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Sample records for wintering beef cattle

  1. Effect of winter cover crop grazing on animal performance and antibiotic resistance during pre-weaning period in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the effect of winter wheat grazing on body weight gain and the level of antibiotic resistant bacteria in beef cattle. Calves and cows (16 each) were equally randomized into tall fescue or wheat pastures. Body weights and fecal samples were taken on d 0, d 7, d 14 and d 21. Samples we...

  2. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  3. Hypomagnesaemia in beef cows wintered in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Thompson, B K; Ho, S K; Proulx, J G

    1981-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken in northern Ontario in order to assess the magnesium status of beef cattle raised in the area. Magnesium status was assessed using several criteria including blood and urine magnesium levels, and bone biopsy samples. Eighteen groups each containing four pregnant Shorthorn beef cows were used. Each of the following three mineral feeds were offered to six groups throughout the experiment: a mineral feed without magnesium, a mineral feed containing 8% magnesium ...

  4. Thermal balance of cattle grazing winter range: model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, E N; Olson, B E

    2006-05-01

    Beef cattle grazing semiarid foothill rangeland of the Northern Rockies during winter may be exposed to cold temperatures and high winds while grazing pastures with low nutritional value. Cattle can physiologically and behaviorally respond to the changing environment to lower their metabolic requirements and reduce the effects of cold exposure. Requirements of grazing cattle may be overpredicted with models developed in controlled settings that do not account for energy-conserving behaviors. We refined a simple thermal balance equation to model heat exchange of free-ranging cattle. We accounted for the complex interactions between animal behavior and the changing natural environment by applying the insulation characteristics of the cattle's tissue and coat to a simple geometric shape of an asymmetric ellipsoid at different orientations to the sun and wind. We compared the model predictions with heat production measured in 3 studies, and in all cases the model predictions were similar to those reported. Model simulations indicate behaviors, such as lying and orientation to the sun, mitigated the effects of extreme weather. For many combinations of winter weather variables, metabolic requirements increased only slightly due to cold exposure of mature beef cattle in a near-maintenance state. The results indicate that solar radiation contributes strongly to the thermal balance of a cow. Thus, previous models that do not account for the irradiative environment may overestimate metabolic requirements of cattle acclimated to grazing winter range.

  5. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  6. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted from April to June, 2016 with the objective of assessing the beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in and around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study area, by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured and ...

  7. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-bred diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 65. Cundiff, L.V, Gregory, K.E., Koch, R.M. & Dickerson, G.E., 1986. Genetic diversity among cattle breeds and its use to increase beef production efficiency in a temperate environment.

  8. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  9. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  10. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  11. Econometrics Analysis Of Semi Intensive Beef Cattle Fattening In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Nigeria: A Case Study Of Yola South Local Government Area. ... KEY WORDS: Econometrics analysis, Semi intensive, Beef cattle fattening, Profitability and marketing routes. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(1) 2005: 35- ...

  12. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  13. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    Aug 16, 2014 ... Beef cattle are unique, because they not only suffer from climate change, but they also contribute to .... designed crossbreeding systems, thereby reducing the carbon footprint of beef production. The fact that there are large differences in the kgC/LSU between certain genotypes, points to genetic differences ...

  14. Epidemiology of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in beef cattle herds in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J W A; Webb Ware, J K; Kluver, P

    2012-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of bovine Johne's disease (BJD) in beef herds in Australia. Retrospective survey of beef herds detected with BJD between 1991 and 2006. Information about the management and physical characteristics of affected herds, index and clinical cases, testing and control programs, and attitudes to BJD were collated from existing data and personal interviews of herd owners or managers. Herds were excluded if they contained fewer than 30 breeding cows or operated as a dairy farm. Records from 109 herds demonstrated the first detected ('index') case was 3.4-fold more likely to be a beef rather than dairy breed. However, further analysis revealed association with dairy cattle was an important risk factor for introducing BJD. Index cases were most likely detected by veterinarians investigating clinical cases of scouring or ill-thrifty animals during winter, particularly bulls or aged cows. Most herds with clinical BJD had only a single case, with only one high prevalence herd detected in the survey group. Over the period of observation, test and cull programs did not eradicate BJD unless combined with culling of known high-risk animals, but removal of high-risk cattle by partial or total destocking generally restored the trading status of affected herds. Excluding cattle with dairy contact from beef herds, ensuring more effective farm biosecurity, promptly seeking veterinary advice regarding scouring cattle and sourcing replacement cattle from demonstrably low-risk herds, such as CattleMAP and 'Beef Only' herds, are simple strategies that should reduce the risk of introducing BJD infection into beef herds. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga ...

  16. Performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle managed in a bedded hoop-barn system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, M S; Busby, W D; Lonergan, S M; Johnson, A K; Maxwell, D L; Harmon, J D; Shouse, S C

    2010-08-01

    The use of bedded hoop barns in finishing systems for beef cattle has not been widely researched. In this management system, beef cattle are confined to hoop barns throughout finishing, and bedding is used to absorb animal waste, which results in minimal effluent. The objective of this study was to compare the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers (n = 1,428) managed in a bedded hoop-barn management system vs. an open-feedlot system with shelter. Six feeding trials were conducted over a 3-yr period. Three trials were conducted during summer-fall and 3 trials were conducted during winter-spring. Crossbred steers were allotted to 3 pens in the hoop-barn system and to 3 pens in the open-lot system (approximately 40 steers per pen in both facility systems). Stocking densities for the steers were 4.65 m(2) per steer in the hoop-barn system and 14.7 m(2) per steer in the open-lot system. The steers were begun on trial weighing 410 and 411 kg (SD = 21), were fed for 102.3 and 103.0 d (SD = 3.8), and were weighed off test at 595 and 602 kg (SD = 21) for the hoop-barn and open-lot systems, respectively. Steer performance measures consisted of ADG, DMI, and G:F. Carcass characteristics were HCW, fat thickness, LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, USDA yield grade, and USDA quality grade. No year, season, or pen (management system) main effects, or season x management system and year x management system interactions were observed for any of the items measured related to cattle performance or carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). Final mud scores (a subjective evaluation of the amount of soil and manure adhering to the hair coat of the animals) were greater for the steers from the open-lot system compared with those from the hoop-barn system (P winter-spring. The performance of finishing cattle managed in a hoop-barn system was not different from the performance of cattle managed in an open-feedlot system with shelter during summer and winter

  17. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  18. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review different means of expressing genetic reproductive merit. The breeding objective considered was to maximize the number of calves born or weaned for a given number of cows in a herd under prevailing ...

  19. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average growth and body weight data, which comprised 745 400 weaning records and 14 990 Phase C growth records of young bulls of 16 breeds were obtained from the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize breeds for a variety of important traits.

  20. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  1. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review ... records and weigh animals at birth, weaning, yearling age and 18 months of age. ..... calving ease between 2-year old dams and 3-year old dams with mature dams, were estimated to be 0.46 and.

  2. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  3. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...

  4. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study ... straints, such as shortage of feed (100%), shortage of land (78.7%), market problem (75.9%), and diseases ..... height, good body condition and big and stand-high hump, in addition to coat color and sex. According to the ...

  5. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  6. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  7. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  8. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  9. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China.

  10. Market Impacts of Reducing the Prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Disease in United States Beef Cattle Feedlots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamina Keiko Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a common endemic disease among North American feedlot cattle. BRD can lead to significant economic losses for individual beef cattle feedlot producers through mortality and morbidity. With promising new management and technology research that could reduce BRD prevalence, this study evaluates the potential impacts of a reduction of BRD in the US beef cattle feedlot sector. Using a multi-market, multi-commodity partial equilibrium economic model of the US agricultural industry, we evaluate the market impacts of reduced BRD to producers from various livestock, meat, and feedstuffs industries. We find that as morbidity and mortality is reduced, beef cattle producers experience losses due to increased supplies (lower beef cattle prices and increased demand for feedstuff (higher feedstuff prices. Beef cattle processors see gains as the price of beef cattle is lower, whereas feedstuff producers gain from higher feedstuff prices. Producers in the allied industries (pork, lamb, poultry, and eggs see a small reduction in returns as consumers substitute with less expensive beef products. Consumers see gains in welfare as the increase in beef cattle supply results in lower beef prices. These lower beef prices more than offset the small increases in pork, lamb, poultry, and egg prices. Overall, the potential economic welfare change due to management and technologies that reduce BRD is a net gain for the US society as a whole.

  11. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  12. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ronchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF, fumonisins (FB, ochratoxin A (OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenol (ZEN]. Total mixed rations (TMR resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  13. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thanks the helpful assistance of Mr J.K. Arnott in as- sembling the data and the useful criticism of the paper and that of Mr B. Mappledoram who was responsible for the care of the field experiments reported in this paper. References. HARMN, G.O., 1974. Role of nutrition in beef cattle production.,F.S.S.,4. J.,2.21. HARWIN.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Beef Cattle Production in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N.; Niraula, R.; Saleh, A.; Osei, E.; Cole, A.; Todd, R.; Waldrip, H.; Aljoe, H.

    2017-12-01

    A five-year USDA-funded study titled "Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the Southern Great Plains under changing climate, land use, and markets" was initiated as a multi-institutional collaboration involving Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research (TIAER)—Tarleton State University, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)—Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in El Reno, Oklahoma, USDA—ARS in Bushland, Texas, Kansas State University, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma, and the Noble Research Institute in Ardmore, Oklahoma. The project goal is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a full Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is one of the major objectives of the study, in addition to field experiments, extension, outreach, and education. Estimation of all the resource use and greenhouse gas emissions are parts of the LCA. A computer model titled Animal Production Life Cycle Analysis Tool (APLCAT) is developed and applied to conduct the LCA on beef cattle production in the study region. The model estimates water use, energy requirements, and emissions of enteric methane, manure methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Also included in the LCA analysis are land-atmospheric exchanges of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and the global warming potential. Our study is focused on the cow-calf and stocker phases of beef cattle production. The animal production system in the study region is predominantly forage based with protein and energy supplements when needed. Spring calving typical to the study region. In the cow-calf phase animals typically graze native prairie although introduced pasture grazing is also prevalent. Stockers use winter pasture as the major feed. The results of greenhouse gas emissions summarized per kg of hot carcass weight or animal fed will be presented.

  15. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  16. Spatial variability in nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedyard pen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots include enteric carbon dioxide and methane, and manure-derived methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Enteric methane comprises the largest portion of the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle feedyards. For the manure component, methane is th...

  17. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  18. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  19. 01 Nsoso - A survey of traditional beef cattle farmers....…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    The aims of this survey were to characterise traditional beef cattle farmers and evaluate the adoption of certain improved ... The survey was conducted from March 2002 to October 2002. Beef cattle farmers from fifty (50) .... The most important advantages of using AI in traditional farming in Botswana is that it would lead to ...

  20. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  1. Possibility of introducing Smallholder Beef Cattle Farmer’s Association as a starting point to develop the beef cattle chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candia, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the research is “Possibility of introducing smallholder Beef Cattle Farmers Association as a starting point to develop the beef chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda”. The study was carried out in two Sub Counties of Arua district, Uganda. The objective was to

  2. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Colazo, Marcos G.; Mapletoft, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all ...

  4. Radiographical evaluation of bone maturation in Japanese black beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, A.; Hamada, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Kamiya, S.; Yanagida, K.; Kubota, C.; Watanabe, Y.; Shimizu, R.

    1996-01-01

    Epiphyseal ossification in the radius, ulna, metacarpus, proximal phalanx and tuber calcaneous was examined radiographically in Japanese Black beef cattle. The grade of standard ossification was assessed monthly for each epiphysis. Bone maturations could be divided into 8 grades for the distal radius and distal ulna, 7 grades for the distal metacarpus, 5 grades for the proximal phalanx, and 8 grades for the tuber calcaneous, respectively. The closure of the epiphyseal line completed at the earliest on the proximal phalanx, and at the latest on the distal ulna. Changes in gradings were steep at 0 to 5 months of age but became almost constant after 10 months of age in all the epiphysis. There were no significant differences in bone maturation between the cattle with different sex and breeding conditions

  5. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  6. U.S. BEEF AND CATTLE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS: DATA ISSUES AND IMPACTS ON CATTLE PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Brester, Gary W.; Marsh, John M.

    1999-01-01

    U.S. participation in trade liberalization agreements with Canada and Mexico through the Canada–U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CFTA) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has generated intense debates in agricultural sectors about the benefits and costs of those agreements. The CFTA and NAFTA mandate that live cattle and beef trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States be based upon competitive factors and include legal safeguards to deal with arbitrary trade restrictions. Nom...

  7. Genetic parameters of beef quality traits for Piemontese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carnier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of beef quality traits in Piemontese cattle. A total of 804 young bulls, progeny of 109 AI sires, were sampled from 124 fattening farms (FF and slaughtered in different days at the same commercial abattoir. At slaughter, bulls were 523±73 d old and average carcasses weight (CW was 417±45 kg. Carcasses were scored for fleshiness (EUS and fatness. An individual beef sample was collected from Longissimus Thoracis 24 h after slaughter and held refrigerated at 4 °C for 8 d. Measured traits were pH at ageing (pH8d, beef colour (L*, a*, b*, Hue and Chroma, shear force (SF, drip (DL and cooking loss (CL. A REML linear animal model including the fixed effects of FF, slaughter age and CW class and the random effect of the bull was used. The estimated heritability for EUS, SF, DL, Hue, L* and a* was of intermediate magnitude (from 0.22 to 0.49 whereas heritabilities for all other traits were low (from 0.04 to 0.16.

  8. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Karang Agustina; I Made Ricky Dwi Cahya; Gusti Made Widyantara; Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita; Anak Agung Gde Oka Dharmayudha; Mas Djoko Rudyanto

    2017-01-01

    This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef qual...

  9. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  11. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Prasetiyono, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko

    2018-02-01

    Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2) to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3) to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4) to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  12. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Budi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1 to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2 to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3 to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4 to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  13. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  14. Material Cycle of Agriculture on Miyakojima Island: Material Flow Analysis for Sugar Cane, Pasturage and Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Tamura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture on Miyakojima Island is highly dependent on imported fertilizer and feed. To reduce this dependence, the present research examines the biomass resources on the island by conducting a material flow analysis of stockbreeding and other related systems. To accurately quantify the amount of available biomass resources, loss ratios of the storage and composting processes are established. Then, a material flow analysis of a composting facility is made. Finally, current material flows between beef cattle, sugar cane and pasturage are shown. Based on this research, two proposals are made: the first is to use urine as liquid fertilizer, which is currently being done in Saga prefecture. The precedent of using urine as fertilizer is now widely accepted in the Saga area; is considered to be readily adoptable in other areas and could be substituted for the imported fertilizers on Miyakojima Island. The second is to use more residues of sugar cane for the beef cattle feed when the pasturage growth is slow in the winter. The present research suggests that the silage feeds for beef cattle.

  15. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  16. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  17. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  18. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  19. Historical Overview of the Effect of -Adrenergic Agonists on Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal muscle hypertrophy of beef cattle is the result of enhanced myofibrillar protein synthesis and reduced protein turnover. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been studied in cattle fed β-adrenergic agonists (β-AA, which are receptor-mediated enhancers of protein synthesis and inhibitors of protein degradation. Feeding β-AA to beef cattle increases longissimus muscle cross-sectional area 6% to 40% compared to non-treated cattle. The β-AA have been reported to improve live animal performance, including average daily gain, feed efficiency, hot carcass weight, and dressing percentage. Treatment with β-AA increased mRNA concentration of the β2 or β1-adrenergic receptor and myosin heavy chain IIX in bovine skeletal muscle tissue. This review will examine the effects of skeletal muscle and adipose development with β-AA, and will interpret how the use of β-AA affects performance, body composition, and growth in beef cattle.

  20. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING ORGANIC CATTLE BEEF TRANSPORTATION AND SLAUTHERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrescu Daniela Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors should be considered when selecting the mode of transport. Cost is always important, but must bemeasured against the quality of, and potential losses incurred in, transport. Quality assurance during transportationalso plays a critical role in the health and welfare of beef cattle, as proper handling and transport of cattle can reducesickness in calves, prevent bruises, and improve the quality of the meat from these animals. Provide transportation thatavoids undue stress as appropriate to each species. Transportation, as a whole, is a stress factor that generatesnervousness and anxiety. Any animal reacts with alarm before a new situation such as transportation and this isaggravated when the loading and unloading conditions are not the most favourable. We must always prevent the animalfrom suffering unnecessarily. Once some of the animals from the fattening lot have reached a considerable size and inline with market demand for this type of meat, slaughtering beings. They are slaughtered according to consumer ortrade demand. Animal slaughtering consists of two phases: stunning and bleeding.

  2. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  3. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  4. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Karang Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef quality and nutrition were not significantly different. This indicates that the bali beef have the similar qualities based on the different of sex and age.

  5. Diagnosis and management of venereal campylobacteriosis in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truyers, Isabelle; Luke, Tim; Wilson, David; Sargison, Neil

    2014-11-27

    Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and its glycerine-tolerant variant Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovars intermedius. The disease can be economically important when present in cattle herds, causing poor reproductive performance, embryo mortality and abortion. Sensitive and specific diagnostic tests are required in the diagnosis of infection and to inform and monitor disease control. Current tests include bacterial culture and fluorescent antibody testing of preputial sheath washings and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an agglutination test on vaginal mucus, although the predictive values of these tests can be inadequate in field investigations. Artificial insemination is often considered as a simple control method for bovine venereal campylobacteriosis, but is impractical for many beef suckler herds where breeding takes place at pasture. Commercial vaccines are unavailable in the UK, while the efficacy of autogenous vaccines using a bacterial isolate from infected animals on a specific farm is at best unproven. Hence, for some infected herds, the development of an alternative control strategy based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with culling or treatment would be desirable. This approach requires meticulous records and herd health management. In this paper we highlight difficulties in diagnosing bovine venereal campylobacteriosis and demonstrate the benefits of good record keeping when investigating poor reproductive performance in a beef suckler herd and establishing a herd-specific approach to bio-containment of the infectious cause. Bovine venereal campylobacteriosis is an economically important disease that should be considered in investigations of suckler herd subfertility problems. Control of the disease based on segregation of potentially infected and uninfected animals in combination with extensive culling can be achieved without the use of

  6. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vedovatto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, these may cause morphological and physiological changes such as increased blood flow decrease in plasma insulin, decreased lipogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy mainly in type II fibers. We also observed changes in motility and secretions grastointestinal tract, beyond the direct influence on the rumen bacteria, altering the digestibility of the diet. The β-AA agonists released in some countries for use in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. According to literature data, the inclusion of these additives in the diet of feedlot cattle has been associated with an increase infeed efficiency with the increase in daily weight gain and with equal or lower feed intake. Carcass characteristics improvement was verified in carcass weight, and increased loin eye area, but with the possibility to decrease the subcutaneous fat thickness and marbling. Reviews in sensory panel of meat from animals consuming β-AA agonists showed decreased tenderness and juiciness. Thus β-AA improve performance and carcass characteristics, but more studies are needed to confirm whether they have negative influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  7. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  8. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  9. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  10. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  11. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  12. A nationwide survey on seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañales, Pedro; Fernandez, Leandro; Repiso, María V; Gil, Andres; Dargatz, David A; Osawa, Takeshi

    2006-06-30

    Bovine abortions due to Neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. Uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in South America. However, no data on the prevalence of N. caninum infection have been available in this country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of N. caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay through a nationwide survey. A two stage sampling design was used with farms being selected in stage one and animals being selected in stage two. A brief questionnaire was administered on each farm. Seroprevalence of N. caninum in 4444 beef cattle from 229 farms in all the counties, except Montevideo, of Uruguay was determined by an ELISA. The data were then analyzed to identify associations between infection and variables such as type of animal (cow or heifer), herd size, use of veterinary advice, productivity of the soil in relation to the national average, use of improved grass, use of mineral salts, use of supplemental feed, and presence of a dog(s) on the farm. The estimated proportion of positive farms for all the beef cattle operations was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.7-84.7). The overall cattle seroprevalence was estimated as 13.9% (95% CI, 11.6-16.3). The prevalence estimation by animal category was 14.3% (95% CI, 11.4-17.2) for beef cows and 12.9% (95% CI, 10.0-15.8) for beef heifers. There was no significant difference in the estimated prevalence between the two animal types. There was no significant difference in the animal level prevalence of N. caninum infection among different herd sizes. None of the herd demographic or management variables was significantly associated with the seropositivity to N. caninum infection. In conclusion, these results show that N. caninum infection is common among beef herds across Uruguay. Since the beef industry is one of the key industries in Uruguay, the

  13. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  14. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  15. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  16. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (pbeef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels.

  17. THE BREEDING OF BEEF CATTLE IN soUTH AFRICA: PAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    livestock industry. The progress achieved was the result of the enthusiasm of individual farmers and civil servants. During the early years of the cattle industry the mul- tiplication ol' numbers ... outside and inside of the beef industry that led to changes in breeding policies. ..... tions in wrong areas but to be in fashion. Through ...

  18. Temporal nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure following a simulated rainfall event

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale, recirculating-flow-through, non-steady-state (RFT-NSS) chamber system was designed for quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens. The system employed five 1 square meter steel pans. A lid was placed systematically on each pan and heads...

  19. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production is limited by the necessity to monitor estrus and handle animals twice daily for several weeks. Protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI) would facilitate the use of AI. Obje...

  20. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Texas A&M University (TAMU) Beef Cattle Production model was expanded to include basic concepts of quantitative genetics. The traits simulated were birth weight, yearling weight, mature weight and milk production. The progeny inherited attributes from both the sire and the dam. The incorporation of genetic concepts ...

  1. Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell phone is said to be an innovative communication device which allows consumers, traders and farmers to search market appropriate information for timely decision-making to save time and travelling costs. However, determinants of using this technology in beef cattle market information seeking for smallholders in ...

  2. Stocking rate and fuels reduction effects on beef cattle diet composition and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Clark; Tim DelCurto; Martin Vavra; Brian L. Dick

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of forest fuels reduction on diet quality, botanical composition, relative preference, and foraging efficiency of beef cattle grazing at different stocking rates. A split plot factorial design was used, with whole plots (3 ha) being fuel reduced or no treatment (control), and split plots (1 ha) within whole plots...

  3. Seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum in a population of beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loobuyck, M.; Frössling, J.; Lindberg, A.; Björkman, C.

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional serological survey for Neospora caninum was carried out in Swedish beef cattle in order to estimate the seroprevalence and investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. Blood samples were collected from 2754 animals in 2130 herds and analysed for presence of antibodies to

  4. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  5. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

  6. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  7. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  8. Seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in Northeast Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Hajtós, I

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in Northeast Hungary. Antibodies to Neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. Since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. The percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with age, suggesting a postnatal source of infection. The highest rate of positivity was detected in Aberdeen Angus (3.3%) and Holstein-Friesian cows (3.2%), and the lowest in Limousine (0.9%), but no breed predisposition was statistically substantiated. Neosporosis was more prevalent in dairy (3.4%) than in beef (1.9%) cattle, although the difference was not significant. Only three out of the seropositive cows, all of them Holstein-Friesians, had a history of abortion.

  9. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulira, G L; Saunders, J R; Barth, A D

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X(2)) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.

  10. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mpakama

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old, Group 2 (18 months old and Group 3 (24 months old. At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b* and ultimate pH (pHu of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05 on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80% bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L and pHu (6.3±0.05 values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78 a* (17.5±0.53 and b* (12.8±0.53 values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b* and CK levels.

  11. Contribution of local beef cattle production on farmer’s income in the dryland farming of Kupang Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.; Hasnudi; Suyadi

    2018-02-01

    Study on contribution of local beef cattle enterprise on income of dryland farmers in Kupang Regency was conducted from September to December 2016. The study aimed to: (1) determine composition of farm household income in the dry land area of Kupang Regency, Indonesia, (2) analyze contribution of income from local beef cattle enterprise to farm household income. A survey was done on 56 beef cattle farmers who were purposively selected as respondents. All respondents were interviewed using structured questioners with focus on farm household activities and their income. The results showed that total net income of farm household was Rp 14,854,550 per year, out of this Rp3,246,550 to Rp 5,404,750 equals to 21.85 to 36.38% was from local beef cattle enterprise. To enhance the role of beef cattle enterprise, the owner should improve cattle husbandry management through providing good quality and quantity of feed continuously, as well as empowering livestock extension workers to deliver proper information and technology on beef cattle husbandry to the farmer.

  12. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

  13. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence.

  14. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly,...

  15. Supplementation Effect of Herbal and Organic Minerals in Beef Cattle Feed on Consumption, Digestibility, Efficiency and Daily Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno, CH; Sutardi, TR; Suwarno, Suwarno

    2014-01-01

    . The experiment was conducted in an attempt to study the effect of supplementation of Sapindus rarak, garlic powder and its combinations in beef cattle feed enriched with organic minerals of Cr and Zn on feed consumption, feed digestibility, feed efficiency, daily gain of beef cattle. The study used 16 males Brahman cross cows, which were fed with feeds supplemented with 250 ppm Sapindus rarak powder, 250 ppm Garlic powder, and a combination of 250 ppm garlic-Sapindus rarak enriched with...

  16. Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum Purpureum Schumach) Pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ako, A

    2007-01-01

    Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL) napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock) were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black) were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – ...

  17. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  18. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  19. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

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    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  20. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

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    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  1. Fosforbehoefte van melkvee, vleesvee, varkens en pluimvee: een literatuurstudie = Phosphorus requirements of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs and poultry: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Goessink, R.M.A.; Heeres, J.J.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Literature was reviewed to update phosphorus requirements of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs and poultry. It has been shown that the dietary P-content in most species can be safely reduced, compared to the P-levels applied in 2010, without negatively affecting animal performance and health status of

  2. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  3. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

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    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  4. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

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    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  5. Rain water quality of a cistern used for pigs and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lourenço Guidoni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Santa Catarina State has encouraged the use of cisterns as a technology to offer water in quantity and quality to livestock. The region is characterized by severe droughts in the summer months. The aims of the study were: to monitor physical, chemical and microbiological rain water quality parameters of a cistern; to evaluate if water had quality for pigs and beef cattle water consumption. Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia were in accordance with the standards for animal consumption. E. coli was present in some samples. The rainfall and speed of wind influenced the concentrations of nitrogen. Investigations of the relations between these environmental parameters and water quality must be conducted to avoid agricultural and livestock emission sources to have a negative impact on water quality. The water stored in the cistern showed satisfactory quality for use of pigs and beef cattle drinking. This gives support to the utilization of this technology to improve the water use efficiency for livestock.

  6. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

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    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  7. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

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    Granberg Malin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative

  8. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  9. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  10. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

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    Fujita Tatsuo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004, 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046, and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles.

  11. Public opinion towards castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Teixeira, Dayane; Larraín, Rafael; Melo, Oscar; Hötzel, María José

    2018-01-01

    Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices. The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with 400 participants in each study. The first one used an online, self-administered questionnaire and the second one used a face to face questionnaire. The second questionnaire had four information treatments assigned randomly to survey participants (no information; negative information; negative and positive information; positive information). Most participants were aware that the two management practices are common in beef production systems and were opposed to them. Involvement in animal production was associated with greater acceptance of both management practices and participants that had visited a beef production farm before the study were more likely to support castration without anaesthesia in Survey 1. Belonging to any socioeconomic group and providing negative or positive information had no impact on participants' opinion. The results show a disconnection between the views of participants recruited for this study and beef production systems that do not provide pain control for male cattle surgical castration or provide little or no access to pasture.

  12. Potentially hazardous sulfur conditions on beef cattle ranches in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel H; Dargatz, David A; Garry, Franklyn B; Hamar, Dwayne W; Ross, Paul F

    2002-09-01

    To analyze the sulfur content of water and forage samples from a geographically diverse sample of beef cow-calf operations in the United States and to estimate frequency and distribution of premises where forage and water resources could result in consumption of hazardous amounts of sulfur by cattle. Cross-sectional study. 709 forage samples from 678 beef cow-calf operations and individual water samples from 498 operations in 23 states. Sulfur content of forage samples and sulfate concentration of water samples were measured. Total sulfur intake was estimated for pairs of forage and water samples. Total sulfur intake was estimated for 454 pairs of forage and water samples. In general, highest forage sulfur contents did not coincide with highest water sulfate concentrations. Overall, 52 of the 454 (11.5%) sample pairs were estimated to yield total sulfur intake (as a percentage of dry matter) > or = 0.4%, assuming water intake during conditions of high ambient temperature. Most of these premises were in north-central (n = 19) or western (19) states. Results suggest that on numerous beef cow-calf operations throughout the United States, consumption of forage and water could result in excessively high sulfur intake. All water sources and dietary components should be evaluated when assessing total sulfur intake. Knowledge of total sulfur intake may be useful in reducing the risk of sulfur-associated health and performance problems in beef cattle.

  13. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  14. BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BEEF CATTLE IN INTENSIVE REARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of beef cattle reared in intensive systems in northern Italy under different climatic conditions. In particular, it considered 3 levels of THI (Temperature-Humidity-Index in order to evaluate the coping response to heat stress conditions regarding changes of beef cattle nutritional and social behaviours, drinking frequency and resting time. Behavioural observations were carried out from July to October 2005, during hot (THI above 78, mild (THI 76 and cool (THI below 72 conditions, on 24 finishing French crossbred bulls. The animals were housed in 6 fully slatted floor group pens of 4 bulls each. Within each class of THI, behaviours were recorded in two sessions of 24 hours using a 5 minute interval scan sampling technique. A focal animal was chosen in order to count the number of visits at the waterer. Results showed that eating behaviour was maximum during the first 8 hours after fresh feed delivery. However, in the same interval, when THI was above 78, eating activity was penalized while an increase of ruminating was observed. The overall number of visits at the waterer was increased by the heat stress condition and they were mainly concentrated in the hottest hours of the day. Hot environment also affected beef cattle social behaviour increasing agonistic interactions and mounts among penmates. Since heat stress affected bulls behaviour impairing their welfare, the adoption of cooling devices should be recommended.

  15. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Impact of mineral and vitamin status on beef cattle immune function and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Ball, J J; Beck, P A

    2016-12-01

    The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress (weaning, transport, comingling, etc.), when feed intake is reduced. The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle, high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers. Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system. However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds (and hence

  16. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed van verskillende wintervoedingspeile op die prestasie van 300 Simmentalerspeenverse (sewe maande oud) op somerveld, is oor 'n periode van drie jaar ondersoek. Gedurende die tweede winter na speen (as 18-maande-oud diere) is die verse gevoer om 'n dekmassa van 330 kg (op 26 maande) te bereik.

  17. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, M. H. A.; Freua, M. C.; Do, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feed lots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle......, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target...... genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle....

  18. Neospora caninum: Seroprevalence in beef cattle in the mountainous region of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayckon Antonio Cardoso Padilha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Neospora caninum, an important agent of reproductive disorders in cattle, has been frequently reported in dairy cattle in Brazil and worldwide. Records of infection are less frequent in beef cattle. To determine the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis, 507 beef cattle blood samples were collected from January 2013 to September 2015, from 16 municipalities of the Associação dos Municípios da Região Serrana (AMURES. Samples were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies ( ? 1:100 against N. caninum by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Information about sex, age, and origin of the bovines were obtained from the Brazilian Bovine and Bubaline Identification and Certification System (SISBOV, and were tabulated for statistical analysis (Chi-square and Fisher Exact test, P ? 0.05. Of the 507 serum samples analyzed, 70 (13.81% contained antibodies against N. caninum with titers of 1:100 (16, 1:200 (22, 1:400 (17, 1:800 (nine, 1:1600 (four and 1:3200 (two. Positive specimens were collected from 13 of the 16 municipalities and across all age groups. Of the positive samples, there were no statistical differences between males and females (32.86% vs. 67.14%, P= 0.1072, age groups (P= 0.4116, or municipalities (P= 0.6838. While not statistically significant (P>0.05, higher seroprevalence was observed among older females. Although seroprevalence was relatively low, results indicate that infection by N. caninum in beef cattle is widespread in the studied region.

  19. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle before and after transport to a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Timsit, Edouard; Amat, Samat; Abbott, D Wade; Buret, Andre G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2017-03-22

    The nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiota plays an important role in bovine health, comprising a rich and diverse microbial community. The nasopharynx is also the niche for potentially pathogenic agents which are associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a serious and costly illness in feedlot cattle. We used 14 beef heifers from a closed and disease-free herd to assess the dynamics of the NP microbiota of cattle that are transported to a feedlot. Cattle were sampled prior to transport to the feedlot (day 0) and at days 2, 7, and 14. The structure of the NP microbiota changed significantly over the course of the study, with the largest shift occurring between day 0 (prior to transport) and day 2 (P Mycoplasma at day 14. The functional potential of the NP microbiota was assessed using PICRUSt, revealing that replication and repair, as well as translation pathways, were more relatively abundant in day 14 samples. These differences were driven mostly by Mycoplasma. Although eight cattle were culture-positive for the BRD-associated bacterium Pasteurella multocida at one or more sampling times, none were culture-positive for Mannheimia haemolytica or Histophilus somni. This study investigated the effect that feedlot placement has on the NP microbiota of beef cattle over a 14-d period. Within two days of transport to the feedlot, the NP microbiota changed significantly, increasing in both phylogenetic diversity and richness. These results demonstrate that there is an abrupt shift in the NP microbiota of cattle after transportation to a feedlot. This may have importance for understanding why cattle are most susceptible to BRD after feedlot placement.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...

  1. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationship between growth traits in Bonsmara heiler and bull calves on different nutritional regimes. S 4fr. J Anim. Sci. 24,67. THIESSEN. R.8., HNIZDO, E., MAXWELL, D.A.G., GIBSON, D., &. TAYLOR, St C. S., 1984. Multibreed comparisons of British cattle. Variation in body weight, growth rate and food intake.

  2. Assessment of association between variants and haplotypes of the IGF2 gene in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Jing; Zhan, Zhao-Yang; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Sun, Yu-Jia; Lan, Xian-Yong; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Chen, Hong

    2013-10-10

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a fetal growth and differentiation factor that plays an important role in muscle growth and in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the association of the IGF2 polymorphism with growth traits in beef cattle breed. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: 1-4) were identified in the bovine IGF2 by sequencing pooled DNA samples (Pool-Seq) and forced polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (Forced PCR-RFLP) methods. The result of haplotype analysis of four SNPs showed that eight haplotypes and eighteen combined genotypes were revealed, and the linkage disequilibrium and evolutionary relationship were assessed in 1522 individuals representing four purebred cattle breeds from China. The statistical analyses indicated that the 4 SNPs and 18 combined genotypes or haplotypes are associated with the body weight at 18 and 24 months in Jiaxian cattle population (Pgrowth traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection in beef cattle breeding program. © 2013.

  3. Evaluation of Rectoanal Mucosal Swab Sampling for Molecular Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Hinkley, Susanne; Bosilevac, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    Cattle are a primary reservoir of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and contaminated beef products are a source of human infections. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service declared seven EHEC serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) as adulterants in raw ground beef. Sampling a large number of animals for EHEC surveillance or evaluations of EHEC-focused preharvest interventions requires a convenient and robust sampling method. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) for the detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups. Paired fecal grab (FG) and RAMS samples were collected from 176 beef cattle and tested using the NeoSEEK Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) confirmation method. The prevalence of virulence-associated genes (stx 1 , stx 2 , stx 2c , eae, and nleB) was higher in RAMS than in FG samples. The results of the two methods had poor agreement, as indicated by kappa statistics, for the detection of the seven serogroups. When FG and RAMS results were combined for comparison, RAMS was more sensitive than FG for the detection of serogroups O103 (82% versus 39%), O157 (75% versus 67%), and O45 (79% versus 73%) with similar sensitivity for the detection of serogroup O145 (67%). Serogroups O111 and O121 were detected from one and two samples, respectively, by FG and were not detected by RAMS. Serogroup O26 was not detected with either method. RAMS appears to be equivalent or superior to FG sampling for detection of the top seven EHEC serogroups in the feces of beef cattle with the NeoSEEK STEC confirmation test.

  4. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  5. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  6. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  7. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjie Liang

    Full Text Available In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  8. The Development of National Beef-Cattle Population in Relation to Beef-Cattle Population at the Centre and Non Centre Area, and the Policy of National Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sodiq

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to find out the development of beef-cattle population at national level, at the Centre Area of Population (CAP and Non Centre Area of Population (NCAP, (2 to assess the relation between population of national beef-cattle and beef-cattle population at CAP and NCAP, (3 to study the policy of beef-cattle development program in Indonesia. The target of this study addressed to the Directorate General of Livestock Services, Republic of Indonesia. A literature review and communication methods were applied in this study. Descriptive and regression analysis were used for data analysis.  The study revealed that: (1 During 1995-2005, beef-cattle population at national level, CAP and NCAP were unstable.  Due to financial crises (1997, the population at national and CAP tended to decrease, but the population at NCAP was relatively constant.  During 2003-2005, national population tended to increase (0.83% per year, and that figure was less than national target (1.05%,  (2 Population of national beef-cattle (Y was highly related (r2: 0,95; MSE: 108508 to the population of beef-cattle at NCAP (X;  Y = 4764492 + 0.896 X;  (3 An increase in beef-cattle population during 2000-2005 was due to an increase in calving and cattle importation. Slaughtering of cows should be controlled to increase calving. The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program revealed that there were failures in achieving main goals of the program. It is recommended that to improve the contribution of CAP to national needs, the development of cattle population should be focused in those areas.  The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program could be considered in the future policy in term of the development cattle population. Some causes of the policy failures: (1 the formulated policy was not equipped with detailed operation plans. The program formulation was limited to title and goal without elaborating the way to achieve the

  9. Lymphoreticular Lesions in Beef Cattle at an Ontario Abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenda, Drago; Dukes, Thomas W.

    1988-01-01

    During the period April 1983 to March 1986, lymphoreticular lesions in cattle were surveyed at an Ontario abattoir. Postmortem examination of 171,157 cattle revealed macroscopic lesions in 696 animals (0.4%). The most frequent finding was abscessation of a single lymph node, a finding that was observed in 353 cases (50.7% of animals with lesions/0.2% of total slaughter). Actinobacillary granulomas were present in 252 lymph nodes (36.2%/0.1%). Other specific lesions included mycobacteriosis and mycotic or parasitic lymphadenitis. Cases of nonspecific chronic lymphadenitis or granulomas in lymph nodes, pigmentations, malformations, hyperplasia, and neoplasia were also seen. Abscesses were the most common splenic lesions. One animal had localized lymphangiectasia of the epicardium. ImagesFigure 1., Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4., Figure 5., Figure 6. PMID:17423120

  10. Competitiveness of Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: Domestic Resources Cost Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Abdul Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1 The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54; (2 The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94; (3 The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1; (4 The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG will make the competitiveness increased; and (5 The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08 compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02. The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1, but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive. Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better.

  11. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle at slaughter and beef carcasses at retail shops in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is paucity of information regarding the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli O157: H7 associated with beef cattle at processing plants and at retail shops in Ethiopia. Methods: Various samples we...

  12. Grazing Adaptability of Beef Cattle on the Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ako

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on dwarf variety of late-heading type (DL napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach pasture was examined in summer season at Miyazaki, Japan in 2005. Five paddocks of DL napiergrass pasture with an area 2500 m2, (500 m2, per paddock were established since May 2002. Three heads of raising beef cows (Japanese-Black were rotationally grazed in a week with 4-weeks rest period from June to October. Forage dry yield at pre- and post-grazing averaged 238.6 – 582.6 g/m2 and 152.8 – 309.5 g/m2, respectively with percentage consumption averaged 42.5% – 71.6%. Forage consumption and dry matter intake averaged 14.5 – 50.9 g DM/m2/day and 2.42 – 8.48 kg DM/1 IU/day, respectively with average daily gain was 0,56 kg/day. Grazing adaptability of beef cattle on DL napiergrass needed time for about one week. Thus, the DL napiergrass pasture can be utilized under the rotational grazing at stocking rate of 12 head/ha (calculated 3600 kg LW/ha/day in the summer season of subtropical area.

  13. Beef heifers performance in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing in the autumn-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émerson Mendes Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of beef heifers in natural grassland under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design and conducted using the forage mass above eight cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks. The animals were Brangus beef heifers with initial body weight of 258kg. The variables evaluated were available forage mass (FMa, leaf blades mass of tussocks (LBMt, real forage allowance (FAr, sward height of the lower stratum (HLS, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, organic matter digestibility (OMD, total digestible nutrients (TDN, average daily gain (ADG, body condition score (BCS, reproductive tract score (RTS and stocking rate (SR. FMa, HLS, OMD and TDN decreased while FAr, CP and NDF were similar during the experimental period. The ADG was positive only at third experimental period while BCS, RTS and SR decreased over time. The natural grassland management under continuous and rotational grazing during the autumn-winter period, using the forage mass above 8cm and 50% of the leaf blades mass of tussocks, does not allow the adequate corporal development for breeding the beef heifers at 24 months old.

  14. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  15. Nutrient digestibility and beef cattle performance fed by lerak (Sapindus rarak meal in concentrate ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suharti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the use of Lerak fruit meal to improve performance and feed digestibility of beef cattle. The research consisted of two trials (in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro trial was screening of bioactive compounds (saponin, tanin, dan diosgenin in Lerak fruit (including seed and continued to evaluate the effectivity of these compounds against ruminal protozoa. The in vivo study was done using 12 Ongole Crossbreed cattle which received 1of 3 different treatments: 1 concentrate without Lerak as control, 2 concentrate containing 2.5% Lerak, and 3 concentrate containing 5% Lerak. Anti protozoal activity, daily gain, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle were measured. Results showed that saponin concentration in Lerak extracted by methanol was higher than that in Lerak extracted by water and Lerak meal, 81.5%; 8.2% and 3.85% respectively. Lerak extracted by methanol have higher antiprotozoal activity in vitro than Lerak extracted by water. In vivo experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05 of nutrient intake and digestibility in all treatments, that means the ration had good palatability and quality. Average daily gain of PO fed 2.5% Lerak was 20% higher than that of control diet (0.9 kg/day.

  16. Geodecision system for traceability and sustainable production of beef cattle in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, D. D.; Andrade, R. G.; Bolfe, L.; Batistella, M.; Pires, P. P.; Vicente, L. E.; Visoli, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Beef cattle production sustainability depends on incorporating innovative tools and technologies which are easy to comprehend, economically viable, and spatially explicit into the registration of precise, reliable data about production practices. This research developed from the needs and demands of food safety and food quality in extensive beef cattle production within the scope of the policies of Southern Cone and European Union's countries. Initially, the OTAG project (Operational Management and Geodecisional Prototype to Track and Trace Agricultural Production) focused on the development of a prototype traceability of cattle. The aim for the project's next phase is to enhance the electronic devices used in the identification and positioning of the animals, and the incorporation of more management and sanitary information. Besides, we intend to structure a database that enables the inclusion of greater amount of geospatial information linked to environmental aspects, such as water deficit, vegetation vigour, degradation indices of pasture areas, among others. For the extraction of knowledge, and the presentation of the results, we propose the development of a friendly interface to facilitate the exploration of the textual, tabular and geospatial information useful for the user.

  17. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  18. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...

  19. Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period.

  20. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LP...

  1. Shelf life of beef from local Spanish cattle breeds stored under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Alberti, P; Gorraiz, C; Alzueta, M J

    2001-03-01

    Beef steaks from six Spanish cattle breeds (Asturiana de los Valles, Morucha, Parda Alpina, Pirenaica, Rubia Gallega and Retinta) were packaged under modified atmosphere (60% O(2), 30% CO(2) and 10% N(2)). Water loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid values (TBA), aerobic plate counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae counts, CIE L*a*b* colour values and the sensory properties of odour and colour were recorded before packaging (day 0) and after 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. A significant interaction (Pmeat from Retinta breed and between days 10 and 15 in meat from the other breeds, shelf life was probably limited by lipid oxidation.

  2. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  3. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  4. Histopathological and morphometric studies on the hooves of dairy and beef cattle in relation to overgrown sole and laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S S; Murray, R D; Ward, W R

    1992-10-01

    In dairy cattle, histopathology of the outer hind claws with overgrown sole revealed arteriosclerosis of blood vessels at the ulcer site in the sole. The laminae did not show any hyperplasia of the epidermis and thrombi were not seen in the blood vessels. Partial or complete disappearance of onychogenic substance was observed in the sole as well as in the wall epidermis. In beef animals, typical changes suggestive of chronic laminitis were seen: these included hyperplasia of the epidermis of the laminae, thrombus formation, arteriosclerosis in the corium of the sole, the abaxial wall and the coronary corium. Morphometric analysis quantified measurements of hooves of normal, beef and dairy cattle. It may be concluded that the changes associated with overgrowth of the sole in dairy cattle are localized to the sole without involvement of the laminae and that the term laminitis is not appropriate in the condition seen in dairy cattle.

  5. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  6. Potential of feeding beef cattle with whole corn crop silage and rice straw in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Muhamad Hazim; Halim, Ridzwan Abdul; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Hussin, Ghazali; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara

    2018-02-17

    The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.

  7. Improving smallholder cattle reproductive efficiency in Cambodia to address expanding regional beef demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, L; Ashley, K; Young, J R; Suon, S; Thomson, P C; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with cattle reproductive output in rural smallholder farms in Cambodia in order to determine the main causes of reproductive failure and design efficient interventions for improvement. The majority of the nation's beef is produced on smallholder farms where productivity is constrained by poor animal reproductivity reflected in the recent livestock population decline of approximately 13 % from 2009 to 2013. Farmers (n = 240) from 16 villages from five provinces were surveyed in mid-2015 to determine their baseline knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) associated with cattle reproduction. In addition, 16 case studies from three of these provinces were conducted to provide a more detailed assessment of current cattle reproductive husbandry practices. In order to assess the reproductive impact of previously implemented interventions, an endpoint KAP survey and longitudinal health and husbandry study from three Cambodian provinces conducted between 2008 and 2013 were also analysed. Three multivariable prediction models (two KAP and one longitudinal) identified the following significant factors associated with the reproductive outcomes 'number of calves born' or probability that cows 'gave birth': target feeding (P = 0.074), growing vegetables (P = 0.005), attitudes towards cattle vaccination (P = 0.010), improving bull selection (P = 0.032), local breed use (P = 0.005), number of joining attempts (P meat demand in South-East Asia and China.

  8. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

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    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  9. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Sutanto, H.; Purwanti, Y.; Martanti; Agus, A.; Utomo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  10. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  11. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area.

  12. The nature, scope and impact of genomic prediction in beef cattle in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrick Dorian J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artificial selection has proven to be effective at altering the performance of animal production systems. Nevertheless, selection based on assessment of the genetic superiority of candidates is suboptimal as a result of errors in the prediction of genetic merit. Conventional breeding programs may extend phenotypic measurements on selection candidates to include correlated indicator traits, or delay selection decisions well beyond puberty so that phenotypic performance can be observed on progeny or other relatives. Extending the generation interval to increase the accuracy of selection reduces annual rates of gain compared to accurate selection and use of parents of the next generation at the immediate time they reach breeding age. Genomic prediction aims at reducing prediction errors at breeding age by exploiting information on the transmission of chromosome fragments from parents to selection candidates, in conjunction with knowledge on the value of every chromosome fragment. For genomic prediction to influence beef cattle breeding programs and the rate or cost of genetic gains, training analyses must be undertaken, and genomic prediction tools made available for breeders and other industry stakeholders. This paper reviews the nature or kind of studies currently underway, the scope or extent of some of those studies, and comments on the likely predictive value of genomic information for beef cattle improvement.

  13. Colonization Dynamics of Cefotaxime Resistant Bacteria in Beef Cattle Raised Without Cephalosporin Antibiotics

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    Raies A. Mir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of infections caused by antimicrobial resistant microorganisms (ARMs is currently one of the most important challenges to public health and medicine. Though speculated to originate at least partially from the overuse of antibiotics during food animal production, we hypothesized that cattle are exposed to ARMs in the environment. In this cohort study, a herd of beef calves with no previous exposure to antibiotics was followed during the first year of life in order to investigate the rate of colonization by bacteria resistant to the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime. Fecal samples were collected from the recto anal junction of cattle at the age of ~3, 6, 9, and 12 months and tested for cefotaxime resistant bacteria (CRB and the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. The colonization dynamics of CRB in calves (n = 188 was evaluated with samples collected from four periods using longitudinal statistical analyses. Colonization by CRB was a dynamic process with over 92% of the calves testing positive for CRB at least once during the first year of life. All isolates subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test were resistant to at least four different antibiotics and carried multiple variants of the blaCTX-M genes. Metagenomic analysis revealed significant differences in microbiota of the calves with and without CRB colonization at different ages. This study provides evidence that colonization of beef calves by ARMs is a dynamic process that can occur in the absence of veterinary or agricultural use of antibiotics.

  14. Trait-specific long-term consequences of genomic selection in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Neves, Haroldo Henrique; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Queiroz, Sandra Aidar

    2018-02-01

    Simulation studies allow addressing consequences of selection schemes, helping to identify effective strategies to enable genetic gain and maintain genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of genomic selection (GS) in genetic progress and genetic diversity of beef cattle. Forward-in-time simulation generated a population with pattern of linkage disequilibrium close to that previously reported for real beef cattle populations. Different scenarios of GS and traditional pedigree-based BLUP (PBLUP) selection were simulated for 15 generations, mimicking selection for female reproduction and meat quality. For GS scenarios, an alternative selection criterion was simulated (wGBLUP), intended to enhance long-term gains by attributing more weight to favorable alleles with low frequency. GS allowed genetic progress up to 40% greater than PBLUP, for female reproduction and meat quality. The alternative criterion wGBLUP did not increase long-term response, although allowed reducing inbreeding rates and loss of favorable alleles. The results suggest that GS outperforms PBLUP when the selected trait is under less polygenic background and that attributing more weight to low-frequency favorable alleles can reduce inbreeding rates and loss of favorable alleles in GS.

  15. Risk factors for foot and mouth disease outbreaks in grazing beef cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnekave, E; Zamir, L; Hamd, F; Even Tov, B; Klement, E

    2015-06-15

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important diseases of cattle. Recurrence of FMD outbreaks in Israel is common, even though routine vaccination of livestock is mandatory and control measures are applied during the outbreaks. Grazing beef herds are occasionally involved in these outbreaks and play an important role in disseminating the disease, due to the large efflux of animals from these herds to feedlots. Nevertheless, the risk factors for the occurrence of FMD among these herds have never been investigated. In 2011, Israel faced a large scale outbreak of serotype O FMD virus, which strongly affected beef cattle. We conducted a case-control study of 44 beef cattle herds grazing in the Golan Heights in order to determine the risk factors for FMDV infection. Data were analyzed using a generalized estimation equation (GEE) with a logit link function. Multivariable analysis was conducted for factors with p-value lower than 0.1 in the univariable analysis. The presence of calves under 6 months of age was found as a significant risk factor for FMDV infection in the univariable analysis (odds ratio (OR)=5.95, confidence intervals of 95% (CI95%)=1.59-22.29, p=0.008). This was also the only variable that remained statistically significant in the multivariable analysis. Herds in which more than 6 months between vaccination of adults and exposure had elapsed were in higher risk, albeit not statistically significant, for the occurrence of FMDV infection (OR=3.29, CI95%=0.83-12.99, p=0.089). The higher probability of infection in herds, which included young calves may be a result of their higher susceptibility due to administration of only one or no vaccine prior to the outbreak. The results of the study thus support increasing the frequency of vaccination of both cows and calves in grazing beef herds. Intensifying surveillance where young calves are abundant may also prove efficient for early detection of infected herds and for mitigating outbreaks

  16. Canalization analysis of birth weight in Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, M; Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Piedrafita, J; Casellas, J

    2013-07-01

    Although heteroskedasticity has been a main topic of interest in beef cattle during recent decades, the current availability of canalization models provided new insights for animal breeding programs. Within this context, birth BW (BWT) was analyzed in the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed by implementing canalization models that accounted for heterogeneous residual variances due to systematic, permanent environmental effects and additive genetic effects. Analyses were performed on BWT data from 8,130 calves born in 12 commercial breeding herds contributing to the yield recording scheme of the Bruna dels Pirineus breed. Analytical models accounted for direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and 4 systematic effects (i.e., age of the dam, sex of the calf, birth type, and herd-year-season), and the same effects were evaluated as potential sources of variation in the residual term. Their relevance was checked by the deviance information criterion (DIC), and only residual additive genetic, permanent environmental, birth type, and herd-year-season remained in the operational model, all of them originating relevant reductions in the DIC parameter. Bruna dels Pirineus calves showed a moderate heritability of 0.30 (95% high posterior density, 0.19 to 0.40) for BWT; additional additive genetic variability was revealed in the residual term, this being positively correlated with the direct additive genetic component (0.44; 95% high posterior density, 0.37 to 0.54). Genetic trends were evaluated on both sources of additive genetic variance, and relevant patterns were identified in several herds. Although this breed did not evidence a homogeneous genetic trend for the whole population, herd-specific positive and negative trends were revealed, suggesting the plausibility of genetic selection for canalization on BWT in beef cattle breeds. These results must be viewed as a contribution to the canalization research field, providing relevant information for the breeding

  17. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

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    Ediclei Lima do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand

  19. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  20. Quantifying the effect of monensin dose on the rumen volatile fatty acid profile in high-grain-fed beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Hook, S.E.; Archibeque, S.; France, J.

    2012-01-01

    Monensin is a common feed additive used in various countries, where 1 of the associated benefits for use in beef cattle is improved efficiency of energy metabolism by the rumen bacteria, the animal, or both. Modeling fermentation-altering supplements is of interest, and thus, it is the purpose of

  1. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  2. Effect of in-feed Chlortetracycline prophylaxis in beef cattle on levels of 10 antimicrobial resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The majority of antimicrobial products used in food-animal production are administered in-feed to control or prevent disease. These uses are controversial since it has been argued that they have contributed to increased occurrence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Beef cattle are suscep...

  3. Functional blaKPC-2 sequences are present in United States beef cattle feces regardless of antibiotic use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) we detected blaKPC-2 in metagenomic DNA (mgDNA) prepared from the feces of 36 lots beef cattle "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and 36 lots raised "conventionally" (CONV). Since a small internal fragment of the blaKPC-2 gene was targeted we sought to confirm...

  4. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  5. Evaluation of a vegetative treatment system to reduce fecal microorganisms and antibiotic resistant bacteria in beef cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems designed to treat beef cattle feedlot runoff are an alternative to holding ponds and involve short-term runoff accumulation in basins and application to grass treatment areas. Field evaluations are needed to determine if pathogens, fecal indicators, and antibiotic resis...

  6. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Anuar, Aimi S.; Thung, Tze Young; Satharasinghe, Dilan A.; Jambari, Nuzul Noorahya; Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang F.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces (n = 100), beef (n = 120) from wet markets and beef (n = 120) from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cattle fecal samples, 14.2% in raw beef from wet market and 7.5% in raw beef from the hypermarket. The multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified 55% of the strains as C. jejuni, 26% as C. coli, and 19% as other Campylobacter spp. A high percentage of Campylobacter spp. were resistant to tetracycline (76.9%) and ampicillin (69.2%), whilst low resistance was exhibited to chloramphenicol (7.6%). The MAR Index of Campylobacter isolates from this study ranged from 0.09 to 0.73. The present study indicates the potential public health risk associated with the beef food system, hence stringent surveillance, regulatory measures, and appropriate interventions are required to minimize Campylobacter contamination and prudent antibiotic usage that can ensure consumer safety. PMID:29255448

  7. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasekara M. K. J. K. Premarathne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces (n = 100, beef (n = 120 from wet markets and beef (n = 120 from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cattle fecal samples, 14.2% in raw beef from wet market and 7.5% in raw beef from the hypermarket. The multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR identified 55% of the strains as C. jejuni, 26% as C. coli, and 19% as other Campylobacter spp. A high percentage of Campylobacter spp. were resistant to tetracycline (76.9% and ampicillin (69.2%, whilst low resistance was exhibited to chloramphenicol (7.6%. The MAR Index of Campylobacter isolates from this study ranged from 0.09 to 0.73. The present study indicates the potential public health risk associated with the beef food system, hence stringent surveillance, regulatory measures, and appropriate interventions are required to minimize Campylobacter contamination and prudent antibiotic usage that can ensure consumer safety.

  8. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  9. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pig, Dairy and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

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    Isaac eKashoma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~ 30% of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5%, 35.4%, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5% and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9% of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (70% and 76%, gentamicin (1.8% and 12.6%, respectively, streptomycin (65.8% and 74.8%, erythromycin (41.4% and 48.7%, tetracycline (18.9% and 23.4%, and ciprofloxacin (14.4% and 7.2%. Resistance to nalidixic acid (39.6%, azithromycin (13.5%, and chloramphenicol (4.5% was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (38.7% was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli of which 7 were novel (6 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country.

  10. Antimicrobial Resistance and Genotypic Diversity of Campylobacter Isolated from Pigs, Dairy, and Beef Cattle in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashoma, Isaac P.; Kassem, Issmat I.; Kumar, Anand; Kessy, Beda M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne Campylobacter infections pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals and products remain largely unknown in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and genetic profiles (sequence types, STs) of Campylobacter isolated from feces of pigs and dairy and beef cattle in Tanzania. Overall, 259 (~30%) of 864 samples were positive for Campylobacter spp, which were detected in 32.5, 35.4, and 19.6% of the pig, dairy, and beef cattle samples, respectively. Multiplex PCR analysis identified 64.5 and 29.3% of the Campylobacter isolates as C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. The majority (91.9%) of the isolates from pig samples were identified as C. coli, while C. jejuni accounted for 65.5% of the isolates from cattle. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disk diffusion assay and the broth microdilution method revealed resistance to: ampicillin (Amp) (70.3% and 75.7%, respectively), gentamicin (Gen) (1.8% and 12.6%), streptomycin (Str) (65.8 and 74.8%), erythromycin (Ery) (41.4 and 48.7%), tetracycline (Tet) (18.9 and 23.4%), and ciprofloxacin (Cip) (14.4 and 7.2%). Resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal) (39.6%), azithromycin (Azm) (13.5%), and chloramphenicol (Chl) (4.5%) was determined using the disk diffusion assay only, while resistance to tylosin (Tyl) (38.7%) was quantified using the broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing of 111 Campylobacter isolates resulted in the identification of 48 STs (26 C. jejuni and 22 C. coli) of which seven were novel (six C. jejuni and one C. coli). Taken together, this study revealed the high prevalence, genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter in important food animals in Tanzania, which highlights the urgent need for the surveillance and control of Campylobacter in this country. PMID:26617582

  11. The Function of Credit Scheme to Improve Family Income among Beef Cattle Farmers in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.; Ekowati, T.; Roessali, W.; Gayatri, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of study were: (i) identify of beef cattle fattening credit scheme, (ii) calculating and analyze of beef cattle farmers’ income, (iii) analyze of factors influencing beef cattle credit scheme towards farmer’s income. The research was held in five regencies in Central Java Province. Beef cattle fattening farm was standardized as an elementary unit. Survey method was used, while Two Stage Cluster Purposive Sampling was used for determining of sample. Data were analyzed using statistical method of quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics in term of income analysis and multiple linear regression models. The result showed that farmers used their own capital to run the farm. The average amount was IDR 10,769,871. Kredit Ketahanan Pangan dan Energi was credit scheme which was dominantly access by farmers. The average credit was IDR 23,312,200/farmer with rate of credit equal to 6.46%, the time of credit returning equal to 24.60 monthand the prediction of average collateral equal to IDR 35,800,00. The average of farmers’ income was IDR 4,361,611.60/2.96 head of beef cattle/fattening period. If the labour cost did not calculate as a cost production, hence the farmer’ income was IDR 7,608,630.41 or in other word the farmer’ income increase 74.44%. Factors of credit scheme which partially significant influence to the farmers’ income were number of own capital usage and value of credit collateral. Meanwhile, name of credit scheme, financing institution as a creditor, amount of credit, rate of credit scheme and time of returning credit were not significantly influence towards farmers’ income.

  12. Bacterial flora of liver abscesses in crossbred beef cattle and Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, R G; Purvis, T J; Lubbers, B V; Homm, J W; Maxwell, C L; Nagaraja, T G

    2017-08-01

    Holstein steers raised for beef production consistently have a higher prevalence and more severe form of liver abscesses than cattle of beef breeds. A study was conducted to compare bacterial flora of liver abscesses collected from multiple abattoirs from 4 groups of cattle, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, consisting of crossbred cattle and Holstein steers, and each group fed a finishing diet supplemented with or without tylosin. A total of 383 liver abscess samples, consisting of 94 and 81 from crossbred cattle and 89 and 119 from Holstein steers fed finishing diets with or without tylosin, respectively, were subjected for anaerobic and aerobic bacterial isolations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tylosin to the predominant bacterial species were determined. The likelihood chi-square test was performed to assess unadjusted differences in bacterial prevalence proportions between the 2 types of cattle (crossbred and Holstein steers) and feed type (tylosin or no tylosin). There was no interaction between cattle type and tylosin inclusion on the prevalence of any of the bacterial species isolated. Liver abscesses from Holstein steers yielded a higher total number of isolates compared to liver abscesses from crossbred cattle (1060 vs. 788). subsp. was isolated from all abscesses. The prevalence of subsp. was 19.1% and was not affected by the cattle type or tylosin. The prevalence of was higher ( tylosin-fed (66.1%) cattle than no tylosin-fed cattle (35%). The overall prevalence of was 25.3% and was similar ( = 0.58) between cattle type, but the prevalence was lower ( tylosin-fed (16.9%) compared to no tylosin-fed group (33%). Mean MIC of tylosin for and were similar across both cattle types and tylosin inclusion. Although bacterial flora of liver abscesses from Holstein steers appeared to be more diverse than that of crossbred cattle, there was no difference in the prevalence of the and and in fact, prevalence of was higher in crossbred than

  13. Comparison of bacterial communities in faeces of beef cattle fed diets containing corn and wet distillers' grain with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, L M; Wells, J E; Harhay, G P; Rice, W C; Kuehn, L; Bono, J L; Shackelford, S; Wheeler, T; Smith, T P L

    2012-08-01

    The mammalian intestinal microflora has been shown to impact host physiology. In cattle, intestinal bacteria are also associated with faecal contamination of environmental sources and human illness via foodborne pathogens. Use of wet distillers' grains with solubles (WDGS) in cattle feed creates a gastrointestinal environment where some bacterial species are enriched. Here, we examine if a diet containing 40% WDGS results in fundamentally different microbial community structures. The 20,002 16S r-RNA gene sequences from 20 beef cattle were analysed using Sanger sequencing methods. At the genus level, Prevotella (Gram negative) and Anaerobacter (Gram positive) were the most frequently occurring bacteria in our beef cattle faecal samples. Diet-associated differences in prevalence were noted for Prevotella but not Anaerobacter. Diet affects community structure. Faecal communities of co-housed beef cattle are not identical. It is known that a diet of 40% corn-based WDGS increases the generic Escherichia coli in the faeces and enriches E. coli O157:H7. The results from the current study suggest that in addition to previously observed changes in E. coli, the entire bacterial community structure is different for animals fed 40% corn-based WDGS compared to a traditional corn-finishing diet. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Ground transport stress affects bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun

    2017-05-01

    Transport stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground transportation, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle transport. Eight Xianan beef cattle were transported over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after transport. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after transportation and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after transport. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after transport. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after transport, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after transportation. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after transport, which might affect the growth of cattle after transport. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Modeling shade tree use by beef cattle as a function of black globe temperature and time of day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Amanda M.; Headlee, William L.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change threaten to disrupt agricultural systems such as beef production, yet relatively little is known about the use of natural tree shade to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on beef cattle. In this study, we evaluated how temperature and time of day influenced the utilization of tree shade in relation to coloration, orientation, and behavior of beef cattle in a pasture system. Temperatures in shade and direct sunlight were measured using black globe temperature (BGT) data loggers. Time-lapse images from game cameras were used to obtain counts of shade usage, coloration, orientation, and behavior of cattle throughout the daytime hours. In general, we found that shade utilization and most of the predominating orientations and behaviors differed significantly ( P effects (Hour × BGTsun) were often nonsignificant. The mean percentage of the herd using shade was highest in mid-morning (87-96%) and early afternoon (97%), but also increased with BGTsun regardless of the time of day; these trends were similar for both dark- and light-colored cattle. Lying down was the dominant behavior exhibited in the shade, while foraging was the most prevalent behavior in the sun. When herd shade usage was lowest in mid- to late-afternoon (<1%) we also observed an increase in the use of heat-mitigating orientations in the sun (37-47%). We discuss some practical implications of these results, including the potential use of temperature thresholds to interpret cattle behaviors and shade usage.

  16. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5 and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3 on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05. The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be

  17. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  18. NMR-based metabolomics for simultaneously evaluating multiple determinants of primary beef quality in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodani, Yoshinori; Miyakawa, Takuya; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-05-02

    Analytical methodologies to comprehensively evaluate beef quality are increasingly needed to accelerate improvement in both breeding and post-mortem processing. Consumer palatability towards beef is generally attributed to tenderness, flavor, and/or juiciness. These primary qualities are modified by post-mortem aging and the crude content and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. In this study, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles of Japanese Black cattle to evaluate the compositional attributes of intramuscular fat and the long-term post-mortem aging. The unsaturation degree of triacylglycerol was estimated by the 1 H NMR spectra and was correlated with the content ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (R 2  = 0.944) and the melting point of intramuscular fat (R 2  = 0.871). NMR-detected profiles of water-soluble metabolites revealed overall metabolic change (R 2  = 0.951) and several metabolites (R 2  > 0.818) linearly correlated with long-term aging duration, which can be used to evaluate the aging rate and aging duration of beef. This approach also provided the pH profile during aging, which is related to the water-holding capacity of beef. Thus, NMR-based metabolomics has the potential to evaluate multiple parameters related to the beef qualities of Japanese Black cattle.

  19. Differential Haematobia irritans infestation levels in beef cattle raised in silvopastoral and conventional pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Nicodemo, Maria Luiza F; Gusmão, Marcos R; Pezzopane, José Ricardo M; Bilhassi, Talita B; Santana, Clarissa H; Gonçalves, Thuane C; Rabelo, Márcio D; Giglioti, Rodrigo

    2017-11-15

    The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. One of the reasons for its scarce adoption is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the infestation by external parasites - the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus), horn fly (Haematobia irritans), and larvae of the botfly (Dermatobia hominis) - in beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system (CPS), evaluated for 24 months. Data on air and soil temperature, solar radiation, wind incidence and water balance were used to characterize the SPS and CPS. R. microplus adult females and D. hominis larvae were counted on the body of each animal to determine the parasites burdens, but we did not find significant differences between the two systems. Horn flies counts on animals' body, and analysis of the horn fly and its pupal parasitoids associated with the dung pats were obtained in the two systems. Horn fly infestation was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the SPS (13.17±3.46) in comparison with the CPS (24.02±4.43). In SPS and CPS, respectively, the mean densities of pupae of H. irritansin dung pats were 9.8 and 10.7; the mean density of adults of H. irritans, 3.7 and 3.5; and the density of its pupal parasitoids were 20.5 and 5.4. The effect of production system was significant (p<0.05) only for the occurrence of pupal parasitoids of the horn fly, where the greatest occurrences of these natural enemies were in the SPS. These data indicate that natural enemies were able to control, at least partially, the horn fly populations in the cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ractopamine in particulate matter emitted from beef cattle feedyards and playa wetlands in the Central Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kimberly J; Sandoz, Melissa A; Smith, Philip N

    2018-04-01

    Beef cattle in the United States are routinely administered ractopamine, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, to enhance growth. The present study is the first to quantify ractopamine in feedyard-emitted particulate matter and playa wetlands near feedyards. Ractopamine was present in 92% of particulate matter samples, 16% of playa sediment samples, and 3% of playa water samples, at maximum concentrations of 4.7 μg/g, 5.2 ng/g (dry wt), and 271 ng/L, respectively. These data suggest that aerial transmission and deposition of particulate matter is a transport mechanism for ractopamine between feedyards and aquatic systems in the region. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:970-974. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDRbeef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  2. [Endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Patricio M; Di Matía, José M; Cano, Dora B; Odriozola, Ernesto R; García, Juan A; Späth, Ernesto J A; Odeón, Anselmo C; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Morrell, Eleonora L; Campero, Carlos M; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe two events in which Neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. In the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. One aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (OR=4.9; IC 1.2-19.9) (p0.05). Neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were achieved in any case. On the contrary, antibodies and pathognomonic histopathological lesions were observed in the four fetuses from both cases. Interestingly, the findings in the first event suggest the epidemic behavior of the disease. In contrast, in the second event it appears that few abortions were due to N. caninum, suggesting the presence of endemic neosporosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  4. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  5. Prediction of nitrogen excretion by beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, H M; Todd, R W; Cole, N A

    2013-09-01

    Reliable estimates of N excretion in the urine and feces of beef cattle are essential for developing cost-effective and environmentally sound nutrient management plans. A meta-analysis dataset was compiled that included data for starting live BW, DMI, N intake, dietary CP and RDP concentrations, urine N excretion, and feces N excretion. The data were taken from 12 individual feeding trials that included N balance data, and represented a total of 47 different dietary treatments and 255 animals. Correlation analysis was used to determine the animal and dietary parameters that were most closely related to N excretion in urine and feces by beef cattle. A multivariate mixed modeling approach was used to develop empirical equations to predict excretion of urine N, feces N, and the partitioning of total N excretion between urine and feces, as a function of N intake and the concentration of dietary CP. Univariate, regression, and mean difference comparisons indicated 46 to 95% agreement between observed and predicted values for the developed equations. Evaluation of the equations with an independent dataset taken from 6 studies, and 2 random subsets of the meta-analysis dataset showed moderate agreement (P < 0.05, r(2) = 0.34 to 0.86) for urine N excretion as a function of both N intake and %CP, and the partitioning of total N excretion into urine as a function of %CP. There was less agreement between predictions and observations for feces N excretion as a function of %CP (r(2) = 0.003 to 0.14) than N intake (r(2) = 0.52 to 0.75), indicating that %CP is not a good predictor of fecal N excretion. The empirical equations provide a simple tool that, if used with caution, could predict N excretion characteristics for a wide range of dietary and animal characteristics and could improve ammonia emissions estimates by process-based models.

  6. Temporal Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure after a Simulated Rainfall Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David B; Waldrip, Heidi M; Casey, Kenneth D; Todd, Richard W; Willis, William M; Webb, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    Nitrous oxide (NO) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted from agricultural operations. The objective of this research was to quantify NO-N emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens after rainfall. A recirculating-flow-through, non-steady state chamber system consisting of five 1-m steel pans was designed for quantifying emissions. A lid was placed sequentially on each pan, and headspace air was recirculated between the pan and a real-time NO analyzer, measuring concentrations every 1 s. Air-dried manure (89.2% dry matter) from a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle was placed in the pans and then 0, 6.3, 12.7, 25.4, or 50.8 mm of water was applied to simulate a one-time rainfall event. Emissions of NO-N were monitored for 45 d, where two distinct episodes of NO-N production were observed over time. The first NO-N episode had a duration of 10 h and peaked 2 h after rainfall at a flux of 1.0 to 200 mg m h. The second episode had a duration of 40 d and peaked 15 d after rainfall at a flux of 0.06 to 35 mg m h. The second episode accounted for 69 to 91% of the cumulative NO-N emitted over the 45-d period. Each millimeter of rainfall increased cumulative NO-N emitted by 167.9 mg m ( = 0.99, rainfall vs. cumulative emissions relationship will be useful for modeling annual NO-N emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedlots, and for assessing the effectiveness of best management practices for reducing feedlot GHG emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison Jarles da Silva Diniz

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV, were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05 found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  8. Recent information on nutritive values of maize silage and its importance in beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the latest scientific accomplishments in selection of silage hybrids with a special regard to digestibility as a quality parameter of the maize plant. The most important quality parameters, necessary in silage maize hybrid selection with the aim of completely defining their nutritive values, are presented in the case of the most demanded MRI hybrids of all maturity groups and encompass the following: the whole plant DM yield, the share of ears in DM yield, NDF, ADF and ADL content, and especially in vitro DM digestibility according to the Tilley and Terry method. Hybrids can be compared by the use of the exact values for the stated criteria and at the same time it is possible to make actual recommendations for certain production. The importance of the whole maize plant silage is manifested in beef cattle feeding, as the use of 3-12 kg silage day-1 with the appropriate feed concentrate significantly contributes to the more economic production of beef for which the demand in our country is realistic.

  9. Occurrence of Sperm Abnormality of Beef Cattle at Several Artificial Insemination Centers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Purwantara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the most species studied sperm abnormalities have long been associated with male infertility and sterility. This study evaluated the sperm morphology (normality and abnormality of beef cattle at several Artificial Insemination centers in Indonesia. Total of 142 bulls were used in this study; an ejaculate from each bull was examined. A drop of semen was placed on 3-4 glass slides, and smears were prepared and air-dried. The smears were stained with carbolfluchsin-eosin (Williams stain. Types of morphological abnormalities were recorded from 500 cells on each sample. It was recorded that 77.46% samples had low primary sperm abnormalities (10% was found in 5.63% samples. Pear shaped was the most frequently type of abnormality found on examined samples (2.24 ± 2.94%; while double head was the lowest (0.01 ± 0.04%. (Animal Production 12(1: 44-49 (2010 Key words : sperm abnormality, beef catlle, artificial insemination center

  10. A bench-top hyperspectral imaging system to classify beef from Nellore cattle based on tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; Calkins, Chris R.; Naganathan, Govindarajan Konda; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of classification of Nellore beef aged for 0, 7, 14, or 21 days and classification based on tenderness and aging period using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (aging n = 376 and tenderness n = 345) of Nellore cattle. The image processing steps included selection of region of interest, extraction of spectra, and indentification and evalution of selected wavelengths for classification. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify samples based on tenderness and aging period. The model using the first derivative of partial absorbance spectra (give wavelength range spectra) was able to classify steaks based on the tenderness with an overall accuracy of 89.8%. The model using the first derivative of full absorbance spectra was able to classify steaks based on aging period with an overall accuracy of 84.8%. The results demonstrate that the HIS may be a viable technology for classifying beef based on tenderness and aging period.

  11. A comparison of the risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in beef from cattle younger than 21 months in Japan with that in beef from the United States as assessed by the carcass maturity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Smith, Gary C

    2008-04-01

    After the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003, the Japanese government halted all imports of U.S. beef. The BSE risk in beef is partly dependent on the slaughter age of the cattle from which it is derived. In Japan, all cattle 21 months old and older are screened using a rapid diagnostic test, while in the United States, routine BSE testing is not done at any age of slaughter cattle. In the United States, there is no nationally mandated cattle identification system that enables cattle younger than 21 months to be identified. Therefore, all beef potentially produced for export to Japan must be from cattle that are age verified as younger than 21 months old or be classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture using a carcass maturity score, which in turn is related to the age of the animal from which the beef is derived. After consulting the Food Safety Commission, the Japanese government decided on 12 December 2005 to allow importation of beef from the United States derived from cattle with a carcass maturity score of < or =A40 and from which specified risk materials are removed. In this study, a stochastic model was used to simulate the interval of time from slaughter to the predicted clinical onset of BSE in an infected animal. A simulation result, based on the assumption that the BSE prevalence is equivalent in the two countries, revealed that there was no increased risk of BSE infectivity in beef coming from carcasses with a maturity score of < or =A40 in the United States, compared with beef from cattle younger than 21 months slaughtered in Japan.

  12. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle.

  13. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  14. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair.

  15. Age-of-dam adjustment factors for birth and weaning weight records of beef cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumph, Janice M; Van Vleck, L Dale

    2004-03-31

    Age-of-dam adjustment factors are used to preadjust birth and weaning weight data for national beef cattle genetic evaluations. Adjustments are used in order to make the means of the different age-of-dam subclasses similar so that a fair comparison of animals can be performed. A review was made of various research studies that have estimated age-of-dam adjustment factors for birth weight and weaning weight of beef cattle. In general, birth weight age-of-dam adjustment factors are the same across the sexes, but weaning weight age-of-dam adjustment factors differ across the sexes, with heifer calves receiving smaller adjustments than their male counterparts. Additionally, adjustment factors vary greatly across breeds. Preadjustment of records is difficult to do because a perfect estimate of adjustments is not possible. A more appropriate method for adjusting for age-of-dam is to simultaneously adjust during national genetic evaluations.

  16. Ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers on Tanzania guineagrass subjected to rotational stocking managements

    OpenAIRE

    Difante,Gelson dos Santos; Euclides,Valéria Pacheco Batista; Nascimento Júnior,Domicio do; Silva,Sila Carneiro da; Torres Júnior,Roberto Augusto de Almeida; Sarmento,Daniel Oliveira de Lucena

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the ingestive behaviour, herbage intake and grazing efficiency of beef cattle steers grazing on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania subjected to different rotational stocking intensities. Treatments corresponded to two post-grazing conditions (residues of 25 and 50 cm) associated with a pre-grazing condition of 95% sward canopy light interception during regrowth (LI). The grazing time increased linearly with the duration of the occupation period...

  17. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane; Voster Muchenje

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on ...

  18. Consumer preferences towards beef cattle in Chile : Importance of country of origin, cut, packaging, brand and price

    OpenAIRE

    Schnettler, Berta; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Mora, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate preferences for two cuts, four countries of origin, two forms of presentation, brand and different prices of beef cattle among supermarket buyers in southern Chile, and to distinguish the existence of different market segments, through a survey of 800 people. Using a fractional factorial design for conjoint analysis, it was determined overall that the origin was more important (...

  19. Estimation of the intramuscular fat content of m. longissimus thoracis in crossbred beef cattle based on live animal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Purwin, Cezary

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of live animal measurements in estimating the intramuscular fat (IMF) content of m. longissimus thoracis (MLT) in beef cattle. Live animal measurements were performed in young crossbred bulls (96) and steers (59), the offspring of Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows and beef bulls (Limousin, Hereford and Charolais), at the end of the fattening period. The content of intramuscular fat was determined in samples from MLT by chemical analyses. A prediction model was developed by stepwise regression. In the validation model, the values of R 2 =0.74, RMSE=0.37% were determined. The results indicate that selected biometric (chest width, chest girth) ultrasound measurements (thickness of subcutaneous rump and back fat) and selected blood parameters (triglycerides) can be used to predict IMF content with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The analyzed parameters could constitute a valuable tool in the process of selecting beef quality traits and determining the slaughter value of young beef cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of WindTrax and flux-gradient technique in determining PM10 emission rates from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emission estimation methods can be used to determine emission fluxes from ground-level area sources, including open-lot beef cattle feedlots. This research determined PM10 emission fluxes from a commercial cattle feedlot in Kansas using WindTrax, a backward Lagrangian stochastic-based atmosp...

  1. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Yuwana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meet their obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions (5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fattening and cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage cluster random sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang, Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiple linear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calf operation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’ income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510. Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital, collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capital and collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effects on credit return.

  4. MLST Subtypes and Population Genetic Structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from Dairy Cattle and Beef Cattle in Northeastern China’s Heilongjiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Weizhe; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping; Shen, Yujuan; Yang, Fengkun; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12–14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825) and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China. PMID:24999982

  5. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  6. Three-dimensional characterization of the ammonia plume from a beef cattle feedlot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staebler, Ralf M.; McGinn, Sean M.; Crenna, Brian P.; Flesch, Thomas K.; Hayden, Katherine L.; Li, Shao-Meng

    2009-12-01

    In Canada approximately 45% of ammonia (NH 3) emissions are attributed to dairy and beef cattle industries. The present study focused on NH 3 emissions from a beef feedlot with a one-time capacity of 17,220 head. The aim was to improve the Canadian NH 3 emission inventories and air quality forecasting capabilities. A Cessna 207, equipped with a fast-response NH 3/NO y detector and a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer, was flown in a grid pattern covering an area of 8 × 8 km centered on a feedlot (800 × 800 m) at altitudes ranging from 30 to 300 m above ground. Stationary ground measurements of NH 3 concentration and turbulence parameters were made downwind of the feedlot. Three flights were conducted under varying meteorological conditions, ranging from very calm to windy with near-neutral stratification. NH 3 mixing ratios up to 100 ppbv were recorded on the calm day, up to 300 m above ground. An average feedlot NH 3 emission rate of 76 ± 4 μg m -2 s -1 (equivalent to 10.2 g head -1 h -1) was estimated. Characteristics of the measured NH 3 plume were compared to those predicted by a Lagrangian dispersion model. The spatially integrated pattern of NH 3 concentrations predicted and measured agreed but the measured was often more complex than the predicted spatial distribution. The study suggests that the export of NH 3 through advection accounted for about 90% of the emissions from the feedlot, chemical transformation was insignificant, and dry deposition accounted for the remaining 10%.

  7. Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  9. Candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with variation in residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisa, B K; Thomson, J; Wang, Z; Stothard, P; Moore, S S; Plastow, G S

    2013-08-01

    GHR, CAST, ACAD11 and UGT3A1 genes. In addition, 2 other SNP showed a dominance effect and 3 genes had an additive effect. Gene network analysis performed in Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software (Ingenuity Systems, www.ingenuity.com) indicated that the significant genes were involved in biological pathways such as lipid, protein and energy metabolism, electron transport and membrane signaling. The genes in this study, if validated in other beef cattle populations, may be useful for marker assisted selection for feed efficiency.

  10. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  11. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli in dairy and beef cattle farms-Joint analyses of two cross-sectional investigations in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, Katja; Ruddat, Inga; Schmid, Annette; Hering, Johanna; Hartmann, Maria; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Schneider, Bettina; Messelhäusser, Ute; Friese, Anika; Mansfeld, Rolf; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Roesler, Uwe; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2017-07-01

    Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other beta-lactam antibiotics is of major concern for animal and human health. Knowledge of the prevalence of resistant bacteria in primary production is an important element to estimate transmission along the stages in the food production chain and the exposure of the human population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cefotaxime-resistant commensal E. coli in dairy and beef cattle production units throughout Germany. Secondarily, the association between management factors and the presence of cefotaxime resistance was investigated. In total, 60 beef cattle and 52 dairy cattle production units all over Germany were included. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were isolated from at least one sample in 70% (95% CI: 58-83%) of the farms keeping beef cattle and 85% (95% CI: 75-94%) of the farms keeping dairy cattle. The sample prevalence was 35% (161/455; 95% CI: 31-40%) and 48% (156/323; 95% CI: 43-54%), respectively. Most factors associated with resistance to cefotaxime indicate that less intensive production results in a lower number of positive samples. For beef cattle, antimicrobial treatment of the whole animal group was significantly associated with an increased proportion of samples containing cefotaxime resistant E. coli. In addition, our results indicate that better hygiene management could improve the resistance situation on cattle farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian; Parker, David B.; Snow, Daniel D.; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10 −1 copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent

  13. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  14. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle.

  15. Analysis of the gut bacterial communities in beef cattle and their association with feed intake, growth, and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, P R; Freetly, H C; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A

    2017-07-01

    The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd. Yet genetic contributions to feed efficiency have been difficult to identify, and differing genetics, feed regimens, and environments among studies contribute to great variation and interpretation of results. With increasing evidence that hosts and their microbiomes interact in complex associations and networks, examining the gut microbial population variation in feed efficiency may lead to partially clarifying the considerable variation in the efficiency of feed utilization. The use of metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing has greatly impacted the study of the ruminant gut. The ability to interrogate these systems at great depth has permitted a greater understanding of the microbiological and molecular mechanisms involved in ruminant nutrition and health. Although the microbial communities of the reticulorumen have been well documented to date, our understanding of the populations within the gastrointestinal tract as a whole is limited. The composition and phylogenetic diversity of the gut microbial community are critical to the overall well-being of the host and must be determined to fully understand the relationship between the microbiomes within segments of the cattle gastrointestinal tract and feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This review addresses recent research regarding the bacterial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle; their association with ADG, ADFI, and feed efficiency

  16. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  18. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-09-08

    Enteric methane (CH ₄ ) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288), beef cattle ( n = 71) and dairy cows ( n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH ₄ emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH ₄ emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal's CH ₄ yield (g CH ₄ /kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH ₄ yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH ₄ (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD - 0.113 (±0.023) × EE - 2.47 (±0.29) × (feeding level - 1), with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC ) = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH ₄ yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  19. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  20. Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Nitrogen Volatilization from Beef Cattle Feces and 15N-Labeled Synthetic Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferouz Y. Ayadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 15-day bench-scale manure storage experiment with a slurry mixture comprising beef cattle feces and synthetic urine with 15N-labeled urea was conducted to evaluate the source of volatilized ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N. Beef cattle feces was mixed daily in a 1:2.2 mass ratio with 15N-labeled urine and added for four consecutive days to 2-L storage containers and then left undisturbed for eleven days. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry was used to determine the origin of aerial NH3-N losses from the relative isotopic abundance of N in the 15N-labeled slurry mixture. On average 84% of total NH3-N losses originated from the urine portion and were highest during the first two to four days, when fresh material was added. After fresh material addition ceased, daily NH3-N emission from the urine decreased gradually, whereas emission from the feces remained relatively constant. Calculations showed that over 34% of aerial N was not captured, suggesting that other N gas emission is significant from slurry mixtures. Likely all uncaptured N losses were from urinary urea. The study verified the applicability of 15N-labeled synthetic urine for beef slurry mixtures. However, the results suggest further research to explain and model the NH3 and N release from fecal material is warranted and to determine the identity of the uncaptured N losses.

  1. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  2. Production and utilization of ensiled forages by beef cattle, dairy cows, pregnant ewes and finishing lambs - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Keady

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the production of, and factors affecting the performance of dairy cows, beef cattle and sheep offered silage based diets in Ireland and UK. Digestibility is the most important factor influencing the feed value of grass silage and consequently animal performance. Each 10 g kg-1 increase in digestive organic matter in the dry matter (DOMD increases milk yield of dairy cows by 0.33 kg d-1, carcass gain of beef cattle by 23.8 g d-1 , carcass gain of finishing lambs by 9.3 g d-1, lamb birth weight by 52.3 g and ewe weight post lambing by 1.3 kg, respectively. Factors influencing feed value of grass silage are discussed including harvest date, wilting, fertilizer management, chop length and use of additives at ensiling. Maize silage increases the performance of cattle and sheep whilst whole crop wheat silage has no beneficial effect. Advances in silage technology, has enabled the ensiling high protein forages, such as red clover, lucerne and kale.

  3. Estimation of the impact of Fasciola hepatica infection on time taken for UK beef cattle to reach slaughter weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeri, Stella; Rydevik, Gustaf; Handel, Ian; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Sargison, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Fasciolosis is common in UK beef cattle, but it is unclear at what levels liver fluke burdens cause production losses. This study aimed to address these uncertainties by estimating the impact of liver fluke infection on UK beef cattle productivity and investigating the use of diagnostic tests in a quantitative manner. We built three linear regression models for slaughter age by weight and different measures of liver fluke status, while accounting for sex, breed, season, year and farm of origin. Data were sourced from Scotland's largest red meat abattoir throughout 2013 and 2014. Our Meat Hygiene Service model estimated that cattle classified as having liver fluke damage had on average 10 days greater slaughter age than animals with no evidence of fasciolosis. Our liver fibrosis model estimated that the increase in slaughter age was more severe for higher fibrosis scores. Similarly, our burden model showed an increase in slaughter age for animals with as few as 1 to 10 parasites found in their livers. Lastly, we used receiver operating characteristic curves to show that serum antibody ELISA, copro-antigen ELISA and faecal egg counting can be useful in distinguishing between animals with and without production limiting levels of fasciolosis.

  4. Substitution of Wheat for Corn in Beef Cattle Diets: Digestibility, Digestive Enzyme Activities, Serum Metabolite Contents and Ruminal Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. F.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Wan, F. C.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.; Zhang, X. L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets containing different amounts of wheat, as a partial or whole substitute for corn, on digestibility, digestive enzyme activities, serum metabolite contents and ruminal fermentation in beef cattle. Four Limousin×LuXi crossbred cattle with a body weight (400±10 kg), fitted with permanent ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal cannulas, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four treatments: Control (100% corn), 33% wheat (33% substitution for corn), 67% wheat (67% substitution for corn), and 100% wheat (100% substitution for corn) on a dry matter basis. The results showed that replacing corn with increasing amounts of wheat increased the apparent digestibility values of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein (pdigestibility of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber were lower with increasing amounts of wheat. Digestive enzyme activities of lipase, protease and amylase in the duodenum were higher with increasing wheat amounts (p<0.05), and showed similar results to those for the enzymes in the ileum except for amylase. Increased substitution of wheat for corn increased the serum alanine aminotransferase concentration (p<0.05). Ruminal pH was not different between those given only corn and those given 33% wheat. Increasing the substitution of wheat for corn increased the molar proportion of acetate and tended to increase the acetate-to-propionate ratio. Cattle fed 100% wheat tended to have the lowest ruminal NH3-N concentration compared with control (p<0.05), whereas no differences were observed among the cattle fed 33% and 67% wheat. These findings indicate that wheat can be effectively used to replace corn in moderate amounts to meet the energy and fiber requirements of beef cattle. PMID:26954111

  5. A decade of developments in the area of fat supplementation research with beef cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B W; Moss, G E; Rule, D C

    2008-04-01

    Supplementing ruminant animal diets with fat has been investigated as a means to influence a variety of physiological processes or to alter fatty acid composition of food products derived from ruminant animals. Several digestion experiments have been conducted with beef cattle and sheep to elucidate the effects of supplemental fat on utilization of other dietary components. Negative associative effects are not likely to be observed in ruminants consuming forage-based diets with supplemental fat at forage diets. For ruminants fed high-concentrate diets, supplementing fat at 6% of diet DM is expected to have minimal impacts on utilization of other dietary components. Although there is greater potential to supply the ruminant animal with unsaturated fatty acids from dietary origin if fat is added to high-concentrate diets, incomplete ruminal biohydrogenation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids results in an increase in duodenal flow of 18:1 trans fatty acids regardless of basal diet consumed by the animal. The biohydrogenation intermediate 18:1 trans-11 (trans-vaccenic acid) is the likely precursor to cis-9, trans-11 CLA because the magnitude of increase in CLA content in tissues or milk of ruminants fed fat is much greater than the increase in CLA presented to the small intestine of ruminants fed fat supplements. Duodenal flow of trans-vaccenic acid is also substantially greater than CLA. Increasing unsaturated fatty acids status of ruminants imparts physiological responses that are separate than the energy value of supplemental fat. Manipulating maternal diet to improve unsaturated fatty acid status of the neonate has practical benefits for animals experiencing stress due to exposure to cold environments or conditions which mount an immune response. Supplementing fat to provide an additional 16 to 18 g/d of 18:2n-6 to the small intestine of beef cows for the first 60 to 90 d of lactation will have negative impacts on reproduction and may impair immune function of the

  6. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  7. Beef cattle body temperature during climatic stress: a genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; Kachman, Stephen D.; Snelling, Warren M.; Pollak, E. John; Ciobanu, Daniel C.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Spangler, Matthew L.

    2014-09-01

    Cattle are reared in diverse environments and collecting phenotypic body temperature (BT) measurements to characterize BT variation across diverse environments is difficult and expensive. To better understand the genetic basis of BT regulation, a genome-wide association study was conducted utilizing crossbred steers and heifers totaling 239 animals of unknown pedigree and breed fraction. During predicted extreme heat and cold stress events, hourly tympanic and vaginal BT devices were placed in steers and heifers, respectively. Individuals were genotyped with the BovineSNP50K_v2 assay and data analyzed using Bayesian models for area under the curve (AUC), a measure of BT over time, using hourly BT observations summed across 5-days (AUC summer 5-day (AUCS5D) and AUC winter 5-day (AUCW5D)). Posterior heritability estimates were moderate to high and were estimated to be 0.68 and 0.21 for AUCS5D and AUCW5D, respectively. Moderately positive correlations between direct genomic values for AUCS5D and AUCW5D (0.40) were found, although a small percentage of the top 5 % 1-Mb windows were in common. Different sets of genes were associated with BT during winter and summer, thus simultaneous selection for animals tolerant to both heat and cold appears possible.

  8. Assessing the sustainable development and intensification potential of beef cattle production in Sumbawa, Indonesia, using a system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlanuddin; Henderson, Benjamin; Dizyee, Kanar; Hermansyah; Ash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of beef cattle production in dryland areas of East Indonesia has the potential to substantially raise the incomes of smallholder farmers that dominate the sector. In this study we assess the potential for intensifying beef production on Sumbawa Island, by introducing a household feedlot production system (2-20 animals) based on the Leucaena leucocephala (leucanea) tree legume as an improved source of feed. We used a system dynamics approach to model the entire value chain, accounting for herd dynamics, demand dynamics and seasonality. Our findings complement the growing body of biophysical evidence about the potential success of this intervention, by simulating improvements in the annual profitability for beef farmers in the project area of up to 415% by 2023. Increases in farm profit were shown to depend near equally on the higher productivity of the leucaena feeding system and an associated price premium, demonstrating the importance of supporting improved agricultural production with better marketing practices. The intervention was also shown to generate positive or neutral benefits for the main post-farm value chain actors. Importantly, it also reduced the GHG emission intensity of outputs from the beef herd by 16% by 2020. We explored number of scale-out pathways, including a relatively moderate pace of autonomous adoption for our main analysis, resulting in the accumulation of 3,444 hectares of leucaena 20-years after the initial project phase, which could sustain the fattening of 37,124 male cattle per year. More ambitious rates of scale-out were found to be possible without exceeding the animal and land resources of the island.

  9. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  10. Biogas production from various coal types using beef cattle rumen's liquid as a source of microorganisms consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tubagus Benito Achmad; Harlia, Ellin; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Sugiarto, A. N.; Rahmah, K. N.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, Indonesia is developing Coal-Bed Methane (CBM) production, but its production is not sufficient yet. Basically, CBM is produced naturally along with coal formation, i.e. through the activity of indigenous microorganisms. In this regard, to increase the production of CBM, adding a consortium of microorganisms into the coal deposit can be an option. One source of a consortium of bacteria available in nature is the rumen contents of ruminant livestock such as beef cattle. The purpose of this research was to know the capability of bacteria in rumen contents of beef cattle to produce CBM from various types of coal. In addition, to get a better concentration of bacteria than previous research so that it can be used as a reference for CBM production in the future. This explorative research used an experimental method with descriptive explanation. CBM production was performed using Hungate tube as a digester with three coal substrates, namely lignite, sub-bituminous and bituminous. This experiment also used 10-7 diluted rumen content of beef cattle as a source. The parameters measured were bacterial density, the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide on day 2, 5, 10 and 14. The treatment and parameters measurement were carried out in triplicates. This study finding showed that the highest bacterial density in all three types of coal was obtained on day 10 as well as the amount of CBM, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. These results are higher than the results from previous research therefore, this treatment can be used as an inoculant in a solid form for easy distribution.

  11. Genetic parameter estimates for serum insulin-like growth factor I concentration and performance traits in Angus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Simmen, R C

    1997-02-01

    Data for this study were obtained from an experiment involving divergent selection for blood serum IGF-I concentration in beef cattle. Multiple trait derivative-free REML procedures were used to obtain genetic parameter estimates for IGF-I concentration at d 28, 42, and 56 of the postweaning period and for mean IGF-I concentration, as well as for weights and gains. Included in the analysis were 1,563 animals in the A-1 matrix, 731 of which had valid records for mean IGF-I concentration. Direct heritabilities (hd2) were .42 +/- .13, .53 +/- .15, .71 +/- .16, and .48 +/- .13 for IGF-I at d 28, 42, and 56 of the postweaning period and for mean IGF-I, respectively. Heritability of maternal genetic effects (hm2) ranged from .02 to .12, whereas the proportion of the total variance due to the maternal permanent environmental effect (c2) was essentially zero for all measures of IGF-I. Genetic correlations of IGF-I with weaning and postweaning weights and with postweaning weight gain ranged from -.21 to -.54 and averaged -.38. The environmental correlation between IGF-I and performance traits varied from .10 to .35 and averaged .22. Phenotypic correlations of IGF-I concentrations with weaning weight and postweaning weights and gains ranged from -.01 to .12 and averaged .04. Estimates of hd2 indicate that it should be possible to change IGF-I concentration in beef cattle via selection. Negative genetic correlations imply that, if the goal is to make genetic improvement in weaning weights, postweaning weights and (or) postweaning gain in beef cattle, selection should be for decreased postweaning serum IGF-I concentration.

  12. Spatial patterns of Bovine Corona Virus and Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus in the Swedish beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Camilla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both bovine coronavirus (BCV and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV infections are currently wide-spread in the Swedish dairy cattle population. Surveys of antibody levels in bulk tank milk have shown very high nationwide prevalences of both BCV and BRSV, with large variations between regions. In the Swedish beef cattle population however, no investigations have yet been performed regarding the prevalence and geographical distribution of BCV and BRSV. A cross-sectional serological survey for BCV and BRSV was carried out in Swedish beef cattle to explore any geographical patterns of these infections. Methods Blood samples were collected from 2,763 animals located in 2,137 herds and analyzed for presence of antibodies to BCV and BRSV. Moran's I was calculated to assess spatial autocorrelation, and identification of geographical cluster was performed using spatial scan statistics. Results Animals detected positive to BCV or BRSV were predominately located in the central-western and some southern parts of Sweden. Moran's I indicated global spatial autocorrelation. BCV and BRSV appeared to be spatially related: two areas in southern Sweden (Skaraborg and Skåne had a significantly higher prevalence of BCV (72.5 and 65.5% respectively; almost the same two areas were identified as being high-prevalence clusters for BRSV (69.2 and 66.8% respectively. An area in south-east Sweden (Kronoberg-Blekinge had lower prevalences for both infections than expected (23.8 and 20.7% for BCV and BRSV respectively. Another area in middle-west Sweden (Värmland-Dalarna had also a lower prevalence for BRSV (7.9%. Areas with beef herd density > 10 per 100 km2 were found to be at significantly higher risk of being part of high-prevalence clusters. Conclusion These results form a basis for further investigations of between-herds dynamics and risk factors for these infections in order to design effective control strategies.

  13. Heifer fertility and carry over consequences for life time production in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Pollott, G E; Johnson, K F; Richardson, H; Cooke, J S

    2014-05-01

    The rearing period has a key influence on the later performance of cattle, affecting future fertility and longevity. Producers usually aim to breed replacement heifers by 15 months to calve at 24 months. An age at first calving (AFC) close to 2 years (23 to 25 months) is optimum for economic performance as it minimises the non-productive period and maintains a seasonal calving pattern. This is rarely achieved in either dairy or beef herds, with average AFC for dairy herds usually between 26 and 30 months. Maintaining a low AFC requires good heifer management with adequate growth to ensure an appropriate BW and frame size at calving. Puberty should occur at least 6 weeks before the target breeding age to enable animals to undergo oestrous cycles before mating. Cattle reach puberty at a fairly consistent, but breed-dependent, proportion of mature BW. Heifer fertility is a critical component of AFC. In US Holsteins the conception rate peaked at 57% at 15 to 16 months, declining in older heifers. Wide variations in growth rates on the same farm often lead to some animals having delayed first breeding and/or conception. Oestrous synchronisation regimes and sexed semen can both be used but unless heifers have been previously well-managed the success rates may be unacceptably low. Altering the nutritional input above or below those needed for maintenance at any stage from birth to first calving clearly alters the average daily gain (ADG) in weight. In general an ADG of around 0.75 kg/day seems optimal for dairy heifers, with lower rates delaying puberty and AFC. There is some scope to vary ADG at different ages providing animals reach an adequate size by calving. Major periods of nutritional deficiency and/or severe calfhood disease will, however, compromise development with long-term adverse consequences. Infectious disease can also cause pregnancy loss/abortion. First lactation milk yield may be slightly lower in younger calving cows but lifetime production is higher as

  14. Genetic covariance components within and among linear type traits differ among contrasting beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Jennifer L; Berry, Donagh P; Walsh, Siobhan W; Veerkamp, Roel F; Evans, Ross D; Carthy, Tara R

    2018-04-25

    Linear type traits describing the skeletal, muscular, and functional characteristics of an animal are routinely scored on live animals in both the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have demonstrated that genetic parameters for certain performance traits may differ between breeds; no study, however, has attempted to determine if differences exist in genetic parameters of linear type traits among breeds or sexes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if genetic covariance components for linear type traits differed among five contrasting cattle breeds, and to also investigate if these components differed by sex. A total of 18 linear type traits scored on 3,356 Angus (AA), 31,049 Charolais (CH), 3,004 Hereford (HE), 35,159 Limousin (LM), and 8,632 Simmental (SI) were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed using animal linear mixed models which included the fixed effects of sex of the animal (except in the investigation into the presence of sexual dimorphism), age at scoring, parity of the dam, and contemporary group of herd-date of scoring. Differences (P linear type traits. Differences (P linear type traits. Overall, the linear type traits in the continental breeds (i.e., CH, LM, SI) tended to have similar heritability estimates to each other as well as similar genetic correlations among the same pairwise traits, as did the traits in the British breeds (i.e., AA, HE). The correlation between a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the CH breed with a linear function of breeding values computed conditional on covariance parameters estimated from the other breeds was estimated. Replacing the genetic covariance components estimated in the CH breed with those of the LM had least effect but the impact was considerable when the genetic covariance components of the AA were used. Genetic correlations between the same linear type traits in the two sexes were all close to unity

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhiling; Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua; Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng; Roelcke, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH 4 and N 2 O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH 4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO 2 -eq of CH 4 and N 2 O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH 4 emissions dominated the CO 2 -eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH 4 emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH 4 and N 2 O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO 2 -eq emissions but tended to grow

  16. Analysis of Marketing Efficiency of Beef Cattle on "Tirto Sari" Livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    Riansyah Comdeca Surya Pratama; Koesnoto Supranianondo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the marketing efficiency of beef cattle on “Tirto Sari” livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan. The result of this study indicates that there are four varieties in terms of beef cattle marketing on “Tirto Sari” livestock at Sub District of Samboja, District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan: direct marketing of marketing type I, intermediate marketing of marketing type II and III and long-processed mark...

  17. Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, Denis; Mpairwe, Denis; Kabi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Beef production in Uganda is progressing from the traditional pastoral practices to sedentary semi-intensive systems. Consequently, farmers are continuously crossbreeding the indigenous cattle with exotic genotypes to improve meat yield. This study was conducted on-farm to evaluate the effects...... of feeding systems and feeding durations on performance of three locally available genotypes. A 2×3×3 factorial experiment was used to randomly allot 108 young bulls (9–15 months old), 36 for each of the three genotypes; Ankole x Holstein Friesian (AXF) (175±22 kg), pure Boran (208±34 kg) and a composite...

  18. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  19. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wanapat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L, lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP, and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG, respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency.

  20. Adiposity and adipogenic gene expression in four different muscles in beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Martínez Del Pino

    Full Text Available Anatomical site and divergent functionalities of muscles can be related to differences in IMF content, metabolism and adipogenic gene expression. Then, potential differences in different muscles in beef cattle were studied. As a second objective, the main sources of experimental variability associated to RT-qPCR results were analyzed following a nested design in order to implement appropriate experimental designs minimizing gene expression variability. To perform the study Longissimus thoracis (LT, Semitendinosus (SM, Masseter (MS, Sternomandibularis (ST and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT samples of Pirenaica young bulls (n = 4 were collected for IMF, collagen and protein quantification, analysis of adipocyte size distribution and gene expression (PPARG, CEBPA, FAPB4 and WNT10B. A greater IMF content was observed in MS and SM muscles, which had a bimodal adipocyte size distribution while it was unimodal in the muscles LT and ST. This suggest that the different IMF accretion in the muscles studied might be related to different rates of hyperplasia and hypertrophy and that IMF might develop later in LT and ST muscles. The former differences were not mirrored by the expression of the genes analyzed, which might be related to the different contribution of mature and non-mature adipocytes to the total gene expression. When comparing IMF and SAT gene expression, late and early developing tissues respectively, expression of PPARG, CEBPA and FABP4 was higher in the SAT, in agreement with bigger cell size and numbers. The variability study indicates that the analytical factors that add higher variability to the gene expression are the sampling and RT and therefore, it would be appropriate to include those replicates in the design of future experiments. Based on the results, the use of MS and SM muscles could allow less expensive experimental designs and bigger sample size that could permit the detection of lower relevant differences in gene expression.

  1. Where's the risk? Landscape epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasitism in Alberta beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Melissa A; Colwell, Douglas D; Goater, Cameron P; Kienzle, Stefan W

    2015-08-25

    Gastrointenstinal nematodes (GIN) present a serious challenge to the health and productivity of grazing stock around the globe. However, the epidemiology of GIN transmission remains poorly understood in northern climates. Combining use of serological diagnostics, GIS mapping technology, and geospatial statistics, we evaluated ecological covariates of spatial and temporal variability in GIN transmission among bovine calves pastured in Alberta, Canada. Sera were collected from 1000 beef calves across Alberta, Canada over three consecutive years (2008-2010) and analyzed for presence of anti-GIN antibodies using the SVANOVIR Ostertagia osteragi-Ab ELISA kit. Using a GIS and Bayesian multivariate spatial statistics, we evaluated the degree to which variation in specific environmental covariates (e.g. moisture, humidity, temperature) was associated with variation in spatial and temporal heterogeneity in exposure to GIN (Nematodirus and other trichostrongyles, primarily Ostertagia and Cooperia). Variation in growing degree days above a base temperature of 5 °C, humidity, air temperature, and accumulated precipitation were found to be significant predictors of broad-scale spatial and temporal variation in serum antibody concentrations. Risk model projections identified that while transmission in cattle from southeastern and northwestern Alberta was relatively low in all years, rate of GIN transmission was generally higher in the central region of Alberta. The spatial variability in risk is attributed to higher average humidity, precipitation and moderate temperatures in the central region of Alberta in comparison with the hot, dry southeastern corner of the province and the cool, dry northwestern corner. Although more targeted sampling is needed to improve model accuracy, our projections represent an important step towards tying treatment recommendations to actual risk of infection.

  2. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P fractional absorption rates of valerate (P distillation. In this short-term study, volatile compounds did not inhibit the DMI or the digestion process of the animals. On the contrary, volatile compounds contributed to the energy content of the silage, composing up to 10% of the energy value as determined by digestibility. Due to the short experimental periods, the results from this study should be interpreted with caution.

  3. Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I

    2017-06-01

    Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h 2  linear models; h 2  > 0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  5. Relative associations of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) seropositivity in beef and dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C; Woolhouse, M E J; Gunn, G J; Humphry, R W

    2013-11-01

    The success of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) eradication campaigns can be undermined by spread through local transmission pathways and poor farmer compliance with biosecurity recommendations. This work combines recent survey data with cattle movement data to explore the issues likely to impact on the success of BVDV control in Scotland. In this analysis, data from 249 beef suckler herds and 185 dairy herds in Scotland were studied retrospectively to determine the relative influence of cattle movements, local spread, and biosecurity on BVDV seropositivity. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that cattle movement risk factors had approximately 3 times greater explanatory power than risk factors for local spread amongst beef suckler herds, but approximately the same explanatory power as risk factors for local spread amongst dairy herds. These findings are most likely related to differences in cattle husbandry practices and suggest that where financial prioritization is required, focusing on reducing movement-based risk is likely to be of greatest benefit when applied to beef suckler herds. The reported use of biosecurity measures such as purchasing cattle from BVDV accredited herds only, performing diagnostic screening at the time of sale, implementing isolation periods for purchased cattle, and installing double fencing on shared field boundaries had minimal impact on the risk of beef or dairy herds being seropositive for BVDV. Only 28% of beef farmers and 24% of dairy farmers with seropositive herds recognized that their cattle were affected by BVDV and those that did perceive a problem were no less likely to sell animals as replacement breeding stock and no more likely to implement biosecurity measures against local spread than farmers with no perceived problems. In relation to the current legislative framework for BVDV control in Scotland, these findings emphasize the importance of requiring infected herds take appropriate biosecurity measures

  6. RUMINANT NUTRITION SYMPOSIUM: Effects of postruminal flows of protein and amino acids on small intestinal starch digestion in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, D W; Swanson, K C

    2018-03-06

    Many nutritionists adopt feeding strategies designed to increase ruminal starch fermentation because ruminal capacity for starch degradation often exceeds amounts of starch able to be digested in the small intestine of cattle. However, increases in fermentable energy supply are positively correlated with increased instances of metabolic disorders and reductions in DMI, and energy derived by cattle subsequent to fermentation is less than that derived when glucose is intestinally absorbed. Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) appears to be limited by α-glycohydrolase secretions and a precise understanding of digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine remains equivocal. Interestingly, small intestinal α-glycohydrolase secretions are responsive to luminal appearance of milk-specific protein (i.e., casein) in the small intestine of cattle, and SISD is increased by greater postruminal flows of individual AA (i.e., Glu). Greater flows of casein and Glu appear to augment SISD, but by apparently different mechanisms. Greater small intestinal absorption of glucose has been associated with increased omental fat accretion even though SISD can increase NE from starch by more than 42% compared to ruminal starch degradation. Nonetheless, in vitro data suggest that greater glucogenicity of diets can allow for greater intramuscular fat accretion, and if greater small intestinal absorption of glucose does not mitigate hepatic gluconeogenesis then increases in SISD may provide opportunity to increase synthesis of intramuscular fat. If duodenal metabolizable AA flow can be altered to allow for improved SISD in cattle, then diet modification may allow for large improvements in feed efficiency and beef quality. Few data are available on direct effects of increases in SISD in response to greater casein or metabolizable Glu flow. An improved understanding of effects of increased SISD in response to greater postruminal flow of Glu and casein on improvements in NE and fates of

  7. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  8. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  9. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  10. Fatty acid profile of zebu beef cattle from the Central African sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, based on the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportion, 13.9% of the total lipids and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, 1.95, consumption of beef from these breeds could be beneficial to human health. This is possibly owing to the pasture feeding and low fat content of the beef. Keywords: Intramuscular fat; fatty acid composition ...

  11. Effect of age on bovine subcutaneous fat proteome: molecular mechanisms of physiological variations during beef cattle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, J M; He, M L; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Fat deposition influences both meat quality and animal productivity. However, it is not clear how fat development is regulated in growing and fattening beef cattle. This study characterized proteomic changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue from steers fed a high-grain diet in an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of fat development during feedlot production. Eight British-Continental crossbred steers had two subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies at 12 and 15 mo of age. Protein expression in fat samples was profiled using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). During the finishing period, steers increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass with concomitant changes in the proteome profile, but the nature of these changes varied among steers. The expression of 123 out of 627 identified proteins differed (P bovine adipose tissue is regulated during growth, which might help the development in the future of new strategies to manipulate adiposity in beef cattle in a manner that improves meat quality and animal productivity.

  12. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  13. Calcium and Phosphor Status of Beef Cattle in Upland and Lowland of Jratunseluna River Basin in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno; Subrata, A.; Surahmanto; Christiyanto, M.; Surono; Achmadi, J.; Wahyono, F.; Pangestu, E.

    2018-02-01

    The study was aimed to obtain information regarding feed given and mineralstatus (Ca, P) in fodder and beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin. Feed and drinking water given by farmers identified for 14 days and extracted sampling for mineralanalysis, t-test was used to compare mineral status in upland and lowland. Results of the research showed that feed given by farmers were varying. The ratio of forage/concentrates in lowland and upland areas was different, i.e. 67: 33 and 30: 70, respectivelly. Ca content on forage given in upland areas ranged from 0.17 to 0.74%, and concentrates from 0.002 to 0.49%, while Ca content on forage given in lowland areas ranged from 0.33 to 0.52%, and concentrates ranged from 0.38 to 0.49%. P content on forage in upland areas ranged from 0.02 to 0.04%, concentrates ranged from 0.018 to 0.09%,while P content on forage in lowland areas ranged from 0.03 to 0.07%, and concentrates ranged from 0.04 to 0.07% . Ca and P consumption in upland areas were 301.06 and 54.73 g, and 391.92 and 65.70 g in lowland.Caand P content of beef cattle’s hair in upland were 0.14 and 0.01%, while in lowland areas were 0.11 and 0.03%.It can be concluded that Ca and P intakeof beef cattle in Jratunseluna river basin were less and mineral status of Ca and P in marginal condition.

  14. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle...

  15. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, bovine WGS databases comprised of related influential sires from relatively few breeds tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our ...

  16. Loci and pathways associated with uterine capacity for pregnancy and fertility in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility and subfertility negatively impact the economics and reproductive performance of cattle. Of note, significant pregnancy loss occurs in cattle during the first month of pregnancy, yet little is known about the genetic loci influencing pregnancy success and loss in cattle. To identify quan...

  17. A bio-economic model to improve profitability in a large national beef cattle population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Paredes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A bio-economic model was developed for estimating economic values for use in improving profitability in a large national beef cattle population from birth to slaughter. Results were divided into fattening costs, production costs and income. Economic values were derived for 17 traits for two regions, mature weight (-0.43 € and -0.38 €/+1 kg of live weight, age at first calving (-0.13 € and -0.11 €/+1d, calving interval (-1.06 € and -1.02 €/+1d, age at last calving (0.03 € and 0.03 €/+1d, mortality 0-48 h (-5.86 € and -5.63 €/1% calves per cow and year, pre-weaning mortality (-5.96 € and -5.73 €/+1% calves per cow and year, fattening mortality (-8.23 € and -7.88 €/+1% calves per cow and year, adult mortality (-8.92 € and -7.34 €/+1% adult cows per cow and year, pre-weaning average daily gain (2.56 € and 2.84 €/+10g/d, fattening young animals average daily gain (2.65 € and 3.00 €/+10g/d, culled cow in fattening average daily gain (0.25 € and 0.16 €/+10g/d, culled cow dressing carcass percentage (3.09 € and 2.42 €/+1%, culled cow price (4.59 € and 3.59 €/+0.06 €/kg, carcass conformation score (16.39 € and 15.3 €/+1 SEUROP class, dressing carcass rate of calf (18.22 € and 18.23 €/+1%, carcass growth (9.00 € and 10.09 €/+10g of carcass weight/d and age at slaughter (0.27 € and 0.44 €/+1d. Two sample herds were used to show the economic impact of calving interval and age at first calving shortening in the profit per slaughtered young animal, which was 178 € and 111 € for Herds A and B, respectively. The economic values of functional traits were reduced and production traits were enhanced when fertility traits were improved. The model could be applied in a Spanish national program.

  18. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy. Copyright © 2014

  19. Genetic grouping strategies in selection efficiency of composite beef cattle ( × ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, J; Pertile, S F N; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G; Mourão, G B

    2015-02-01

    The inclusion of genetic groups in sire evaluation has been widely used to represent genetic differences among animals not accounted for by the absence of parentage data. However, the definition of these groups is still arbitrary, and studies assessing the effects of genetic grouping strategies on the selection efficiency are rare. Therefore, the aim in this study was to compare genetic grouping strategies for animals with unknown parentage in prediction of breeding values (EBV). The total of 179,302 records of weaning weight (WW), 29,825 records of scrotal circumference (SC), and 70,302 records of muscling score (MUSC) from Montana Tropical animals, a Brazilian composite beef cattle population, were used. Genetic grouping strategies involving year of birth, sex of the unknown parent, birth farm, breed composition, and their combinations were evaluated. Estimated breeding values were predicted for each approach simulating a loss of genealogy data. Thereafter, these EBV were compared to those obtained in an analysis involving a real relationship matrix to estimate selection efficiency and correlations between EBV and animal rankings. The analysis model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups and class of the dam age at calving, the covariates of additive and nonadditive genetic effects, and age, and the additive genetic effect of animal as random effects. A second model also included the fixed effects of genetic group. The use of genetic groups resulted in means of selection efficiency and correlation of 70.4 to 97.1% and 0.51 to 0.94 for WW, 85.8 to 98.8% and 0.82 to 0.98 for SC, and 85.1 to 98.6% and 0.74 to 0.97 for MUSC, respectively. High selection efficiencies were observed for year of birth and breed composition strategies. The maximum absolute difference in annual genetic gain estimated through the use of complete genealogy and genetic groups were 0.38 kg for WW, 0.02 cm for SC, and 0.01 for MUSC, with lower differences obtained when year of birth

  20. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  1. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  2. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  3. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  4. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  5. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Information Transmission in Cattle Markets: A Case Study of the Chariton Valley Beef Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Hueth, Brent; Lawrence, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The declining share of beef in total U.S. meat consumption has motivated industry-wide efforts to improve average beef quality through more effective coordination among the various market participants. Increased use of explicit "grid" pricing mechanisms over the last decade represent initial efforts at improved coordination. More recent efforts include animal-specific carcass data collection, with subsequent transmission to feeders and the relevant cow/calf operations, and improved "source ve...

  7. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maghfiroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.

  8. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E P; Pires, Alexandre V; Cerri, Carlos C

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope "housing to field application" by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO₂eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ~80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO₂eq per kg lwg(-1)). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO₂eq kg lwg(-1) or 95% (±45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (±47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems. Copyright

  9. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro, E-mail: cinirojr@hotmail.com [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos E.P., E-mail: cepcerri@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Pires, Alexandre V., E-mail: pires.1@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos C., E-mail: cerri@cena.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO{sub 2}eq per kg lwg{sup −1}). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO{sub 2}eq kg lwg{sup −1} or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions

  10. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro; Cerri, Carlos E.P.; Pires, Alexandre V.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH 4 and N 2 O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO 2 eq per kg lwg −1 ). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO 2 eq kg lwg −1 or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems

  11. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  12. Indicators of the Internal Environment of Beef Cattle during Fattening and their Correlation to the Quality of Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pavlík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine selected indicators of the internal environment in individual cattle categories during the period of fattening to evaluate the relation of the individual blood components to the growth intensity and qualitative indicators of the meat. The trial involved half-siblings - bulls, heifers and steers housed in one stable. The threesome always had a common father. During the trials the live weight was monitored and blood samples were taken on days 310, 403, 448, 479, 512, 554 and 618 of age. The concentrations of total proteins, glucose, total cholesterol, urea and catalytic concentrations of ALP, ALT, AST, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and copper in the blood plasma were assessed. In all cases the levels of indicators of the internal environment were within the range of the physiological values for the respective age category. Compared to bulls and steers, the concentration of total plasma cholesterol of the heifers was significantly higher (p p p p < 0.01. The correlation between the concentration of proteins in the blood plasma, the level of nitrogen or total protein in the muscles, the water-holding capacity and meat tenderness was positive. The study provides a basis for implementing helpful adjustments in current cattle management practises. Blood indicators presented in this paper can be added to existing knowledge to benefit veterinary research and clinical evaluations.

  13. Contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in an accidental release of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Seo, K. S.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hang, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was comprehensively investigated with the improvement of the Korean dynamic food chain model DYNACON. As the results, it was found that both pathways can not be neglected at all in the contamination of beef in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of cattle. The ingestion of soil was more influential in the contamination of beef than the inhalation of air over most time following an release. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was far greater compared with the cases of no precipitation. This fact was more distinct for a long-lived radionuclide 137 Cs than a short-lived radionuclide 131 I (elemental iodine). Compared with the results for milk performed prior to this study, the contaminative pathways due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil were more important in beef because of longer biological half-lives. In the meantime, in the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of cattle, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. It means that contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil is negligible like the cases of milk

  14. Bovine respiratory disease associated with Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a complex multifactorial and multi-etiological disease entity that is responsible for the morbidity and mortality particularly in feedlot cattle from North America. Information relative to the occurrence of BRD in Brazil and the associated infectious agents are lacking. This study investigated the participation of infectious agents of BRD in a beef cattle feedlot from Southeastern Brazil. Nasopharyngeal swabs of 11% (10/90 of cattle (n, 450 with clinical manifestations of respiratory distress were analyzed by targeting specific genes of the principal infectious pathogens of BRD. In addition, pulmonary fragments of one the animals that died were collected for histopathological and molecular diagnoses. The nucleic acids of Histophilus somni and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV were identified in 20% (2/10 of the nasopharyngeal swabs of the animals with respiratory distress; another contained only BRSV RNA. Moreover, the nucleic acids of both infectious agents were amplified from the pulmonary fragments of the animal that died with histopathological evidence of bronchopneumonia and interstitial pneumonia; the nasopharyngeal swab of this animal also contained the nucleic acids of both pathogens. Additionally, all PCR and/or RT-PCR assays designed to detect the specific genes of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine herpesvirus -1, bovine parainfluenza virus-3, and bovine coronavirus yielded negative results. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the isolates of H. somni circulating in Brazil are similar to those identified elsewhere, while there seem to be diversity between the isolates of BRSV within cattle herds from different geographical locations of Brazil.

  15. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  16. Genetic associations among average annual productivity, growth traits, and stayability: a parallel between Nelore and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Eler, J P; Bignardi, A B; Ferraz, J B S

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship among average annual productivity of the cow (PRODAM), yearling weight (YW), postweaning BW gain (PWG), scrotal circumference (SC), and stayability in the herd for at least 6 yr (STAY) of Nelore and composite beef cattle. Measurements were taken on animals born between 1980 and 2010 on 70 farms located in 7 Brazilian states. Estimates of heritability and genetic and environmental correlations were obtained by Bayesian approach with 5-trait animal models. Genetic trends were estimated by regressing means of estimated breeding values by year of birth. The heritability estimates were between 0.14 and 0.47. Estimates of genetic correlation among female traits (PRODAM and STAY) and growth traits ranged from -0.02 to 0.30. Estimates of genetic correlations ranged from 0.23 to 0.94 among growth traits indicating that selection for these traits could be successful in tropical breeding programs. Genetic correlations among all traits were favorable and simultaneous selection for growth, productivity, and stayability is therefore possible. Genetic correlation between PRODAM and STAY was 0.99 and 0.85 for Nelore and composite cattle, respectively. Therefore, PRODAM and STAY might be influenced by many of the same genes. The inclusion of PRODAM instead of STAY as a selection criterion seems to be more advantageous for tropical breeding programs because the generation interval required to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for PRODAM is shorter. Average annual genetic changes were greater in Nelore than in composite cattle. This was not unexpected because the breeding program of composite cattle included a large number of farms, different production environments, and genetic level of the herds and breeds. Thus, the selection process has become more difficult in this population.

  17. The impact of sharing arrangement institution on beef cattle breeding performance in Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nono, O. H.; Natawidjaja, R.; Arief, B.; Suryadi, D.; Kapa, M. M. J.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of sharing arrangement systems to performance of beef cattle breeding. This research was conducted in Kupang Regency - East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. The study used multi stage cluster random sampling method to determine the sample area and respondents. The sample areas consisted of 2 sub-districts and 6 villages, while the total respondents were 117 people comprised 74 Participant Farmers (PF) of sharing arrangement systems (SAS) and 43 non-participant farmers (NPF). 23 investors were selected for the survey. The result of the study indicated that the performance of NPF in terms of revenue, net profit, and return on investment (ROI) was better than PF respondents. The value of ROI was between 16.69-32.23 %. This indicated that utilization of farm asset was not optimum yet. It was found that farm efficiency was 1.73 which indicated that SAS does not increase farm productivity.

  18. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  19. Effect of subtherapeutic vs therapeutic administration of macrolides on antimicrobial resistance in Mannheimia haemolytica and enterococci isolated from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat eZaheer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Macrolides are the first-line treatment against bovine respiratory disease, and are also used to treat infections in humans. The macrolide, tylosin phosphate, is often included in the diet of cattle as a preventative for liver abscesses in many regions of the world outside of Europe. This study investigated the effects of administering macrolides to beef cattle either systemically through a single subcutaneous injection (therapeutic or continuously in-feed (subtherapeutic, on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mannheimia haemolytica and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the nasopharynx and faeces, respectively. Nasopharyngeal and faecal samples were collected weekly over 28 days from untreated beef steers and from steers injected once with tilmicosin or tulathromycin or continuously fed tylosin phosphate at dosages recommended by manufacturers. Tilmicosin and tulathromycin were effective in lowering (P < 0.05 the prevalence of M. haemolytica, whereas subtherpeutic tylosin had no effect. M. haemolytica isolated from control- and macrolide-treated animals were susceptible to macrolides as well as to other antibiotics. Major bacteria co-isolated with M. haemolytica included Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., E. coli and Bacillus spp. With the exception of M. haemolytica and P. multocida, erythromycin resistance was frequently found in other isolated species. Both methods of macrolide administration increased (P < 0.05 the levels erythromycin-resistance enterococci in faeces. Development of resistance to injectable macrolides in bacteria isolated from the nasopharynx was species dependent. Therapeutic administration of tilmicosin and tularthromycin selected for macrolide resistant bacteria within both the respiratory and intestinal tract, whereas suptherapeutic administration of tylosin only selected for macrolide resistance in enteric bacteria.

  20. EFFECTS OF LOW ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS RAW FULL-FAT SOYBEAN ON BEEF CATTLE FEEDING. INFRA-VITAM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Miotello

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of different sources of soybean on the infra-vitam performance of fattening beef cattle. The animals (56 Limousine were divided, according to BW (287±17 kg, in 4 experimental groups: LAFS (raw full-fat soybean low in antinutritional factors; SBM (soybean meal; TS (toasted full-fat soybean; NTS (non toasted full-fat soybean. The animals were fed a basal diet (TMR (DM:59.5%; CP:9.3%DM; NDF:33.9%DM; starch:34.9%DM supplemented as top dressing with different sources of soybeans in order to reach the same amount of additional CP (473 g/d. To obtain isoenergetic diets, calcium soap of palm fat (234 g/d was also added to SBM group. Animals were weighed monthly, DM intake was calculated daily and two blood samplings were collected. No metabolic disorders or pathological events were observed during the experiment. The daily gains of the first 6 months were not significantly different among the 4 experimental groups (on the average 1.35 ± 0.25 kg/d. DM intake values in the same period were similar (8.57 ± 0.78 kg/d of DM. The soybean supplementation did not affect the metabolic parameters (calculated as differences between the sampling times except for the *-glutamyl-transferase (P<0.01, the total plasma protein and globulin (P<0.05. The preliminary results of this experiment can indicate no significant effects of soybean antinutritional factors on the infra-vitam performances of beef cattle during the first fattening period.

  1. Meat quality traits of longissimus thoracis, semitendinosus and triceps brachii muscles from Chianina beef cattle slaughtered at two different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of muscle and slaughtering age on some meat quality traits of fortyeightcarcasses of Chianina beef cattle raised on the same farm and slaughtered at an age ranging between 18 and 21months. After the usual commercial ageing period for Chianina carcasses, longissimus thoracis, semitendinosus and tricepsbrachii muscles were taken and analyzed instrumentally for pH, meat color, water holding capacity, tenderness andchemical composition. To compare the quality characteristics of the three muscles at different age, all data were subdividedin two groups: slaughtering age 18-19 months (n=25 and 20-21 months (n=23. Quality characteristics of meatderived from the three muscles analyzed were different: semitendinosus muscle showed higher values of Lightness (L*and Hue (H*, thus lighter and paler meat, but was less tender and had a higher cooking loss. Meat derived from tricepsbrachii muscle had the lowest values of Lightness (L* and Hue (H* thus meat slightly darker; with regard to the otherquality parameters, longissimus thoracis gave more tender meat with better water holding capacity than triceps brachii.The meat analyzed had a very low content of intramuscular fat (expressed as ether extract (%, a very well-known characteristicof Chianina meat.The comparison between meat derived from 18-19 month old beef and from 20-21 month old beef shows that only redness(a* and Chroma (C* increased significantly with the increase in slaughtering age, but these results do not inducedifferences in meat color appreciation, as shown by the similar values of Lightness (L* and Hue (H*.Water holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition were not influenced by slaughtering age.

  2. The Optimation of Crude Fiber Content of Diet for Fattening Madura Beef Cattle to Achieve Good A:P Ratio and Low Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, N.; Restitrisnani, V.; Umar, M.

    2018-02-01

    Abtract. Methane (CH4) is one of the major greenhouse gases being reducted. This study was carried out to determine the optimum of crude fiber needed for fattening Madura beef cattle to achieve low methane production. Twenty-four male madura beef cattles with an average body weight of 206.89 ± 7.82 kg were used in this study. Cattle were fed contained 47.65 - 70.23 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN), 9.22 - 13.20% Crude Protein (CP), and 10.25 - 28.53% Crude Fiber (CF). Correlation analysis was used to describe the correlations among crude fiber,Methane, and Acetate:Propionate acid ratio. The result showed that crude fiber (%) had medium possitive correlation with methane and the equation was y = 0.0936x + 5.4853 with determination as much as 33.98%. The Acetate: propionate acid had positive correlation withmethane and the equation was y = 1.1121x + 3.581 with determination as much as 61.64%. Crude fiber (%) had low possitive correlation with A/P ratio and the equation was y = 0.039x + 2.4437 with determination as much as 9.56%. According to the results, it can be concluded that the optimum ofcrude fiberof diet for Madura beef cattle should be 15.38% to obtain A:P ratio of 3 or less and methane production of 6.91 MJ/d.

  3. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  4. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  5. Genetic correlation estimates between beef fatty acid profile with meat and carcass traits in Nellore cattle finished in feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Fabieli Loise Braga; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; de Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes; Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Peripolli, Elisa; Ferrinho, Adrielle Matias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Mazalli, Mônica Roberta; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; Tonhati, Humberto; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Aguilar, Ignacio; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic-quantitative relationships between the beef fatty acid profile with the carcass and meat traits of Nellore cattle. A total of 1826 bulls finished in feedlot conditions and slaughtered at 24 months of age on average were used. The following carcass and meat traits were analysed: subcutaneous fat thickness (BF), shear force (SF) and total intramuscular fat (IMF). The fatty acid (FA) profile of the Longissimus thoracis samples was determined. Twenty-five FAs (18 individuals and seven groups of FAs) were selected due to their importance for human health. The animals were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip and, after quality control for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only 470,007 SNPs from 1556 samples remained. The model included the random genetic additive direct effect, the fixed effect of the contemporary group and the animal's slaughter age as a covariable. The (co)variances and genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method, considering an animal model (single-step GBLUP). A total of 25 multi-trait analyses, with four traits, were performed considering SF, BF and IMF plus each individual FA. The heritability estimates for individual saturated fatty acids (SFA) varied from 0.06 to 0.65, for monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) it varied from 0.02 to 0.14 and for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) it ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The heritability estimates for Omega 3, Omega 6, SFA, MUFA and PUFA sum were low to moderate, varying from 0.09 to 0.20. The carcass and meat traits, SF (0.06) and IMF (0.07), had low heritability estimates, while BF (0.17) was moderate. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with BF were 0.04, 0.64 and -0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with SF were 0.29, -0.06 and -0.04, respectively. The genetic correlation estimates between SFA sum, MUFA sum and PUFA sum with IMF were 0.24, 0

  6. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  7. Relationship of glucocorticoids and hematological measures with feed intake, growth, and efficiency of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of glucocorticoids and markers for immune status in finishing beef steers and heifers with DMI, growth, and efficiency. Calves (n = 236) were individually fed a finishing ration for 84 d with BW measured every 21 d. Blood samples we...

  8. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  9. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-01-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses. PMID:27608639

  10. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Zifikile; Muchenje, Voster

    2017-06-01

    The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals' wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  11. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  12. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area.

  13. Molecular survey of infectious agents associated with bovine respiratory disease in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn A; Okano, Werner; Balbo, Luciana C; Marcasso, Rogério A; Oliveira, Thalita E; Alfieri, Alice F; Negri Filho, Luiz C; Michelazzo, Mariana Z; Rodrigues, Silvio C; Baptista, Anderson L; Saut, João Paulo E; Alfieri, Amauri A

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the occurrence of infectious pathogens during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in a beef cattle feedlot in southern Brazil that has a high risk of developing BRD. Nasopharyngeal swabs were randomly collected from steers ( n = 23) and assessed for the presence of infectious agents of BRD by PCR and/or RT-PCR assays. These included: Histophilus somni, Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3). Pulmonary sections of one steer that died with clinical BRD were submitted for pathology and molecular testing. The frequencies of the pathogens identified from the nasopharyngeal swabs were: H. somni 39% (9 of 23), BRSV 35% (8 of 23), BCoV 22% (5 of 23), and M. haemolytica 13% (3 of 23). PCR or RT-PCR assays did not identify P. multocida, M. bovis, BoHV-1, BVDV, or BPIV-3 from the nasopharyngeal swabs. Single and concomitant associations of infectious agents of BRD were identified. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia was diagnosed in one steer that died; samples were positive for H. somni and M. haemolytica by PCR. H. somni, BRSV, and BCoV are important disease pathogens of BRD in feedlot cattle in Brazil, but H. somni and BCoV are probably under-reported.

  14. Faecal cortisol concentrations as indicator of stress during intensive fattening of beef cattle in a humid tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, Bertha Clementina; Carrasco-García, Apolo Adolfo; Ahuja-Aguirre, Concepción; López-deBuen, Lorena; Rojas-Maya, Susana; Montiel-Palacios, Felipe

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluated the concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in intensively fattened beef cattle from a feedlot in a humid tropical environment. A total of 360 bulls weighing 271-371 kg were kept confined in pens from the start to the end of the fattening period (FP). At 24 h after arriving at the feedlot, cattle were distributed into the pens according to their live weight: 271-320 kg, 321-370 kg, and >370 kg. At the start of the FP, four pens of each weight group were randomly selected, and in each of them 10 faecal samples were obtained from 10 randomly selected bulls; this sampling was repeated in the same pens and in each weight group at the middle and end of the FP. The FCM were measured through enzyme immunoassay. The 271-320 kg group had higher FCM at the end of the FP (P  0.05), and the >370 kg group showed higher FCM at the start and end of the FP (P 370 kg groups (P stress environment.

  15. Assessment of welfare of finishing beef cattle kept on different types of floor after short- or long-term housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brscic, M; Gottardo, F; Tessitore, E; Guzzo, L; Ricci, R; Cozzi, G

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1 ± 0.5 v. 6.5 ± 0.4 s; Pfloor were at higher risk of early culling (odds ratio=6.44; 95% confidence interval=1.57 to 26.37; Pfloor, making animals more confident to interact with powerful movements such as mounting at the end of the finishing period. A negative aspect of the deep litter was the poor cleanliness of the bulls. Compared with the fully slatted floor, there were higher odds ratios for dirty bulls at both, the short- (odds ratio=25.09; 95% confidence interval=8.96 to 70.22; Pfloors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.

  16. Change in antimicrobial resistance pattern in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates detected in a beef cattle farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Masaru; Shahada, Francis; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Haruo; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamamura, Yukino; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolates with four different antimicrobial resistance patterns obtained from a beef cattle farm were characterized to determine their clonality. Macrorestriction analysis of genomic DNA revealed that these four isolates are closely related to each other and can be classified as a newly emerged pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type among cattle: cluster VII. Three of the four isolates showed resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), and this resistance was mediated by AmpC β-lactamase encoded by the bla(CMY-2) gene in a 190-kbp IncA/C plasmid. Results of restriction analysis and IncA/C backbone PCR suggest that the three 190-kbp plasmids are identical and that a 70-kbp IncA/C plasmid of the ESC-susceptible isolate is derived from the 190-kbp plasmid by a deletion event. Three isolates harboured a virulence-resistance plasmid (165 or 180 kbp), and restriction analysis revealed that these plasmids were identical or closely related to each other. These results suggest that the four S. Typhimurium cluster VII isolates originate from a common ancestor that probably invaded the farm prior to the salmonellosis outbreak. Antimicrobial resistance patterns may not necessarily reflect the relationships of the isolates.

  17. Feeding value of whole raw soya beans as a protein supplement for beef cattle consuming low-quality forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelovich, H M; Lagrange, S; Torre, R; Martinez, M F; Laborde, H E

    2018-02-01

    Experiments (Exp) I and II were conducted to compare raw whole soya beans (WSB), roasted (rWSB) or other protein sources as supplements of low-quality forages fed ad libitum to beef cattle, upon DM intake (DMI), ruminal and blood parameters, and animal performance. Exp I: treatments for wheat straw fed to four ruminally cannulated steers were (i) Control-WS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-WS: whole soya beans; (iii) rWSB-WS: roasted WSB; and (iv) SBM-WS: soybean meal-wheat midds mixture; all fed at 1.4 kg DM/day. Exp II: 12 steers grazed deferred grain sorghum (DS) receiving these treatments: (i) Control-DS: no supplement; (ii) WSB-DS: 1.26 kg DM/day whole soya beans; and (iii) SFM-DS: 1.35 kg DM/day of sunflower meal. In Exp I, WS DMI resulted 47, 52 and 41% greater for WSB-WS, rWSB-WS and SBM-WS, respectively, than Control-WS (p forages were not detected, and all protein sources increased total diet DMI and forage utilization. Only moderate cattle weight gains could be expected for unsupplemented DS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  19. Genomic predictions for economically important traits in Brazilian Braford and Hereford beef cattle using true and imputed genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Mario L; Brito, Luiz F; Braccini, José; Cardoso, Fernando F; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flávio S

    2017-01-18

    Genomic selection (GS) has played an important role in cattle breeding programs. However, genotyping prices are still a challenge for implementation of GS in beef cattle and there is still a lack of information about the use of low-density Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) chip panels for genomic predictions in breeds such as Brazilian Braford and Hereford. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using imputed genotypes in the accuracy of genomic predictions for twenty economically important traits in Brazilian Braford and Hereford beef cattle. Various scenarios composed by different percentages of animals with imputed genotypes and different sizes of the training population were compared. De-regressed EBVs (estimated breeding values) were used as pseudo-phenotypes in a Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP) model using two different mimicked panels derived from the 50 K (8 K and 15 K SNP panels), which were subsequently imputed to the 50 K panel. In addition, genomic prediction accuracies generated from a 777 K SNP (imputed from the 50 K SNP) were presented as another alternate scenario. The accuracy of genomic breeding values averaged over the twenty traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.40 across the different scenarios. The average losses in expected genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) accuracy (accuracy obtained from the inverse of the mixed model equations) relative to the true 50 K genotypes ranged from -0.0007 to -0.0012 and from -0.0002 to -0.0005 when using the 50 K imputed from the 8 K or 15 K, respectively. When using the imputed 777 K panel the average losses in expected GEBV accuracy was -0.0021. The average gain in expected EBVs accuracy by including genomic information when compared to simple BLUP was between 0.02 and 0.03 across scenarios and traits. The percentage of animals with imputed genotypes in the training population did not significantly influence the validation accuracy. However, the size of the training

  20. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  1. Effects of supplementation frequency on the ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production of beef cattle grazing in tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production in beef cattle subjected to different supplementation frequencies while grazing on Brachiaria brizanthacv. Marandu pastures. Nine cattle (325±65.7 kg BW fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in the ruminal fermentation study, and 12 cattle (399±32.6 kg BW were used in the enteric methane production study. The treatments included supplementation once daily, supplementation once daily except Saturdays and Sundays, or supplementation on alternate days. The supplementation was equivalent to 10 g kg−1 BW day−1 for all treatments. The design employed was completely randomized with three treatments and three replications. When all supplements were provided (day 1, no effects of supplementation frequency were observed on ruminal pH; concentration of NH3-N; concentration of acetic, propionic, or butyric acids; or total volatile fatty acids (VFA, but there were month effects. During the day on which only daily supplements were provided (day 2, significant differences were observed only on the molar concentration of acetic acid and total VFA; and month effects were noted on all variables. No significant differences were observed in ruminal fluid volume, dilution rate, N intake, bacterial N synthesis and enteric methane production among the studied supplementation frequencies. Differences were observed in the enteric methane production in the different months, with 85 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in September and 123 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in November. Lower supplementation frequency is a good option to lower labor costs with little or no consequences on ruminal fermentation characteristics and enteric methane production.

  2. Genomic structure and marker-derived gene networks for growth and meat quality traits of Brazilian Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudadu, Maurício A; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Mokry, Fabiana B; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Tullio, Rymer R; Nassu, Renata T; Niciura, Simone C M; Tholon, Patrícia; Alencar, Maurício M; Higa, Roberto H; Rosa, Antônio N; Feijó, Gélson L D; Ferraz, André L J; Silva, Luiz O C; Medeiros, Sérgio R; Lanna, Dante P; Nascimento, Michele L; Chaves, Amália S; Souza, Andrea R D L; Packer, Irineu U; Torres, Roberto A A; Siqueira, Fabiane; Mourão, Gerson B; Coutinho, Luiz L; Reverter, Antonio; Regitano, Luciana C A

    2016-03-15

    Nelore is the major beef cattle breed in Brazil with more than 130 million heads. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are often used to associate markers and genomic regions to growth and meat quality traits that can be used to assist selection programs. An alternative methodology to traditional GWAS that involves the construction of gene network interactions, derived from results of several GWAS is the AWM (Association Weight Matrices)/PCIT (Partial Correlation and Information Theory). With the aim of evaluating the genetic architecture of Brazilian Nelore cattle, we used high-density SNP genotyping data (~770,000 SNP) from 780 Nelore animals comprising 34 half-sibling families derived from highly disseminated and unrelated sires from across Brazil. The AWM/PCIT methodology was employed to evaluate the genes that participate in a series of eight phenotypes related to growth and meat quality obtained from this Nelore sample. Our results indicate a lack of structuring between the individuals studied since principal component analyses were not able to differentiate families by its sires or by its ancestral lineages. The application of the AWM/PCIT methodology revealed a trio of transcription factors (comprising VDR, LHX9 and ZEB1) which in combination connected 66 genes through 359 edges and whose biological functions were inspected, some revealing to participate in biological growth processes in literature searches. The diversity of the Nelore sample studied is not high enough to differentiate among families neither by sires nor by using the available ancestral lineage information. The gene networks constructed from the AWM/PCIT methodology were a useful alternative in characterizing genes and gene networks that were allegedly influential in growth and meat quality traits in Nelore cattle.

  3. Activities of some stress enzymes as indicators of slaughter cattle welfare and their relationship with physico-chemical characteristics of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulayo, A-Y; Muchenje, V

    2017-09-01

    The study determined the activities of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in transported cattle as indicators of welfare and how they relate to beef quality. A total of 219 (n=219) (85 Beefmaster, 48 Charolaise, 32 Holstein-Friesian and 54 nondescript) cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were used in the study. Disposable vacutainer tubes with anticoagulant (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) were used to collect 4 ml of blood samples to determine the activities of CK and LDH. The measurements of pHu and colour coordinates (L*, a* and b*) were carried out at 48 h after slaughter on the representative samples of muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL). Longer distance travelled by cattle had a significant effect (P3000 to 5000) and those that travelled for 1263 km had lower CK activities (1000). The activities of LDH were observed in cattle that travelled for 366 and 1012 km (7000) and for those that travelled for 877 and 922 km (6000). Results of the principal component analysis showed that the first three principal components (PCs) explained about 53% of the total variability. The first PC was correlated with meat quality attributes (pHu, Tm, a* and b* values). The activities of CK and LDH were related and useful to define the second PC. However, CK and LDH were not related to beef quality. Therefore, CK and LDH can be used as indicators of welfare in slaughter cattle but cannot be used to predict the quality of meat.

  4. Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Tansawat, Rossarin; Cornforth, Daren; Ward, Robert; Martini, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Ten panelists were selected from the local community to develop a meat lexicon composed of 18 terms that describe flavor attributes found in red meats. This flavor lexicon was used to compare the flavor profile of meat from beef cattle finished on grass or grain. Steaks from grass-fed animals were significantly (Pconsumers' acceptance. Steaks from grass-fed cattle were rated by consumers as slightly liked (6.08 on a 9-point scale), while steaks from grain-fed animals were rated as moderately liked (7.05 on a 9-point scale). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beef Cattle Integration on Dry-Land Farming in Sragen Central-Java Indonesia: Improvements of Economic and Environmental Carrying Capacity Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rahardjo, M; Suroyo, Suroyo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of beef cattle integration on dry land farming of peanut and maize with a focus on the economic and the environmental carrying capacity aspects. The multiyears of field experiments were conducted on the Kebun Pengembangan Pertanian Terpadu, Lembaga Pendidikan Pelatihan dan Penelitian Wiyata Dharma located at Geneng Duwur Village, Gemolong Distrik, Sragen Regency, Central-Java Indonesia. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with th...

  6. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  7. Welfare and meat quality of beef cattle housed on two types of floors with the same space allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance, behaviour, cleanliness, carcass traits and meat quality of 48 Simmental young bulls housed on slattedfloor or on straw bedding with the same space allowance were compared in the study, which lasted 250 days. Theanimals (initial body weight = 321.2 ± 34.1 kg were assigned to 8 balanced groups, according to their initial bodyweight. All the groups were reared in separate pens with a space allowance of 3 m2/head. Four pens had a concrete floorcovered with a straw bedding while the other pens had a fully slatted floor made of concrete slats. All the animals receivedthe same diet provided ad libitum.Type of floor did not affect the bulls’ daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Health status of the animals was satisfactorythroughout the trial and several blood indicators of chronic stress were not modified by the treatment. Behaviouralobservations carried out at d 10, 80, 180 and 240 showed differences only on some behaviours due to the type of floor.In particular, the straw bedding increased eating behaviour and it encouraged the simultaneous presence of more bullsat the manger. Regardless of the type of floor, the progress of the trial showed a linear increase of animals’ inactivity(Presults can be referred to the growth of the animal body frame, which made the space allowance progressively limiting.In the straw bedded pens, clean straw was added weekly and fully renewed every 3 weeks, but this bedding managementdid not allow a satisfactory cleanliness of the animals in comparison with the slatted floor. However, the worsecleanliness of the bulls on the straw did not promote their grooming activity. Young bulls were slaughtered at a finalweight of 614.6 ± 14.7 kg and their carcass traits and meat quality were not affected by the treatment.The straw bedded system cannot always be considered the cleanest solution for the housing of beef cattle and its frequentrenewal must be carried out, particularly when animals are

  8. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Mahdi; McClure, Mathew C; McKay, Stephanie D; Rolf, Megan M; Kim, JaeWoo; Decker, Jared E; Taxis, Tasia M; Chapple, Richard H; Ramey, Holly R; Northcutt, Sally L; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Dekkers, Jack C M; Fernando, Rohan L; Schnabel, Robert D; Garrick, Dorian J; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2011-11-28

    Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. These results suggest that genomic estimates of genetic merit can be produced in beef cattle at a young age but

  9. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Methods Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Results Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. Conclusions These results suggest that genomic estimates

  10. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Da-jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4

  11. Fluidized bed gasification of high tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure: Evaluation of synthesis gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Nam, Hyungseok

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure were characterized and gasified in a fluidized bed reactor. • Biomass gasification at 730 °C and ER = 0.35 produced synthesis gas with an average energy content of 4.19 MJ Nm −3 . • Synthesis gas heating value and yield were relatively constant at reaction temperatures from 730 °C to 800 °C. • Optimum hydrogen production on HTS gasification was achieved at 780 °C temperature and ER of 0.4. - Abstract: Fluidized bed gasification using high-tonnage sorghum, cotton gin trash and beef cattle manure was performed in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor equipped with the necessary feedback control system. Characterization of biomass showed that the high-tonnage sorghum had the highest energy and carbon content of 19.58 MJ kg −1 and 42.29% wt , respectively among the three feed stocks. At 730 °C reaction temperature and equivalence ratio of 0.35, comparable yields of methane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide (within ± 1.4% vol ) were observed in all three feed stocks. The gasification system produced synthesis gas with an average heating value of 4.19 ± 0.09 MJ Nm −3 and an average yield of 1.98 ± 0.1 Nm 3 kg −1 of biomass. Carbon conversion and gasification efficiencies indicated that most of the carbon was converted to gaseous products (85% average ) while 48% average of the energy from the biomass was converted into combustible gas. The production of hydrogen was significantly affected by the biomass used during gasification. The synthesis gas heating value and yield were relatively constant at reaction temperatures from 730 °C to 800 °C. Utilizing high-tonnage sorghum, the optimum hydrogen production during gasification was achieved at a reaction temperature of 780 °C and an equivalence ratio of 0.40.

  12. The Potential of Various Living Tissues for Monitoring Clenbuterol Abuse in Food-Producing Chinese Simmental Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether living tissues such as urine, plasma and hair were suitable for monitoring clenbuterol (CL) abuse after its subchronic administration of a growth-promoting dose to the Chinese Simmental beef cattle. Eight male, white and red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle were involved in the experiment, and the CL dose was 16 µg/kg BW/day. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was used to determine CL residues in different tissues, and the addition of D9-clenbuterol internal standard was applied to increase determination accuracy. The recovery of plasma, urine, hair and in vivo tissues was 88.5-114.2, 83.9-114.3, 88.6-116.9 and 85.3-121.7%, respectively. The results showed that CL residue concentrations in the plasma, on Days 14 after withdrawal and later, were lower than the limit of detection (LOD) (0.06 ng/mL) and CL residue in urine was lower than LOD (0.16 ng/mL) 42 days after treatment. CL significantly accumulated in the white and red hair and maintained more than 7.19 ± 2.19 pg/mg within the early withdrawal period of 70 days. A large number of CL were determined in all tested biological tissues, in which residues were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) after dietary administration of CL for 21 days and pre-slaughter withdrawal period of ∼6 h. A particular concern is the slow depletion of residues of CL in some tissues like gluteus and liver still exceeding theirs MRLs, respectively, on Days 14 or 28 days after withdrawal. Our study indicated that plasma and urine could be available for monitoring CL abuse only within a short period of time. However, hair (including light-pigmented) as a target matrix can be selected to perform the long-period monitor of CL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Urick et al. (1984) studied two lines of inbred Hereford cattle selected for high yearling weight phenotype alone or for high yearling weight and low birth weight. Data available after five years of selection showed a 5.0% difference in average birth weight between the two herds and a 1.8% difference in yearling weight for bull ...

  14. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  15. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  16. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium andersoni in one herd of beef cattle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Vítovec, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 9 (2003), s. 451-457 ISSN 0931-1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 122200002 Keywords : cryptosporidiosis * cattle * Cryptosporidium andersoni Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.656, year: 2003

  17. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in beef feedlot of Borena cattle by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine Tuberculosis. OIE manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial manual. World Health Organization for Animal Health, Paris, France. 2, 4-7. Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchclif, K.W., 2007. Veterinary medicine: a text book of the disease of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. W.B Saunders,.

  18. Effects of 3 Topical Plant Extracts on Wound Healing in Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eleven heifers of the Purunã cattle breed were used to evaluate wound healing by second intention. An experimental wound excision model in bovines was created by means of a skin punch of diameter 2cm. The animals were topically treated for 17 days with a saline control or decoctions of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi ...

  19. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  20. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  1. Food safety - mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle are colonized by a complex microbiome within their gastrointestinal tract and on their skin/hide which can be colonized by foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). In-plant pathogen reduction strategies reduce direct foodborne il...

  2. Use of aluminum sulfate (alum) to decrease ammonia emissions from beef cattle bedded manure packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the floor and bedding in these confined facilities depends on several variables including pH, temperature, and moisture content. When pH ...

  3. Beef cattle welfare evaluation during the dry season in the northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cattle welfare index was estimated through 14 visual indicators in the cow-calf system in northern Mexico. The study was carried out at 25 ranches in Chihuahua, Mexico. The indicators were rangeland forage availability; rangeland plant diversity; ease of walking owing to terrain slope; ease of walking owing to presence ...

  4. Effect of season on mineral concentrations in beef cattle in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress factors associated with nutrition in the subtropics and tropics. Effect of season on ... minerals; however, based on animal tissue analysis Cu, Mn, Ca .... phosphorus status in grazing cattle (Committee on Animal. Nutrition, 1973). The mean serum Cu and incidence of Cu deficiency were not affected by season. However ...

  5. Phosphorus requirement and excretion of finishing beef cattle fed different concentrations of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisert, B G; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Macken, C N; Luebbe, M K; MacDonald, J C

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorus is an expensive nutrient to supplement, and excess may lead to manure P challenges. Therefore, minimizing dietary P to meet requirements is important. Two experiments were conducted to determine the P requirement of finishing cattle (Exp. 1) and to evaluate the effects of feeding different P concentrations on the quantity and route of P excretion (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, 60 heifers (BW = 278 kg +/- 17 kg) were individually fed 1 of 5 dietary P concentrations (0.10, 0.17, 0.24, 0.31, or 0.38% P). Cattle performance, plasma P concentration, bone characteristics, and bone P concentration were used to determine the P requirement. Intake and ADG increased quadratically (P urine as a percentage of total P excretion. Steers on the 0.12% P diet excreted very little P in urine (0.50 g/d). Excretion of P was less (P < 0.05) for the cattle fed 0.12% P compared with all other treatments. Results from cattle performance, plasma P concentrations, and bone characteristics indicate that the heifers fed 0.10% P were experiencing a deficiency and the P requirement of finishing heifers is between 0.10 and 0.17% P. Dietary P concentrations of 0.10 to 0.17% P resulted in decreased P excretion. Supplementation of mineral P is unnecessary in grain-based feedlot diets because dietary P will greatly exceed the requirements (<0.17%).

  6. Random regression models in the evaluation of the growth curve of Simbrasil beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, M.; Marques, F.A.; Lopes, P.S.; Hidalgo, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Random regression models were used to estimate the types and orders of random effects of (co)variance functions in the description of the growth trajectory of the Simbrasil cattle breed. Records for 7049 animals totaling 18,677 individual weighings were submitted to 15 models from the third to the

  7. Association of plasma ghrelin concentrations with feed intake in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active ghrelin is an acylated peptide produced in the gastrointestinal tract of animals that is thought to stimulate appetite. Cattle used in this experiment were sired by bulls representing five breeds in the U.S. including: Hereford, Angus, Limousin, Charolais, and Gelbvieh. Steers (n=128) and hei...

  8. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N.; Strathe, A.B.; Jayasundara, S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively

  9. (CAPN1) and HRSP12 allelic variants in beef cattle with carcass traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Calpain 1 (CAPN1) and its activator HRSP12 are evaluated as candidate gene for quantitative trait loci. (QTLs) affecting meat tenderness. In this study, SNPs were detected by sequencing in 323 cattle from 9 breeds. The association results showed that the A3553G and T824C loci individually related with.

  10. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  11. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  12. Effect of phenotypic residual feed intake and dietary forage content on the rumen microbial community of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S; Waters, Sinead M

    2012-07-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P diet. Thus, differences in the ruminal microflora may contribute to host feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered.

  13. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  14. Isolation and Physiomorphological Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7-Infecting Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpinder Kaur Litt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages, recovered from beef cattle environment and specifically targeting Escherichia coli O157:H7, were examined for their physiological and morphological characteristics. Degree of bacterial lysis and host range of isolated bacteriophages was determined against 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Morphology of phages was examined under transmission electron microscope. Phage growth parameters, particularly rate of adsorption, rise period, latent period, and burst size were also determined. The stability of isolated phages was tested at acidic and alkaline pH, at high temperatures, and in cold storage. A total of 7 phages were isolated which showed lytic activity against 50 out of 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Based on the morphology, phages were classified into Myoviridae or Siphoviridae family. Phages had a rise period between 19 and 40 min, a short latent period between 12 and 30 min, and a large burst size (89–631 virions per infected cell, indicating high lytic activity. Phages remained stable for 24 h at a wide pH (1–11 and temperature range (40–60°C and for 90 d in cold storage. Characterization of bacteriophages, with a diverse host range of E. coli O157:H7, could aid in the development of effective biocontrol strategies for this pathogen in the food industry.

  15. Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible.

  16. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Temperament and dominance relate to feeding behaviour and activity in beef cattle: implications for performance and methane emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; Somarriba, M; Duthie, C A; Troy, S; Roehe, R; Rooke, J; Haskell, M J; Turner, S P

    2018-04-02

    In beef cattle, feeding behaviour and activity are associated with feed efficiency and methane (CH4) emissions. This study aimed to understand the underlying traits responsible for the contribution of cattle behaviour to individual differences in feed efficiency, performance and CH4 emissions. A total of 84 steers (530±114 kg BW) of two different breeds (crossbreed Charolais and Luing) were used. The experiment was a 2×2×3 factorial design with breed, basal diets (concentrate v. mixed) and dietary treatments (no additive, calcium nitrate or rapeseed cake) as the main factors. The individual dry matter intake (DMI; kg) was recorded daily and the BW was measured weekly over a 56-day period. Ultrasound fat depth was measured on day 56. Based on the previous data, the indexes average daily gain, food conversion and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. The frequency of meals, the duration per visit and the time spent feeding per day were taken as feeding behaviour measures. Daily activity was measured using the number of steps, the number of standing bouts and the time standing per day. Agonistic interactions (including the number of contacts, aggressive interactions, and displacements per day) between steers at the feeders were assessed as indicators of dominance. Temperament was assessed using the crush score test (which measures restlessness when restrained) and the flight speed on release from restraint. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression models. Steers that spent more time eating showed better feed efficiency (P=0.039), which can be due to greater secretion of saliva. Feeding time was longer with the mixed diet (P<0.001), Luings (P=0.009) and dominant steers (P=0.032). Higher activity (more steps) in the pen was associated with poorer RFI, possibly because of higher energy expenditure for muscle activity. Frequent meals contributed to a reduction in CH4 emissions per kg DMI. The meal frequency was higher with a mixed diet (P

  18. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  19. Body temperature and respiratory dynamics in un-shaded beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.

    2014-09-01

    In this study body temperature (BT, °C) and panting score (PS, 0-4.5; where 0 = no panting/no stress and 4.5 = catastrophic stress) data were obtained from 30 Angus steers housed outside over 120 days Steers were implanted with a BT transmitter on day -31, BT was recorded at 30-min intervals to a data logger and downloaded each day to a database. The cattle were housed in ten outdoor un-shaded pens with an earthen floor, eight of which had a pen floor area of 144 m2 (three transmitter steers plus five non-transmitter steers; 18 m2/steer) and two had an area of 168 m2 (three transmitter steers and six non-transmitter steers; 18.7 m2/steer). Only data from the transmitter steers were used in this study. The PS of the steers was obtained daily (± 15 min) at 0600 hours (AM), 1200 hours (MD) and 1600 hours (PM). At the same times climate variables (ambient temperature, black globe temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall) were obtained from an on-site weather station. PS observations were made from outside the pens so as not to influence cattle responses. The two closest BT values to the time when PS was obtained were downloaded retrospectively from a logger and averaged. A total of 8,352 observations were used to generate second order polynomial response curves: (AM) y = 39.08 + 0.009 x + 0.137 x 2 ( R 2 = 0.94; P relative to MD and PM. Morning observation of cattle (before feeding) are crucial for effective heat load management especially on days when high heat load is expected. The MD and PM observations provide a good indication of the impact of high environmental heat load on cattle. Differences in PS between AM and PM observations suggest that more research is needed to determine the effect of night time conditions on BT, PS and overall respiratory dynamics of cattle during periods of hot weather.

  20. Impacto econômico da mosca dos chifres em bovinos de corte = Horn fly economic impact in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Allim Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mosca dos chifres (Haematobia irritans é um dos principais ectoparasita de bovinos na pecuária atual no Brasil, por isso objetivou-se avaliar o impacto econômico deste parasita em relação ao ganho de peso e a idade para o abate em bovinos de corte. O estudo foi baseado na pesquisa de Bianchin et al. (2004, onde realizaram um estudo na região do cerrado de Mato Grosso do Sul, durante a estação chuvosa de outubro a maio, época de maior infestação do parasito. Foram utilizados os dados de 20 machos com idade de dois anos, castrados da raça nelore e de mesmo peso inicial, divididos em dois grupos de dez animais tratados com inseticidas x animais não tratados. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso e a idade de abate para determinar a eficiência e o impacto econômico de cada grupo. O desempenho animal apresentou um acréscimo de 16% no ganho de peso diário e redução de 32% em relação a idade de abate de animais tratados com antiparasitário. Em tais condições, o impacto econômico positivo foi de R$154,64 por animal. Os resultados evidenciaram que se justifica o tratamento do antiparasitário, pois a eficiência na redução da mosca dos chifres proporcionou um impacto econômico positivo para o sistema de produção de gado de corte. = The horn fly (Haematobia irritans is one of the main ectoparasite of cattle in the current livestock farming in Brazil, so we aimed to evaluate the economic impact of this parasite in relation to weight gain and age of slaughter of beef cattle. The study is based on Bianchin et al. (2004 research, who conducted a study in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, in Cerrado region, during the rainy season from October to May, when is the greatest time of the parasite infestation. The data used in the study was 20 two-year-old males of the breed Nelore, all castrated and with the same initial weight, divided into two groups, one of ten animals treated with insecticides and another with ten untreated animals

  1. Effects of 3 topical plant extracts on wound healing in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Wouk, Antonio Felipe Paulino de Figueiredo; da Silva, Nilceu Lemos; Perotto, Daniel; Ollhoff, Rüdiger Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Eleven heifers of the Purunã cattle breed were used to evaluate wound healing by second intention. An experimental wound excision model in bovines was created by means of a skin punch of diameter 2cm. The animals were topically treated for 17 days with a saline control or decoctions of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira mansa), Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb (Ipê Roxo), and Casearia sylvestris Sw.(Guaçatonga) mixed with carboxymethyl cellulose. Centripetal retraction, clinical, and histological aspects of the wounds were observed until complete healing. Decoctions of T. avellanedae and S. terebinthifolius, but not C. sylvestris, had a beneficial effect on wound healing by second intention.

  2. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  3. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  4. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

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    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  5. Identification of the SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism for Fatty Acid Composition Associated with Beef Flavor-related FABP4 (Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 in Korean Cattle

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    Dong-yep Oh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the relationship between unsaturated fatty acids influencing beef flavor and four types of SNPs (c.280A>G, c.388G>A, c.408G>C and c.456A>G located at exon 2, 3 and 4 of the FABP4 gene, which is a fatty acid binding protein 4 in Korean cattle (n = 513. When analyzing the relationship between single genotype, fatty acids and carcass trait, individuals of GG, GG, CC and GG genotypes that are homozygotes, had a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores than other genotypes (p<0.05. Then, haplotype block showed strong significant relationships not only with unsaturated fatty acids (54.73%, but also with marbling scores (5.82 in ht1×ht1 group (p<0.05. This ht1×ht1 group showed significant differences with unsaturated fatty acids and marbling scores that affected beef flavor in Korean cattle. Therefore, it can be inferred that the ht1×ht1 types might be valuable new markers for use in the improvement of Korean cattle.

  6. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

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    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  7. Tech-Savvy Beef Cattle? How Heifers Respond to Moving Virtual Fence Lines

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    Dana L.M. Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS-based virtual fences offer the potential to improve the management of grazing animals. Prototype collar devices utilising patented virtual fencing algorithms were placed on six Angus heifers in a 6.15 hectare paddock. After a “no fence” period, sequential, shifting virtual fences restricted the animals to 40%, 60%, and 80% of the paddock area widthways and 50% lengthways across 22 days. Audio cues signaled the virtual boundary, and were paired with electrical stimuli if the animals continued forward into the boundary. Within approximately 48 h, the cattle learned the 40% fence and were henceforth restricted to the subsequent inclusion zones a minimum of 96.70% (±standard error 0.01% of the time. Over time, the animals increasingly stayed within the inclusion zones using audio cues alone, and on average, approached the new fence within 4.25 h. The animals were thus attentive to the audio cue, not the fence location. The time spent standing and lying and the number of steps were similar between inclusion zones (all p ≥ 0.42. More lying bouts occurred at the 80% and lengthways inclusion zones relative to “no fence” (p = 0.04. Further research should test different cattle groups in variable paddock settings and measure physiological welfare responses to the virtual fencing stimuli.

  8. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

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    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  9. Evaluation of bull fertility in dairy and beef cattle using cow field data.

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    Berry, D P; Evans, R D; Mc Parland, S

    2011-01-01

    A successful outcome to a given service is a combination of both male and female fertility. Despite this, most national evaluations for fertility are generally confined to female fertility with evaluations for male fertility commonly undertaken by individual breeding organisations and generally not made public. The objective of this study was to define a pertinent male fertility trait for seasonal calving production systems, and to develop a multiple regression mixed model that may be used to evaluate male fertility at a national level. The data included in the study after editing consisted of 361,412 artificial inseminations from 206,683 cow-lactations (134,911 cows) in 2,843 commercial dairy and beef herds. Fixed effects associated with whether a successful pregnancy ensued (pregnant = 1) or not (pregnant = 0) from a given service were year by month of service, day of the week, days since calving, cow parity, level of calving difficulty experienced, whether or not the previous calving was associated with perinatal mortality, and age of the service bull at the date of insemination. Non-additive genetic effects such as heterosis and recombination loss as well as inbreeding level of the service bull, dam or mating were not associated with a successful pregnancy; there was no difference in pregnancy rate between fresh or frozen semen. Random effects included in the model were the additive genetic effect of the cow, as well as a within lactation and across lactation permanent environmental effect of the cow; pedigree group effects based on cow breed were also included via the relationship matrix. Temporal differences in the AI technician and service bull were also included as random effects. A difference in five percentage units in male fertility was evident between the average effects of different dairy and beef breeds. The correlation between raw pregnancy rates for bulls with more than 100 services (n = 431) and service bull solutions from the mixed model analysis

  10. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

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    Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05. Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05. Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle

  11. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

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    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  12. A fuzzy logic-based tool to assess beef cattle ranching sustainability in complex environmental systems.

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    Santos, Sandra A; de Lima, Helano Póvoas; Massruhá, Silvia M F S; de Abreu, Urbano G P; Tomás, Walfrido M; Salis, Suzana M; Cardoso, Evaldo L; de Oliveira, Márcia Divina; Soares, Márcia Toffani S; Dos Santos, Antônio; de Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Calheiros, Débora F; Crispim, Sandra M A; Soriano, Balbina M A; Amâncio, Christiane O G; Nunes, Alessandro Pacheco; Pellegrin, Luiz Alberto

    2017-08-01

    One of the most relevant issues in discussion worldwide nowadays is the concept of sustainability. However, sustainability assessment is a difficult task due to the complexity of factors involved in the natural world added to the human interference. In order to assess the sustainability of beef ranching in complex and uncertain tropical environment systems this paper describes a decision support system based on fuzzy rule-approach, the Sustainable Pantanal Ranch (SPR). This tool was built by a set of measurements and indicators integrated by fuzzy logic to evaluate the attributes of the three dimensions of sustainability. Indicators and decision rules, as well as scenario evaluations, were obtained from workshops involving multi-disciplinary team of experts. A Fuzzy Rule-Based System (FRBS) was developed to each attribute, dimension and general index. The essential parts of the FRBS are the knowledge database, rules and the inference engine. The FuzzyGen and WebFuzzy tools were developed to support the FRBS and both showed efficiency and low cost for digital applications. The results of each attribute, dimension and index were presented as radar graphs, showing the individual value (0-10) of each indicator. In the validation process using the WebFuzzy, different combinations of indicators were made for each attribute index to show the corresponding output, and which confirm the feasibility and usability of the tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of methane emissions from local and crossbreed beef cattle in Daklak province of Vietnam

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    Carlos Alberto Ramírez-Restrepo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was aimed at evaluating effects of cattle breed resources and alternative mixed-feeding practices on meat productivity and emission intensities from household farming systems (HFS in Daklak Province, Vietnam. Methods Records from Local Yellow×Red Sindhi (Bos indicus; Lai Sind and 1/2 Limousin, 1/2 Drought Master, and 1/2 Red Angus cattle during the growth (0 to 21 months and fattening (22 to 25 months periods were used to better understand variations on meat productivity and enteric methane emissions. Parameters were determined by the ruminant model. Four scenarios were developed: (HFS1 grazing from birth to slaughter on native grasses for approximately 10 h plus 1.5 kg dry matter/d (0.8% live weight [LW] of a mixture of guinea grass (19%, cassava (43% powder, cotton (23% seed, and rice (15% straw; (HFS2 growth period fed with elephant grass (1% of LW plus supplementation (1.5% of LW of rice bran (36%, maize (33%, and cassava (31% meals; and HFS3 and HFS4 computed elephant grass, but concentrate supplementation reaching 2% and 1% of LW, respectively. Results Results show that compared to HFS1, emissions (72.3±0.96 kg CH4/animal/life; least squares means± standard error of the mean were 15%, 6%, and 23% lower (p<0.01 for the HFS2, HFS3, and HFS4, respectively. The predicted methane efficiencies (CO2eq per kg of LW at slaughter (4.3±0.15, carcass weight (8.8±0.25 kg and kg of edible protein (44.1±1.29 were also lower (p<0.05 in the HFS4. In particular, irrespective of the HSF, feed supply and ratio changes had a more positive impact on emission intensities when crossbred 1/2 Red Angus cattle were fed than in their crossbred counterparts. Conclusion Modest improvements on feeding practices and integrated modelling frameworks may offer potential trade-offs to respond to climate change in Vietnam.

  14. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and animal performance of growing and finishing beef cattle fed warm-season legume (Stylosanthes capitata plus Stylosanthes macrocephala) silage replacing corn silage.

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    Souza, W F; Pereira, O G; Ribeiro, K G; Santos, S A; Valadares Filho, S C

    2014-09-01

    It was hypothesized that Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande (ES) silage could be used as the single source of dietary forage for beef cattle and that performance on ES would be similar to corn silage (CS) at a 50:50 forage:concentrate. The objectives of this study were to evaluate intake, total and partial digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia, and productive performance in growing beef cattle fed diets with varying proportions of ES silage replacing CS. Treatments consisted of diets with ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0% ES:CS. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously. In the first experiment, 10 crossbred Holstein-Zebu bulls with an average initial weight of 272 ± 86 kg were used. The bulls were rumen and abomasums fistulated. An experimental design of two 5 × 5 Latin squares (Exp. 1) was used. The second experiment used 40 Nellore bulls with an average BW of 386 ± 30 kg in a completely randomized design (Exp. 2). Results showed a linear increase in CP intake (P Nitrogen balance, excretion of urinary urea, and plasma urea nitrogen did not respond to the inclusion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05). There was also no effect (P > 0.05) of ES inclusion on animal performance. Ruminal pH was not affected by an increased proportion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05), but ruminal pH was affected (P interaction (P nitrogen concentration. It can be concluded that ES silage can be used as a source of roughage in the diet of beef cattle during the growing and finishing phases at a proportion of 50% of DM in the total diet. Therefore, ES silage is a promising alternative dietary ingredient and the use of this alternative source of silage will depend on availability and economic factors.

  15. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

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    Xiaozhen Song

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i high temperature control (HTC, ii traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I and iii traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+high temperature (TCM II (n = 9 per group. The results showed that the mean body temperature declined in TCM II treatment (p<0.05. Serum T3 and T4 levels with TCM I and TCM II treatments elevated (p<0.05, and serum cortisol levels of TCM I treatments decreased (p<0.05, compared with the HTC group. Total protein, albumin, globulin in TCM II treatments elevated and blood urea nitrogen levels of both TCM treatments increased, but glucose levels of both TCM treatments decreased, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05. The apparent digestibility of organic matter and crude protein with TCM I treatment increased, and the apparent digestibility of acid detergent fiber elevated in both TCM treatments (p<0.05. Average daily feed intake was not different among three groups, however average daily gain increased and the feed:gain ratio decreased with both TCM treatments, compared with the HTC group (p<0.05. The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with TCM I or TCM II improves growth performance of heat stressed beef cattle by relieving heat stress responses and increasing nutrient apparent digestibility.

  16. Genotype x environment interaction on post-weaning performance and carcass in beef cattle

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    Leandro Lunardini Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed average daily gain from weaning to yearling (ADG, yearling weight (YW, rib eye area, and subcutaneous fat thickness of 91 Angus, Hereford, Caracu, and Nellore cattle, and their crosses. The animals were split into two grazing groups: improved natural grassland (n = 47 and natural grassland (n = 44. The environment was found to influence all traits, and the highest measures of performance were observed in improved natural grassland. The genetic group x environment interaction was verified only for ADG and YW (P < 0.05. We found the best performance trait averages for crossbreeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus. In addition, we found genetic x environment interaction effects in growing traits and Longissimus muscle area between the evaluated genotype groups. Finally, we found that between the evaluated genotype groups, subcutaneous adipose fat was not influenced by the environment.

  17. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

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    Dajeong Lim

    Full Text Available Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle and in China (Yanbian. These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN. We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes, reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes, coat color (2 genes, and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes. We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  18. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  19. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

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    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  20. Analysis of longitudinal data of beef cattle raised on pasture from northern Brazil using nonlinear models.

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    Lopes, Fernando B; da Silva, Marcelo C; Marques, Ednira G; McManus, Concepta M

    2012-12-01

    This study was undertaken to aim of estimating the genetic parameters and trends for asymptotic weight (A) and maturity rate (k) of Nellore cattle from northern Brazil. The data set was made available by the Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders and collected between the years of 1997 and 2007. The Von Bertalanffy, Brody, Gompertz, and logistic nonlinear models were fitted by the Gauss-Newton method to weight-age data of 45,895 animals collected quarterly of the birth to 750 days old. The curve parameters were analyzed using the procedures GLM and CORR. The estimation of (co)variance components and genetic parameters was obtained using the MTDFREML software. The estimated heritability coefficients were 0.21 ± 0.013 and 0.25 ± 0.014 for asymptotic weight and maturity rate, respectively. This indicates that selection for any trait shall results in genetic progress in the herd. The genetic correlation between A and k was negative (-0.57 ± 0.03) and indicated that animals selected for high maturity rate shall result in low asymptotic weight. The Von Bertalanffy function is adequate to establish the mean growth patterns and to predict the adult weight of Nellore cattle. This model is more accurate in predicting the birth weight of these animals and has better overall fit. The prediction of adult weight using nonlinear functions can be accurate when growth curve parameters and their (co)variance components are estimated jointly. The model used in this study can be applied to the prediction of mature weight in herds where a portion of the animals are culled before they reach the adult age.

  1. Control Points on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Beef Cattle CAFO and the Cropland that Supports it

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    Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.

    2011-12-01

    Although spatially separated in the U.S. agricultural landscape, CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations) and Illinois grain agriculture are interdependent. Therefore, we need to consider both systems to identify methods for reducing inefficiency, GHG losses, and N pollution from them. We construct a budget for an average 30,000 animal beef cattle CAFO. Assuming cattle stay on the CAFO 5 months, we estimate total grain demand at 1.8 M bu yr-1 of corn (21 M kg C) and 0.3 M bu yr-1 of soybean (3.7 M kg C). To grow this feed requires 19,000 acres of cropland (2/3 in corn and 1/3 in soybean). We visualize C and N fluxes for a 4,000 acre farm growing corn and soybeans. Corn and soybeans on this farm fix ˜15 M and 4.5 M kg C yr-1 respectively. Plant and soil respiration return ˜50% of GPP to the atmosphere from the cornfield, and˜70% from the soybean field. Emissions from on-farm equipment are ˜60,000 kg C yr-1. About 5.1 M kg C yr-1 move from this farm to CAFO (4.3 M kg C in corn and 0.8 M kg C in soybean). To meet cattle demand requires 4.75 such farms. Transporting grain from all 19,000 ac releases ˜3 M kg C yr-1. Once at the CAFO, ˜20% of C in grain is converted to steer biomass. Of the remaining grain C (˜20 M kg C), about half leaves the steers as CO2, ˜6.6 M kg C exits the steers as manure, and ˜7% is converted to methane in the rumen. Of the ˜100 M kg C pulled from the atmosphere on the farms, about 2 M kg C exit the CAFO as methane, which increases GWP of the carbon stream by 50%. At typical application rates, a grower adds ˜216,000 kg N yr-1 to the corn field. On the soybean field, we estimate fixation of 64,000 kg N yr-1 and assume no other N additions. Corn and soybeans acquire ˜135,000 and 106,000 kg N respectively. Nitrate leaching from the corn field is ˜43,000 kg N (equivalent to ~20% of fertilizer N) and losses from the soybean field are ˜11,000 kg N. A fraction of N inputs to the fields (˜0.5%) exits as N2O, totaling farm. Across all

  2. Accuracy of direct genomic breeding values for nationally evaluated traits in US Limousin and Simmental beef cattle

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    Saatchi Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In national evaluations, direct genomic breeding values can be considered as correlated traits to those for which phenotypes are available for traditional estimation of breeding values. For this purpose, estimates of the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values expressed as genetic correlations between traits and their respective direct genomic breeding values are required. Methods We derived direct genomic breeding values for 2239 registered Limousin and 2703 registered Simmental beef cattle genotyped with either the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip or the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip. For the 264 Simmental animals that were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip, genotypes for markers present on the BovineSNP50 BeadChip were extracted. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in weighted analyses that estimated marker effects to derive direct genomic breeding values for each breed. For each breed, genotyped individuals were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group pedigree relationships. Cross-validation was performed five times for each breed, using four groups for training and the fifth group for validation. For each trait, we then applied a weighted bivariate analysis of the direct genomic breeding values of genotyped animals from all five validation sets and their corresponding deregressed estimated breeding values to estimate variance and covariance components. Results After minimizing relationships between training and validation groups, estimated genetic correlations between each trait and its direct genomic breeding values ranged from 0.39 to 0.76 in Limousin and from 0.29 to 0.65 in Simmental. The efficiency of selection based on direct genomic breeding values relative to selection based on parent average information ranged from 0.68 to 1.28 in genotyped Limousin and from 0.51 to 1.44 in genotyped Simmental animals

  3. Evaluation of thymus morphology and serum cortisol concentration as indirect biomarkers to detect low-dose dexamethasone illegal treatment in beef cattle

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    Vascellari Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corticosteroids are illegally used in several countries as growth promoters in veal calves and beef cattle, either alone or in association with sex steroids and β-agonists, especially at low dosages and primarily through oral administration, in order to enhance carcasses and meat quality traits. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the reliability of the histological evaluation of the thymus, as well as the serum cortisol determination, in identifying beef cattle, treated with two different dexamethasone-based growth-promoting protocols and the application of different withdrawal times before slaughter. Results Our findings demonstrate that low dosages of dexamethasone (DXM, administered alone or in association with clenbuterol as growth promoter in beef cattle, induce morphologic changes in the thymus, resulting in increase fat infiltration with concurrent cortical atrophy and reduction of the cortex/medulla ratio (C/M. In fact, the C/M value was significantly lower in treated animals than in control ones, with both the protocols applied. The cut off value of 0.93 for the cortex/medulla ratio resulted to be highly effective to distinguish control and treated animals. The animals treated with DXM showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, as well as at the slaughterhouse, 3 days after treatment suspension. The animals treated with lower doses of DXM in association with clenbuterol, showed inhibition of cortisol secretion during the treatment period, but serum cortisol concentration was restored to physiological levels at slaughterhouse, 8 days after treatment suspension. Conclusions The histological evaluation of thymus morphology, and particularly of the C/M may represent a valuable and reproducible method applicable to large-scale screening programs, due to the easy sampling procedures at slaughterhouse, as well as time and cost-saving of the analysis. Serum cortisol determination could be

  4. Effect of Combination of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisae + Candida Utilis) and Herbs Supplementation in Finishing Diet on Carcass Characteristics of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyuddin, P; Winugroho, M

    2010-01-01

    A 75 days feeding trial was completed to study the effect of inclusion of a combined probioticyeast+herbs in finishing diet on carcass characteristics of beef cattle. Thirty bull of Ongole crossbred,age 2.5-3 years old with average body weight (BW) of 320 kg were used in this experiment. They weredivided into 2 groups, each of 15 animals and were allotted to control and treatment. They wereslaughtered at around 450 kg BW. The treated animals were given a supplementation containingcombined yea...

  5. Evaluation of the IceTag leg sensor and its derivative models to predict behaviour, using beef cattle on rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, E D; Nevo, Y; Baram, H; Arieli, A

    2017-06-02

    There is interest in using animal-mounted sensors to provide the detailed timeline of domesticated ruminant behaviour on rangelands. Working with beef cattle, we evaluated the pedometer-like IceTag device (IceRobotics, Edinburgh, Scotland) that records step events, leg movement and body position (upright versus lying). We used partition analysis to compare behaviour as inferred from the device data with true behaviour as coded at high resolution from carefully synchronized video observations of 5-min duration. Malfunctions reduced the target dataset by 7%. The correspondence between IceTag and video-coded step counts was excellent (r 2 =0.97), and the device's indications of upright or lying corresponded well (error rate=1.4%) to the video-coded values. However, the proportion of steps that could be matched individually was relatively low (65% at a tolerance of 0.5s), and the indicated start of a lying bout was often triggered by leg movements of an upright animal. Partition analysis of Grazing versus Not-Grazing yielded an overall error rate of 22%. In both three- and four-way classifications of behaviour (Graze, Rest, Travel; Graze, Stand, Lie, Travel) error rates were low for non-graze behaviours, but only 25% of Graze observations were correctly classified; the overall error rate was 22%. The IceTag device performed well in mapping the diurnal patterns of animal position and step rate, but less well in separating grazing from upright resting. Our results suggest that pedometry is not the ideal method for classifying behaviour when grazing is of paramount interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pond bank access as an approach for managing toxic cyanobacteria in beef cattle pasture drinking water ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alan E; Chislock, Michael F; Yang, Zhen; Barros, Mário U G; Roberts, John F

    2018-03-25

    Forty-one livestock drinking water ponds in Alabama beef cattle pastures during were surveyed during the late summer to generally understand water quality patterns in these important water resources. Since livestock drinking water ponds are prone to excess nutrients that typically lead to eutrophication, which can promote blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton such as cyanobacteria, we also assessed the threat of exposure to the hepatotoxin, microcystin. Eighty percent of the ponds studied contained measurable microcystin, while three of these ponds had concentrations above human drinking water thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 0.3 μg/L). Water quality patterns in the livestock drinking water ponds contrasted sharply with patterns typically observed for temperate freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Namely, we found several non-linear relationships between phytoplankton abundance (measured as chlorophyll) and nutrients or total suspended solids. Livestock had direct access to all the study ponds. Consequently, the proportion of inorganic suspended solids (e.g., sediment) increased with higher concentrations of total suspended solids, which underlies these patterns. Unimodal relationships were also observed between microcystin and phytoplankton abundance or nutrients. Euglenoids were abundant in the four ponds with chlorophyll concentrations > 250 μg/L (and dominated three of these ponds), which could explain why ponds with high chlorophyll concentrations would have low microcystin concentrations. Based on observations made during sampling events and available water quality data, livestock-mediated bioturbation is causing elevated total suspended solids that lead to reduced phytoplankton abundance and microcystin despite high concentrations of nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. Thus, livestock could be used to manage algal blooms, including toxic secondary metabolites, in their drinking water ponds by allowing them to walk in the

  7. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

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    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  8. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival.

  9. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Performance and ultrasound measurements of beef cattle fed diets based on whole corn or oats grains

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    Hugo M Arelovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.

  11. Prevalence and characterisation of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from beef cattle fed with prebiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispoldi, Luca; Bertero, Filippo; Franceschini, Serena; Mastrosimone, Francesco; Sechi, Paola; Iulietto, Maria Francesca; Ceccarelli, Margherita; Cenci-Goga, Beniamino Terzo

    2017-01-01

    Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli. At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs) were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 69 E. coli strains were detected, 29 (42.03%) from treated animals and 40 (57.97%) from the control group. The isolates were analysed by PCR for the presence of the stx-1, stx-2, hly and eae genes and by the Kirby Bauer test for susceptibility to the most commonly used antimicrobials in cattle breeding. Hierarchical clustering of the isolates was done using Ward’s method. Thirty samples were positive for the stx-1 gene, 18 for stx- 2, 12 for both stx-1 and stx-2, 8 for hly, and 10 for eae. 4.3% were resistant to sulfamides, 8.6% to tetracycline, 1.4% to gentamicin, 94.6% to cephalothin, 2.8% to chloramphenicol, 13% to ampicillin, 13% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 7.2% to sulphonamides, 4.3% to ceftriaxone, 5.7% to nalidixic acid, 34.7% to ticarcillin, 88.5% to erythromycin, and 5.7% to streptomycin. The isolates from the samples taken from day 210 to day 300 were grouped into a single cluster. Bacteriological examinations showed a reduction in the concentration of E. coli in the feces of the treated animals compared to the control group. The presence of strains with shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence profiles and the reduction of these in the treated animal group demonstrated that diet can play an important role in reducing E. coli prevalence in cattle. PMID:29564239

  12. Prevalence and characterisation of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from beef cattle fed with prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Grispoldi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten Holstein Friesian calves were divided into two groups of five: one group was given prebiotics in their food, while the other group served as the control group. Every two weeks from birth up to 18 months, samples of feces were taken from the rectal ampulla to determine the concentration of E. coli. At each sampling session, three aliquots per sample were collected. The arithmetic mean was calculated and all values (converted into logs were analysed with GraphPad InStat for analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey-Kramer test. A total of 69 E. coli strains were detected, 29 (42.03% from treated animals and 40 (57.97% from the control group. The isolates were analysed by PCR for the presence of the stx-1, stx-2, hly and eae genes and by the Kirby Bauer test for susceptibility to the most commonly used antimicrobials in cattle breeding. Hierarchical clustering of the isolates was done using Ward’s method. Thirty samples were positive for the stx-1 gene, 18 for stx-2, 12 for both stx-1 and stx-2, 8 for hly, and 10 for eae. 4.3% were resistant to sulfamides, 8.6% to tetracycline, 1.4% to gentamicin, 94.6% to cephalothin, 2.8% to chloramphenicol, 13% to ampicillin, 13% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 7.2% to sulphonamides, 4.3% to ceftriaxone, 5.7% to nalidixic acid, 34.7% to ticarcillin, 88.5% to erythromycin, and 5.7% to streptomycin. The isolates from the samples taken from day 210 to day 300 were grouped into a single cluster. Bacteriological examinations showed a reduction in the concentration of E. coli in the feces of the treated animals compared to the control group. The presence of strains with shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli virulence profiles and the reduction of these in the treated animal group demonstrated that diet can play an important role in reducing E. coli prevalence in cattle.

  13. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

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    Marcos Eli Buzanskas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais-37.5% Zebu and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais-34.4% Zebu cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH, Nelore (NE, and Indubrasil (IB breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA, 763 (NE, 338 (CH, and 37 (IB. The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle.

  14. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

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    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  15. Genome-wide proteomics analysis on longissimus muscles in Qinchuan beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hua; Chen, Si; Liang, Wei; Liu, Xiaolin

    2017-04-01

    To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism of bovine muscle development, we combined mass spectrometry characterization of proteins with Illumina deep sequencing of RNAs obtained from bovine longissimus muscle (LD) at prenatal and postnatal stages. For the proteomic study, each group of LD proteins was extracted and labeled using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method. Among the 1321 proteins identified from six samples, 390 proteins were differentially expressed in embryos at day 135 post-fertilization (Emb135d) vs. 30-month-old adult cattle (Emb135d vs. 30M) samples. Gene Ontology, Cluster of Orthologous Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were further conducted to better understand the different functions. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between transcript and protein regulation between samples by direct comparison of expression levels from transcriptomic and iTRAQ-based proteomics. Association results indicated that 1295 of 1321 proteins could be mapped to transcriptome sequencing data. This study provides the most comprehensive, targeted survey of bovine LD proteins to date and has shown the power of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to provide molecular insights for understanding the developmental characteristics in bovine muscle, and even in other mammals. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

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    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  17. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle

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    ChangHee Do

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031, while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018, longissimus muscle (LM area (0.23±0.020, carcass weight (0.28±0.019, yield index (0.20±0.018, yield grade (0.16±0.017, marbling (0.28±0.021, texture (0.14±0.016, quality grade (0.26±0.016 and price/kg (0.24±0.025. Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013 and fat color (0.06±0.012. Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from −0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, −0.43, and −0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were −0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, −0.41, −0.79, and −0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and −0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of

  18. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  19. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.; Gonzaleza, A.; Shimada, A.; Mora, O.; Cobos, M.; Varela, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  20. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE; 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100 + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow® VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow® VM / animal / day. The variables analyzed were the supplement intake (SI, average daily gain (ADG, biometric measurements and body condition score (BCS in experiment 1 and the average daily supplement intake (ADSI, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, in situ ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in experiment 2. There was no statistical difference for ADG, SI and biometric measurements (P>0.05, ADG for VM 200 of 0,431; VM 100 of 0.391 and control 0.398 kg/animal/day. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for ruminal pH, the ammonia concentration and the variables at the in situ degradability of DM, NDF and ADF. The virginiamycin conveyed in SPE for beef cattle grazing can promote changes in consumption did not cause significant effects on the values of ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen and do not show significant effects on the degradability of DM, NDF and ADF.

  2. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  3. Consumer sensory evaluation and chemical composition of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii steaks from cattle finished on forage or concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cattle finishing diet and muscle type on meat quality. Consumer sensory response, proximate composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were assessed from the gluteus medius (GM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of cattle ( = 6 per diet) which were grain-finished (USUGrain) on conventional feedlot or 2 forage diets, a perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil-finished (USUBFT; ), and grass-finished (USUGrass; ). Diet had an interacting effect with muscle for all sensory attributes ( ≤ 0.002), except aroma and flavor ( ≥ 0.078). In forage-finished beef, tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of GM was greater ( 0.05) but the juiciness of TB was more liked than USUGrain GM ( 0.05) between GM and TB. Lower ( 0.05) to both USUGrass and USUGrain beef. However, IMF percent was not impacted by muscle type ( = 0.092). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by muscle dependent on diet ( = 0.016). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by the interaction of muscle × diet ( = 0.016). Between forage diets (USUGrass and USUBFT), -6:-3 ratios were similar ( > 0.05) between GM and TB, whereas within USUGrain, the GM was greater ( 0.05). Strecker aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, and methional were affected ( ≤ 0.036) by muscle and found to have a greater concentration in GM compared with TB. Overall, consumers determined that USUGrain GM and TB had similar ( > 0.05) quality ratings. However, within forage-finished beef, the GM was perceived more frequently ( < 0.05) to be of premium quality and the forage-finished TB was more frequently ( < 0.05) rated as having unsatisfactory quality. These findings were in agreement with ratings of tenderness and overall liking. Therefore, in the context of our consumer group grilled GM and TB steaks, grain-finished beef provided more uniform quality and eating experience compared with forage-finished beef.

  4. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle pen surfaces in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Swanson, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    There is a global interest to quantify and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) (e.g. methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O and carbon dioxide-CO2) emissions in animal feeding operations. The goal of this study was to quantify GHG emissions from the feedlot pen surface under North Dakota climatic conditions. In this study gaseous flux from the pen surfaces was generated using a custom-made wind tunnel at different times of the year (summer, fall, winter and spring). Gaseous fluxes (air samples) were drawn in the Tedlar bags using a vacuum chamber and gas concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph within 24 h of sampling. The CH4 concentrations and flux rates (FRs) or flux among the months were not significantly different. Overall CH4, CO2 and N2O concentrations over a 7-month period were 2.66, 452 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. Estimated overall CH4, CO and N2O FRs were 1.32, 602 and 0.90 g m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Estimated emission rates using the wind tunnel were 38 g hd(-1) d(-1), 17 kg hd(-1) d(-1) and 26 g hd(-1) d(-1) for CH4, CO2 and N2O, respectively. The emission factors for GHG estimated in the research for North Dakota climate were the first of its kind, and these emission estimates can be used as a basis for planning and implementing management practices to minimize GHG emissions.

  6. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P excretion (g/d) differed (P excretion (303 g/d) followed by WDDGS+oil (259 g/d), CDDGS (206 g/d), and the control diet (170 g/d), respectively. Compared with the control diet, heifers offered WDDGS, CDDGS, and WDDGS+oil excreted less fecal N (P excretion to heightened NH3 and nitrous oxide emissions requires consideration.

  7. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (Pstrategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. microplus infestation on cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil-extractable phosphorus and phosphorus saturation threshold in beef cattle pastures as affected by grazing management and forage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C; Albano, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfer, and could increase the amount of extractable phosphorus (P) cycle from soils to plants. The effects of grazing management and/or forage type that control P cycling and distribution in pasture's resources have not been sufficiently evaluated. Our ability to estimate the levels and changes of soil-extractable P and other crop nutrients in subtropical beef cattle pastures has the potential to improve our understanding of P dynamics and nutrient cycling at the landscape level. To date, very little attention has been paid to evaluating transfers of extractable P in pasture with varying grazing management and different forage type. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing management (rotational versus "zero" grazing) and forage types (FT; bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum, Flugge versus rhizoma peanuts, Arachis glabrata, Benth) on the levels of extractable soil P and degree of P saturation in beef cattle pastures. This study (2004-2007) was conducted at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service located 7 miles north of Brooksville, FL. Soil (Candler fine sand) at this location was described as well-drained hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. A split plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design was used and each treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was represented by grazing management (grazing vs. no grazing) while forage types (bahiagrass vs. perennial peanut) as the sub-plot treatment. Eight steel exclosures (10 × 10 m) were used in the study. Four exclosures were placed and established in four pastures with bahiagrass and four exclosures were established in four pastures with rhizoma

  10. Beef quality of young Angus×Nellore cattle supplemented with rumen-protected lipids during rearing and fatting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E N; Polizel Neto, A; Roça, R O; Faria, M H; Resende, F D; Siqueira, G R; Pinheiro, R S B

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluated the beef quality parameters of 108 bulls randomly administered to three treatments during rearing in pastures and two treatments during fatting in feedlots, including mineral and rumen-protected lipids. Meat and fat color, cooking yield, shear force, sensorial traits and chemical and fatty acid compositions were evaluated. Generally, the beef quality parameters were not affected by the rumen protected lipids; however, supplementation with rumen-protected lipids during the rearing period yielded darker beef and brighter fat and increased beef tenderness in meat aged for 28days compared to the meat from animals that received only mineral supplementation. In addition, the percent of meat polyunsaturated fatty acids was negatively affected by the inclusion of protected lipids, yielding 5.58 and 3.72% in animals fed with and without rumen-protected lipids, respectively, during the fatting period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. NMR-based metabolomics for simultaneously evaluating multiple determinants of primary beef quality in Japanese Black cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kodani, Yoshinori; Miyakawa, Takuya; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Analytical methodologies to comprehensively evaluate beef quality are increasingly needed to accelerate improvement in both breeding and post-mortem processing. Consumer palatability towards beef is generally attributed to tenderness, flavor, and/or juiciness. These primary qualities are modified by post-mortem aging and the crude content and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat. In this study, we report a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiles of Japanese Black catt...

  12. Quality Management and Information Transmission in Cattle Markets: A Case Study of the Chariton Valley Beef Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Brent Hueth; John D. Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    The declining share of beef in total U.S. meat consumption has motivated industry-ï¾­wide efforts to improve average beef quality through more effective coordination among the various market participants. Increased use of explicit "grid" pricing mechanisms over the last decade represents initial efforts at improved coordination. More recent efforts include animalï¾­specific carcass data collection, with subsequent transmission to feeders and the relevant cowï¾­calf operations, and improved "s...

  13. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  14. Associations between immune function in yearling beef cattle and airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PM1.0 near oil and natural gas field facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Daniel G; Waldner, Cheryl L; Wickstrom, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Researchers determined the potential associations between exposure to airborne fine particulate matter (ie, particulate matter that is PM1.0) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immune system function in beef cattle by using blood samples collected from yearling cattle in 22 herds in the spring of 2002. The herds were located at variable distances from industry field facilities in the major oil- and gas-producing areas of western Canada. The researchers evaluated immune system competence by measuring populations of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte subtypes (CD4, CD8, gammadelta, and WC1) in peripheral circulation (n = 469), and systemic antibody production in response to vaccine administration (n = 446). They used particulate air monitors to estimate the exposure of the cattle to airborne contaminants by determining mean monthly concentrations of PM1.0 and 24 different PAHs from January to June. The mean concentration of PAHs measured in the ambient air of herds monitored in this study was low, with naphthalene being present in the highest concentration (geometric mean = 5.6 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 38), followed by 1-methylnaphthalene (geometric mean = 2.2 ng/m3; geometric standard deviation = 12). The geometric mean monthly exposure to PM1.0 was 7.1 microg/m3 (geometric standard deviation = 1.5) for the same period. The researchers detected no significant plausible associations between exposure to any measured airborne contaminants and immune system function.

  15. Analyzing changes in the beef cattle ranching communities of acatic and tepatitlan de morelos, jalisco, Mexico related to land cover and climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Pena, Melva B.

    The impacts of climate change on the environment at the global scale can be determined through the use of large-scale circulation models; however, the results from these models are difficult to interpret at the regional or local levels. Regional vulnerability analyses consider the knowledge of locals, which may provide insight into the effects of climate variability on the environment at smaller scales, and most importantly, the effects that these developments are having on society. The objective of this research was to analyze the vulnerability to climate variability of the beef cattle ranching communities of the municipalities of Acatic and of Tepatitlan de Morelos, Jalisco, Mexico. These municipalities are found in a region of the state referred to as "Los Altos". The economy of Los Altos largely relies on agricultural and farming practices; these sectors provide the largest source of employment in the area. In the two municipalities that comprise the study area, the beef cattle industry is one of the strongest economic activities. Climate variability poses great threat on these communities because the main economic activities of the region are highly dependent on natural resources. To have a better understanding of the human-environment interactions in this region, remote sensing methods were applied. Three Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (years: 1985, 1993 and 2000) were employed to generate land use and land cover classification maps of the study area; these maps were then subjected to a change detections analysis. Some of the land use and land cover categories experienced more change than others; among those was the category of water, shrub land and crop land. The area covered by water nearly doubled from 1985 to 1993 and then nearly decreased by half by the year 2000. From 1985 to 1993, here was a decrease in the shrub land of about 1200 ha and concurrently an increase in the crop land of about 1400 ha. From 1993 to 2000 there was an increase in the

  16. Effect of handling intensity at the time of transport for slaughter on physiological response and carcass characteristics in beef cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmaier, J A; Reinhardt, C D; Bartle, S J; Henningson, J N; Ritter, M J; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Vogel, G J; Guthrie, C A; Siemens, M G; Thomson, D U

    2017-05-01

    greater at slaughter relative to baseline and POSTHAND for both LSH and HSH cattle ( slaughter. Further research is warranted to develop strategies to mitigate stress at the time of transport and ensure the welfare of beef cattle presented to abattoirs.

  17. Comparison of feeding systems: feed cost, palatability and environmental impact among hay-fattened beef, consistent grass-only-fed beef and conventional marbled beef in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithyphone, Khounsaknalath; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Horita, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Fumita, Tomiko; Shiotsuka, Yuji; Etoh, Tetsuji; Ebara, Fumio; Samadmanivong, Olavanh; Wegner, Jochen; Gotoh, Takafumi

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this article is to compare feed cost, palatability and environmental impacts among feeding systems of high concentrate (HC), high hay (HH) and grass-only-fed (Gof) groups. Feed cost was the sum of costs paid for feed intake times the price of feed per kilogram. Palatability was measured by a panel taste test using HH and Gof beef and analyzed for differences. Environmental impacts were calculated based on 1 kg of Japanese beef yield of CO(2) equivalents (eq) and animal end weights at each feeding stage. Results showed that the HH and Gof feeding systems could significantly reduce feed costs by approximately 60% and 78%, respectively, from the HC. In the panel taste test, 50% and 47.50% of panelists indicated that HH beef was 'extremely delicious' and 'acceptable,' respectively, while 15% indicated that Gof beef was 'extremely delicious'; 62.50% indicated that Gof beef was 'acceptable.' Environmental impacts of each feeding system in terms of CO(2) equivalents (eq) were 9.32, 6.10 and 2.04 tonnes of eq for the HC, HH and Gof, respectively. The HH was an economical system that produced moderate impacts on the environment and had impressive taste. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  19. Genetic correlations between measures of beef quality traits and their predictions by near-infrared spectroscopy in the Piemontese cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to predict beef quality traits (BQ: colour, shear force, drip and cooking losses of Piemontese cattle using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS and to estimate genetic parameters for measured BQ and their predictions by NIRS. Heritabilities and genetic correlations for measured BQ and their predictions based on NIRS were estimated through bivariate Bayesian analyses. Heritability estimates for measured BQ were of intermediate magnitude (from 0.10 to 0.63 and similar to those for NIRS predictions. The genetic correlations between BQ measures and their predictions by NIRS were very high for colour traits, high for drip loss, and nil for shear force and cooking loss. NIRS predictions can be proposed as indicator traits in breeding programs for enhancement of colour traits and drip loss.

  20. Water quality of the Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  1. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavesi Odo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  2. Australian Beef Exports: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Northern Australia's live cattle exports to Southeast Asia have increased dramatically in recent years. In Australia's current political environment calling for greater domestic value-adding, the issue of potential trade-offs between Australia's live cattle and slaughtered beef exports are examined. From an investigation into the origins of Australia's live cattle export industry and the production and marketing of beef in Australia's major live cattle importing countries, it is concluded tha...

  3. The influence of animals from embryo transfer on the genetic evaluation of growth in Simmental beef cattle by using multi-trait models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Reis Mota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The weight records from Simmental beef cattle were used in a genetic evaluation of growth with or without the inclusion of animals obtained by embryo transfer. A multi-trait model in which embryo transfer individuals were excluded (MTM1 contained 29,510 records from 10,659 animals, while another model without exclusion of these animals (MTM2 contained 62,895 weight records from 23,160 animals. The weight records were adjusted for ages of 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days. The (covariance components and genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The (covariance components were similar in both models, except for maternal permanent environment variance. Direct heritabilities (h²d in MTM1 were 0.04, 0.11, 0.20, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.42, while in MTM2 they were 0.11, 0.11, 0.17, 0.21, 0.22 and 0.26 for 100, 205, 365, 450, 550 and 730 days of age, respectively. Estimates of h²d in MTM1 were higher than in MTM2 for the weight at 365 days of age. Genetic correlations between weights in both models ranged from moderate to high, suggesting that these traits may be determined mainly by the same genes. Animals from embryo transfer may be included in the genetic evaluation of Simmental beef cattle in Brazil; this inclusion may provide potential gains in accuracy and genetic gains by reducing the interval between generations.

  4. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Intensification pathways for beef and dairy cattle production systems : Impacts on GHG emissions, land occupation and land use change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen-Gondelach, Sarah J.; Lauwerijssen, Rachel B.G.; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Valin, Hugo; Faaij, Andre P.C.; Wicke, Birka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production is characterized by high land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the resulting land use change (LUC) and cradle to farm gate processes. Intensification of cattle production systems is considered an important strategy for mitigating anthropogenic GHG

  6. Genetic improvement of beef cattle through opportunities in genomics Melhoramento genético de bovinos de corte utilizando informações da genômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Miller

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomics will improve the efficiency of beef cattle genetic improvement programs through the incorporation of genomic predictions into traditional genetic evaluations. The global dairy cattle breeding industry has been changed considerably in the last year through the implementation of genomic selection. Now proven to work in dairy cattle breeding, the challenge remains for the beef industry to successfully implement this technology. The primary challenge in beef cattle is the required resource population that relates genomic profile to phenotypic performance, which is quite large and its establishment will require collaboration or a significant investment by any one enterprise. Another challenge in beef cattle is the requirement for genomic predictions to function across breeds, which will require denser marker panels. Opportunities to increase genetic progress include increased accuracy of selection, reduced generation interval, increased selection intensity and better utilization of limited recording capacity, such as individual feed intake, along with opportunities to genetically change novel traits. Implementation of a low density panel at the commercial level will allow informative decisions based on genetic potential at all levels of the production chain. This reduced panel will include predictive SNP based on fine QTL mapping efforts, combined with additional SNP to enable imputation of genotypes from a high density SNP panel, when combined with high density genotypes of key ancestors, such as sires. With electronic recording in cattle, a single genotyping event on each animal would provide information throughout the beef production chain, which will create the incentive for genetic change. Genomics will create new opportunities for reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer as elite females will be identified with increased accuracy. Potential changes to the structure of the breeding industry are discussed including changes to

  7. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  8. Parametric bootstrap for testing model fitting of threshold and grouped data models: an application to the analysis of calving ease of Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrés, J; Fina, M; Piedrafita, J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the goodness of fit of the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model for the analysis of calving ease in beef cattle by using a parametric bootstrap procedure. Field data included 8,205 records of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle breed in the Pyrenean mountain areas of Catalonia (Spain). The actual distribution was 81.81% of calvings without assistance, 11.02% slightly assisted by the farmer, 5.12% strongly assisted by the farmer, 0.89% assisted by the veterinarian, and 1.16% cesarean, but these percentages were very different in the different herds. This can be explained partially by the different subjective way of scoring of each farmer. Primiparous cows had a greater (P < 0.001) difficulty calving than cows with 5 or more parities (11.74 vs. 4.49% of calvings strongly assisted by the farmer or the veterinarian and 2.8 vs. 0.65% cesarean). Male calves caused greater (P < 0.001) calving difficulty than females (7.71% of male calvings strongly assisted by the farmer or the veterinarian vs. 4.25% of females and 1.83% cesarean in males vs. 0.47% in females). The month and year of calving also had a strong influence on calving ease. These data were analyzed using 3 different models: the threshold models with homoscedasticity or heteroscedasticity and the grouped data model. The bootstrap comparison among models suggested that the threshold models, even allowing for heteroscedasticity, did not fit the herd effects well. In contrast, fitting deficiencies were not observed for the grouped data model in any factor. The variance of direct effect of the calf was estimated using the 3 models, and the heritability estimate ranged from 0.165 for the grouped data model to 0.185 for the hereroscedastic threshold model. This heritability was moderate, but it would justify the inclusion of direct effects of the calf on calving ease in the breeding objective. Overall, results highlighted the

  9. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P < .05), and EI for nonlactating BA was less than for A and TA (P < .05). Bite rate per minute for lactating cattle during ES was reduced (P < .03) by increased body condition score. Tuli x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment.

  10. Changes in the fecal microbiota of beef cattle caused by change in management and the use of virginiamycin as a growth promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessegatto, José Antonio; Paulino, Laís Resende; Lisbôa, Júlio Augusto Naylor; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Montemor, Carlos Henrique; Medeiros, Leonardo Pinto; Kobayashi, Renata Katsuko Takayama; Weese, J Scott; Costa, Marcio Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Several factors are known to affect the intestinal microbiota of cattle. However, how these changes occur over time is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the consequences of entrance into a feedlot and the effects of virginiamycin used as a growth promoter on the bovine fecal microbiota. Two batches of beef cattle (B1, n=50 and B2, n=36) entering a feedlot operation were randomly divided into two pens: one receiving virginiamycin and one group not receiving antibiotic (control group). Fecal samples were collected at arrival, mid feedlot and at exit to slaughter. The V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced. Escherichia coli strains isolated in samples from arrival and exit of B2 were also isolated and used as indicators of antimicrobial susceptibility. Marked changes in membership and structure of fecal microbiota occurred following entrance into the feedlot. At mid feedlot, virginiamycin affected bacterial community membership, but not structure, suggesting that the antibiotic had a stronger effect on the rare, but not on the most abundant species. The use of virginiamycin had no demonstrable effect on antibiotic resistance in E. coli. The differences found between batches are suggestive that variations in study conditions are important and can strongly affect the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)-Based Untargeted Quantitative Proteomic Approach To Identify Change of the Plasma Proteins by Salbutamol Abuse in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Tang, Chaohua; Liang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Qingyu; Zhang, Junmin

    2018-01-10

    Salbutamol, a selective β 2 -agonist, endangers the safety of animal products as a result of illegal use in food animals. In this study, an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic approach was applied to screen potential protein biomarkers in plasma of cattle before and after treatment with salbutamol for 21 days. A total of 62 plasma proteins were significantly affected by salbutamol treatment, which can be used as potential biomarkers to screen for the illegal use of salbutamol in beef cattle. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurements of five selected proteins demonstrated the reliability of iTRAQ-based proteomics in screening of candidate biomarkers among the plasma proteins. The plasma samples collected before and after salbutamol treatment were well-separated by principal component analysis (PCA) using the differentially expressed proteins. These results suggested that an iTRAQ-based untargeted quantitative proteomic strategy combined with PCA pattern recognition methods can discriminate differences in plasma protein profiles collected before and after salbutamol treatment.

  12. Prevalence of bovine herpes virus type 1 in small herds of young beef cattle in south-eastern Poland – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernicki Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed on nasal swabs, tracheal samples, and sera obtained from young beef heifers aged between 6 and 12 months, from farms in eastern and south-eastern Poland. The samples were evaluated using bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 ELISA kits (ELISA BHV1 antibody and ELISA BHV1 antigen and PCR. Among all the animals examined, 37 (32.2% were positive in the ELISA BHV1 antigen test. The presence of BHV-1 was confirmed by PCR in 42 (36.5% animals. In the ELISA BHV1 antibody test, 39 (33.9% seropositive animals were identified. The presence of BHV-1 positive samples was observed in all the examined breeds of young cattle. There were no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 in BHV-1 positive samples. The results indicate that the incidence of BHV-1 infections in feedlot cattle herds studied was 32.2%-36.5%, which suggests that preventive measures should be implemented in order to limit transmission of the virus.

  13. The effects of energy and protein supplementation strategy and frequency on the performance of beef cattle that grazed on Tanzania grass pastures during the rainy season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorin, R L; Saad, R M; Silva, L D F; Galbeiro, S; Cecato, U; Junior, F L Massaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different supplementation strategies for finishing Nellore beef cattle on pastures of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Tanzania'). The experiment was performed in a 12 ha area divided into 12 paddocks of 1 ha each. Forty-eight, 2-year-old, non-castrated Nellore cattle with an initial body weight (BW) of 384 kg (SEM = 21) were used in this study. The following supplementation strategies were evaluated: (1) mineral supplement supplied once per week (MS), (2) energy and protein supplement with intake regulator (2 g/kg BW) supplied once per week (EPS1), (3) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied daily (EPS2), and (4) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied three times per week (EPS3). The average daily gain (ADG) of animals receiving EPS3 was 0.177 kg/day higher than those receiving EPS1 (p supplementation spent more time grazing than the other supplementation groups tested (p supplements, thereby increasing animal performance. Animal performance was higher with increased protein and energy supplementation (7 g/kg BW), independent of the frequency with which supplements were administered.

  14. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

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    Dhan Prasad Gautam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 % on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota’s summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20–30 day intervals. Results Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. Conclusions It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  15. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle feedlots to investigate the effect of four levels of dietary fat concentrations (3 to 5.5 %) on the manure composition and gaseous emissions (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the feedlot pen surface. The experiment was carried out over a 5-month period from June to October during North Dakota's summer-fall climatic condition. Air and manure sampling was conducted five times at a 20-30 day intervals. Overall, this research indicated that fat levels in diet have no or little effect on the nutrient composition of manure and gaseous emission from the pens with cattle fed with different diet. Though significant variation of gaseous emission and manure composition were observed between different sampling periods, no effect of high fat diet was observed on manure composition and gaseous emission. It can be concluded that addition of fat to animal diet may not have any impact on gaseous emission and manure compositions.

  16. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm-Perry Amanda K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003 with average daily gain (ADG and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002 with average daily feed intake (ADFI in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6, an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005. These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW and ribeye area (REA, and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT. A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04. Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI

  17. Using breed composition, breed differences, selection tools, and new technologies to optimize commercial cattle production and allocation of beef cattle in research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of breed composition such as hair color and ear length often result in increased or decreased prices of young calves marketed into feedlots. Similarly, feedlot research trials are often initiated with blended cattle from multiple sources with little more than coat color used as a blockin...

  18. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  19. Effect of Replacement of Soybean meal by Dried Tomato Pomace on Rumen Fermentation and Nitrogen Metabolism in Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yuangklang; K. Vasupen; S. Wongsuthavas; S. Bureenok; P. Panyakaew; A. Alhaidary; H. E. Mohamed; A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Dried tomato pomace may be considered as an alternative feedstuff in ruminant nutrition. The limited literature data that are available so far may be interpreted as indirect and suggestive evidence for diminished ruminal fermentation and bacterial synthesis after substitution of dried tomato pomace for soybean meal. Approach: Rumen-fistulated beef steers were used to address the questions whether the replacement of soybean meal by dried tomato pomace would affect feed intak...

  20. Red blood cell trans-18:1 isomeric profile correlates with subcutaneous fat and muscle profiles in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldai, Noelia; Dugan, Michael E R; Rolland, David C; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2012-06-01

    Due to significant variation in polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products in beef it would be useful to determine if levels of trans-18:1 isomers in samples collected ante-mortem are correlated with those collected post-mortem. Beef blood (RBC), subcutaneous fat (SC) and muscle (intramuscular fat; IM) samples were collected from an experiment with dietary vitamin E with/without flaxseed (n=80) and fatty acids analyzed. Across treatments, correlation analysis of total and individual trans-18:1 isomers were performed between tissues. Correlations between SC and IM were highly significant for all individual and total trans-18:1. RBC trans-18:1 were also well correlated with other tissues except for vaccenic acid. Levels of 10t-, 12t- and 13t/14t- were amongst the best correlated between RBC and SC and IM profiles. Levels of 6t/7t/8t-, 9t-, and 15t-18:1 showed significant but lower correlation factors particularly between RBC and SC. These results confirm the possibility of utilizing blood as a non-destructive sample to predict the total and isomeric profile of trans-18:1 in beef. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Beef tenderness improvement by dietary vitamin D3 supplementation in the last stage of fattening of cattle

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    Półtorak Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the most important characteristic of meat, determining consumer approval. There are numerous methods of its improvement, although of diverse effectiveness. addition of vitamin D3 to the feed for a short period before slaughter (7–10 days is one of the natural ways to enhance the tenderness. Vitamin D3 is responsible for Ca2+ mobilisation in serum and increase in activity of proteolytic enzymes belonging to calpains, which results in significant improvement of beef tenderness and reduction of ageing time. The use of vitamin D3 is an application tool determining tenderness improvement of beef with substantial reduction in processing costs. Moreover, shorter post mortem ageing process will exceed the retail display time, which will consequently reduce losses due to unsold meat being returned from shops to the manufacturers. Based on the results of studies conducted over the last 15 years, this paper presents the possibility and the effects of the use of vitamin D3 to improve beef tenderness.

  2. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveraldo S. Dutra

    2005-06-01

    contaminated food and water. This paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratorial aspects of 7 outbreaks of botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter, which occurred in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, 1989-2000. Five outbreaks occurred in beef cattle herds, raised in confinement or under pasture conditions and supplemented with poultry litter, and 2 outbreaks occurred in dairy farms. From o total of 1,535 cattle supplemented regularily with poultry litter 455 animals (29.64% died within 2 to 4 weeks. Morbidity and mortality varied from 3.47 to 100% in the 7 outbreaks. In one of the farms the lethality was 60.52%, and in others more than 88.43%, reaching 100% in three farms. Clinical signs were progressive paralysis, difficulties in moving, decubitus, normal alertness, decreased muscular tonus of tongue and tail, sialorrhoe and dyspnoe. At post-mortem examination of 30 cattle no noteable changes were observed. Spores of Clostridium botulinum were found in poultry litter samples collected on 7 farms. In liver, ruminal and intestinal fluid samples from 30 necropsied cattle botulinum toxin of type C (5 and D (9 or of the CD complex (1 were found in at least one of the samples collected from 15 animals, which confirms the clincial, pathological and epidemiological diagnosis of botulism.

  3. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P < 0.05) were detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P < 0.10) for putative ADG, DMI, F:G, and RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA for the detection of antibody titers against BVDV from beef cattle raised in Pará State

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    Rinaldo Batista Viana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV antibodies (Ab in beef cattle raised in Pará state, to compare the prevalence of seropositive animals to BVDV using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (iELISA and the virus neutralization (VN test, and finally, to determine the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of the iELISA for the detection of anti-BVDV Ab using VN as a gold standard. A total of 400 serum blood samples from Nelore cows aged at least 24 months from five farms in the Pará state from two mesoregions (Metropolitan Region of Belem and Northeast of Pará were analyzed. All animals were vaccinated against brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease. The examination of anti-BVDV Ab with VN was performed in the Laboratory of Bovine Viruses of the Biological Institute of Sao Paulo as described in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. For VN, bovine kidney epithelial cells from the Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK strain were used. The determinations of anti-BVDV Ab were performed with the iELISA test at the Laboratory of Immunology and Microbiology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The results were classified as follows: (a correct positive diagnosis, (b incorrect positive diagnosis, (c correct negative diagnosis, and (d incorrect negative diagnosis, according to the results obtained from VN. From the values obtained from VN and iELISA, Se [(a ÷ a + d × 100], Sp [(c ÷ c + b × 100], positive predictive value [(a ÷ a + B × 100], and negative predictive value [(c ÷ c + d × 100] were calculated for iELISA. The frequencies (% of seropositive animals were determined and compared both between the different tests (iELISA and VN and between the different farms (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of seropositive

  5. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D R; Roebert, D L; Bates, P K; Schmidt, T B; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Brooks, J C; Morgan, J B; Montgomery, T H; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling

  6. Short communication: Effect of the feed presentation form on the intake pattern, productive traits and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gimeno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional disorders like ruminal acidosis are common in Spanish beef production system, in which animals are fed diets with a high content in starch. This experiment studied the effect of feed presentation form (concentrate and straw offered separately, CD, or mixed in form of briquettes, BR on the pattern of intake, growth and rumen pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. The experiment was performed with 40 Holstein male calves, 32 of them for determining feed intake pattern and productive rates, and the remaining 8, which were previously provided with a ruminal cannula, to monitor rumen pH in two 21-day consecutive periods following a change-over design. Animals fed BR reduced feed intake rate during the first hour after feeding (18.6 vs. 24.0% of daily intake p<0.001, but this diet promoted a lower rumen pH at all sampling times compared with CD (daily average of 5.98 vs. 6.33; p<0.001 and tended to promote a lower total feed intake (7.08 vs. 9.77 kg DM/d; p<0.001 and daily weight gain (1.43 vs. 1.76 kg/d; p=0.056. Offering the concentrate and the straw mixed in form of briquettes is not useful to prevent ruminal acidosis and improve growth, probably due to both a reduced particle size of straw and avoided self-regulation of straw intake along the day.

  7. The changes in the fibrinogen concentration and coagulation pathways in winter and summer in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ameneh khoshvaghti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen is an important coagulation factor and a positive acute phase protein and its levels increases in cases of inflammation infection and stress. The present research was done to determine whether the fibrinogen concentration, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT can be affected by seasonal changes. In this study, the blood of ten apparently healthy cows from around Yasouj city were taken under aseptic conditions and, then the plasma was separated. The fibrinogen concentration, was assayed by sedimentation refractometry method, PT and APTT were measurement by coagolometric method. The statistical analysis indicated that there was significant difference between the mean concentration of fibrinogen in summer and winter (P0.05. It is concluded that seasonal changes can affect the fibrinogen concentration but does no affect PT and APTT significantly.

  8. SNP Data Quality Control in a National Beef and Dairy Cattle System and Highly Accurate SNP Based Parentage Verification and Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Matthew C; McCarthy, John; Flynn, Paul; McClure, Jennifer C; Dair, Emma; O'Connell, D K; Kearney, John F

    2018-01-01

    A major use of genetic data is parentage verification and identification as inaccurate pedigrees negatively affect genetic gain. Since 2012 the international standard for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) verification in Bos taurus cattle has been the ISAG SNP panels. While these ISAG panels provide an increased level of parentage accuracy over microsatellite markers (MS), they can validate the wrong parent at ≤1% misconcordance rate levels, indicating that more SNP are needed if a more accurate pedigree is required. With rapidly increasing numbers of cattle being genotyped in Ireland that represent 61 B. taurus breeds from a wide range of farm types: beef/dairy, AI/pedigree/commercial, purebred/crossbred, and large to small herd size the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation (ICBF) analyzed different SNP densities to determine that at a minimum ≥500 SNP are needed to consistently predict only one set of parents at a ≤1% misconcordance rate. For parentage validation and prediction ICBF uses 800 SNP (ICBF800) selected based on SNP clustering quality, ISAG200 inclusion, call rate (CR), and minor allele frequency (MAF) in the Irish cattle population. Large datasets require sample and SNP quality control (QC). Most publications only deal with SNP QC via CR, MAF, parent-progeny conflicts, and Hardy-Weinberg deviation, but not sample QC. We report here parentage, SNP QC, and a genomic sample QC pipelines to deal with the unique challenges of >1 million genotypes from a national herd such as SNP genotype errors from mis-tagging of animals, lab errors, farm errors, and multiple other issues that can arise. We divide the pipeline into two parts: a Genotype QC and an Animal QC pipeline. The Genotype QC identifies samples with low call rate, missing or mixed genotype classes (no BB genotype or ABTG alleles present), and low genotype frequencies. The Animal QC handles situations where the genotype might not belong to the listed individual by identifying: >1 non

  9. Residual N effect of long-term applications of cattle slurry using winter wheat as test crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Rasmussen, Jim

    2018-01-01

    climatic conditions, substantiating that more test years are needed when estimating residual N effects. The residual value of N added previously with NPK was negligible. In the first year, grain yields at N optimum were similar for NPK and SLU, but the amount of fertilizer N needed to reach optimum yield......Prediction of optimum fertilizer N requirements depends on reliable estimates of the residual value of N accumulated in soil from historical inputs of mineral fertilizers and animal manures. Using plots embedded in the Askov long-term experiments and treated since 1973 with different rates of N...... in cattle slurry (50, 100 and 150 kg total-N ha−1 termed ½, 1 and 1½ SLU), we estimated the residual N value over two consecutive growth periods (2014/2015 and 2015/2016). We used winter wheat as test crop and soils with a history of mineral fertilizers only (1 PK (no N)) and 1 NPK (100 kg N ha−1...

  10. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from cattle and ground beef by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis Caracterización de aislamientos de Listeria monocytogenes obtenidos de ganado y de carne molida de vacuno por electroforesis de campo pulsado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Foerster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in cattle feces and ground beef, to characterize these strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and to compare them to three listeria strains found in humans. Cattle from different origins (n = 250 and ground beef obtained from supermarkets (n = 40 were sampled. The results show low occurrence in cattle feces (0.4 % but a higher presence in ground beef (37 %. An important part of the ground beef strains (80 % had > 95 % similarity with a strain isolated from a human sporadic case and the ATCC 19115 used as control. The strain isolated from cattle feces had 93 % similarity to clone 009, previously associated with a listeriosis outbreak related to cheese. Cattle and ground beef can harbor virulent L. monocytogenes strains. Further studies in animals and animal products are needed to improve listeriosis control.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la presencia de Listeria monocytogenes en el ganado y en la carne molida de vacuno comercializada en Chile, caracterizar los aislados mediante electroforesis de campo pulsado y compararlos con los obtenidos en tres cepas que han producido listeriosis en humanos, en ese país. Se tomaron muestras de heces de bovinos (n = 250 y de carne molida obtenida en supermercados (n = 40. Se encontró una baja incidencia de este patógeno en las heces de bovinos (0,4 %; un solo animal, pero mayores porcentajes en la carne molida (37 %. Gran parte de las cepas encontradas en la carne molida (80 % mostraron una similitud mayor del 95 % con un caso esporádico de listeriosis y con la cepa de referencia ATCC 19115. La cepa aislada de bovino tuvo un 93 % de similitud con el clon 009, responsable de un brote asociado al consumo de queso, ocurrido en 2008. Se concluye que el ganado y la carne molida pueden albergar cepas virulentas de L. monocytogenes. Se necesita un mayor número de estudios en animales y en los productos que se

  11. How do temperature and rainfall affect nitrous oxide emissions from open-lot beef cattle feedyard pens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature is a primary factor affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils, but little is known about how temperature affects nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from manure. The majority of grain-fed cattle in the Texas Panhandle are finished in large, earthen-surfaced, open-lot fee...

  12. Association of circulating active and total ghrelin concentrations with dry matter intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other produ...

  13. Where’s the beef? Predicting the effects of climate change on cattle production in western U.S. rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue Miller; Matt Reeves; Karen Bagne; John Tanaka

    2017-01-01

    Cattle production capacity on western rangelands is potentially vulnerable to climate change through impacts on the amount of forage, changes in vegetation type, heat stress, and year-to-year forage variability. The researchers in this study projected climate change effects to rangelands through 2100 and compared them to a present-day baseline to estimate vulnerability...

  14. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72 h (cows) or 54 h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45 days following TAI and ≥ 45 days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P ≥ 0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥ 55 days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and < 55 days postpartum (39%) or ≥ 55 days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Circulating ghrelin and leptin concentrations and growth hormone secretagogue receptor abundance in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of beef cattle exhibiting differences in composition of gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, J S; Wertz-Lutz, A E; Pritchard, R H; Weaver, A D; Keisler, D H; Bruns, K

    2011-12-01

    Data from species other than cattle indicate that ghrelin and GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) could play a key role in fat deposition, energy homeostasis, or glucose metabolism by directly affecting liver and adipose tissue metabolism. Beef steers (n = 72) were used to test the hypothesis that plasma ghrelin and leptin concentrations and abundance of the GHS-R in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues differ in steers exhibiting differences in composition of gain. At trial initiation (d 0), 8 steers were slaughtered for initial carcass composition. The remaining 64 steers were stratified by BW, allotted to pen, and treatment was assigned randomly to pen. Steers were not implanted with anabolic steroids. Treatments were 1) a low-energy (LE) diet fed during the growing period (0 to 111 d) followed by a high-energy (HE) diet during the finishing period (112 to 209 d; LE-HE) or 2) the HE diet for the duration of the trial (1 to 209 d; HE-HE). Eight steers per treatment were slaughtered on d 88, 111, 160, and 209. Carcass ninth, tenth, and eleventh rib sections were dissected for chemical composition and regression equations were developed to predict compositional gain. Liver, muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissues were frozen in liquid nitrogen for subsequent Western blotting for GHS-R. Replicate blood samples collected before each slaughter were assayed for ghrelin and leptin concentrations. When compared at a common compositional fat end-point, the rate of carcass fat accretion (g·kg of shrunk BW(-1)) was greater (P muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissue was not different between treatment groups. The role of ghrelin in cattle metabolism warrants further investigation as it could have a significant effect on composition of BW gain, feed efficiency, and metabolic disorders such as ketosis and fatty liver.

  16. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  17. Sequence variation of bovine mitochondrial ND-5 between haplotypes of composite and Hereford Breeds of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to: Investigate polymorphisms in the ND-5 region of bovine mitochondrial DNA in the composite and purebred Hereford herds from the Wokalup selection experiment, sequencing and compare the sequences between haplotypes and published sequence from Genebank. A total of 194 Hereford and 235 composite breed cattle from Wokalup Research Station were used in this study. The mitochondrial DNA was extracted using Wizard genomic DNA purification system from Promega. ND-5 fragment of mitochondrial DNA was amplified using PCR and continued with RFLP. Each haplotypes were sequenced. PCR products of each haplotype were cloned into pCR II, transformed, colonies selection, plasmid DNA extraction continued with cycle sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in both breeds of cattle in ND-5 region of mitochondrial DNA by PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing analysis confirmed the RFLPs data.

  18. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  19. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits.

  20. Phenotypic and genetic correlations for body structure scores (frame) with productive traits and index for CEIP classification in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, A R V R; Ferraz, J B S; Balieiro, J C C; Eler, J P

    2007-03-29

    The present study was carried out to estimate both (co)variance components and genetic parameters for frame scores obtained using two methods (FRAME_GMA and FRAME_BIF) as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations with traits such as weaning weight, weight gain from weaning to yearling, scrotal circumference, muscle score, and an empiric index for animal classification for the Special Certificate of Identification and Production (CEIP). Data on 12,728 animals, raised in Southeastern Brazil, with ages from 490 to 610 days were analyzed. Estimates of heritability for FRAME_GMA and FRAME_BIF in multi-trait analysis were 0.28 and 0.24, respectively. Genetic correlation coefficients between frame scores and the growth trait were of medium magnitude, which indicates that genetic selection for weight resulted in undesirable responses, increasing the animals' frames. Small changes should be expected in the frame of animals that have been submitted to a genetic selection regarding muscle score and scrotal circumference. The low magnitude of phenotypic and genetic correlation between frame scores and the empirical selection index that classifies animals for CEIP, a Brazilian official certificate that recognizes the value of seedstock that is not registered at breeders associations, but is genetically evaluated, does not indicate important responses in giving a CEIP to animals that have been directly or indirectly selected for frame. Other studies must be performed to determine estimates of the genetic parameters for frame scores in other beef cattle populations.

  1. Bayes factor for testing between different structures of random genetic groups: a case study using weaning weight in Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, Joaquim; Piedrafita, Jesús; Varona, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of genetic groups in BLUP evaluations accounts for different expectations of breeding values in base animals. Notwithstanding, many feasible structures of genetic groups exist and there are no analytical tools described to compare them easily. In this sense, the recent development of a simple and stable procedure to calculate the Bayes factor between nested competing models allowed us to develop a new approach of that method focused on compared models with different structures of random genetic groups. The procedure is based on a reparameterization of the model in terms of intraclass correlation of genetic groups. The Bayes factor can be easily calculated from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling by averaging conditional densities at the null intraclass correlation. It compares two nested models, a model with a given structure of genetic groups against a model without genetic groups. The calculation of the Bayes factor between different structures of genetic groups can be quickly and easily obtained from the Bayes factor between the nested models. We applied this approach to a weaning weight data set of the Bruna dels Pirineus beef cattle, comparing several structures of genetic groups, and the final results showed that the preferable structure was an only group for unknown dams and different groups for unknown sires for each year of calving.

  2. Requirement of energy and protein of beef cattle on tropical pasture - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.21143

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein and energy requirements of beef cattle, aged between 4 and 18 months old, on tropical pastures, were estimated. Forty-six Nellore calves (138.3 ± 3.4 kg BW and 90-150 days old, kept on pasture, were distributed in a maintenance group (restricted feeding or in nutritional plans, receiving a supplements with different amounts of protein and carbohydrate or non-supplemented. The net energy requirement for weight gain (NEg was obtained by linear regression of logarithm of retained energy as a function of logarithm of empty body weight gain. The net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm was estimated by the exponential relation between heat production and metabolizable energy intake. Net protein requirement for weight gain (RP was estimated by multiple linear regression of retained protein in the weight gain of empty body (EBWG and retained energy. The efficiency of metabolizable energy (ME used for maintenance and for weight gain was 0.55 and 0.26, respectively. The ME requirement for maintenance was 124 kcal EBW-0.75. RP decreased in proportion to body weight increase. NEg and RP may be obtained by equations: RE (Mcal kg-1 = 0.044 x EBW0.75 x EBWG1.1302 and RP (g day-1 = -31.45 + 229.69 x EBWG – 8.75 x RE, respectively.  

  3. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased.

  4. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  5. EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisae + Candida utilis AND HERBS SUPPLEMENTATION IN FINISHING DIET ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mahyuddin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 75 days feeding trial was completed to study the effect of inclusion of a combined probioticyeast+herbs in finishing diet on carcass characteristics of beef cattle. Thirty bull of Ongole crossbred,age 2.5-3 years old with average body weight (BW of 320 kg were used in this experiment. They weredivided into 2 groups, each of 15 animals and were allotted to control and treatment. They wereslaughtered at around 450 kg BW. The treated animals were given a supplementation containingcombined yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae and Candida utilis and herbs. All animals were fed a diet ofammoniated rice straw and commercial concentrate with a ratio of 10: 90. Addition of combinedprobiotics + herbs in the diet increased percentage of carcass, dressing and meat, but there were noeffect on live weight gain (LWG, % bone, meat:bone ratio, % body fat, back fat thickness and eyemuscle area. There was a reduction in the percentage of offal due to a decrease in intestinal weight in thetreated animal.

  6. Major health problems and their economic impact on beef cattle under two different feedlot systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Malafaia

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to describe the diagnosis of health problems and to evaluate the cost of their treatment for cattle raised in feedlots to be slaughtered or to be sold as sires for cow-calf systems. Bovine respiratory disease and digestive disorders were the main problems diagnosed in the feedlot for slaughter; the cost for treatment was high, accounting for 9.7 to 20.9 kg of live weight (LW or the equivalent of 7 to 15% of total LW gained over the days on feed. Due to the high intake of starch-rich concentrate, rumen and fecal pH was lower, whilst rumen osmolarity and blood lactate were higher in cattle fed for slaughter. Cattle affected by digestive disorders spent on average four additional days in the feedlot. Diseases and cost of treatments were associated with lower average daily gain and considerable economic losses. Health problems commonly observed in the feedlots for slaughter were not observed in the feedlots for males to be sold as sires. The most likely reason for this observation was the more careful nutrition and prophylactic health management in sire production systems, which produce animals of much higher selling price. Results from this study suggest that health problems found in feedlots for slaughter may not only reduce animal productivity and profitability, but also the welfare of the animals. The systemic understaffing of livestock cattle workers and veterinarians in large feedlots in Brazil results in under reporting of diseases and lack to understand epidemiological context and disease prevention.

  7. Biosecurity Adoption on Cattle Farms in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica S. Lestari; Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin; Aslina Asnawi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know biosecurity adoption on beef cattle farms. This research was conducted for a month at Barru regency, South Sulawesi province, which famous asone of beef cattle breeding villages in Indonesia. Sample was choosed through random sampling. Total sampel was 30 beef cattle farmers. Data were collected through observation and interview. Biosecurity measures consisted of 35 indicators which was grouped into 4 namely: management practice, sanitation, disease and disea...

  8. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  9. De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector

  10. A review of factors that impact on the capacity of beef cattle females to conceive, maintain a pregnancy and wean a calf-Implications for reproductive efficiency in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B M; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G

    2010-10-01

    A review of factors that may impact on the capacity of beef cattle females, grazing semi-extensive to extensive pastures in northern Australia, to conceive, maintain a pregnancy and wean a calf was conducted. Pregnancy and weaning rates have generally been used to measure the reproductive performance of herds. However, this review recognises that reproductive efficiency and the general measures associated with it more effectively describe the economic performance of beef cattle enterprises. More specifically, reproductive efficiency is influenced by (1) pregnancy rate which is influenced by (i) age at puberty; (ii) duration of post-partum anoestrus; (iii) fertilisation failure and (iv) embryo survival; while (2) weight by number of calves per breeding female retained for mating is influenced by (i) cow survival; (ii) foetal survival; and (iii) calf survival; and (3) overall lifetime calf weight weaned per mating. These measures of reproductive efficiency are discussed in depth. Further, a range of infectious and non-infectious factors, namely, environmental, physiological, breed and genetic factors and their impact on these stages of the reproductive cycle are investigated and implications for the northern Australian beef industry are discussed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations to minimise reproductive inefficiencies based on current knowledge are presented. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  12. Genetic Diversity and Sequence Variations at Growth Hormone Loci among Composite and Hereford Populations of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN J. LYMBERY

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 194 Hereford and 235 composite breed cattle from Wokalup Research Station were used in this study. The aims of the study were to: Investigate polymorphisms in the growth hormone gene in the composite and purebred Hereford herds from the Wokalup selection experiment, compare genetic diversity in the growth hormone gene of the breeds, sequencing and compare the sequences of growth hormone loci between composite and purebred Hereford herds with published sequence from Genebank. The genomic DNA was extracted using Wizard genomic DNA purification system from Promega. Two fragments of growth hormone gene were amplified using PCR and continued with RFLP. Each genotype in both loci was sequenced. PCR products of each genotypes were cloned into PCR II, transformed, colonies selection, plasmid DNA extraction continued with cycle sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in both breeds of cattle in both loci of GH-L1 and GH-L2 of the growth hormone gene by PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing analysis confirmed the RFLPs data, polymorphism detected using AluI at GH-L1 is due to substitution between leusin/ valine at position 127, while polymorphism at the MspI restriction site was caused by transition of C to T at +837 position.

  13. The use of progesterone RIA to increase efficiency and quality of artificial insemination services of beef cattle in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toleng, L.; Sonjaya, H.; Yusuf, M.; Hamid, A.

    2001-01-01

    The technique of artificial insemination (AI) has been used in Indonesia for several years. The fertility rate resulting from this technique, however, is still lower than that for natural mating. Therefore, two studies were conducted to evaluate the factors that might cause lower efficiency of AI in beef cattle. The first was a survey to evaluate reproductive performance and factors that affect the inefficiency of AI. A total of 652 beef cows inseminated on one large and several small farms were used. Data for farm, cow, inseminator and each insemination were recorded. Serum samples were taken at the day of insemination (day 0), and days 10-12 and 20-22 after AI, and at time of manual pregnancy diagnosis. The second study was conducted to evaluate whether the induction of first postpartum oestrus in suckling cows could be done by hormonal treatments. Two groups of suckling Brahman cows were used, with and without treatment using Controlled Intra-vaginal Drug Release devices (CIDR). CIDR were inserted into the vagina, oestradiol benzoate (OB) was injected, the CIDR were removed after 12 days and two Als were performed at 24 and 72 hr later. The studies were conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mean overall conception rate (CR) for the large and small farms were 23 and 38%, respectively. Season of the year, housing system, type of heat, time of AI, and characteristics of AI technicians (level of education and non-AI work) affected the CR. Oestrus behaviour was detected in 95 and 100% of cows respectively for the first and the second period. However, the proportions of animals showing ovulatory oestrus during the first and second periods were 22 and 48% (P<0.01), and pregnancy rates were 12 and 24%, respectively. These findings show that reproductive rate of cows served by AI in this area is low and that factors related to the cow, farm management and AI technician affect this problem. CIDR treatment can induce oestrus behaviour in suckling cows, but only few of

  14. Identification of Candidate Genes Associated with Beef Marbling Using QTL and Pathway Analysis in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyesun Park

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marbling from intramuscular fat is an important trait of meat quality and has an economic benefit for the beef industry. Quantitative trait loci (QTL fine mapping was performed to identify the marbling trait in 266 Hanwoo steers using a 10K single nucleotide polymorphism panel with the combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium method. As a result, we found nine putative QTL regions for marbling: three on BTA6, two on BTA17, two on BTA22, and two on BTA29. We detected candidate genes for marbling within 1 cM of either side of the putative QTL regions. Additionally, to understand the functions of these candidate genes at the molecular level, we conducted a functional categorization using gene ontology and pathway analyses for those genes involved in lipid metabolism or fat deposition. In these putative QTL regions, we found 95 candidate genes for marbling. Using these candidate genes, we found five genes that had a direct interaction with the candidate genes. We also found SCARB1 as a putative candidate gene for marbling that involves fat deposition related to cholesterol transport.

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Leptospira Seropositivity in Beef Cattle, Sheep and Deer Farmers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J; Collins-Emerson, J M

    2017-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis that in New Zealand affects primarily people occupationally exposed to livestock. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of five Leptospira serovars in farmers working on cattle, sheep and deer farms that had the serological status of animals previously assessed and to identify risk factors for farmer seropositivity. A total of 178 farmers from 127 properties participated in the study. Blood samples were tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of antibodies to Leptospira. Samples with a MAT titre ≥48 were considered seropositive. Using Bayesian statistical analysis, the median seroprevalence of Leptospira, all serovars combined, was estimated to be 6.6% (95% probability interval (PI) 3.6-10.9%). Risk factors associated with seropositivity were assisting deer or cattle calving, farming deer, having ≥25% of flat terrain and high abundance of wild deer on farm, while high possum abundance on farm was negatively associated with seropositivity. No association was observed between farmer serostatus and previously recorded livestock serology. Leptospira seropositivity was associated with influenza-like illness of farmers (RR = 1.7; 95% PI 1.0-2.5). Assuming a causal relationship, this suggested an annual risk of 1.3% (95% PI 0.0-3.0%) of influenza-like illnesses due to Leptospira infection in the population of farmers. The association between seropositivity and disease can be used to estimate the public health burden of leptospirosis in New Zealand. Identifying and understanding risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity can inform preventive measures, hence contributing to the reduction of leptospirosis incidence in farmers. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Macromineral requirements by beef cattle under pasture supplementation Exigências de macrominerais de bovinos de corte sob suplementação a pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine macromineral requirements by Zebu steers grazing Brachiaria decumbens supplemented with concentrate. It was used 24 non-castrated steers, at an average age of 7 months and at initial average weight 180 kg. Eight control animals were slaughtered for determining initial body composition. The 16 remaining animals were divided in four four-animal plots, in a complete random design. Each plot received mineral mixture or supplements at the levels 0.75; 1.50 or 2.25 kg/animal/day. The right half-carcass of eight animals, two per group, was dissected in muscle, fat and bones and all body constituents were weighted for determination of empty body weight and body composition. Net requirements of calcium and phosphorus for an animal at 400 kg body weight were 11.13 g and 5.40 g, respectively. To estimate dietary requirements of maintenance and after, sum them to dietary requirements for gain in order to obtain total dietary requirements, it was adopted endogenous losses and bioavailability present in literature for each mineral macroelement. Total dietary requirement for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium for a 400-kg BW animal with 1.0-kg daily weight gain were 34.59; 17.36; 7.82; 5.19 and 41.11 g/day, respectively. Macromineral requirements by beef cattle under pasture supplementation are similar to those recommended by BR-Corte for beef cattle in feedlots.Objetivou-se determinar as exigências de macrominerais de novilhos zebuínos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens suplementada com concentrado. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos, não-castrados, com idade e pesos médio iniciais de 7 meses e 180 kg. Foram abatidos oito animais-referência para determinação da composição corporal inicial. Os 16 animais restantes foram divididos em quatro lotes de quatro animais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Cada lote recebeu mistura mineral ou suplementos nos níveis de 0,75; 1,50 ou 2,25 kg

  17. Technical note: Occurrence in fecal microbiota of genes conferring resistance to both macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and tetracyclines concomitant with feeding of beef cattle with tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Fluharty, F L; St-Pierre, N; Morrison, M; Yu, Z

    2008-09-01

    Development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals receiving antimicrobials has been well documented among bacterial isolates, especially pathogens, but information on development of antimicrobial resistance at the microbial community level during long-term feeding of antimicrobials is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between inclusion of tylosin in feed and occurrence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) in the entire fecal microbial communities of beef cattle over a feeding study of 168 d. A completely randomized design included 6 pens housed together in 1 barn, with each pen housing 10 to 11 steers. The control and tylosin groups each had 3 pens, with the former receiving no antimicrobial whereas the latter received both tylosin and monensin (11 and 29.9 mg/ kg of feed, respectively, DM) in feed. The abundance of genes conferring resistance to MLS(B) (erm genes) and tetracyclines (tet genes) were quantified using class-specific, real-time PCR assays. The abundances of erm and tet genes were analyzed with pens as experimental units using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Correlations between abundance of different resistance genes were calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS. We identified 4 classes (B, F, T, and X) of erm genes in fresh fecal samples collected at wk 2, 17, and 21 of feeding. From wk 2 to 17, the abundance of erm(T) and erm(X) increased (P tylosin feeding. Such co-selection of multiresistance at community level by one antimicrobial drug used in animals has the important implication that future studies should examine resistance to not only the antimicrobials used in animals, but also other antimicrobials, especially those used in human medicine, to fully assess the potential risk associated with antimicrobial use in animals. Both the erm and tet genes appeared to be disseminated among the microbial populations in all steers housed together.

  18. Effect of Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169 on the rumen and faecal microbiota of beef cattle fed a maize-based finishing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, E; Narvaez, N; Derakhshani, H; Allazeh, A Y; Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Khafipour, E

    2017-10-13

    Direct fed microbial supplementation with lactic acid utilising bacteria (i.e. Propionibacterium acidipropionici P169) has been shown to alleviate the severity of subacute ruminal acidosis in high-grain fed beef cattle. This study was carried out to explore the impact of P169 supplementation on modulating rumen and hindgut microbiota of high-grain fed steers. Seven ruminally-canulated high-grain fed steers were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control diet (n=3) and the same diet supplemented with P169 added at a rate of 1×10 11 cfu/head/d (n=4). Samples were collected every 28 days for a 101 d period (5 time points) and subjected to qPCR quantification of P169 and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial V4 16S rRNA genes. Ruminal abundance of P169 was maintained at elevated levels (P=0.03) both in liquid and solid fractions post supplementation. Concomitant with decreased proportion of amylolytic (such as Prevotella) and key lactate-utilisers (such as Veillonellaceae and Megasphaera), the proportions of cellulolytic bacterial lineages (such as Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridiaceae, and Christensenellaceae) were enriched in the rumen microbiota of P169-supplemented steers. These, coupled with elevated molar proportions of branched-chain fatty acids and increased concentration of ammonia in the rumen content of P169-supplemented steers, indicated an improved state of fibrolytic and proteolytic activity in response to P169 supplementation. Further, exploring the hindgut microbiota of P169-supplemented steers revealed enrichment of major amylolytic bacterial lineages, such as Prevotella, Blautia, and Succinivibrionaceae, which might be indicative of an increased availability of carbohydrates in the hindgut ecosystem following P169 supplementation. Collectively, the present study provides insights into the microbiota dynamics that underlie the P169-associated shifts in the rumen fermentation profile of high-grain fed steers.

  19. Application of multivariate heavy-tailed distributions to residuals in the estimation of genetic parameters of growth traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S O; Kizilkaya, K; Garrick, D J; Fernando, R L; Pollak, E J; De Donato, M; Hussain, T; Imumorin, I G

    2013-04-01

    Assumptions of normality in most animal breeding applications may make inferences vulnerable to the presence of outliers. Heavy-tail densities are viable alternatives to normal distributions and provide robustness against unusual or outlying observations when used to model the densities of residual effects. Our objective is to compare estimates of genetic parameters by fitting multivariate normal (MN) or heavy-tail distributions [multivariate Student's t (MSt) and multivariate slash (MS)] for residuals in data of body birth weight (BBW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weight traits in beef cattle. A total of 17,019 weight records for BBW, WW, and YW from 1998 through 2010 from a large commercial cow/calf operation in the sand hills of Nebraska were analyzed. Models included fixed effects of contemporary group and sire breed whereas animal and maternal effects were random and the degrees of freedom (v) was treated as unknown for MSt and MS. Model comparisons using deviance information criteria (DIC) favored MSt over MS and MN models, respectively. The posterior means [and 95% posterior probability intervals (PPI)] of v for the MSt and MS models were 5.28 (4.80, 5.85) and 1.88 (1.76, 2.00), respectively. Smaller values of posterior densities of v for MSt and MS models confirm that the assumption of normally distributed residuals is not adequate for the analysis of BBW, WW, and YW datasets. Posterior mean (PM) and posterior median (PD) estimates of direct and maternal genetic variances were the same and posterior densities of these parameters were found to be symmetric. The 95% PPI estimates from MN and MSt models for BBW did not overlap, which indicates significant difference between PM estimates from MN or MSt models. The observed antagonistic relationship between additive direct and additive maternal effects indicated that genetic evaluation and selection strategies will be sensitive to the assumed model for residuals.

  20. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  1. The association between congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) in beef cattle and drought in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter J; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Windsor, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Reports of congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) have been anecdotally associated with periods of drought during the gestation period of affected beef calves. Reported sporadically in the past, the incidence of CCUO has increased in south-eastern Australia and has been reported every year between 2002 and 2007. A maternal nutritional deficiency arising from poor quality pastures and supplements has been suggested as contributing to the disorder. With an increase in drought occurrence predicted by climate change models, it is possible that the incidence will increase into the future. Retrospective data collected during a case control study was used to determine if the occurrence of cases of CCUO was associated with rainfall deficiency during gestation. A total of 799 cases occurring on 46 farms in south-eastern Australia were identified and a time series of cases was created. The association of both average monthly and three-month average rainfall with cases of CCUO revealed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.29 and r=-0.37 respectively, P<0.05) five months prior to the birth of CCUO calves on the farms studied. Logistic regression analysis showed a 3.3 (CI 1.8; 5.8, P<0.001) times increased risk of CCUO calves when the three-month average rainfall was in the lowest decile five months prior to the birth of calves. This information may be used to alert farmers as to when high quality supplemental feed may be provided to improve maternal nutrition and reduce the number of CCUO calves born. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of carcass bruises as an indicator of welfare in beef cattle and the relation to the economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Stella M; van Eerdenburg, Frank; Gil, Andrés; Piaggio, José

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize bruises in bovine carcasses in Uruguay and to evaluate the economic impact. Thirteen abattoirs were visited during 2 years and bruises were identified, classified, and quantified by zone and degree (depth and size). One hundred carcasses were separated and bruises were cut out and weighed separately. From a total of 15 157 carcasses observed, 60.0% had at least one bruise; 42.0% of these had bruises on both sides. The expensive butt zone was the most damaged, followed by rib, shoulder and loin, respectively. The mean weight and standard error of the condemned trimmed meat was 1602 ± 212 g. It suppose a loss of 899 g per animal slaugtered in Uruguay. In a country sending 2.5 million heads of cattle to be slaughter yearly, this indicates an important financial loss. Improving transport conditions and personnel skills will probably result in a better welfare for the animals as well as better financial profit.

  3. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  5. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  6. ECONOMIC MODELS OF CATTLE PRICES: How USDA Can Act to Improve Models to Explain Cattle Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kingsbury, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    .... In addition, a number of structural changes are occurring in the cattle and beef industry. All these elements, and more, could be considered in developing a logical framework to explain cattle prices and producers' incomes...

  7. A mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis of metaphylaxis treatments for bovine respiratory disease in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, K M; Theurer, M E; Larson, R L; White, B J; Apley, M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials approved for parenteral metaphylactic use in feeder and stocker calves on morbidity and mortality for bovine respiratory disease with the use of a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis. An initial literature review was conducted in April 2016 through Pubmed, Agricola, and CAB (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau) for randomized controlled trials for metaphylaxis antimicrobial administered parentally to incoming feedlot or stocker calves within 48 h of arrival. The final list of publications included 29 studies, with a total of 37 trials. There were 8 different metaphylactic antimicrobials. Final event outcomes were categorized into bovine respiratory disease (BRD) morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to ≤ 60 of the feeding period, BRD morbidity cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout of the feeding period, and BRD retreatment cumulative incidence morbidity d 1 to closeout of the feeding period. Network meta-analysis combined direct and indirect evidence for all the event outcomes to determine mean odds ratio (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrIs) for all metaphylactic antimicrobial comparisons. The "upper tier" treatment arms for morbidity d 1 to ≤ 60 included tulathromycin, gamithromycin, and tilmicosin. For BRD mortality cumulative incidence d 1 to closeout and BRD retreatment morbidity d 1 to closeout, classifying the treatment arms into tiers was not possible due to overlapping 95% CrIs. The results of this project accurately identified differences between metaphylactic antimicrobials, and metaphylactic antimicrobial options appear to offer different outcomes on BRD morbidity and mortality odds in feedlot cattle.

  8. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Pessoa, Moisés Sena; dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; de Freitas Júnior, Luiz Fernando; Barros, Katharina de Oliveira; Hughes, Alice Ferreira da Silva; Silva, Thiago Dias; Rodriguez, Norberto Mário

    2017-01-01

    Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA) at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05). Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77) and xylanase (3.13 ±.091) than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively). Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets. PMID:28850605

  9. Notable fibrolytic enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the gastrointestinal tract of beef cattle fed in lignified pastures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Oliveira Abrão

    Full Text Available Fungi have the ability to degrade vegetal cell wall carbohydrates, and their presence in the digestive tract of ruminants can minimize the effects of lignified forage on ruminal fermentation. Here, we evaluated enzyme production by Aspergillus spp. isolates from the digestive tracts of cattle grazed in tropical pastures during the dry season. Filamentous fungi were isolated from rumen and feces by culture in cellulose-based medium. Ninety fungal strains were isolated and identified by rDNA sequence analysis, microculture, or both. Aspergillus terreus was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolates were characterized with respect to their cellulolytic, xylanolytic, and lignolytic activity through qualitative evaluation in culture medium containing a specific corresponding carbon source. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase activity was quantified by the reducing sugar method. In the avicel and xilan degradation test, the enzyme activity (EA at 48 h was significantly higher other periods (P < 0.05. Intra- and inter-specific differences in EA were verified, and high levels of phenoloxidases, which are crucial for lignin degradation, were observed in 28.9% of the isolates. Aspergillus terreus showed significantly higher EA for avicelase (3.96 ±1.77 and xylanase (3.13 ±.091 than the other Aspergillus species at 48 h of incubation. Isolates AT13 and AF69 showed the highest CMCase specific activity (54.84 and 33.03 U mg-1 protein, respectively. Selected Aspergillus spp. isolates produced remarkable levels of enzymes involved in vegetal cell wall degradation, suggesting their potential as antimicrobial additives or probiotics in ruminant diets.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Carcass Characteristics of Korean Cattle Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Piao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415 for 8 yr (2006 through 2013 were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT and relative humidity (RH data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI, calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of −4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of −6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS and quality grade (QG of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p0.05 with CT. Yield grade (YG of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05 in winter (November to January and highest in spring and summer (May to September. A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01 with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT, a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December. The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤−0.74; p<0.01 with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions.

  11. Genetic models for breed quality and navel development scores and its associations with growth traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boligon, A A; De Vargas, L; Silveira, D D; Roso, V M; Campos, G S; Vaz, R Z; Souza, F R P

    2016-12-01

    Estimation and prediction ability of linear and threshold models for yearling breed quality score (BQ) and navel development score at weaning (WN) and yearling (YN), considering variances, heritabilities, and rank correlations based on the breeding values predicted for bulls, were compared. Furthermore, it was determined whether BQ, WN, and YN are genetically associated with growth traits (BWG: birth to weaning weight gain, WH: weaning height, WYG: weaning to yearling weight gain, YH: yearling height) to field data of Nelore cattle. For BQ, similar heritabilities were estimated using linear (0.14 ± 0.01) and threshold (0.15 ± 0.02) models. For navel development scores, higher heritability was estimated with threshold (WN 0.22 ± 0.03; YN 0.42 ± 0.03) rather than linear (WN 0.16 ± 0.01; YN 0.29 ± 0.01) models. Rank correlations between sires breeding values predicted for visual scores with linear and threshold models ranging from 0.53 to 0.98, indicating that different sires would be selected using these models, mainly for higher selection intensities. The BQ showed little genetic variability and was not associated with WH and YH. However, low and positive genetic correlations were obtained between BQ with BWG (0.27 ± 0.02) and WYG (0.25 ± 0.02). In general, they are expected low genetic gains for BQ as correlated response to selection based on any of the growth traits studied. The WN showed higher genetic correlation with BWG (0.63 ± 0.02) and WH (0.53 ± 0.02) rather than WYG (-0.06 ± 0.02) and YH (0.26 ± 0.02), indicating that selection for increased growth at weaning (height and weight gain) should lead to longer and most pendulous navels at this age. Weak genetic correlations were obtained between yearling navel and growth traits.

  12. Effects of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn on heifer growth performance and diet digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R P; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Scholljegerdes, E J; Baird, A N; Johnson, K D; Buckmaster, D; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding corn modified wet distillers grain plus solubles (MWDGS; 48% DM) co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC) on growth performance, dietary intake, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 96 Angus-crossed heifers (2 yr old; 522 ± 49.1 kg BW; 5.3 ± 0.1 BCS) were stratified and blocked according to BW and stratified by BCS in each block in a randomized complete block design (24 pens; 4 heifers/pen; 6 treatment replications). Groups were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments for a 62 d trial. Treatments were 1) corn silage (CS) and soybean meal (CON), 2) MWDGS co-ensiled with chopped whole plant corn (WC; CO-EN), 3) CS mixed with MWDGS at feeding (CS+WDG), and 4) CS mixed with dry distillers grain plus solubles (DDGS) at feeding (CS+DDG). In Exp. 2, 4 crossbred beef steers (initial BW = 278 ± 18 kg) fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square to test the effects of feeding MWDGS co-ensiled with WC on DM intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and total tract digestibility. There were four 14-d periods, with 10 d for diet adaptation and 4 d for samples collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used and compared CON vs. diets containing distillers grains (DGD), CO-EN vs. diets where distillers grains were mixed at feeding (MIX), and CS+WDG vs. CS+DDG. In Exp. 1, the CON fed heifers resulted in greater G:F (P = 0.04) compared with those fed DGD. However, ADG (P = 0.03), final BW (P = 0.04), and BW gain (P = 0.03) were greatest for DGD diets compared with CON and greatest (P = 0.04) for CO-EN when compared with MIX. Apart from a slightly greater acetate concentration (P = 0.05), which resulted in a greater acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.03) for the CON diet compared with DGD, no important differences were observed on intake, diet digestibility, or fermentation characteristics when comparing the CON treatment with DGD or when comparing CS

  13. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of the protein sources did not influence the composition of protein flowing to the intestine and site and extent of nutrient digestibility.

  14. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake. Urea N output, however, was greater (P excretion and the potential loss of N from the system.

  15. Flooding event impacts soil pH, Ca, and P concentration distribution in a cattle backgrounding site on karst topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding in US, function as an intermediate between cow-calf enterprises and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding receives weaned calves of different growth stages from cow-calf operations and prepare them ready for feed lot finishing. Many beef cattle backgrounding operati...

  16. Efforts In Conserving Purebred Bali Cattle As Draught And Beef Type In Bali Island, Indonesia. (UPAYA PELESTARIAN SAPI BALI SEBAGAI TABUNGAN DAN TIPE PEDAGING DI PULAU BALI INDONESIA

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    I Wayan Kasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle (Bos javanicus d’Alton is a part of the complex evolution of all cattle over a longtime in Indonesia. Little is known of the origin of bali cattle in Southeast Asia.  The geographicaldistribution of Bos (Bibos types of cattle suggests that the centre of domestication was Indo-China and Malaysia, then spreading to Bali. Due to such several unique characters of bali cattle, someefforts have been conducting with main purpose to conserve purebred, draught as well as meat typecattle on Bali in particular and Indonesia in general. Method has been employed in this study areliterature explore, visiting, interview with questionnaire sheet. Set of efforts have been conductingin order to conserve purebred bali cattle by the government. For examples, establishment of balicattle Breeding centre of Pulukan village, establishment of bali cattle Breeding centre of Sobanganvillage, establishment of bali cattle Conservation centre of Nusa Penida Island,  essense of UdayanaUniversity, Bali and role of Department of Animal Husbandry. It could be concluded thatgovernment as a whole have played an important role in conserving the purebred bali cattle asdraught and meat type cattle at certain suitable places in Bali to fulfill local and national daily meatrequirement by establishing good collaboration with related government agency as well as farmers.

  17. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, namely longissimus dorsi (LD), serratus ventralis (SV) and semitendinosus (ST). Multiple parameters were ranked in the descending order of ST > SV > LD, and.

  18. Optimizing of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Cattle Manure Fertilizers Application in Winter Wheat Production Using Response-Surface Methodology (RSM

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    M. jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is estimated that up to 50 percent of applied nitrogen would drift from agricultural systems as gaseous compounds and other types of activated nitrogen (27 and 46. When applied in high amounts, up to 90% of phosphorous fertilizers could be fixed in soil together with metallic elements as insoluble forms leading to further phosphorus pollution (1. In many crops, low absorption efficiency of fertilizers is the main reason of losses through lea