, 650 m below the land surface, at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The main function of the Passive Institutional Controls (PIC's) program is to inform future generations of the long-lived radioactive wastes buried beneath their feet in the desert. For the first 100 years after cessation of disposal operations, the rooms are closed and the shafts leading underground sealed, WIPP is mandated by law to institute Active Institutional Controls (AIC's) with fences, gates, and armed guards on patrol. At this same time a plan must be in place of how to warn/inform the future, after the AIC's are gone, of the consequences of intrusion into the geologic repository disposal area. A plan was put into place during the 1990's with records management and storage, awareness triggers, permanent marker design concepts and testing schedules. This work included the thoughts of expert panels and individuals. The plan held up under peer review and met the requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Today the NEA is coordinating a study called the 'Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations' to provide the international nuclear waste repository community with a guide on how a nuclear record archive programs should be approached and developed. CBFO is cooperating and participating in this project and will take what knowledge is gained and apply that to the WIPP program. At the same time CBFO is well aware that the EPA and others are expecting DOE to move forward with planning for the future WIPP PIC's program; so a plan will be in place in time for WIPP's closure slated for the early 2030's. The DOE/CBFO WIPP PIC's program in place today meets the regulatory criteria, but complete feasibility of implementation is questionable, and may not be in conformance

  12. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  13. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    have applied the theory to water quality management studies and several modifications as well had been proposed ... other factors in a water body which affect the DO-BOD relationship. According to them these factors are: ... large breweries which also channel their effluent discharge into it. Also, along the river bank of this.

  14. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  15. Expert (Peer) Reviews at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): Making Complex Information and Decision Making Transparent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Leif G.

    2001-01-01

    On the 18th of May 1998, based on the information provided by the United Sates Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the 1996 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency certified the proposed deep geological repository for disposal of long-lived, defense-generated, transuranic radioactive waste at the WIPP site in New Mexico, United States of America, was compliant with all applicable radioactive waste disposal regulations. Seven domestic and one joint international peer reviews commissioned by the DOE were instrumental in making complex scientific and engineering information, as well as the related WIPP decision-making process, both credible and transparent to the majority of affected and interested parties and, ultimately, to the regulator

  16. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests

  17. Department of Energy Operation Quality Assurance Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project (Carlsbad, New Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the Quality Assurance (QA)reverse arrow Program to be established and implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project Office (WPO) and by the Project Participants: the Scientific Advisor (Sandia National Laboratory) and the Management and Operating Contractor (Westinghouse Electric Corporation). This plan addresses the Pre-Operational and Operational phases of the WIPP Project not addressed under the construction phase. This plan also requires the QA Programs for DOE and Project Participants to be structured so as to comply with this plan and ANSI-ASME NQA-1. The prime responsibility for Operational Quality Assurance rests with the DOE WIPP Project Office and is implemented through the combined efforts of the Scientific Advisor and the Management and Operating Contractor. Overviews of selected operational and testing activities will be are conducted in accordance with prescribed requirements and that adequate documentation of these activities is maintained. 4 figs

  18. Evaluation of the WIPP Project`s compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP`s compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA`s proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA`s responses to EEG`s comments.

  19. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  20. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (beginning), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A. R.

    1993-03-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is designed for receipt, handling, storage, and permanent isolation of defense-generated transuranic wastes, is being excavated at a depth of approximately 655 m in bedded halites of the Permian Salado Formation of southeastern New Mexico. Site-characterization activities at the present WIPP site began in 1976. Full construction of the facility began in 1983, after completion of ``Site and Preliminary Design Validation`` (SPDV) activities and reporting. Site-characterization activities since 1983 have had the objectives of updating or refining the overall conceptual model of the geologic, hydrologic, and structural behavior of the WIPP site and providing data adequate for use in WIPP performance assessment. This report has four main objectives: 1. Summarize the results of WIPP site-characterization studies carried out since the spring of 1983 as a result of specific agreements between the US Department of Energy and the State of New Mexico. 2. Summarize the results and status of site-characterization and facility-characterization studies carried out since 1983, but not specifically included in mandated agreements. 3. Compile the results of WIPP site-characterization studies into an internally consistent conceptual model for the geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and structural behavior of the WIPP site. This model includes some consideration of the effects of the WIPP facility and shafts on the local characteristics of the Salado and Rustler Formations. 4. Discuss the present limitations and/or uncertainties in the conceptual geologic model of the WIPP site and facility. The objectives of this report are limited in scope, and do not include determination of whether or not the WIPP Project will comply with repository-performance criteria developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40CFR191).

  2. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  3. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  4. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  5. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  6. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  7. Stable isotope study of soil water, WIPP site New Mexico: estimation of recharge to Rustler aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.R.; Phillips, F.M.; Vanlandingham, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Defining the hydrologic setting of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is an important step for site characterization and performance assessment. From past research there is a controversy about the timing of recharge to the aquifers in the Rustler Formation which overlies the repository. The stable isotopic composition (δD and δD 18 O) of the water has been used in this argument but with ambiguous conclusions. Soil cores from WIPP have been sampled for δD, δD 18 O, Cl - and water content. The data indicate that there is a small amount of infiltration (.2 to 2 mm/yr) through the desert soil. The δD and δD 18 O analyses suggest that meteoric water in the area can have a stable isotope composition similar to that in the Rustler Fm. Further supporting evidence come from the isotopic composition of drip and pool waters in nearby Carlsbad Caverns. This indicates that the water in the Rustler Fm. need not have been recharged in the past (>10,000 yrs.) under different climatic conditions. (author) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs

  8. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-05-23

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  9. WIPP Sampling and Analysis Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to fulfill requirements of Module VII, Section VII.M.2 and Table VII.1, requirement 4 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED [New Mexico Environment Department], 1999a). This SAP describes the approach for investigation of the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. This SAP addresses the current Permit requirements for a RCRA Facility Investigation(RFI) investigation of SWMUs and AOCs. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the RFI specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI work plan and report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can beentered either before or after a RFI work plan. According to NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare a RFI work plan or SAP for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998).

  10. Results from simulated remote-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-year, simulated remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU, nonradioactive) experiments are being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot-Plant (WIPP) facility. These experiments involve the near-reference (thermal and geometrical) testing of eight full size RH TRU test containers emplaced into horizontal, unlined rock salt boreholes. Half of the test emplacements are partially filled with bentonite/silica-sand backfill material. All test containers were electrically heated at about 115 W/each for three years, then raised to about 300 W/each for the remaining time. Each test borehole was instrumented with a selection of remote-reading thermocouples, pressure gages, borehole vertical-closure gages, and vertical and horizontal borehole-diameter closure gages. Each test emplacements was also periodically opened for visual inspections of brine intrusions and any interactions with waste package materials, materials sampling, manual closure measurements, and observations of borehole changes. Effects of heat on borehole closure rates and near-field materials (metals, backfill, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored as a function of time. This paper summarizes results for the first five years of in situ test operation with supporting instrumentation and laboratory data and interpretations. Some details of RH TRU waste package materials, designs, and assorted underground test observations are also discussed. Based on the results, the tested RH TRU waste packages, materials, and emplacement geometry in unlined salt boreholes appear to be quite adequate for initial WIPP repository-phase operations

  11. Potential release scenario and radiological consequence evaluation of mineral resources at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    This report has reviewed certain of the natural resources which may be found at the site of the nuclear waste repository being considered for southeastern New Mexico, and discussed the scenarios which have been used to estimate the radiological consequences from the mining of these resources several hundred years after the radioactive waste has been emplaced. It has been concluded that the radiological consequences of the mining of potash or hydrocarbons (mostly natural gas) are probably bounded by the consequences of hydrologic breach scenarios already considered by the US Department of Energy, and by reports of EEG. These studies conclude that the resultant doses would not constitute a significant threat to public health. This report also evaluates the radiological consequences of solution mining of halite at the WIPP site. Although such mining in the Delaware Basin and particularly at the WIPP site, is not likely at the present time, significant economic, social or climatic changes a few hundred years after emplacement may make these resources more attractive. The DOE did not consider such mining at the site credible

  12. Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

    1990-01-01

    Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200 0 C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40 0 C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site

  14. Test plan: Gas-threshold-pressure testing of the Salado Formation in the WIPP underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    Performance assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste from the United States defense program in the WIPP underground facility must assess the role of post-closure was generation by waste degradation and the subsequent pressurization of the facility. be assimilated by the host formation will Whether or not the generated gas can be assimilated by the host formation will determine the ability of the gas to reach or exceed lithostatic pressure within the repository. The purpose of this test plan is (1) to present a test design to obtain realistic estimates of gas-threshold pressure for the Salado Formation WIPP underground facility including parts of the formation disturbed by the underground of the Salado, and (2) to provide a excavations and in the far-field or undisturbed part framework for changes and amendments to test objectives, practices, and procedures. Because in situ determinations of gas-threshold pressure in low-permeability media are not standard practice, the methods recommended in this testplan are adapted from permeability-testing and hydrofracture procedures. Therefore, as the gas-threshold-pressure testing program progresses, personnel assigned to the program and outside observers and reviewers will be asked for comments regarding the testing procedures. New and/or improved test procedures will be documented as amendments to this test plan, and subject to similar review procedures

  15. 40 CFR 421.332 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sand drying wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and Hafnium...) Sand chlorination area-vent wet air pollution control. BPT Limitations for the Primary Zirconium and... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  16. Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenashisundaram V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

  17. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with § 194.24(c)(4), to confirm that the total amount of each waste component that will be... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of Environment...

  18. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs

  19. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of the WIPP Project's compliance with the EPA radiation protection standards for disposal of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, R.H.; Chaturvedi, L.; Rucker, D.F.; Silva, M.K.; Walker, B.A.; Channell, J.K.; Clemo, T.M.

    1998-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed rule to certify that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) meets compliance with the long-term radiation protection standards for geologic repositories (40CFR191 Subparts B and C), is one of the most significant milestones to date for the WIPP project in particular, and for the nuclear waste issue in general. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has provided an independent technical oversight for the WIPP project since 1978, and is responsible for many improvements in the location, design, and testing of various aspects of the project, including participation in the development of the EPA standards since the early 1980s. The EEG reviewed the development of documentation for assessing the WIPP's compliance by the Sandia National Laboratories following the 1985 promulgation by EPA, and provided many written and verbal comments on various aspects of this effort, culminating in the overall review of the 1992 performance assessment. For the US Department of Energy's (DOE) compliance certification application (CCA), the EEG provided detailed comments on the draft CCA in March, 1996, and additional comments through unpublished letters in 1997 (included as Appendices 8.1 and 8.2 in this report). Since the October 30, 1997, publication of the EPA's proposed rule to certify WIPP, the EEG gave presentations on important issues to the EPA on December 10, 1997, and sent a December 31, 1997 letter with attachments to clarify those issues (Appendix 8.3). The EEG has raised a number of questions that may have an impact on compliance. In spite of the best efforts by the EEG, the EPA reaction to reviews and suggestions has been slow and apparently driven by legal considerations. This report discusses in detail the questions that have been raised about containment requirements. Also discussed are assurance requirements, groundwater protection, individual protection, and an evaluation of EPA's responses to EEG's comments

  1. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum D. A report to Holmes and Narver, Inc., Anaheim, California on alternative energy sources for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the energy needs of a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a facility for underground storage of radioactive wastes in a deep salt bed. The report analyzes a total of sixteen possible methods for meeting WIPP energy requirements, consisting of purchased electricity and on-site generation in various combinations from full purchased to full on-site

  2. The evolution of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project's public affairs program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    As a first-of-a-kind facility, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) presents a unique perspective on the value of designing a public affairs program that grown with and complements a project's evolution from construction to operations. Like the project itself, the public affairs programs progressed through several stages to its present scope. During the construction phase, foundations were laid in the community. Then, in this past year as the project entered a preoperational status, emphasis shifted to broaden the positive image that had been created locally. In this stage, public affairs presented the project's positive elements to the various state agencies, government officials, and federal organizations involved in our country's radioactive waste management program. Most recently, and continuing until receipt of the first shipment of waste in October 1988, an even broader, more aggressive public affairs program is planned

  3. A probabilistic analysis of a catastrophic transuranic waste hoist accident at the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1993-06-01

    This report builds upon the extensive and careful analyses made by the DOE of the probability of failure of the waste hoist, and more particularly on the probability of failure of a major component, the hydraulic brake system. The extensive fault tree analysis prepared by the DOE was the starting point of the present report. A key element of this work is the use of probability distributions rather than so-called point estimates to describe the probability of failure of an element. One of the authors (MAG) developed the expressions for the probability of failure of the brake system. The second author (TJS) executed the calculations of the final expressions for failure probabilities. The authors hope that this work will be of use to the DOE in its evaluation of the safety of the waste hoist, a key element at the WIPP

  4. Hanford Tank Waste to WIPP - Maximizing the Value of our National Repository Asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, Allan R.; Wheeler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Preplanning scope for the Hanford tank transuranic (TRU) waste project was authorized in 2013 by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) after a project standby period of eight years. Significant changes in DOE orders, Hanford contracts, and requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have occurred during this time period, in addition to newly implemented regulatory permitting, re-evaluated waste management strategies, and new commercial applications. Preplanning has identified the following key approaches for reactivating the project: qualification of tank inventory designations and completion of all environmental regulatory permitting; identifying program options to accelerate retrieval of key leaking tank T-111; planning fully compliant implementation of DOE Order 413.3B, and DOE Standard 1189 for potential on-site treatment; and re-evaluation of commercial retrieval and treatment technologies for better strategic bundling of permanent waste disposal options

  5. Tracer tests performed in the field for WIPP in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.D.; Hill, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-well recirculating tracer test began in October, 1979, to define as accurately as possible the hydraulic character of a fractured carbonate aquifer, the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site in Eddy and Lee Counties, New Mexico. The Culebra dolomite overlies a zone planned for isolation of transuranic contaminated waste generated by the United States defense programs. The storage zone of the proposed facility is in nearly pure halite and about 1400 feet (427 meters) below the Culebra dolomite, the most likely pathway for the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere in the event the repository is breached by groundwater. Included in the definition of the hydraulic character of the Culebra aquifer are natural groundwater velocities, aquifer porosity and components of dispersivity. The proposed tracer test using sodium benzoate, a homologous series of chlorofluoromethanes and pentafluorobenzoic acid as tracers is described. Results of the test will be reported at a later date

  6. In situ testing of titanium and mild steel nuclear waste containers at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ tests on the corrosion of titanium and mild steel for high level waste containers is presented. The tests at Sandia have moved out of the laboratory into a test underground facility in order to evaluate the performance of the waste package material. The tests are being performed under both near-reference and accelerated salt repository conditions. Some containers are filled with high level waste glass (non-radioactive); others contain electric heaters. Backfill material is either bentonite/sand or crushed salt. In other tests metals and glasses are exposed directly to brine. The tests are designed to study the corrosion and metallurgy of the canister and overpack materials; the feasibility and performance of backfill materials; and near-field effects such as brine migration

  7. Hanford Tank Waste to WIPP - Maximizing the Value of our National Repository Asset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Allan R.; Wheeler, Martin

    2013-11-11

    Preplanning scope for the Hanford tank transuranic (TRU) waste project was authorized in 2013 by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) after a project standby period of eight years. Significant changes in DOE orders, Hanford contracts, and requirements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have occurred during this time period, in addition to newly implemented regulatory permitting, re-evaluated waste management strategies, and new commercial applications. Preplanning has identified the following key approaches for reactivating the project: qualification of tank inventory designations and completion of all environmental regulatory permitting; identifying program options to accelerate retrieval of key leaking tank T-111; planning fully compliant implementation of DOE Order 413.3B, and DOE Standard 1189 for potential on-site treatment; and re-evaluation of commercial retrieval and treatment technologies for better strategic bundling of permanent waste disposal options.

  8. On the road to WIPP: Or remote packaging of transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Field, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hot Cell facility, highly productive programs in reactor research spanning three decades have generated appreciable quantities of legacy waste. Hot cell capability had become virtually useless due to the storage of this waste. As a result of concentrated efforts by LANL staff, in cooperation with Westinghouse Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a solution was arrived at that allowed the facility to become productive once again. Equipment has been designed and fabricated to remotely handle 55-gal. waste drums, load waste canisters, perform canister weld closure, leak test welds, grapple the waste canister and transport the canister to an interim storage site. It is our contention that the technology and acquired equipment produced from this effort should be used to further benefit other DOE sites

  9. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  10. The WIPP RCRA Part B permit application for TRU mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    In August 1993, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) issued a draft permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to begin experiments with transuranic (TRU) mixed waste. Subsequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to cancel the on-site test program, opting instead for laboratory testing. The Secretary of the NMED withdrew the draft permit in 1994, ordering the State's Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Bureau to work with the DOE on submittal of a revised permit application. Revision 5 of the WIPP's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application was submitted to the NMED in May 1995, focusing on disposal of 175,600 m 3 of TRU mixed waste over a 25 year span plus ten years for closure. A key portion of the application, the Waste Analysis Plan, shifted from requirements to characterize a relatively small volume of TRU mixed waste for on-site experiments, to describing a complete program that would apply to all DOE TRU waste generating facilities and meet the appropriate RCRA regulations. Waste characterization will be conducted on a waste stream basis, fitting into three broad categories: (1) homogeneous solids, (2) soil/gravel, and (3) debris wastes. Techniques used include radiography, visually examining waste from opened containers, radioassay, headspace gas sampling, physical sampling and analysis of homogeneous wastes, and review of documented acceptable knowledge. Acceptable knowledge of the original organics and metals used, and the operations that generated these waste streams is sufficient in most cases to determine if the waste has toxicity characteristics, hazardous constituents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs), or RCRA regulated metals

  11. Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1998-01-01

    In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E(-7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E(-7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E(-7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP's hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE's last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example

  12. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Section VII.M.1 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit); (NMED, 1999a), and incorporates comments from the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2001 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) specified in the Permit. The permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the newest guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, the permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a Facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the Facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA process can be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable alternative to the RFI Work Plan specified in the Permit.

  13. WIPP Hydrology Program Waste Isolation Pilot Plant southeastern New Mexico. Hydrologic data report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This report contains basic hydrologic data for aquifer tests and water-level measurements conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site over the period 1983 through November 1985. Part A summarizes data collected during a series of pumping and slug tests conducted during 1983 and 1984 in wells at the H-2 and H-9 hydropads, and in well H-12. Water-level data collected in 1983 and 1984 at the H-2 hydropads and Appendixes tabulate water-level, drawdown, millivolt, and pressure data collected with automated Data Acquisition Systems (DAS's) during the aquifer tests for both the test wells and the observation wells, and water-level data collected with electric water-level sounders. Part B is a detailed presentation of pumping tests conducted at the H-11 hydropad in May and June, 1985. Part B discusses the automated DAS, water-level measurement devices, the discharge measurement system, well and equipment configurations, and provides plots of pressure or water-level response in both the pumping and observation wells. Pressure data collected with the DAS, depth to water collected with the water-level sounders in observation wells, and measured pumping rate data are tabulated. Part C presents January through November, 1985 water-level data collected from wells in the observation-well network at and near the WIPP site. The types of devices utilized are discussed and the water-level plots obtained from the water-level data for the Magenta, the Culebra, the Rustler-Salado contact zone, the Bell Canyon Formation, and the Salado/Castile Formations are presented. Water levels are tabulated

  14. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2007-01-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  15. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 9 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 9 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate and test salt beds for the disposal of nuclear wastes. The hole was placed near the SE corner of section 20, T22S,R31E. It was drilled between April 28 and June 4, 1976, to a depth of 2889 ft (measured from a kelly bushing altitude of 3,420.4 ft MSL). The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, Holocene deposits (including artificial fill) of 22 ft, the Pleistocene Mescalero Caliche (5 ft) and Gatuna Formation (27 ft), 9 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, and 487 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 290 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1976 ft of the Salado Formation and 53 ft of the Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cuttings were collected at 5-ft intervals for the land surface to a depth of 1090 ft, and consecutive cores were taken to a depth of 2876.6 ft. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run the full length of the borehole to measure distribution of radioactive elements and hydrogen, and variations in rock density and elastic velocity. On the basis of the borehole findings and related hydrological and geophysical programs, the site was judged suitable to pursue the extensive geological characterization program which followed. The core from ERDA 9 provided a suite of samples extensively tested for rock mechanics, physical properties, and mineralogy. Drill-stem tests in ERDA 9 indicated no significant fluids or permeability in the Salado beds of interest. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  16. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 7: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This permit application (Vol. 7) for the WIPP facility contains appendices related to the following information: Ground water protection; personnel; solid waste management; and memorandums concerning environmental protection standards.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  19. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  20. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility

  1. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  2. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  3. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, D.E.; Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T.

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information

  4. Extent of the Disturbed Rock Zone Around a WIPP Disposal Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Park, B. Y.; Holcomb, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste. It is located in a bedded salt formation at a depth of about 650 m. Salt at this depth behaves as a viscous material having an initially lithostatic state of stress. Mining of an opening disturbs the static equilibrium to a degree where fracturing of the rock surrounding a room occurs, changing its mechanical and hydrologic properties. This disturbed rock zone (DRZ) is an important geomechanical feature included in the performance assessment process models used to predict future repository conditions as a part of certification by the EPA as meeting regulatory compliance. Based on ongoing scientific investigations and evaluation of published data since the original certification in 1998, our understanding of the DRZ has continued to progress. Three deformation processes are activated as deviatoric stresses are induced upon excavation of a room in a salt formation: (1) elastic response, (2) inelastic viscoplastic flow, and (3) inelastic- damage induced flow. Damage, the least understood of these processes, is manifested by the time- dependent initiation, growth, coalescence, and healing of microfractures with a deviatoric stress state. Since the ability to model the spatial and temporal changes in salt damage is not available at this time, various means to measure it have been attempted. At the WIPP, for this study, we used sonic velocity measurements obtained over a 12 year period as the principal field method to describe the extent of the DRZ. Predictions of the DRZ extent based on these experimental results are substantiated by permeability measurements and microfracture density analysis from other places in the repository. Extensive laboratory salt creep data demonstrate that damage can be assessed in terms of volumetric strain and principal stresses. Stress states

  5. WIPP Facility Work Plan for Solid Waste Management Units and Areas of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 Facility Work Plan (FWP) has been prepared as required by Module VII, Permit Condition VII.U.3 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, NM4890139088-TSDF (the Permit) (New Mexico Environment Department [NMED], 1999a), and incorporates comments from the NMED received on December 6, 2000 (NMED, 2000a). This February 2002 FWP describes the programmatic facility-wide approach to future investigations at Solid Waste Management Units (SWMU) and Areas of Concern (AOC) specified in the Permit. The Permittees are evaluating data from previous investigations of the SWMUs and AOCs against the most recent guidance proposed by the NMED. Based on these data, and completion of the August 2001 sampling requested by the NMED, the Permittees expect that no further sampling will be required and that a request for No Further Action (NFA) at the SWMUs and AOCs will be submitted to the NMED. This FWP addresses the current Permit requirements. It uses the results of previous investigations performed at WIPP and expands the investigations as required by the Permit. As an alternative to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) specified in Module VII of the Permit, current NMED guidance identifies an Accelerated Corrective Action Approach (ACAA) that may be used for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). This accelerated approach is used to replace the standard RFI Work Plan and Report sequence with a more flexible decision-making approach. The ACAA process allows a facility to exit the schedule of compliance contained in the facility's Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) permit module and proceed on an accelerated time frame. Thus, the ACAA processcan be entered either before or after an RFI Work Plan. According to the NMED's guidance, a facility can prepare an RFI Work Plan or Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for any SWMU or AOC (NMED, 1998). Based on this guidance, a SAP constitutes an acceptable

  6. WIPP Hydrology Program: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, Hydrologic Data Report No. 5: Parts, A-WIPP-13 multipad test; B-H-4c, P-17, ERDA-9, and Cabin Baby-1 slug tests; C-Engle and Carper well pumping tests; D-WIPP-12, H-14, and H-15 drill-stem tests; E-Water-level data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensrud, W.A.; Bame, M.A.; Lantz, K.D.; LaVenue, A.M.; Palmer, J.B.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Part A of this report describes the objectives, scope, design, equipment, and methodology for a long-term pumping test conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The test was conducted to provide technical assistance as part of the ongoing hydrologic characterization of the WIPP site. The test is referred to as the northern multipad pumping test, because it was designed to create a hydraulic stress over a wide area of the northern half of the WIPP site. The fluid-pressure and water-level recovery in both pumping and observation wells were monitored for a minimum of 72 days. The test interval was the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Twenty-three observation wells completed in the Culebra dolomite were monitored at least once a month as part of the regional water-level monitoring program. Severl wells completed in the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation were monitored during the test to assess the possibility of Magenta-Culebra communication in the expected area of influence of this test. The succeeding sections of this part of Hydrologic Data Report No. 5 present detailed descriptions of the test objectives, pretest data collection, test equipment and test-well configuration, the observation-well network, and test results. 3 refs., 147 figs., 107 tabs

  7. Radioactive and electron microscope analysis of effluent monitor sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effluent air sampling at nuclear power plant often leads to the question ''How representative is the sample of the effluent stream?'' Samples from radiation monitors are typically obtained at great distances from the sample nozzle because of high background concerns under postulated accidents. Sample line plateout during normal effluent sampling becomes the major concern. A US Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection raised a concern that monitors were not collecting representative samples per ANSI standard N13.1. A comprehensive 2-yr study at Beaver Valley was performed during normal effluent releases in two phases: 1) weekly charcoal and glass fiber filter samples were analyzed for radioactivity for 6 months, and 2) nuclepore membrane filter samples were analyzed by electron microscope for 4- and 6-h periods. A specially designed test nozzle was directly inserted into an effluent stream for comparison with the radiation monitor samples. Particle behavior characteristics can be determined during effluent releases using a simple test probe. While particle plateout was the major purpose of the study, other particle behavior characteristics were evident and equally as important. Particle travel through long sample lines can also lead to (a) agglomeration or the coagulation of smaller particles to form larger ones, (b) particle splitting or fracturing upon impact with the sample line interior walls, and (c) resuspension of large particles in sample lines

  8. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal wastewater is the effective means of coping with water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plant. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in effluent were decomposed. The COD values decreased and the light brown color faded with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. Recent attention has been given to the disadvantages of using chlorine as a disinfectant of municipal wastewater effluents. It has been shown that the chlorination of organic substances in water may produce chlorinated hydrocarbons with carcinogenic properties. So a development of the effective sterilization method for the effluent has been needed instead of chlorine. The radiation sterilization of coliforms and total bacteria in primary effluent, secondary effluent and rapid sand filtered effluent were studied. Coliforms were very sensitive to radiation treatment in comparison with total bacteria. Especially, coliforms in secondary and rapid sand filtered effluents were disinfected to 10 % of initial at 0.1 kGy. (author)

  9. New Payload Initiatives for Shipments to WIPP Will Expand DoE's Ability to Dispose of Transuranic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; White, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shipping and disposal operations currently employ two different disposal methods: one for Contact Handled (CH) waste and another for Remote Handled (RH) waste. CH waste is emplaced in a variety of payload container configurations on the floor of each disposal room. In contrast, RH waste is packaged into a single type of canister and emplaced in pre-drilled holes in the walls of disposal rooms. CH waste containers are shipped to WIPP in unshielded Type B packages licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), whereas RH waste is shipped in similarly licensed shielded packages that also include lead to attenuate higher energy gamma photons to meet transportation dose limits. Because the lead employed in the existing shipping packages (called the RH-72B) does not attenuate neutrons, this transportation and disposal system is not able to accommodate neutron emitting waste streams. Recently, DOE proposed the use of gamma-shielded containers that would allow packaging of gamma-emitting RH waste in a configuration that could be shipped in a CH shipping package and emplaced on the floor of WIPP disposal rooms, while still being counted against repository capacity limits as RH waste. The gamma-shielded containers can be handled by contact. The NRC reviewed the license application for these gamma-shielded containers and the approval is pending, but expected at the end of 2008. Concurrent with the submission to NRC, DOE submitted a planned change request to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to allow the placement of the gamma shielded containers in the repository with other CH waste. This paper presents an update of the status of DoE's gamma-shielded container initiative. In addition to the gamma-shielded container, to increase the versatility of the RH shipping process, the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the development of a new method to shield neutron-emitting waste, which would be shipped and emplaced using

  10. Review comments on Environmental Analysis Cost Reduction Proposals (WIPP-DOE-136), July 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.K.

    1982-11-01

    The cost reduction proposals have the laudable goal of significantly reducing the total capital And operating cost connected with WIPP. Furthermore, since the proposed changes would reduce the size and operating rate of the project, they would be expected to have decreased environmental And socioeconomic impacts. However, some of these cost reduction proposals do decrease factors of safety in various components of the project or trade off one type of environmental detriment for another. The report does not contain sufficient detail to justify all of the conclusions reached; more discussion and quantitative information (including costs) is necessary in some cases. Also, there are places where the report is unclear or contradictory. Without a more detailed evaluation, EEG is unable to conclude that each of these cost reduction proposals either has a net environmental/health and safety benefit or a cost savings that justifies a net detriment. A revised Environmental Analysis (EA) should either include additional information or specifically reference backup documents where these conclusions have been justified. In addition, the EA needs to be revised to include the effect of the recently announced (11/18/82) decision by DOE to relocate the underground waste storage areas of the repository to the south

  11. Background radiation measurements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.M.; Brewer, L.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of background radiation measurements was performed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Carlsbad, New Mexico. The survey consisted of gross gamma and gamma spectral measurements of the radiation fields, soil and salt grab sample gamma analysis, and radon and working level measurements. The survey included locations at the surface and also within the mine itself. Background radiation levels on the surface were measured to average 7.65 microR/hour, and 0.7 microR/hour within the mine. Radon and working levels were at or below detection levels at all locations, and the radon concentration was estimated to be about 0.01 pCi/liter on the surface based on spectral measurements. The spectral measurements were performed using an intrinsic germanium spectrometer, and calculations from the spectra indicated that potassium-40 contributed about 28% to the surface level dose rates, natural uranium daughters contributed about 64%, and cesium-137 from weapons testing fallout contributed about 8%. In the mine potassium-40 was the only identifiable contributor to the dose rate

  12. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, J.W.; Snyder, R.P.

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Review of the scientific and technical criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The panel has evaluated the scientific and technical adequacy of work being done on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project to satisfy the charge to the panel set out in Chapter 1. The panel concluded that the scientific work has been carried out with a high degree of professional competence. The panel notes that the geology revealed by shaft sinking and excavation of drifts and the preliminary measurements generally confirm the geologic expectations derived from surface explorations and boreholes. The purity and volume of the salt, the absence of brine pockets at the repository horizon in the areas excavated, the absence of breccia pipes and of toxic gases, and the nearly horizontal bedding of the salt indicate that a repository can be constructed that will meet the geologic criteria for site selection. Thus, the important issues about the geology at the site have been resolved, but there remain some issues about the hydrology and design of the facility that should be resolved before large-scale transuranic (TRU) waste emplacement begins. The panel's conclusions and recommendations regarding the following studies are presented: site selection and characterization; in-situ tests and experiments; waste acceptance criteria; design and construction of underground facilities; and performance assessment. 65 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  15. The feasibility of effluent trading in the energy industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-05-01

    In January 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a policy statement endorsing effluent trading in watersheds, hoping to spur additional interest in the subject. The policy describes five types of effluent trades - point source/point source, point source/nonpoint source, pretreatment, intraplant, and nonpoint source/nonpoint source. This report evaluates the feasibility of effluent trading for facilities in the oil and gas industry (exploration and production, refining, and distribution and marketing segments), electric power industry, and the coal industry (mines and preparation plants). Nonpoint source/nonpoint source trades are not considered since the energy industry facilities evaluated here are all point sources. EPA has administered emission trading programs in its air quality program for many years. Programs for offsets, bubbles, banking, and netting are supported by federal regulations, and the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments provide a statutory basis for trading programs to control ozone and acid rain. Different programs have had varying degrees of success, but few have come close to meeting their expectations. Few trading programs have been established under the Clean Water Act (CWA). One intraplant trading program was established by EPA in its effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs) for the iron and steel industry. The other existing effluent trading programs were established by state or local governments and have had minimal success.

  16. The Rustler Formation at the WIPP [Waste Isolations Pilot Plant] site: Report of a workshop on the geology and hydrology of the Rustler Formation as it relates to the WIPP Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1987-02-01

    This workshop contained eight papers characterizing the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site in New Mexico. Four of these reports were processed separately for the data bases. Information contained in the four remaining papers is available in journal articles or in the reports of other conferences and included discussions of ground water flow through the Rustler Formation, the potential migration of leached radionuclides in this rock, the effects of mineral dissolution on the removal of underlying salt deposits, and a possible pathway for radionuclide migration into the biosphere

  17. Densities and species composition of the avifauna of the Los Medanos WIPP site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, J.D.; Haydock, J.

    1981-01-01

    Data were gathered in various habitat types to determine annual fluctuations in species diversity and relative abundance, breeding densities, reproductive success of White-necked Ravens and Harris Hawks, fall and spring migrant species and to collect voucher specimens for the site. Four Emlen transects were surveyed in four habitat types during the summer of 1980. These transects were used monthly in May, June and July to determine densities of breeding and non-breeding birds. Active White-necked Raven and Harris Hawk nests were located by checking all conspicuous nests. The nests were checked several times during the nesting stage to determine nest success. During 1980, eleven new species and two new families were added to the list of birds seen on or near the WIPP site. The list now totals 133 species representing 38 families. White-necked Raven nesting success was slightly lower in 1980 than in 1979. Average clutch size in 1980 was 5.5, which is 3.5% less than in 1979 and 19% greater than in 1978. The average number of birds fledged per nest was surprisingly similar over the past three years despite fairly large climatic differences. Success of Harris Hawk nesting was very low in the autumn of 1980 due principally to bad weather. The overall density of breeding birds was lower in 1980 than in 1979 in all habitat types. The overall density was also lower in 1980 than in 1978 in all habitat types except mesquite-grassland. Many species showed larger year-to-year fluctuations in numbers. Mourning Dove density, for example, dropped from 76.9 to 11.2 individuals per square kilometer in the hummock-mesquite habitat. Voucher specimens have been collected for 69 of the 133 species seen on the Los Medanos site

  18. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  19. Scientific studies in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Weart, W.D.

    1996-01-01

    The DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application for WIPP in october, 1996. A critical part of this application was a Performance Assessment which predicts the cumulative radioactive release to the accessible environment over a time period of 10,000 years. Comparison of this predicted release to the EPA standard shows a comfortable margin of compliance. The scientific understanding that was critical to developing this assessment spans a broad range of geotechnical disciplines, and required a thorough understanding of the site's geology and hydrology. Evaluation of the geologic processes which are active in the site region establishes that there will be no natural breach of site integrity for millions of years, far longer than the 10,000 year regulatory period. Inadvertent human intrusion is, therefore, the only credible scenario to lead to potential radioactive release to the accessible environment. To substantiate this conclusion and to quantify these potential releases from human intrusion, it has been necessary to develop an understanding of the following processes: salt creep and shaft seal efficacy; gas generation from organic decomposition of waste materials and anoxic corrosion of metals in the waste and waste packages; solubilities for actinides in brine; fluid flow in Salado formation rocks, and hydrologic transport of actinides in the overlying dolomite aquifers. Other issues which had to be evaluated to allow definition of breach scenarios were brine reservoir occurrences and their associated reservoir parameters, consequences of mining over the repository, and drilling for natural resources in the vicinity of the repository. Results of all these studies will be briefly summarized in this paper

  20. A conceptual performance assessment model of the dissolved actinide source term for the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.F.; Stockman, C.T.; Wang, Y.; Novak, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a performance assessment model of dissolved actinide concentrations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The model assesses the concentration of each actinide oxidation state and combines these concentrations with an oxidation state distribution. The chemical behavior of actinides in the same oxidation state is presumed to be very similar for almost all situations, but exceptions arising from experimental evidence are accommodated. The code BRAGFLO calculates the gas pressure, brine mass, gas volume, and mass of remaining Fe and cellulosics for each time step and computational cell. The total CO 2 in the repository and dissolved Ca(OH) 2 is estimated. Lookup tables are constructed for pmH and f(CO 2 ) as a function of brine type and volume, moles of CO 2 , and Ca(OH) 2 . Amounts of five soluble complexants are considered. A model based on the formulation of Harvie et al. produces tables of solubilities for each actinide oxidation state as a function of pmH, f(CO 2 ), brine composition, and complexant. Experimental data yield lookup tables of fractions of Th, U, Np, Pu, and Am in each oxidation state as a function of f(CO 2 ) and complexant. The tables are then used to provide a concentration of a particular actinide at particular values of pmH and f(CO 2 ). Under steady-state conditions, the oxidation state of each actinide that is most stable in the particular chemical environment controls the concentration of that actinide in solution. In the absence of steady-state conditions, the oxidation state distribution of interest is that of the dissolved actinide, and the oxidation states may be treated as if they were separate compounds

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) research and development program: in situ testing plan, March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Christensen, C.L.; Hunter, T.O.; Molecke, M.A.; Munson, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The WIPP in southeast New Mexico is being developed as an R and D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive defense wastes in bedded salt. The tests are done first without radioactive materials and then with transuranic (TRU) waste and Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW). The thermal/structural itneraction experiments include (a) geomechanical evaluations of access drifts, vertical shafts, and isothermal TRU disposal rooms during the Site and Preliminary Validation Program, (b) tests that represent the reference DHLW room configuraton (5.5 m x 5.5 m) and areal thermal loading of 12 W/m 2 , (c) an overtest of the DHLW congfiguration heated to about four times the reference thermal loading; (d) geomechanical evaluations of various room widths up to 9.1 m, variable pillar widths, and a long-drift intersection, (e) an 11-m-dia axisymmetric heated pillar test, and (f) miscellaneous tests to determine stress field and clay seam sliding resistance. The plugging and sealing experiments include (a) salt permeability tests, (b) tests to determine effects of size and scale on behavior of plugs and to determine backfill material behavior and emplacement techniques, and (c) a plug test matrix to evaluate candidate sealing materials. Waste package interaction experiments include (a) simulated-waste package tests that use several design options and engineered barrier materials under reference and accelerated DHLW environments, (b) confirmatory brine migration tests, (c) TRU drum durability tests in dry and wet conditions, (d) options for radiation-source tests using cesium capsules, and (e) actual DHLW tests using up to 40 canisters for technical demonstrations and for addressing concerns of wasteform chemistry, leaching, and near-field radionuclide migration

  2. Chemistry of brines in salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico: a preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    We present here analyses of macro- and microscopic (intracrystalline) brines observed within the WIPP facility and in the surrounding halite, with interpretations regarding the origin and history of these fluids and their potential effect(s) on long-term waste storage. During excavation, several large fluid inclusions were recovered from an area of highly recrystallized halite in a thick salt bed at the repository horizon (2150 ft below ground level). In addition, 52 samples of brine ''weeps'' were collected from walls of recently excavated drifts at the same stratigraphic horizon from which the fluid inclusion samples are assumed to have been taken. Analyses of these fluids show that they differ substantially in composition from the inclusion fluids and cannot be explained by mixing of the fluid inclusion populations. Finally, holes in the facility floor that filled with brine were sampled but with no stratographic control; therefore it is not possible to interpret the compositions of these brines with any accuracy, except insofar as they resemble the weep compositions but with greater variation in both K/Mg and Na/Cl ratios. However, the Ca and SO 4 values for the floor holes are relatively close to the gypsum saturation curve, suggesting that brines filling floor holes have been modified by the presence of gypsum or anhydrite, possibly even originating in one or more of the laterally continuous anhydrite units referred to in the WIPP literature as marker beds. In conclusion, the wide compositional variety of fluids found in the WIPP workings suggest that (1) an interconnected hydrologic system which could effectively transport radonuclides away from the repository does not exist; (2) brine migration studies and experiments must consider the mobility of intergranular fluids as well as those in inclusions; and (3) near- and far-field radionuclide migration testing programs need to consider a wide range of brine compositions rather than a few reference brines

  3. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  4. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S.

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed

  5. Rustler Formation in the waste handling and exhaust shafts, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Permian Rustler Formation was recently examined in detail in two shafts at the WIPP site: the waste handling shaft (waste shaft) and the exhaust shaft. Fresh exposures of the Rustler in the shafts exhibited abundant primary sedimentary structures. The abundance of primary sedimentary structures observed in the shafts is unequaled in previously described sections. Data are reported here in their stratigraphic context as an initial basis for evaluation of depositional environments of the Rustler and reevaluating the role of dissolution in the formation of the Rustler. 10 refs

  6. Pre-WIPP in-situ experiments in salt. Part I. Executive summary. Part II. Program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, A.R.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    This document presents plans for in-situ experiments in a specific location in southeastern New Mexico. Schedule and facility design were based on features of a representative local potash mine and on contract negotiations with mine owners. Subsequent WIPP program uncertainties have required a delay in the implementation of the activities discussed here; however, the relative schedule for various activities are appropriate for future planning. The document represents a matrix of in-situ activities to address relevant technical issues prior to the availability of a bedded salt repository.

  7. Pre-WIPP in-situ experiments in salt. Part I. Executive summary. Part II. Program description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, A.R.; Hunter, T.O.

    1979-08-01

    This document presents plans for in-situ experiments in a specific location in southeastern New Mexico. Schedule and facility design were based on features of a representative local potash mine and on contract negotiations with mine owners. Subsequent WIPP program uncertainties have required a delay in the implementation of the activities discussed here; however, the relative schedule for various activities are appropriate for future planning. The document represents a matrix of in-situ activities to address relevant technical issues prior to the availability of a bedded salt repository

  8. Radioactive waste disposal: Waste isolation pilot plants (WIPP). (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic repository located in New Mexico for transuranic wastes generated by the U.S. Government. Articles follow the development of the program from initial site selection and characterization through construction and testing, and examine research programs on environmental impacts, structural design, and radionuclide landfill gases. Existing plants and facilities, pilot plants, migration, rock mechanics, economics, regulations, and transport of wastes to the site are also included. The Salt Repository Project and the Crystalline Repository Project are referenced in separate bibliographies. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Sandia Review of High Bridge Associates Report: Comparison of Plutonium Disposition Alternatives: WIPP Diluted Plutonium Storage and MOX Fuel Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, HeeHo Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The subject report from High Bridge Associates (HBA) was issued on March 2, 2016, in reaction to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program decision to pursue down-blending of surplus Pu and geologic disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sandia National Laboratories was requested by the DOE to review the technical arguments presented in the HBA report. Specifically, this review is organized around three technical topics: criticality safety, radiological release limits, and thermal impacts. Questions raised by the report pertaining to legal and regulatory requirements, safeguards and security, international agreements, and costing of alternatives, are beyond the scope of this review.

  10. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  11. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  13. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-01-01

    Use of nature's laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia

  14. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  15. Preservation of artifacts in salt mines as a natural analog for the storage of transuranic wastes at the WIPP repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martell, M.A.; Hansen, F.; Weiner, R.

    1998-10-01

    Use of nature`s laboratory for scientific analysis of complex systems is a largely untapped resource for understanding long-term disposal of hazardous materials. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the US is a facility designed and approved for storage of transuranic waste in a salt medium. Isolation from the biosphere must be ensured for 10,000 years. Natural analogs provide a means to interpret the evolution of the underground disposal setting. Investigations of ancient sites where manmade materials have experienced mechanical and chemical processes over millennia provide scientific information unattainable by conventional laboratory methods. This paper presents examples of these pertinent natural analogs, provides examples of features relating to the WIPP application, and identifies potential avenues of future investigations. This paper cites examples of analogical information pertaining to the Hallstatt salt mine in Austria and Wieliczka salt mine in Poland. This paper intends to develop an appreciation for the applicability of natural analogs to the science and engineering of a long-term disposal facility in geomedia.

  16. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U.S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla Roma, J. E.; Gomez-Hernandez, J. J.; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A.

    1999-01-01

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  17. Permeability of natural rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during damage evolution and healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the bedded salt of southeastern New Mexico to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive transuranic wastes. Four vertical shafts provide access to the underground workings located at a depth of about 660 meters. These shafts connect the underground facility to the surface and potentially provide communication between lithologic units, so they will be sealed to limit both the release of hazardous waste from and fluid flow into the repository. The seal design must consider the potential for fluid flow through a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that develops in the salt near the shafts. The DRZ, which forms initially during excavation and then evolves with time, is expected to have higher permeability than the native salt. The closure of the shaft openings (i.e., through salt creep) will compress the seals, thereby inducing a compressive back-stress on the DRZ. This back-stress is expected to arrest the evolution of the DRZ, and with time will promote healing of damage. This paper presents laboratory data from tertiary creep and hydrostatic compression tests designed to characterize damage evolution and healing in WIPP salt. Healing is quantified in terms of permanent reduction in permeability, and the data are used to estimate healing times based on considerations of first-order kinetics

  18. A review of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] repository clays and their relationship to clays of adjacent strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumhansl, J.L.; Kimball, K.M.; Stein, C.L.

    1990-12-01

    The Salado Formation is a thick evaporite sequence located in the Permian Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. This study focuses on the intense diagenetic alteration that has affected the small amounts of clay, feldspar, and quartz washed into the basin during salt deposition. These changes are of more than academic interest since this formation also houses the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). Site characterization concerns warrant compiling a detailed data base describing the clays in and around the facility horizon. An extensive sampling effort was undertaken to address these programmatic issues as well as to provide additional insight regarding diagenetic mechanisms in the Salado. Seventy-five samples were collected from argillaceous partings in halite at the stratigraphic level of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These were compared with twenty-eight samples from cores of the Vaca Triste member of the Salado, a thin clastic unit at the top of the McNutt potash zone, and with a clay-rich sample from the lower contact of the Culebra Dolomite (in the overlying Rustler Formation). These settings were compared to assess the influence of differences in brine chemistry (i.e., halite and potash facies, normal to hypersaline marine conditions) and sediment composition (clays, sandy silt, dolomitized limestone) on diagenetic processes. 44 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U. S. A. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla Roma, J. E.; Gomez-Hernandez, J. J.; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A. (Universidad Politecnia de Valencia (Spain))

    1999-12-15

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  20. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  1. A comparison of geostatistically-based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analyses at the WIPP site results from the Test Case No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to describe flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A ''Geostatistics Test Problem'' is being developed to evaluate a number of inverse techniques that may be used for Dow calculations in the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The Test Problem is actually a series of test cases, each being developed as a highly complex synthetic data sct; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater now at the WIPP site. This paper describes the results from Test Case No. 1. Of the five techniques compared, those based on the linearized form of the groundwater flow equation exhibited less bias and less spread in their GWTT distribution functions; the semi-analytical method had the least bias. While the results are not sufficient to make generalizations about which techniques may be better suited for the WIPP PA (only one test case has been exercised), analyses of the data from this test case provides some indication about the relative importance of other aspects of the flow modeling (besides inverse method or geostatistical approach) in PA. Then ancillary analyses examine the effect of gridding an the effect of boundary conditions on the groundwater travel time estimates

  2. A comparison of real-time radiography results and visual characterization results with emphasis on WIPP WAC and TRAMPAC compliance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Visual characterization provides a means of confirming the real-time radiography (RTR) certification process and process knowledge. RTR and visual characterization have been conducted on thirty-three drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program (WETP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) detected a small can of liquid in one of these drums during the visual examination, resulting in a WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) miscertification. The remaining thirty-two drums were certified correctly by the RTR system at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for WIPP-WAC and TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC) requirements. TRAMPAC contains restrictions on the weights of specific materials allowed in the waste, based on the shipping category. Items on the restricted list for a given shipping category are allowed in quantities less than 1 percent of the weight of the waste. RTR can estimate the weights of certain broad categories in homogeneous waste forms, however, the capability to estimate weights at the 1 percent level is not presently realistic. Process knowledge forms the basis of conformance to these weight requirements. Visual characterization suggests process knowledge is not completely adequate at this level

  3. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  4. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  5. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  6. Evaluation of the non-radiological environmental problems relating to the WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, T.E.

    1983-02-01

    The major non-radiological environmental problems addressed are: air pollution, water pollution and sanitary waste, solid waste, domestic drinking water, occupational health and safety and toxic chemicals

  7. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  8. Proposed waste isolation pilot project (WIPP) and impacts in the state of New Mexico: a socio-economic analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.D.; Burness, H.S.; Norton, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This document is a final report for research conducted concerning the socio-economic impacts in the State of New Mexico that might attend the construction and operation of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The proposed site for the WIPP, known as the Los Medanos site, is in Southeastern New Mexico's Eddy County, some 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico and some 40 miles from Hobbs, New Mexico, in adjacent Lea County. The purpose as set out in the US Department of Energy's environmental impact statements is for storage of TRU waste from the US defense program and the construction of a research and development area for experiments concerning the isolation of all types of nuclear waste in salt. The intended purpose of the study is to identify, measure (when possible) and assess the range of potential socio-economic impacts in the State that may be attributable to the WIPP. Every effort has been made by the authors to approach this task in an objective manner. In efforts to provide an objective analysis of the WIPP, however, particular attention was required in providing a comprehensive review of potential impacts. This means that however unlikely an impact might seem, the authors have purposely avoided pre-judging the potential magnitude of the impact and have applied their best efforts to measure it. On the other hnd, this study is not intended to provide a definitive calculation regarding the net balance of WIPP-related benefits and costs. To help ensure objectivity, two advisory boards, Technical Advisory Board and Public Advisory Board, were formed at the outset of the project for the purpose of providing periodic reviews of research efforts

  9. Development and application of an analysis methodology for interpreting ambiguous historical pressure data in the WIPP gas-generation experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicione, F. S.

    2006-01-23

    The potential for generation of gases in transuranic (TRU) waste by microbial activity, chemical interactions, corrosion, and radiolysis was addressed in the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) Gas-Generation Experiments (GGE). Data was collected over several years by simulating the conditions in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) after the eventual intrusion of brine into the repository. Fourteen test containers with various actual TRU waste immersed in representative brine were inoculated with WIPP-relevant microbes, pressurized with inert gases, and kept in an inert-atmosphere environment for several years to provide estimates of the gas-generation rates that will be used in computer models for future WIPP Performance Assessments. Modest temperature variations occurred during the long-term ANL-West experiments. Although the experiment temperatures always remained well within the experiment specifications, the small temperature variation was observed to affect the test container pressure far more than had been anticipated. In fact, the pressure variations were so large, and seemingly erratic, that it was impossible to discern whether the data was even valid and whether the long-term pressure trend was increasing, decreasing, or constant. The result was that no useful estimates of gas-generation rates could be deduced from the pressure data. Several initial attempts were made to quantify the pressure fluctuations by relating these to the measured temperature variation, but none was successful. The work reported here carefully analyzed the pressure measurements to determine if these were valid or erroneous data. It was found that a thorough consideration of the physical phenomena that were occurring can, in conjunction with suitable gas laws, account quite accurately for the pressure changes that were observed. Failure of the earlier attempts to validate the data was traced to the omission of several phenomena, the most important being the variation in

  10. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  11. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P.

    2000-01-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  12. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed

  13. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION & PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT & EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-18

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  14. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  15. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  16. Hydrologic analyses of two brine encounters in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1982-12-01

    The data from ERDA-6 indicates a naturally fractured reservoir of the two-porosity type. The best estimate of the volume is about 60 thousand to 120 thousand barrels. The data from WIPP-12 also indicates a naturally fractured reservoir of the two-porosity type. The best estimate of the volume is about 5 million to 10 million barrels. The excess pressure above hydrostatic pressure suggests that the reservoirs were formed many millions of years ago. The location of the fractures suggest that their formation may be connected to the tilting of the Delaware Basin as a unit. The effect of the flow testing data on a drilling scenario through the repository many years following its closure is evaluated

  17. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  18. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  19. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 6, Chapter D, Appendices D4--D13: Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report (Vol. 6) for the WIPP facility contains appendices on the following information: Site characterization; general geology; ecological monitoring; and chemical compatibility of waste forms and container materials.

  1. Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    oceans . However, this effect is minor compared to ocean acidification due to Exhaust Gas Scrubber Washwater Effluent...Section 6 -Assessment of Pollutants Discharged in Scrubber Washwater and Protectiveness of IMO Guidelines 29 increased carbon dioxide ...June 11, 2010 (http://www.motorship.com/news101/breakthrough-order-for-krystallon-scrubbers). Orr, J.C. et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification

  2. Effluent information system (EIS)/onsite discharge information system (ODIS) 1985 executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.

    1986-09-01

    The Effluent Information System (EIS) and Onsite Discharge Information System (ODIS) are Department of Energy (DOE) data base systems that aid DOE-Headquarters and Field Offices in managing the radioactive air and liquid effluents from DOE facilities. Data on effluents released offsite are entered into EIS and data on effluents discharged onsite and retained onsite are entered into ODIS. This document is a summary of information obtained from the CY 1985 effluent data received from all DOE and DOE contractor facilities and entered in the data bases. Data from previous years are also included. The summary consists of two parts. The first part summarizes information for effluents released offsite, and the second part summarizes information for effluents retained onsite. These summaries are taken from the routine annual reports sent to each DOE Operations Office. Special tabulations or specific data can be supplied upon request. Explanations of the significant changes are included in the EIS and ODIS graphic sections. Only those changes in activity greater than a factor of two and having a magnitude greater than 0.1 Ci are considered significant and are addressed in the explanation

  3. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 3720 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the Environmental Science Laboratory (3720 Facility) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs'' This FEMP has been prepared for the 3720 Facility primarily because it has a major (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The 3720 Facility provides office and laboratory space for PNNL scientific and engineering staff conducting multidisciplinary research in the areas of materials characterization and testing and waste management. The facility is designed to accommodate the use of radioactive and hazardous materials to conduct these activities. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, and dispersible particulate. The facility is in the process of being vacated for shutdown, but is considered a Major Emission Point as of the date of this document approval.

  4. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  5. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  6. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Report of Class II Survey and Testing of Cultural Resources at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Site at Carlsbad, New Mexico,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Method Chronometric Sample isolated single Archaeomagnetic , obsidian component sites hydration, thermolumi- nescence, corrected radio- carbon dates ...115 Table 6.2 LA 54388 C-14 Dates , WIPP Assessment Study, ACOE, 1986 117 ,’-4 as... . -. - -, -%.F- , . -. . . % a . N .. ... < < .. <. .’a...from the study area to relatively well- dated archaeological sites which have provided chronological control for local research should be emphasized. The

  8. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, D.W. [HC 12, Anthony, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs.

  9. Tracing early breccia pipe studies, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico: A study of the documentation available and decision-making during the early years of WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Breccia pipes in southeastern New Mexico are local dissolution-collapse features that formed over the Capitan reef more than 500,000 years ago. During early site studies for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the threat to isolation by these features was undetermined. Geophysical techniques, drilling, and field mapping were used beginning in 1976 to study breccia pipes. None were found at the WIPP site, and they are considered unlikely to be a significant threat even if undetected. WIPP documents related to breccia pipe studies were assembled, inspected, and analyzed, partly to present a history of these studies. The main objective is to assess how well the record reflects the purposes, results, and conclusions of the studies from concept to decision-making. The main record source was the Sandia WIPP Central File (SWCF). Early records (about 1975 to 1977) are very limited, however, about details of objectives and plans predating any investigation. Drilling programs from about 1977 were covered by a broadly standardized statement of work, field operations plan, drilling history, and basic data report. Generally standardized procedures for peer, management, and quality assurance review were developed during this time. Agencies such as the USGS conducted projects according to internal standards. Records of detailed actions for individual programs may not be available, though a variety of such records were found in the SWCF. A complete written record cannot be reconstructed. With persistence, a professional geologist can follow individual programs, relate data to objectives (even if implied), and determine how conclusions were used in decision-making. 83 refs

  10. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  11. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  12. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  13. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  14. Lessons Learned from WIPP Site Characteriztion, Performance Assessment, and Regulatory Review Related to Radionuclide Migration through Water-Conducting Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L.: Larson. K.W.

    1998-11-11

    Many lessons have been learned over the past 24 years as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project has progressed from initial site characterization to final licensing that may be of relevance to other nuclear-waste-disposal projects. These lessons pertain to the manner in which field and laboratory investigations are planned, how experiments are interpreted, how conceptual and numerical models are developed and simplified~ and how defensibility and credibility are achieved and maintained. These lessons include 1) Site characterization and performance assessment (PA) should evolve together through an iterative process, with neither activity completely dominating the other. 2) Defensibility and credibility require a much greater depth of understanding than can be represented in PA models. 3) Experimentalists should be directly involved in model and parameter abstraction and simplification for PA. 4) External expert review should be incorporated at all stages of a project~ not just after an experiment or modeling activity is completed. 5) Key individuals should be retained for the life of a project or a process must be established to transfer their working knowledge to new individuals. 6) An effective QA program needs to be stable and consistent for the duration of a project and rests on best scientific practices. All of these lessons relate to the key point that consideration must be given from the earliest planning stages to maximizing the defensibility and credibility of all work.

  15. Evolution of hydrologic systems and brine geochemistry in a deforming salt medium: Data from WIPP brine seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, D.E.; Roggenthen, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) is a formalized continuation of studies that began in 1982 as part of the Site Validation Program. The program was established in 1985. The mission was to document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and the seepage of that brine into the WIPP excavations. This document focuses on the cumulative data obtained from the BSEP. The overall activities of the BSEP described and quantified the brine. It includes documentation and study of brine inflow into boreholes in the facility. The BSEP investigated the occurrence and development of brine weeps, crusts, and brine geochemistry. The presence of salt-tolerant bacteria in the workings was recorded and their possible interactions with experiments and operations, was assessed. The formation properties associated with the occurrence of brine was characterized. The determination of formation properties included the water content of various geologic units, direct examination of these units in boreholes using a video camera system, and measurement of electrical properties relatable to the brine contents. Modeling examined the interaction of salt deformation near the workings and the flow of brine through the deforming rocks. 34 refs

  16. Radionuclide release, transport, and consequence modeling for WIPP: a report of a workshop held on September 16-17, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to discuss potential mechanisms for release of radionuclides from the WIPP repository years after waste emplacement and termination of institutional controls, and the resultant radiological consequences. Opportunity was also provided for the exchange of information on meaningful release and transport models, and the availability, reliability and significance of data for the parameters applicable to those models. Other than those scenarios provided in draft by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) (Appendix II), there were no new breach scenarios postulated. Also there were no major objections posed to the EEG proposals or the approaches taken in these drafts. Although there were no formal conclusions highlighted by the Conference, the EEG has concluded that the statements below provide a summary of EEG's views concerning the topics covered. These views are based upon the discussions at the Conference, the subsequent comments of the conferees, the information provided in the preceding EEG sponsored geological meeting and field trip, and the information contained in the EEG draft reports

  17. Performance evaluation of a hybrid system for efficient palm oil mill effluent treatment via an air-cathode, tubular upflow microbial fuel cell coupled with a granular activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Pei-Fang; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Tan, Ivy Ai Wei; Mohamed Amin, Mohamed Afizal; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Bujang, Kopli

    2016-09-01

    An air-cathode MFC-adsorption hybrid system, made from earthen pot was designed and tested for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Such design had demonstrated superior characteristics of low internal resistance (29.3Ω) and favor to low-cost, efficient wastewater treatment and power generation (55mW/m(3)) with average current of 2.13±0.4mA. The performance between MFC-adsorption hybrid system was compared to the standalone adsorption system and results had demonstrated great pollutants removals of the integrated system especially for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD3), total organic carbon (TOC), total volatile solids (TVS), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and total nitrogen (TN) because such system combines the advantages of each individual unit. Besides the typical biological and electrochemical processes that happened in an MFC system, an additional physicochemical process from the activated carbon took place simultaneously in the MFC-adsorption hybrid system which would further improved on the wastewater quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  19. Initial computer modeling of WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] underground ventilation system, September 1985--March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.

    1986-11-01

    Provision of a good ventilation system has been and continues to be a major priority here of those responsible for its design, management, and operation. As an ongoing effort in this direction, development of computer simulated models for the system was initiated in September, 1985. It was decided to utilize Dravo's 'MINEVENT' computer program for this purpose. Accordingly, initial computer models of the mine's ventilation system have been developed for various modes of operation. Specifically, they include: Simulation of the current ventilation system, and Simulation of the designed ventilation system for modes: mine construction mode/shift, waste storage mode/shift, and air reversal mode. 5 figs

  20. Tratamentos integrados em efluente metal-mecânico: precipitação química e biotratamento em reator do tipo air-lift Integrated treatments for metalworking effluent: chemistry precipitation and biotreatment in air-lift reactor type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delgado Queissada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: realizar a caracterização físico-química de um efluente metal-mecânico e efetuar o tratamento integrado (precipitação química e biotratamento, utilizando micro-organismos autóctones do efluente (FI e FV e uma referência (A. niger. A caracterização indicou pH de 1,7; cor de 1.495 mg Pt.L-1; demanda química de oxigênio de 9.147 mgO2.L-1; 887 mg.L-1 de óleo e graxa, além de 2,5 mgO2.L-1 de oxigênio dissolvido. Com o tratamento por precipitação química, obteve-se, em pH = 7,5, a redução de todos os íons metálicos investigados. Após o biotratamento, a cor foi reduzida em 95%, utilizando o micro-organismos FV. As reduções da demanda química de oxigênio e de óleo e graxa foram mais significativas utilizando FI, que reduziu os mesmos em 52 e 62%, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicaram que os micro-organismos autóctones do efluente foram mais eficazes no tratamento do mesmo do que o organismo de referência A. niger.The objectives of this paper were: to perform the physical-chemical characterization of a metalworking effluent and to carry out the integrated treatment (chemical precipitation and biotreatment, using effluent autochthonous microorganisms (FI and FV and a reference (A. niger. The characterization indicated pH of 1.7; color, 1,495 mg Pt.L-1; chemical oxygen demand, 9,147 mgO2.L-1; oil and grease, 887 mg.L-1, and dissolved oxygen with 2.5 mgO2.L-1. With the chemical precipitation treatment, in pH = 7.5, the reduction of all the investigated metallic ions was obtained. The color was reduced 95% after the biotreatment using the FV microorganism. The chemical oxygen demand and oil and grease reductions were more significant when using FI, which reduced the same in 52 and 62%, respectively. These results indicated that the autochthonous microorganisms were more efficient in the effluent treatment than the reference organism A. niger.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Chapter E, Appendix E1, Chapter L, Appendix L1: Volume 12, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was authorized by the US Department of Energy 5 (DOE) National Security and Military Applications of the Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Public Law 96-164). Its legislative mandate is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive waste resulting from national defense programs and activities. To fulfill this mandate, the WIPP facility has been designed to perform scientific investigations of the behavior of bedded salt as a repository medium and the interactions between the soft and radioactive wastes. In 1991, DOE proposed to initiate a experimental Test Phase designed to demonstrate the performance of the repository. The Test Phase activities involve experiments using transuranic (TRU) waste typical of the waste planned for future disposal at the WIPP facility. Much of this TRU waste is co-contaminated with chemical constituents which are defined as hazardous under HWMR-7, Pt. II, sec. 261. This waste is TRU mixed waste and is the subject of this application. Because geologic repositories, such as the WIPP facility, are defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as land disposal facilities, the groundwater monitoring requirements of HWMR-7, PLV, Subpart X, must be addressed. HWMR-7, Pt. V, Subpart X, must be addressed. This appendix demonstrates that groundwater monitoring is not needed in order to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards; therefore, HWMR-7, Pt.V, Subpart F, will not apply to the WIPP facility.

  2. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  3. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  4. POLLUTION EFFECT OF FOOD AND BEVERAGES EFFLUENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The main course of water pollution in the Alaro river is the direct discharge of food and beverages processing effluents. The impact of such effluents on the water quality was studied in detail by monitoring selected physicochemical parameters monthly between January 2003 and December 2007. The combined ...

  5. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  6. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  8. Two-well recirculation tracer tests at the H-2 hydropad, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Two recirculation tracer tests were performed on the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the H-2 hydropad at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The first test, which used pentafluorobenzoate (PFB), sodium benzoate, and a suite of halocarbons for tracers, was terminated before breakthrough at the pumping well because of equipment failure. The second test, which used sodium thiocyanate (SCN) and difluorochlorobromomethane (BCF) as tracers, proceeded normally and lasted 270 days. During the second test, the tracer injected during the first test was recovered. Tracer test analyses for the two tests were performed only for the PFB tracer injected during the first test and recovered during the second, and for SCN. Analysis of the PFB recovery was crudely modeled as a one-dimensional pulse-injection test. The SCN tracer used in the second test was analyzed with the homogeneous, isotropic Grove and Beetem one-dimensional porous-medium recirculating flow test model. In general, model predictions are in poor agreement with the field measurements. Discrepancies could be produced by the combined effects of local nonhomogeneities, matrix diffusion, and possible sorption or degradation of the tracer during the test. The best overall match between the SCN breakthrough curve predicted by the semianalytical model and that observed in measurements was achieved using a porosity that ranged from 17% to 19% and a dispersivity of 16 to 18 ft. A match based only on the early part of the breakthrough curve, however, yielded a porosity of 11.5% and a dispersivity of 8 ft. The latter porosity might more closely represent the effective porosity of the Culebra, if the SCN degraded during the test

  9. Dissolution of evaporites and its possible impact on the integrity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zand, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological consequences of a breach of the WIPP TRU waste repository, as a result of dissolution processes were shown to be in two broad classes. Most of the possible scenarieos that could happen as a result of the deep dissolution processes were shown to be addressed by the scenarios already presented elsewhere or are being investigated at the present. The remaining possible scenarios, except one, showed that the possible release of radionuclides through the geosphere to the biosphere would take periods of time orders-of-magnitude longer than the half-life of Plutonium-239. The one not specifically addressed, a postulated hydralogic pathway with the characteristics of the Salado/Castile interface aquifer, appears unlikely. However, it should be quantified when more data become available. To obtain a better understanding of the radiological health effects of the deep dissolution-caused breach of the repository, emphasis must be placed on better evaluation and refinement of the existing mathematical models and associated parameters. In the majority of the existing scenarios the most significant pathway of the radionuclide through the geosphere to the biosphere is the dolomitic Magenta and Culebra aquifers. Because these formations are fractured, mathematical modeling of radionuclide transport is subject to a large degree of uncertainty. Other uncertainties that relate to this pathway which need further study are: (a) the possibility of having more permeable abandoned mined potash tunnels as a part of the radionuclide flow path and (b) the outcrops of the Magenta and Culebra formations in Nash Draw, 11 km (7 mi) before the outlet to the Pecos River at Malaga Bend. The problems associated with the quantifications of these uncertainties as well as the effects of long-term climatic and hydrologic changes and hydrogeological data requirements of the models should be further addressed

  10. 40 CFR 469.19 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... conventional pollution control technology (BCT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BCT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or...

  11. 40 CFR 469.15 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semiconductor... best available technology economically achievable (BAT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BAT Effluent...

  12. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  14. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  15. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  16. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  17. The densities of halite-saturated WIPP-A and NBT-6 brines and their NaCl contents in weight percent, molal, and molar units from 20 to 100 degrees C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Ming; Buizinga, B.; Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A series of density measurements has been performed at 30?, 50?, 70?, and 90?C for halite-undersaturated WIPP-A and NBT-6 brines with various NaCl contents approaching saturation. The densities of halite-saturated WIPP-A and NBT-6 brines were obtained by extrapolating these measured densities to halite saturation points. The maximum difference between the densities obtained in this Fashion and those calculated from the model of Potter and Haas is 0.015 g/cm3. The NaCl contents in halite-saturated WIPP-A and NBT-6 brines are reported in wt %, molal, and molar units from 20? to 100?C.

  18. A comparison of geostatistically-based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the WIPP site results from test case No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, D.A.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to described flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A 'Geostatistics Test Problem' is being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No 1. Of the five techniques compared, those based on the linearized form of the groundwater flow equation exhibited less bias and less spread in their GWTT distribution functions; the semi-analytical method had the least bias. While the results are not sufficient to make generalizations about which techniques may be better suited for the WIPP PA (only one test case has been exercised), analysis of the data from this test case provides some indication about the relative importance of other aspects of the flow modeling (besides inverse method or geostatistical approach) in PA. These ancillary analyses examine the effect of gridding and the effect of boundary conditions on the groundwater travel time estimates

  19. Wellbore Flow Treatment Used to Predict Radioactive Brine Releases to the Surface from Future Drilling Penetrations into th Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadgu, T.; O' Brien, D.G.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-10-15

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) mined geologic repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA. This site is designed for the permanent burial of transuranic radioactive waste generated by defense related activities. The waste produces gases when exposed to brine. This gas generation may result in increased pressures over time. Thereforq a future driller that unknowingly penetrates through the site may experience a blowout This paper describes the methodology used to predict the resultant volumes of contaminated brine released to the surface.

  20. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  1. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)

  2. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  3. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  4. Study of the adsorption/oxidation coupling for the processing of industrial gaseous effluents; Etude du couplage adsorption / oxydation pour le traitement des effluents gazeux industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monneyron, P.; Manero, M.H.; Foussard, J.N. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Genie des Procedes Industriels, Lab. d' Ingenierie des Procedes de l' Environnement, 31 - Toulouse (France); Benoit-Marquie, F; Maurette, M.T. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. des Interactions Moleculaires et Reactivite Chimique et Photochimique, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2001-07-01

    This study presents a process for the abatement of the volatile organic compounds of industrial gaseous effluents. This process uses hydrophobous zeolites as adsorbent in order to avoid any risk of ignition during the adsorption of ketones. Adsorption is coupled with oxidation in the same reactor for the regeneration of the adsorbent. Two oxidation processes are evaluated: the regeneration by ozonized air and the UV photo-catalysis. (J.S.)

  5. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ``Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988``, and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases.

  6. Radiological effluents released from US continental tests, 1961 through 1992. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoengold, C.R.; DeMarre, M.E.; Kirkwood, E.M.

    1996-08-01

    This report documents all continental tests from September 15, 1961, through September 23, 1992, from which radioactive effluents were released. The report includes both updated information previously published in the publicly available May, 1990 report, DOE/NV-317, ''Radiological Effluents Released from Announced US Continental Tests 1961 through 1988'', and effluent release information on formerly unannounced tests. General information provided for each test includes the date, time, location, type of test, sponsoring laboratory and/or agency or other sponsor, depth of burial, purpose, yield or yield range, extent of release (onsite only or offsite), and category of release (detonation-time versus post-test operations). Where a test with simultaneous detonations is listed, location, depth of burial and yield information are given for each detonation if applicable, as well as the specific source of the release. A summary of each release incident by type of release is included. For a detonation-time release, the effluent curies are expressed at R+12 hours. For a controlled releases from tunnel-tests, the effluent curies are expressed at both time of release and at R+12 hours. All other types are listed at the time of the release. In addition, a qualitative statement of the isotopes in the effluent is included for detonation-time and controlled releases and a quantitative listing is included for all other types. Offsite release information includes the cloud direction, the maximum activity detected in the air offsite, the maximum gamma exposure rate detected offsite, the maximum iodine level detected offsite, and the maximum distance radiation was detected offsite. A release summary incudes whatever other pertinent information is available for each release incident. This document includes effluent release information for 433 tests, some of which have simultaneous detonations. However, only 52 of these are designated as having offsite releases

  7. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  8. Laboratory creep and mechanical tests on salt data report (1975-1996): Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) thermal/structural interactions program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility located in a bedded salt formation in Carlsbad, New Mexico, is being used by the U.S. Department of Energy to demonstrate the technology for safe handling and disposal of transuranic wastes produced by defense activities in the United States. In support of that demonstration, mechanical tests on salt were conducted in the laboratory to characterize material behavior at the stresses and temperatures expected for a nuclear waste repository. Many of those laboratory test programs have been carried out in the RE/SPEC Inc. rock mechanics laboratory in Rapid City, South Dakota; the first program being authorized in 1975 followed by additional testing programs that continue to the present. All of the WIPP laboratory data generated on salt at RE/SPEC Inc. over the last 20 years is presented in this data report. A variety of test procedures were used in performance of the work including quasi-static triaxial compression tests, constant stress (creep) tests, damage recovery tests, and multiaxial creep tests. The detailed data is presented in individual plots for each specimen tested. Typically, the controlled test conditions applied to each specimen are presented in a plot followed by additional plots of the measured specimen response. Extensive tables are included to summarize the tests that were performed. Both the tables and the plots contain cross-references to the technical reports where the data were originally reported. Also included are general descriptions of laboratory facilities, equipment, and procedures used to perform the work.

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B Permit Application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 5, Chapter D, Appendix D1 (conclusion), Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Neville G.W.; Heuze, Francois E.; Miller, Hamish D.S.; Thoms, Robert L.

    1993-03-01

    The reference design for the underground facilities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant was developed using the best criteria available at initiation of the detailed design effort. These design criteria are contained in the US Department of Energy document titled Design Criteria, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Revised Mission Concept-IIA (RMC-IIA), Rev. 4, dated February 1984. The validation process described in the Design Validation Final Report has resulted in validation of the reference design of the underground openings based on these criteria. Future changes may necessitate modification of the Design Criteria document and/or the reference design. Validation of the reference design as presented in this report permits the consideration of future design or design criteria modifications necessitated by these changes or by experience gained at the WIPP. Any future modifications to the design criteria and/or the reference design will be governed by a DOE Standard Operation Procedure (SOP) covering underground design changes. This procedure will explain the process to be followed in describing, evaluating and approving the change.

  10. 40 CFR 464.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Within the range of 7.0 to 10.0 at all times. (c) Die Casting Operations. BPT Effluent Limitations... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  11. 40 CFR 464.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... poured) for a specific plant. (c) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Casting Subcategory § 464.13 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  12. Benthos of Cochin backwaters receiving industrial effluents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Venugopal, P.

    Faunal composition of benthos and its spatial and temporal distribution at 9 stations in the northern limb of the Cochin backwaters are studied. An industrial belt is located about 18 km upstream of barmouth, and the effluents are discharged...

  13. Solutions to microplastic pollution - Removal of microplastics from wastewater effluent with advanced wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talvitie, Julia; Mikola, Anna; Koistinen, Arto; Setälä, Outi

    2017-10-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment with primary and secondary treatment processes efficiently remove microplastics (MPs) from the wastewater. Despite the efficient removal, final effluents can act as entrance route of MPs, given the large volumes constantly discharged into the aquatic environments. This study investigated the removal of MPs from effluent in four different municipal wastewater treatment plants utilizing different advanced final-stage treatment technologies. The study included membrane bioreactor treating primary effluent and different tertiary treatment technologies (discfilter, rapid sand filtration and dissolved air flotation) treating secondary effluent. The MBR removed 99.9% of MPs during the treatment (from 6.9 to 0.005 MP L -1 ), rapid sand filter 97% (from 0.7 to 0.02 MP L -1 ), dissolved air flotation 95% (from 2.0 to 0.1 MP L -1 ) and discfilter 40-98.5% (from 0.5 - 2.0 to 0.03-0.3 MP L -1 ) of the MPs during the treatment. Our study shows that with advanced final-stage wastewater treatment technologies WWTPs can substantially reduce the MP pollution discharged from wastewater treatment plants into the aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  15. Dispersion of effluents in the atmosphere; Dispersion des effluents dans l`atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `convection` section of the French association of thermal engineers with the support of the environment and energy mastery agency (ADEME). This book of proceedings contains 10 papers entitled: `physical modeling of atmospheric dispersion in wind tunnels. Some industrial examples`; `modeling of the noxious effects of a fire on the environment of an industrial site: importance of thermal engineering related hypotheses`; `atmospheric diffusion of a noxious cloud: fast evaluation method of safety areas around refrigerating installations that use ammonia`; `modeling of atmospheric flows in urban areas in order to study the dispersion of pollutants`; `use of a dispersion parameter to characterize the evolution of a diffusion process downstream of a linear source of passive contaminant placed inside a turbulent boundary layer`; `elements of reflexion around the development of an analytical methodology applied to the elaboration of measurement strategies of air quality in ambient and outdoor atmospheres around industrial sites`; `state-of-the-art about treatment techniques for VOC-rich gaseous effluents`; `characteristics of the time variation of the atmospheric pollution in the Paris region and visualization of its space distribution`; `mass-spectrometry for the measurement of atmospheric pollutants`; `volume variations in natural convection turbulence`. (J.S.)

  16. Exposure Reduction to Human Bio-effluents Using Seat-integrated Localized Ventilation in Quiescent Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    gaseous pollutants (i.e. bio-effluents) emitted from the body of a sedentary person and exhaust them before they entrained in the person’s breathing zone or mix with the surrounding air. Full-scale experiments were performed in a climate chamber. The chamber was ventilated by an upward piston flow through...

  17. [Isolation, Identification and Characteristic Analysis of an Oil-producing Chlorella sp. Tolerant to High-strength Anaerobic Digestion Effluent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuang; Wang, Wen-guo; Ma, Dan-wei; Tang, Xiao-yu; Hu, Qi-chun

    2015-07-01

    A Chlorella strain tolerant to high-strength anaerobic digestion effluent was isolated from the anaerobic digestion effluent with a long-term exposure to air. The strain was identified as a Chlorella by morphological and molecular biological methods, and named Chlorella sp. BWY-1, The anaerobic digestion effluent used in this study was from a biogas plant with the raw materials of swine wastewater after solid-liquid separation. The Chlorella regularis (FACHB-729) was used as the control strain. The comparative study showed that Chlorella sp, BWY-Ihad relatively higher growth rate, biomass accumulation capacity and pollutants removal rate in BG11. and different concentrations of anaerobic digestion effluent. Chlorella sp. BWY-1 had the highest growth rate and biomass productivity (324.40 mg.L-1) in BG11, but its lipid productivity and lipid content increased with the increase of anaerobic digestion effluent concentration, In undiluted anaerobic digestion effluent, the lipid productivity and lipid content of Chlorella sp. BWY-1 were up to 44. 43% and 108. 70 mg.L-1, respectively. Those results showed that the isolated algal strain bad some potential applications in livestock wastewater treatment and bioenergy production, it could be combined with a solid-liquid separation, anaerobic fermentation and other techniques for processing livestock wastewater and producing biodiesel.

  18. 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities -- Quality assurance program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.

    1995-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) describes the quality assurance and management controls used by the 200 Area Liquid Effluent Facilities (LEF) to perform its activities in accordance with DOE Order 5700.6C. The 200 Area LEF consists of the following facilities: Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF); Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF); Liquid Effluent Retention facility (LERF); and Truck Loading Facility -- (Project W291). The intent is to ensure that all activities such as collection of effluents, treatment, concentration of secondary wastes, verification, sampling and disposal of treated effluents and solids related with the LEF operations, conform to established requirements

  19. 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility: Delisting petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Waste water has been generated for over 40 years as a result of operations conducted on the Hanford Site. This waste water previously was discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. An example of such waste water includes process condensate that might have been in contact with dangerous waste or mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). This petition presents the treatment technologies that are designed into the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility to eliminate the dangerous characteristics of the waste and to delist the effluent in accordance with the requirements found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 260.20 and 260.22. The purpose of this petition is to demonstrate that the 242-A Evaporator process condensate will be treated adequately so that the effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will no longer require management as a regulated dangerous waste. This demonstration was performed by use of a surrogate (synthetic) waste, designed by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to include species that represent all organic and inorganic constituents (but not radionuclide species) expected to be found on the Hanford Site. Thus, the surrogate will encompass not only the expected 242-A Evaporator process condensate characteristics, but those of other potential 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility waste streams and additional 40 CFR Appendix VIII constituents

  20. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  1. Studies of transuranic waste storage under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Interim summary report, October 1, 1977-June 15, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Barraclough, B.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1980-01-01

    The major focus of the program has been on the gas generation potential of organic wastes produced by radiolytic and thermal degradation under simulated WIPP storage conditions. The effects of TRU contamination level, temperature, waste type, pressure, and exposure time on radiolysis are presented. In addition, results from preliminary experiments on processed sludge dewatering are discussed. A summary is presented here of the results of a detailed study of all retrievably stored TRU wastes present at LASL before January 1, 1978. The data indicate a gross volume for the LASL inventory of 1610 m 3 with a total weight of nearly 1.24 x 10 6 kg (1240 metric tonnes). The dominant radionuclide contents of the waste are plutonium (primarily 238 Pu) and americium

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 4, Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The US Department of Energy is currently constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The full-scale pilot plant will demonstrate the feasibility of the safe disposal of defense-related nuclear waste in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2160 feet below the surface. WIPP will provide for the permanent storage of 25,000 cu ft of remote-handled (RH) transuranic waste and 6,000,000 cu ft of contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste. This paper covers the major mechanical/structural design considerations for the waste hoist and its hoist tower structure. The design of the hoist system and safety features incorporates state-of-the-art technology developed in the hoist and mining industry to ensure safe operation for transporting nuclear waste underground. Also included are design specifications for VOC-10 monitoring system.

  3. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  4. Potential microbial impact on transuranic wastes under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Campbell, E.W.; Martinez, E.; Caldwell, D.E.; Hallett, R.

    1980-07-01

    Previous results were confirmed showing elevated frequencies of radiation-resistant bacteria in microorganisms isolated from shallow transuranic (TRU) burial soil that exhibits nanocurie levels of beta and gamma radioactivity. Research to determine whether plutonium could be methylated by the microbially produced methyl donor, methylcobalamine, was terminated when literature and consulting radiochemists confirmed that other alkylated transuranic elements are extremely short-lived in the presence of oxygen. Emphasis was placed on investigation of the dissolution of plutonium dioxide by complex formation between plutonium and a polyhydroxamate chelate similar to that produced by microorganisms. New chromatographic and spectrophotometric evidence supports previous results showing enhanced dissolution of alpha radioactivity when 239 Pu dioxide was mixed with the chelate Desferol. Microbial degradation studies of citrate, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and nitrilo triacetate (NTA) chelates of europium are in progress. Current results are summarized. All of the chelates were found to degrade. The average half-life for citrate, NTA, and EDTA was 3.2, 8.0, and 28 years, respectively. Microbial CO 2 generation is also in progress in 72 tests on several waste matrices under potential WIPP isolation conditions. The mean rate of gas generation was 5.97 μg CO 2 /g waste/day. Increasing temperature increased rates of microbial gas generation across treatments of brine, varying water content, nutrient additions, and anaerobic conditions. No microbial growth was detected in experiments to enumerate and identify the microorganisms in rocksalt cores from the proposed WIPP site. This report contains the year's research results and recommendations derived for the design of safe storage of TRU wastes under geologic repository conditions

  5. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  6. Site selection for effluent discharge along the coast using GIS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Hiteshkumar, V.; Om, P.D.

    Geographical Information System (GIS) is used to select a site for industrial effluent discharge along the coastal region. The system is developed to deal with the behavior of the discharged effluent in the coastal waters and it affects on coastal...

  7. Bacterial removal of toxic phenols from an industrial effluent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... the ability of utilizing various chlorophenolic compounds and demonstrates its potentials of degrading high concentration of phenol in industrial effluents. Key words: Bioremediation, Pseudomonas fluorescens, industrial effluent, chlorophenols. INTRODUCTION. Chlorinated phenols are important chemicals ...

  8. Effluent release limits, sources and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of radiation protection in relation to releases. Environmental transfer models for radionuclides. Relationship between releases, environmental levels and doses to persons. Establishment of release limits: Limits based on critical population group concept critical pathway analysis and identification of critical group. Limits based on optimization of radiation protection individual dose limits, collective doses and dose commitments 1) differential cost benefit analysis 2) authorized and operational limits taking account of future exposures. Monitoring of releases to the environment: Objectives of effluent monitoring. Typical sources and composition of effluents; design and operation of monitoring programmes; recording and reporting of monitoring results; complementary environmental monitoring. (orig.) [de

  9. Legal provisions governing gaseous effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.

    1985-01-01

    This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de

  10. Waste analysis plan for the 200 area effluent treatment facility and liquid effluent retention facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for startup of the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) and operation of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), which are located on the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to obtain and analyze representative samples of dangerous waste managed in these units, and of the nondangerous treated effluent that is discharged to the State-Approved Land Disposal System (SALDS). Groundwater Monitoring at the SALDS will be addressed in a separate plan

  11. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kassas, Hala Yassin; Mohamed, Laila Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  12. 40 CFR 461.31 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fill, or Fill and Dump. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...) Subpart C—Truck Wash. BPT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  13. 40 CFR 469.14 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Semiconductor Subcategory § 469.14 Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): Subpart A—Semiconductor BPT...

  14. 40 CFR 406.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.32 Section 406.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.32 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  15. 40 CFR 406.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.42 Section 406.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  16. 40 CFR 406.52 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.52 Section 406.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Milling Subcategory § 406.52 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction...

  17. 40 CFR 406.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.12 Section 406.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.12 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  18. 40 CFR 406.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.33 Section 406.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  19. 40 CFR 406.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available. 406.22 Section 406.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Subcategory § 406.22 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  20. 40 CFR 406.53 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.53 Section 406.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.53 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  1. 40 CFR 440.105 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.105 Effluent limitations representing the...

  2. 40 CFR 427.97 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 427.97 Section 427.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 427.97 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable...

  3. The disposal of industrial effluents on pastures | RE | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An agricultural project for the disposal of industrial liquid effluent has been initiated by African Explosives and Chemical Industries Limited at their Modderfontein factory. This effluent, which has a high nitrogen content, is sprayed on veld and sown pastures. In spite of two very dry years the effluent has stimulated the growth ...

  4. Metal concentration of liquid effluents and surroundings of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major and trace metals (Mg, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Sn, Al, Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Mn and Ti) in liquid effluents, soil sediments and plant parts (roots and leaves) from Tisco Nigeria Limited, Akure, were determined in both open effluent channel and closed direct tank. The plant in the open effluent channel was Pennisetum purpureum ...

  5. Impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir on the physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of getting quality drinking water is increasing as untreated effluents are discharged into surface water bodies. The impact of effluent from Bodija abattoir, the biggest abattoir in Ibadan, western. Nigeria on the physico-chemical parameters of Oshunkaye stream was investigated. The qualities of effluent and ...

  6. Correlating biochemical and chemical oxygen demand of effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected for an ...

  7. Correlating Biochemical and Chemical Oxygen Demand of Effluents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. K. Attiogbe1, Mary Glover-Amengor2 and K. T. Nyadziehe3

    Abstract. The study aims at establishing an empirical correlation between biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of effluents from selected industries in the Kumasi Metropolis to facilitate speedy effluent quality assessment or optimal process control. Hourly effluent samples were collected ...

  8. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Effluent Discharge and Stream Pollution by a Rubber Factory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    State (including the rubber factory of Pamol (Nigeria) Limited discharge their effluents into rivers, streams, ... Nigeria hinterland aquatic systems including the Field 20 Stream where rubber effluents are discharge into .... substantial heat pollution (the temperature of the effluent is sometimes as high as 500C ) have made the ...

  10. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yılmaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast effluent is a major source of pollution with a high organic load and dark colour. It can be treated by using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs. AOPs, such as ultrasonic irradiation, are ambient temperature processes involving the generation of free radicals. We have investigated sonocatalytic treatment of baker's yeast effluent by using ultrasound. TiO2–ZnO composites were used as sonocatalysts to increase the efficiency of the ultrasonic irradiation. The TiO2/ZnO composite was prepared by two different methods. Ultrasonic irradiation or mechanical stirring was used to prepare the TiO2–ZnO composite, and an ultrasonic homogenizer with a 20 kHz frequency was used to treat the baker's yeast effluent. We studied the effects of several parameters, including the molar ratio of TiO2/ZnO, calcination temperature, calcination time and catalyst amount, on the sonocatalytic treatment of the effluent. According to the results, the decolorization rate was 25% when using the composite TiO2/ZnO prepared at a 4:1 molar ratio and treated at 700 °C for 60 min, and the optimum catalyst amount was 0.15 g/l.

  13. Magnetically supported zeolite adsorbents for effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaydardjiev, S.

    1998-01-01

    An attempt was made to remove heavy metal ions from metallurgical effluents by means of magnetically supported fluidized bed column employing zeolite-magnetite complexes as adsorbents. The natural sorptive properties of acid modified clinoptilolite were used instead of synthetic beads. X-ray diffraction and DTA studies on the raw material confirmed that the main zeolite mineral was clinoptilolite. (author)

  14. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-02

    Apr 2, 2018 ... monitoring is required when using anaerobic filter effluent from a DEWATS for irrigating banana and taro. Keywords: banana, intercrop, nitrogen, ... and anaerobic filter (AF) of the DEWATS degrade blackwater and greywater to produce biogas and ...... Passive Approaches. Intech Open Science Online ...

  15. Simulation of ammoniacal nitrogen effluent using feedforward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammoniacal nitrogen in domestic wastewater treatment plants has recently been added as the monitoring parameter by the Department of Environment, Malaysia. It is necessary to obtain a suitable model for the simulation of ammonical nitrogen in the effluent stream of sewage treatment plant in order to meet the new ...

  16. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGES FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. The quality of effluent discharges from a vegetable oil processing company, located in Anambra State –. South east Nigeria, was evaluated relative to regulatory body – Federal Environmental Protection. Agency (FEPA) standard. Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),.

  17. EFFECTS OF REFINERY EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Managing oil and gas industrial environment requires constant monitoring of the effluent discharges from such industries. ... The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, COD, Oil and Grease, Temperature, Cations (Pb2+, Fe (total), Cu2+ , Cr6+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and Anions (PO3-4, ...

  18. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Decentralised Wastewater Treatment System (DEWATS) can provide a potential sanitation solution to residents living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. This paper reports on a first step to assess the technical viability of this concept. To do so a pilot DEWATS plant was ...

  19. Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  20. Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents | Palamthodi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Textile waste water is a highly variable mixture of many polluting substance ranging from inorganic compounds and elements to polymers and organic products. To ensure the safety of effluents, proper technologies need to be used for the complete degradation of dyes. Traditionally, treatments of textile waste water involve ...

  1. Short communication: Industrial effluent treatments using heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioflocculants produced by Herbaspirillium sp. CH7, Paenibacillus sp. CH11, Bacillus sp. CH15 and a Halomonas sp. were preliminarily evaluated as flocculating agents in the treatment of industrial wastewater effluents. Industrial (1 local chemical-industry and 2 textile-industry: Biavin 109-medium blue dye and Whale dye) ...

  2. Effluent and water treatment at AERE Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid wastes at Harwell is based on two main principles: separation of surface water, domestic sewage, trade wastes and radioactive effluents at source, and a system of holding tanks which are sampled so that the appropriate treatment can be given to any batch. All discharges are subject to independent monitoring by the authorising departments and the Thames Water Inspectors. (author)

  3. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or ... breakdown of the chlorolignin residues and the chromophoric groups responsible for the dark coloration of the textile effluent can be accomplished by the use of enzymes from the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

  4. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  5. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 415.402 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control... SOURCE CATEGORY Fluorine Production Subcategory § 415.402 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control...

  8. 40 CFR 464.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1,000 pounds of metal poured) for a specific plant. (b) Die Casting Operations. BAT Effluent... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL MOLDING AND CASTING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Zinc Casting...) Casting Quench Operations. BAT Effluent Limitations Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  9. 40 CFR 468.12 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...—Surface Coating BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum... 0.051 (d) Subpart A—Solution Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant...—Extrusion Heat Treatment BAT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day...

  10. Statistical evaluation of effluent monitoring data for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.J.; Johnson, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    The 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) consists of a pair of infiltration basins that receive wastewater originating from the 200 West and 200 East Areas of the Hanford Site. TEDF has been in operation since 1995 and is regulated by State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 (Ecology 1995) under the authority of Chapter 90.48 Revised Code of Washington (RCW) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 173-216. The permit stipulates monitoring requirements for effluent (or end-of-pipe) discharges and groundwater monitoring for TEDF. Groundwater monitoring began in 1992 prior to TEDF construction. Routine effluent monitoring in accordance with the permit requirements began in late April 1995 when the facility began operations. The State Waste Discharge Permit ST 4502 included a special permit condition (S.6). This condition specified a statistical study of the variability of permitted constituents in the effluent from TEDF during its first year of operation. The study was designed to (1) demonstrate compliance with the waste discharge permit; (2) determine the variability of all constituents in the effluent that have enforcement limits, early warning values, and monitoring requirements (WHC 1995); and (3) determine if concentrations of permitted constituents vary with season. Additional and more frequent sampling was conducted for the effluent variability study. Statistical evaluation results were provided in Chou and Johnson (1996). Parts of the original first year sampling and analysis plan (WHC 1995) were continued with routine monitoring required up to the present time

  11. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  12. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Dahl, N.R.

    1992-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in US Department of Energy Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination was performed during calendar year 1991 and the evaluation requires the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  14. French studies on the thermal effluents of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezes-Cadiere, H.

    1976-01-01

    This report presents a synthesis of studies made in France in the thermal effluent field: thermal power plant cooling systems, transfer and dispersion of thermal effluents in the receptive media, effects of thermal effluents on water physicochemistry and biochemistry, effects of thermal effluents on aquatic ecosystems, and, possibilities of waste heat recovery with the view of utilization in agriculture, aquaculture and district heating. A catalogue of French organizations working or having data on thermal effluents is presented, as also an alphabetical list of the contacted persons. A bibliography of French documents concerning the previously mentioned studies is finally given (193 refs.) [fr

  15. WIPP site and vicinity geological field trip. A report of a field trip to the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant project in Southeastern New Mexico, June 16 to 18, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, L

    1980-10-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group is conducting an assessment of the radiological health risks to people from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. As a part of this work, EEG is making an effort to improve the understanding of those geological issues concerning the WIPP site which may affect the radiological consequences of the proposed repository. One of the important geological issues to be resolved is the timing and the nature of the dissolution processes which may have affected the WIPP site. EEG organized a two-day conference of geological scientists, on January 17-18, 1980. On the basis of the January conference and the June field trip, EEG has formed the following conclusions: (1) it has not been clearly established that the site or the surrounding area has been attacked by deep dissolution to render it unsuitable for the nuclear waste pilot repository; (2) the existence of an isolated breccia pipe at the site unaccompanied by a deep dissolution wedge, is a very remote possibility; (3) more specific information about the origin and the nature of the brine reservoirs is needed. An important question that should be resolved is whether each encounter with artesian brine represents a separate pocket or whether these occurrences are interconnected; (4) Anderson has postulated a major tectonic fault or a fracture system at the Basin margin along the San Simon Swale; (5) the area in the northern part of the WIPP site, identified from geophysical and bore hole data as the disturbed zone, should be further investigated to cleary understand the nature and significance of this structural anomaly; and (6) a major drawback encountered during the discussions of geological issues related to the WIPP site is the absence of published material that brings together all the known information related to a particular issue.

  16. A system for destroying mixed and hazardous wastes with no gas or liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, D.W.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1992-04-01

    We developed a conceptual design for a processing system in which the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste would be destroyed, while discharging virtually no gaseous or liquid effluents. Only solid products would be produced. For mixed waste feeds these could then be transported and disposed as low level waste. This system would oxidize the organics using any one of several destruction processes adapted to replace air with a mixture of O 2 and recycled CO 2 . Net production Of CO 2 , HC1, and H 2 O in the dosed recycle system would be scrubbed or reacted to solid products such as CaCO 3 , NaCl, and concrete. This no-effluent design may improve community acceptance of a waste destruction system

  17. Effect of Lakhara chemical power station (LPTS) effluents on the river Indus water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, R.B.; Memon, H.M.; Khushwar, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The variation of the quality of river Indus water with respect to the seasonal changes, discharge of water and dilution with the effluents of Lakhra Thermal Power Station (LTPS), has been monitored. The studies were focussed on the river Indus water quality before and after mixing the effluents of the power station. The samples were collected monthly from the representative locations of the river Indus, and analyzed for the residues (total, filterable, non-filterable, volatile and fixed), pH, temperature (air and water), conductance, chloride, hardness, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) /sub 5/- nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia, ammonium, silicates, magnesium, potassium, calcium and sodium. The results have been compared with the permissible limits of ECC (European Economic Community) standards for drinking and surface water. (author)

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  19. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  20. IRSN's expertise about nuclear medicine hospital effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This brief note aims at presenting the radioactivity follow up of hospital effluents performed by the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). This follow up concerns the radioactive compounds and radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine, and principally technetium 99 and iodine 131. The IRSN has developed a network of remote measurement systems for the monitoring of sewers and waste water cleaning facilities. Data are compiled in a data base for analysis and subsequent expertise. (J.S.)

  1. Biological treatment of effluent containing textile dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Amorim, M. T. P.; Porter, R. S.; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; Ferra, M. I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Colour removal of textile dyes from effluent was evaluated using a laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Several commercial dyes were selected to study the effect of dye structure on colour removal. The anaerobic reactor was fed with glucose, an easily biodegradable organic matter and selected individual dyes. Results show that some of the dyes are readily reduced under anaerobic conditions even at high concentration of 700 mg/l. The average removal efficiency for acid dyes usin...

  2. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment (WEA) to identify problematic urban discharges, e.g. stormwater, municipal wastewater, combined sewer overflow (CSO), industrial wastewater. Samples from around Copenhagen were therefore tested in the...

  3. Biotreatment of effluent from 'Adire' textile factories in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okareh, Oladapo T; Ademodi, Tuntunlade F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O

    2017-11-10

    In this present study, bacteria were isolated from wastewater and polluted soil collected from two cottage textile factories in Ibadan. These bacteria isolates were used for the biotreatment of textile mill effluent. The physicochemical parameters of the textile mill effluent before treatment were carried out and percentage decolourisation of the effluent was analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis technique). The degradation products of the textile mill effluent characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The pH values of the effluent were within the permissible limit of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) and National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA), while temperature and electric conductivity of the effluents were below the permissible limit of FEPA and NESREA. The BOD, COD, TSS, TDS and chloride of the textile mill effluent from the two cottage textile factories were above the permissible limits of FEPA and NESREA. Twelve bacteria isolates were screened, effective in decolourising commercial dyes and used to decolourise the textile mill effluent. The bacteria isolates were characterised and identified as Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., Erwinia sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Nocardia sp. The decolourisation of textile effluent was observed through the changes of spectra of UV-visible spectrophotometer. The following bacteria revealed different percentage proportion of decolouration profile:- Bacillus sp., had the highest percentage decolourisation of 57.7%, whereas Micrococcus sp. and Acinetobacter sp. had percentage decolourisation of 32.8 and 26.3%, respectively. The degradation profile of textile effluent was revealed through FTIR spectral analysis. The changes in the position of major peaks revealed from the textile effluent through FTIR spectral analysis, appearances of new peaks and the disappearances of existing peaks signify the degradation of the wastewater. Thus, some native

  4. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  5. Crack closure and healing studies in WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] salt using compressional wave velocity and attenuation measurements: Test methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1990-11-01

    Compressional wave ultrasonic data were used to qualitatively assess the extent of crack closure during hydrostatic compression of damaged specimens of WIPP salt. Cracks were introduced during constant strain-rate triaxial tests at low confining pressure (0.5 MPa) as specimens were taken to either 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 percent axial strain. For three specimens taken to 1.0 percent axial strain, the pressure was increased to 5, 10 or 15 MPa. For the remaining specimens, pressure was raised to 15 MPa. Waveforms for compressional waves traveling both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of maximum principal stress were measured in the undamaged state, during constant strain-rate tests, and then monitored as functions of time while the specimens were held at pressure. Both wave velocities and amplitudes increased over time at pressure, indicating that cracks closed and perhaps healed. The recovery of ultrasonic wave characteristics depended upon both pressure and damage level. The higher the pressure, the greater the velocity recovery; however, amplitude recovery showed no clear correlation with pressure. For both amplitudes and velocities, recoveries were greatest in the specimens with the least damage. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  6. Quarter-scale modeling of room convergence effects on CH [contact-handled] TRU drum waste emplacements using WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] reference design geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandeKraats, J.

    1987-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of horizontal room convergence on CH waste packages emplaced in the WIPP Reference Design geometry (rooms 13 feet high by 33 feet wide, with minus 3/8 inch screened backfill emplaced over and around the waste packages) as a function of time. Based on two tests, predictions were made with regard to full-scale 6-packs emplaced in the Reference Design geometry. These are that load will be transmitted completely through the stack within the first five years after waste emplacement and all drums in all 6-packs will be affected; that virtually all drums will show some deformation eight years after emplacement; that some drums may breach before the eighth year after emplacement has elapsed; and that based on criteria developed during testing, it is predicted that 1% of the drums emplaced will be breached after 8 years and, after 15 years, approximately 12% of the drums are predicted to be breached. 8 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  8. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements

  9. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  11. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  12. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  14. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, H.G. (ed.)

    1977-09-01

    Exploratory drilling operations are being conducted for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program in southeastern New Mexico. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study was initiated to serve as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Much of this area has been influenced by human activities over a long period, and hence the baseline data only reflects the present, relatively disturbed condition of the environment. The study covers air resources, soils, and biotic resources. 23 tables, 6 figs. (DLC)

  15. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-08-15

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  16. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, liquid effluent retention facility and 200 area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to 10 be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document 11 number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the 12 Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation 13 submitted for individual, 'operating' treatment, storage, and/or disposal 14 units, such as the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 15 Treatment Facility (this document, DOE/RL-97-03). 16 17 Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford 18 Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B 19 permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of 20 Ecology (Ecology 1987 and 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 21 (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs 22 defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of 23 Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington 24 State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit 25 application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the 26 chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is 27 contained in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 28 Treatment Facility permit application documentation, in relation to the 29 Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents 30 Section. 31 32 Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in 33 nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units 34 (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever 35 appropriate, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and 200 Area Effluent 36 Treatment Facility permit application documentation makes cross-reference to 37 the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans

  18. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 400 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determination resulted from an evaluation conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 400 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Two major Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 400 Area were evaluated: the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fuels Manufacturing and examination Facility. The determinations were prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of these two facilities, only the Fast Flux Test Facility will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 7 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  1. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farm facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.

    1998-05-18

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  3. A study conducted on the impact of effluent waste from machining process on the environment by water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovoor, Punnose P.; Idris, Mohd Razif [Kuala Lumpur Univ. (Malaysia). Inst. of Product Design and Manufacturing, IPROM; Hassan, Masjuki Haji [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tengku Yahya, Tengku Fazli [Kuala Lumpur Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Malaysian Inst. of Chemical and Bio Engineering Technology, MICET

    2012-11-01

    Ferrous block metals are used frequently in large quantities in various sectors of industry for making automotive, furniture, electrical and mechanical items, body parts for consumables, and so forth. During the manufacturing stage, the block metals are subjected to some form of material removal process either through turning, grinding, milling, or drilling operations to obtain the final product. Wastes are generated from the machining process in the form of effluent waste, solid waste, atmospheric emission, and energy emission. These wastes, if not recycled or treated properly before disposal, will have a detrimental impact on the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of the effluent waste from the machining process on the environment through water analysis. A twofold study is carried out to determine the impact of the effluent waste on the water stream. The preliminary study consists of a scenario analysis where five scenarios are drawn out using substances such as spent coolant, tramp oil, solvent, powdered chips, and sludge, which are commonly found in the effluent waste. The wastes are prepared according to the scenarios and are disposed through the Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing (IPROM) storm water drain. Samples of effluent waste are collected at specific locations according to the APHA method and are tested for parameters such as pH, ammoniacal nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids. A subsequent study is done by collecting 30 samples of the effluent waste from the machining operations from two small- and medium-scale enterprise locations and the IPROM workshop to test the quality of water. The results obtained from the tests showed high values of chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total suspended solids when compared with the Standard B specification for inland water bodies as specified by the

  4. Evaluation ofB. cereusMTCC 25641 for the Treatment of Dairy Waste Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawai, Kunal; Mogha, Kanchan; Prajapati, Jashbhai

    2017-05-01

      Dairy is one of the industries producing wastewater rich in organic matter and thus leading to creation of odorous and high COD containing effluent. Biotreatment leading to bioconversion of the waste materials is probably the most cost-effective technique for managing and utilizing waste. A pilot-scale aerobic treatment plant showing air pressure of 6 kg/cm3 was designed keeping all the conditions similar to the main aerobic plant of any dairy plant. The COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) of the control effluent i.e., without aeration, decreased from 588.5 mg/L on the first day to 147.75 mg/L on the seventh day while the effluent inoculated with B. cereus MTCC 25641 decreased the COD load from 588.5 mg/L on the first day to 38.75 mg/L on the seventh day, which shows that a pilot plant B. cereus MTCC 25641 showed excellent results as 50.68% COD and 44.07% BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) reduction, while pH increased from 6.7 to 8.54 along with 44.06% increase in TDS (Total Dissolved solids) was seen after 24h of aeration.

  5. Effects of volatile fatty acids in biohydrogen effluent on biohythane production from palm oil mill effluent under thermophilic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Mamimin

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Preventing the high concentration of butyric acid, and propionic acid in the hydrogenic effluent could enhance methane production in two-stage anaerobic digestion for biohythane production.

  6. 78 FR 48159 - Preliminary 2012 Effluent Guidelines Program Plan and 2011 Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Annual Effluent Guidelines Review Report, and solicits public comment on both. Clean Water Act (CWA... Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the availability of...-9744 Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 2822T, Attention Docket ID No. EPA...

  7. Poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant for high quality effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nery, V; Damianovic, M H Z; Moura, R B; Pozzi, E; Pires, E C; Foresti, E

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) regarding the technology used, as well as organic matter and nutrient removal efficiencies aiming to optimize the treatment processes involved and wastewater reclamation. The WWTP consists of a dissolved air flotation (DAF) system, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, an aerated-facultative pond (AFP) and a chemical-DAF system. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (97.9 ± 1.0%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (98.6 ± 1.0%) and oil and grease (O&G) (91.1 ± 5.2%) at the WWTP, the nitrogen concentration of 17 ± 11 mg N-NH3 and phosphorus concentration of 1.34 ± 0.93 mg PO4(-3)/L in the final effluent indicate that the processes used are suitable to comply with discharge standards in water bodies. Nitrification and denitrification tests conducted using biomass collected at three AFP points indicated that nitrification and denitrification could take place in the pond.

  8. Activated sludge and activated carbon treatment of a wood preserving effluent containing pentachlorophenol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, P. H. M

    1980-01-01

    ...; however, PCP removal averaged only 35% and the effluent was toxic to rainbow trout. Treatment of the activated sludge effluent by carbon adsorption resulted in effective PCP removal and non-toxic effluents...

  9. Assay of low-level plutonium effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Hsue, F.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    In the plutonium recovery section at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, an effluent solution is generated that contains low plutonium concentration and relatively high americium concentration. Nondestructive assay of this solution is demonstrated by measuring the passive L x-rays following alpha decay. Preliminary results indicate that an average deviation of 30% between L x-ray and alpha counting can be achieved for plutonium concentrations above 10 mg/L and Am/Pu ratios of up to 3; for plutonium concentrations less than 10 mg/L, the average deviation is 40%. The sensitivity of the L x-ray assay is approx. 1 mg Pu/L

  10. Whole Effluent Assessment of urban discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Qualmann, Signe; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2011-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive lay down a framework for maintaining or obtaining good ecological and chemical status of European surface and coastal water bodies by the year 2015. The aim of this work was through Whole Effluent Assessment......-hatched eggs, nauplii and copepodites was determined in controls as well as in samples and the effect was calculated as the ratio between the number of copepodites and the sum of the numbers of nauplii and copepodites. Ratios below or above 1 significantly (t-test) differing from the control group...

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  12. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  13. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  14. 40 CFR 439.34 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Synthesis Products § 439.34 Effluent limitations attainable by the...

  15. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance

  16. The role of regional groundwater flow in the hydrogeology of the Culebra member of the Rustler formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbet, T.F.; Knupp, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Numerical simulation has been used to enhance conceptual understanding, of the hydrogeology of the Culebra Dolomite in the context of regional groundwater flow. The hydrogeology is of interest because this unit is a possible pathway for offsite migration of radionuclides from a proposed repository for defense-generated transuranic wastes (the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). The numerical model used is three-dimensional, extends laterally to topographic features that form the actual boundaries of a regional groundwater system, and uses a free-surface upper boundary condition to simulate the effect of change in the rate of recharge on groundwater flow. Steady-state simulations were performed to examine the sensitivity of simulation results to assumed values for hydraulic conductivity and recharge rate. Transient simulations, covering the time period from 14,000 years in the past to 10,000 years in the future, provided insight into how patterns of groundwater flow respond to changes in climate. Simulation results suggest that rates and directions of Groundwater flow in the Culebra change with time due to interaction between recharge, movement of the water table, and the topography of the land surface. The gentle east-to-west slope of the land surface in the vicinity of the WIPP caused groundwater in the Culebra to flow toward and discharge into Nash Draw, a topographic depression. Modern-day flow directions in the Culebra reflect regional rather than local features of the topography. Changes in Groundwater flow, however, lagged behind changes in the rate of recharge. The present-day position of the water table is still adjusting to the decrease in recharge that ended 8,000 years ago. Contaminants introduced into the Culebra will travel toward the accessible environment along the Culebra rather than by leaking upward or downward into other units. Natural changes in flow over the next 10,000 years will be small and will mainly reflect future short-term wet periods

  17. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.

  18. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

  19. An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, M.A.; Sargent, T.J.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the open-quotes reportedclose quotes failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes. In many instances the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular open-quotes reoperational checkclose quotes tests, the open-quotes mission timeclose quotes for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  1. Fungal protein from corn waste effluents : a model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the microbiological aspects of the production of microbial protein ('single cell protein'; SCP) from corn waste effluents with simultaneous reduction of the COD of these effluents.

    For practical reasons the corn waste water itself was

  2. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos, Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra. Other parameters ...

  3. Quality Assessment of Effluent Discharges from Vegetable oil Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater quality parameters namely; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hydrocarbon content (THC), oil and grease, total dissolved solids (TDS), pH, and temperature were determined weekly on effluent samples, for a period of 12 weeks, using standard methods. The effluent data were ...

  4. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.TECHNOLOGY

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical ...

  5. Evaluation of some industrial effluents in Jos metropolis, Plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sometimes effluents gain access into wells or streams within the community. Analyses aimed to determine the strength of effluents of three different industries in Jos metropolis: industry A (a food industry), industry B (a pharmaceutical outfit) and Industry C (a water treatment plant) using parameters such as physicochemical, ...

  6. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years.

  7. The chemical composition of the effluent from Awassa Textile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of the effluent from the Awassa textile factory was quantified and its effects on chlorophyll-a concentration and fish fry were examined. The effluent contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, and concentrations of about 70% of all the elements measured were higher (by 10 to 100 times) ...

  8. Fate and Effect of Dissolved Silicon within Wastewater Treatment Effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2017-07-05

    In large rivers, the ratios of silicon (Si)/nitrogen (N)/phosphorus (P) have changed dramatically as anthropogenic additions of N or P are not matched by Si. Wastewater effluent is a recognized source of N and P to coastal environments. Few previous studies, however, have examined the Si load of a large wastewater plant's effluent or the molar ratios of Si/N and Si/P in effluent. We examine the annual flux of dissolved silicon (DSi) carried by effluent from the second largest treatment plant by flow in the United States (Deer Island Treatment Plant, DITP, Boston, MA). We compare treatment plant nutrient fluxes to local urban river nutrient fluxes and trace the impact of the DITP DSi loading on receiving waters. Estimates (±95% confidence interval) of treated effluent (67 800 ± 1500 kmol DSi year -1 ) compared to untreated (69 500 kmol DSi year -1 ) indicate that the process of sewage treatment at DITP likely does not remove DSi. DITP effluent was Si-limited and this Si-limitation is reflected in the receiving waters (Massachusetts Bay). However, Si-limitation appears only in the area immediately surrounding the effluent discharge. We use these results to explain phytoplankton patterns in Massachusetts Bay and to provide the first estimate of DSi loading (3.6 Gmol SiO 2 year -1 ) from wastewater effluent across the US.

  9. Effluent treatment efficiency and compliance monitoring in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of effluent treatment at the Eleme Petrochemical Industry, Port Harcourt, Nigeria was monitored weekly for six weeks to assess their level of compliance with the Directorate of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines and standards for environmental safety. Effluent samples were taken from the untreated ...

  10. Effects of cassava mill effluent on some chemical and micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the effects of cassava mill effluent on the Physicochemical and biological properties of soils of Obubra and Odukpani Local Areas in Cross River State after long time of pollution by the effluent. The soil samples were collected with an auger at the depths of 0-15cm and 15-30cm in each of the polluted ...

  11. Effect of industrial effluents on the growth and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... The authors investigated the impact of industrial effluents from 5 different industrial concerns in Lagos,. Nigeria on Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). During the study, it was observed that these effluents induced detrimental effects on the flowering, fruiting, stem length, leaf width and leaf length of okra.

  12. Physiochemical study of NSSC effluents and assessment of principal pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Waste effluents collected from different processing units of a pulp-mill were analyzed for various physiochemical parameters i.e. appearance, pH, conductance, total dissolved and suspended solids (TDS and TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5- days biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/). Various ions with reference to pulping process were investigated in these effluents which include Cr, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/, SO/sub 3/sup 2-/, CO/sub 3/sup 2-/HCO/sub 3/sup 1-/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, Mg/sup +2/ and Ca/sup +2/. Heavy metals like Hg, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn was also determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards for industrial effluents. Most of the parameters were found outside the permissible limits except the temperature, pH and few cations. Effluents from NSSC process exhibited highest values of TDS, TSS, COD and BODs (these are 103174, 31866, 23340, 6864 mg/l respectively). Chief polluting characteristics of these effluents were found to be the dissolved chemicals and suspended organic matter, which are responsible for very high COD and BODs values. This study was: an effort to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in the waste effluents of pulp and paper industry with special emphasis on NSSC effluents and their contribution in environmental pollution. The hazardous effects of these effluents and different treatment methodologies have also been discussed. (author)

  13. Operability test procedure for the TK-900 effluent monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfels, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    This procedure will verify that the 221-B liquid effluent monitoring system, installed near the east end of the 6-in. chemical sewer header, functions as intended by design. TK-900B was installed near stairwell 3 in the 221-B electrical gallery by Project W-007H. The system is part of BAT/AKART for the BCE liquid effluent system

  14. Overexpression of antibiotic resistance genes in hospital effluents over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will P M; Baker-Austin, Craig; Verner-Jeffreys, David W; Ryan, Jim J; Micallef, Christianne; Maskell, Duncan J; Pearce, Gareth P

    2017-06-01

    Effluents contain a diverse abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that augment the resistome of receiving aquatic environments. However, uncertainty remains regarding their temporal persistence, transcription and response to anthropogenic factors, such as antibiotic usage. We present a spatiotemporal study within a river catchment (River Cam, UK) that aims to determine the contribution of antibiotic resistance gene-containing effluents originating from sites of varying antibiotic usage to the receiving environment. Gene abundance in effluents (municipal hospital and dairy farm) was compared against background samples of the receiving aquatic environment (i.e. the catchment source) to determine the resistome contribution of effluents. We used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to correlate DNA and RNA abundance and identified differentially regulated gene transcripts. We found that mean antibiotic resistance gene and transcript abundances were correlated for both hospital ( ρ  = 0.9, two-tailed P  resistance genes ( bla GES and bla OXA ) were overexpressed in all hospital effluent samples. High β-lactam resistance gene transcript abundance was related to hospital antibiotic usage over time and hospital effluents contained antibiotic residues. We conclude that effluents contribute high levels of antibiotic resistance genes to the aquatic environment; these genes are expressed at significant levels and are possibly related to the level of antibiotic usage at the effluent source. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  15. Treatment of some Textile Industrial Effluents using Dry Corn Stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn stalk ground to various mesh sizes was used to treat textile effluents obtained from three different industries. These effluents were first pretreated with alum and then charcoal; passing the water through a column, (20cm long and 5cm diameter) containing the ground corn stalk of size diameters of 300mm, 355mm ...

  16. The effects of hair dressing effluent irrigation on soil chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of hair dressing effluent on soil chemical properties, germination and growth of maize and cowpea were investigated in pot experiment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design of 3 effluent treatments (100 ml, 200 ml and 400 ml) and control with 5 replications at University of Port Harcourt ...

  17. Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sublethal Effects of Ammoniacal Fertilizer Effluents on three Commercial Fish Species from Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. IKE Ekweozor, NOK Bobmanuel, UU Gabriel. Abstract. Sublethal effects of various concentrations of fertilizer effluents on the tail beat frequency per minute (TBF min.-1) and opercular beat frequency per ...

  18. Toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents to African catfish: Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative lethal and sublethal toxicity of cassava wastewater effluents from a local food factory were investigated on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings using a renewable static bioassay. The physico-chemical characteristics of the cassava wastewater effluents showed a number of deviations from the standards of the Federal ...

  19. Color pollution control in textile dyeing industry effluents using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective treatment of dyestuff containing textile dyeing industry effluents require advanced treatment technologies such as adsorption for the removal of dyestuffs. Powdered commercial coal based activated carbon has been the most widely used adsorbent for the removal of dyestuffs from dyeing industry effluents.

  20. Spatial Variation in Groundwater Pollution from Abattoir Effluents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study therefore concluded that the water in Groups A and B, was not fit for drinking unless adequately treated. It was recommended that there is the need for the treatment of the abattoir effluents before discharging them into the environment. Keywords: Spatial variation, Groundwater, Pollution, Abattoir, Effluents, Water ...

  1. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  2. The Use of Kitchen Effluent as Alternative Nutrient Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recovery of oil based drilling muds was monitored for a period of 12 weeks upon inoculation with kitchen effluent. Oil based drilling muds inoculated with varying volumes (200ml, 250ml and 300ml) of kitchen effluent constituted the experimental set-ups, while the control set-ups were made up of oil based drilling muds ...

  3. Effects of abattoir effluent on composition and distribution of insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological impacts of abattoir effluents discharge into Lower Ogun River were assessed by studying the composition, distributions and diversity of insect fauna of the river both in lsheri-Olofin(abattoir effluents discharge/downstream) and lshasi (upstream/control) areas for 24months (January 2006 to December 2007).

  4. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  5. Biodegradation Potentials of Cassava Mill Effluent (CME) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    This work was aimed at assessing the biodegradation potentials of indigenous microbial isolates from cassava mill effluent ... Bioremediation of cassava mill effluent by these microorganisms was manifested in the reduction of biological oxygen demand ... in the manufacturing industries and degradation or transformation of ...

  6. Effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water | Ehiagbonare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of cassava effluent on Okada natural water. It was observed that the colour, taste and odour of the water changed after cassava effluent had been discharched into it. This was an indication of pollution. The physico-chemical analysis showed that the characteristics of water analysed varied ...

  7. Hydroponics reducing effluent's heavy metals discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Abdellah; Al-Shuha, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the capacity of Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) to control effluent's heavy metals discharge. A commercial hydroponic system was adapted to irrigate lettuces with primary treated wastewater for studying the potential heavy metals removal. A second commercial hydroponic system was used to irrigate the same type of lettuces with nutrient solution and this system was used as a control. Results showed that lettuces grew well when irrigated with primary treated effluent in the commercial hydroponic system. The NFT-plant system heavy metals removal efficiency varied amongst the different elements, The system's removal efficiency for Cr was more than 92%, Ni more than 85%, in addition to more than 60% reduction of B, Pb, and Zn. Nonetheless, the NFT-plants system removal efficiencies for As, Cd and Cu were lower than 30%. Results show that lettuces accumulated heavy metals in leaves at concentrations higher than the maximum acceptable European and Australian levels. Therefore, non-edible plants such as flowers or pyrethrum are recommended as value added crops for the proposed NFT.

  8. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  9. Biotransformation of chromium (VI) in liquid effluents by resistant bacteria isolated from the Matanza-Riachuelo basin, in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ana Julieta; Caimán, Carolina; Gorino, Natalia; Fortunato, María Susana; Radice, Marcela; Gómez, Carlos; Mujica, Carolina; Marquina, Lorena; Gallego, Alfredo; Korol, Sonia Edith

    2017-10-10

    The aims of this investigation were to evaluate the bacterial resistance to zinc, copper, chromium (VI) and lead in surface water streams from Buenos Aires, Argentina; to select a chromium-resistant strain able to remove the metal in batch process and to evaluate the potential of this strain to remove chromium (VI) in liquid effluents. Bacterial resistance to the metals was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The kinetic of chromium (VI) removal by one of the resistant strains was studied in nutrient broth with 50 and 100 mg L -1 of the metal, as well as an effluent from an electroplating industry. High resistance to all the metals under study was observed in the bacterial communities of the Matanza-Riachuelo basin. A chromium-resistant strain was isolated and identified as Microbacterium sp. It was able to remove 50 and 100 mg L -1 of Cr (VI) in 36 and 66 h respectively, with efficiency higher than 99%. Experiments with liquid effluents showed the ability of the strain to transform 150 mg L -1 of the metal in 84 h, with efficiency higher than 99%. These results show the potential of this native strain for the treatment of liquid effluents that contain chromium (VI).

  10. Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) System Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    The liquid effluent sampling program is part of the effort to minimize adverse environmental impact during the cleanup operation at the Hanford Site. Of the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluents, all streams actively discharged to the soil column will be sampled. The Liquid Effluent Monitoring Information System (LEMIS) is being developed as the organized information repository facility in support of the liquid effluent monitoring requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement. It is necessary to provide an automated repository into which the results from liquid effluent sampling will be placed. This repository must provide for effective retention, review, and retrieval of selected sample data by authorized persons and organizations. This System Construction document is the aggregation of the DMR P+ methodology project management deliverables. Together they represent a description of the project and its plan through four Releases, corresponding to the definition and prioritization of requirements defined by the user

  11. Evaluation of paint industry effluents for irrigation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, Y.N.; Islam, A.; Quraishi, S.B.; Mustafa, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Effluent samples collected from a paints factory for a period of seven months were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soluble cations and anions, nitrogen, phosphorus, and trace elements (Cd, B, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb). Compared with the natural groundwater used for washing paint wastes, the paint industry effluents were found to contain elevated concentrations of cations with the exception of Ca and moderately high concentrations of trace elements. Evaluation of the effluents was made, based on the integration of EC and both the sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and soluble sodium percent (SSP), BOD and COD values, and maximum permissible limits of heavy metals in the irrigation water. From the overall assessment, the effluents were considered suitable for use as supplement irrigation water. However, it is essential that the heavy metals in the effluents, as well as their accumulation in plants and soils, are monitored regularly. (author)

  12. Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas Stutzeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rajamohan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM h, at 320 C.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 100 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, D.E.

    1991-11-01

    The determination for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans arose from evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 100 Area facilities on the Hanford Site. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plant determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). Ten Westinghouse Hanford Company facilities in the 100 Areas were evaluated: N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, 1706 KE Laboratory, and the Surplus Reactors (B, C, D, DR, F, and H). The N Reactor, KE/KW Reactors, and 1706 KE Laboratory Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations were prepared by Columbia Energy and Environmental Services of Richland, Washington. The determination for the Surplus Reactors was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Of the 10 facilities evaluated, two will require a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan: N Reactor and the active spent fuel storage facilities and their contiguous support facilities at 100 KE and 100 KW

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years.

  15. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  16. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  17. The effluent problem in a plutonium production centre; Probleme des effluents d'un centre de production de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galley, R.; Cantel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The first part of the report is devoted to generalities: the geographical situation of the Marcoule Centre, the sources of radio-active effluent, methods of treating this effluent. In the second part the authors gives a detailed description of the various installations in the Radio-active Effluent Treatment Station at the Marcoule Centre, and outline the conditions governing the rejection of treated effluent into the Rhone. A few lines are given to comparisons between the results obtained from the use of these installations up till may 1959 and the expected results published by the same authors at the Brussels Conference (1956). In conclusion the authors lay down some of the essential principles, applicable to the study of new installations. (author) [French] La premiere partie du rapport est consacree a quelques generalites: situation geographique du Centre de Marcoule, provenance des effluents radioactifs, methodes de traitement de ces effluents. Dans la seconde partie, les auteurs presentent une description detaillee des diverses installations de la Station de Traitement des Effluents radioactifs du Centre de Marcoule et precisent les conditions de rejet dans le Rhone des effluents radioactifs traites. Quelques lignes sont consacrees aux comparaisons entre les resultats de l'exploitation des installations jusqu'en mai 1959 et les previsions publiees par les memes auteurs a l'occasion de la Conference de Bruxelles (1956). En conclusion, les auteurs donnent quelques principes essentiels, applicables a l'etude de nouvelles installations. (auteur)

  18. 40 CFR 415.163 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 415.163 Section 415.163 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... to this subpart and using the solar evaporation process must achieve the following effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 420.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best practicable control technology currently available. (a) Cold rolling mills—(1) Recirculation... 9.0. (2) Recirculation—multiple stands. Subpart J Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent.... (b) Cold worked pipe and tube—(1) Using water. Subpart J Pollutant of pollutant property BPT effluent...

  20. 40 CFR 430.122 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Filter, Non-Woven, and Paperboard From Purchased Pulp Subcategory § 430.122 Effluent limitations... times. Subpart L [BPT effluent limitations for non-integrated mills where filter and non-woven papers... available (BPT), except that non-continuous dischargers shall not be subject to the maximum day and average...

  1. 40 CFR 406.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology. 406.17 Section 406.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.17 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...] Effective Date Note: Section 406.17 was indefinitely suspended at 45 FR 45582, July 7, 1980. ...

  2. 40 CFR 406.27 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.27 Section 406.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 406.27 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the... conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.22 of this subpart for the best practicable...

  3. 40 CFR 406.47 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.47 Section 406.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.47 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.42 of this subpart for the...

  4. 40 CFR 406.37 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 406.37 Section 406.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Subcategory § 406.37 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable... specified for conventional pollutants (which are defined in § 401.16) in § 406.32 of this subpart for the...

  5. 40 CFR 423.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology currently available (BPT). 423.12 Section 423.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines...

  6. 40 CFR 423.14 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... control technology (BCT). 423.14 Section 423.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.14...

  7. 40 CFR 423.13 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable (BAT). 423.13 Section 423.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS STEAM ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 423.13...

  8. 40 CFR 405.92 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Condensed Milk Subcategory § 405.92 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... Within the range 6.0 to 9.0. (b) For plants condensing 100,000 lb/day or less of milk equivalent (less... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT): (a) For plants condensing...

  9. 40 CFR 468.11 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (p) Subpart A—Surface Coating BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for... Treatment BPT Effluent Limitations. Pollutant or pollutant property Maximum for any 1 day Maximum for... (1) (1) 1 Within the range of 7.5 to 10.0 at all times. (e) Subpart A—Extrusion Heat Treatment BPT...

  10. 40 CFR 427.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 427.83 Section 427.83 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree...

  11. 40 CFR 427.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 427.82 Section 427.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... or Finishing of Asbestos Textiles Subcategory § 427.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing...

  12. 40 CFR 428.62 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... technology currently available. 428.62 Section 428.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium...

  13. 40 CFR 428.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations guidelines... economically achievable. 428.63 Section 428.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Medium-Sized General...

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Report 1998 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith W. Jacobson

    1999-07-01

    Presented is the Laboratory-wide certified report regarding radioactive effluents released into the air by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1998. This information is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. For 1998, the dose was 1.72 mrem. Airborne effluents from a 1 mA, 800 MeV proton accelerator contributed about 80% of the EDE; the majority of the total dose contribution was via the air immersion pathway.

  15. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  16. REUSE OF DECOLORIZED DYEING EFFLUENTS IN REPEATED DYEINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖNER Erhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental work, the effluents of the reactive and disperse dyeings were reused in the next dyeing after the decolourization by ozone gas. Accordingly, the polyester woven samples were dyed with C.I. Disperse Yellow 160, C.I. Disperse Red 77 and C.I. Disperse Blue 79:1, and the cotton woven samples were dyed with C.I. Reactive Yellow 176, C.I. Reactive Red 239 and C.I. Reactive Blue 221. The effluents of the dyeings with these dyes and also with their mixtures were decolorized by ozone gas. The colours of the samples dyed with the decolorized effluents were compared with the original dyeings (standards and the colour differences were calculated. Under the experimental conditions of this investigation, the many of the dyeing effluents were decolorized successfully, except the effluent of C.I. Disperse Red 77. In the case that this red disperse dye present in the dyebath, the decolorized effluent had a slight reddish colour. The colour differences between the original dyeing (standard and the samples dyed with the decolorized effluent are mostly below the tolerance (DE<1 or slightly above the tolerance. The solid colours and uniform dyeings were achieved in the dyeings. The method seems promising in decreasing the amount of water used in textile dyeings.

  17. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  18. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  19. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, C.X.; Wang, Z.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Ecoenvironmental Science Research Center

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. In the present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo(a)pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo(g,h,i)perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09 {+-} 0.03 ng/g). Therefore, both of the PAHs residues in effluents and emission from a nearby coal/coke plant were responsible. Also in this case study, low levels of the OCPs were observed and were not of significant concern in this wastewater irrigation area.

  20. Effluent generation by the dairy industry: preventive attitudes and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Brião

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Work aimed to identify the effluent is generating areas in a dairy company for purpose of changing concept pollution prevention. methodology consisted measuring volumes and collecting samples effluents production sectors. analysis was conducted by sector, order those which generated excessive amounts effluents. results show that dry products (powdered milk powdered whey are greatest generators BOD, nitrogen phosphorus, while fluid form (UHT milk, formulated UHT, pasteurized cream butter produced large quantities oils grease. solids recovery, waste segregation water reuse can be applied with saving potential as much R$ 28,000 ($ 11,200 per month only raw materials also environmental gains in pollution prevention.