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Sample records for winter wheat triticum-aestivum

  1. Genetics of mycorrhizal symbiosis in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Heike; Serfling, Albrecht; Enders, Matthias; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In order to identify genomic regions involved in mycorrhization, these genotypes were analyzed using the wheat 90k iSelect chip, resulting in 17 823 polymorphic mapped markers, which were used in a genome-wide association study. Significant genotypic differences (P wheat. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

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    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  3. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  4. Resistance of Select Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars to Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvin, John; Whitworth, R Jeff; Rojas, Lina Maria Aguirre; Smith, C Michael

    2017-08-01

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a global pest of wheat and vectors some of the most damaging strains of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). In years of heavy R. padi infestation, R. padi and BYDV together reduce wheat yields by 30-40% in Kansas and other states of the U.S. Great Plains wheat production area. Cultivation of wheat cultivars resistant to R. padi can greatly reduce production costs and mitigate R. padi-BYDV yield losses, and increase producer profits. This study identified cultivars of hard red and soft white winter wheat with R. padi resistance that suppress R. padi populations or tolerate the effects of R. padi feeding damage. 'Pioneer (S) 25R40,' 'MFA (S) 2248,' 'Pioneer (S) 25R77,' and 'Limagrain LCS Mint' significantly reduced R. padi populations. MFA (S) 2248, Pioneer (S) 25R40, and 'Limagrain LS Wizard' exhibited tolerance expressed as significantly greater aboveground biomass. These findings are significant in that they have identified wheat cultivars currently available to producers, enabling the immediate improvement of tactics to manage R. padi and BYDV in heavily infested areas. Secondarily, these results identify cultivars that are good candidates for use in breeding and genetic analyses of arthropod resistance genes in wheat. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Development and characterization of mutant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accessions resistant to the herbicide quizalofop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlie, Michael; Haley, Scott D; Anderson, Victoria; Shaner, Dale; Manmathan, Harish; Beil, Craig; Westra, Phillip

    2015-02-01

    New herbicide resistance traits in wheat were produced through the use of induced mutagenesis. While herbicide-resistant crops have become common in many agricultural systems, wheat has seen few introductions of herbicide resistance traits. A population of Hatcher winter wheat treated with ethyl methanesulfonate was screened with quizalofop to identify herbicide-resistant plants. Initial testing identified plants that survived multiple quizalofop applications. A series of experiments were designed to characterize this trait. In greenhouse studies the mutants exhibited high levels of quizalofop resistance compared to non-mutant wheat. Sequencing ACC1 revealed a novel missense mutation causing an alanine to valine change at position 2004 (Alopecurus myosuroides reference sequence). Plants carrying single mutations in wheat's three genomes (A, B, D) were identified. Acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase in resistant plants was 4- to 10-fold more tolerant to quizalofop. Populations of segregating backcross progenies were developed by crossing each of the three individual mutants with wild-type wheat. Experiments conducted with these populations confirmed largely normal segregation, with each mutant allele conferring an additive level of resistance. Further tests showed that the A genome mutation conferred the greatest resistance and the B genome mutation conferred the least resistance to quizalofop. The non-transgenic herbicide resistance trait identified will enhance weed control strategies in wheat.

  6. Effects of salt stress on tillering nodes to the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong, Y.; Yuan, G.; Zhixia, X.; Xiaojing, L.

    2016-01-01

    In monsoon climate regions, the tillering nodes of winter wheat can be stressed by high salt accumulation on the soil surface in spring, thereby leading to salt-induced damage. To understand whether tillering nodes could be stressed by salinity and to estimate its effects on the growth of winter wheat under salt stress, the tillering nodes of two wheat cultivars, H-4589 (salt-sensitive) and J-32 (salt-tolerant), were treated with salinity to investigate the physiological and biochemical changes in seedling growth. The results indicated that salt stress on tillering nodes significantly reduced plant height and shoot dry weight; increased Na+ accumulation, soluble sugar and proline in both H-4589 and J-32; which demonstrated remarkable effects on the growth of winter wheat when the tillering nodes were under salt stress. Furthermore, equivalent Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress, while remarkably different Na+ accumulations were discovered in two cultivars when roots were under salt stress. Based on the results from anatomic analyses, we speculated that no anatomic differences in tillering nodes between two cultivars could give reason to the equivalent Na+ accumulations in two cultivars when tillering nodes were under salt stress; and more lignified endodermis in primary roots as well as larger reduction of lateral root number in salt-tolerant cultivars which contributed to preventing Na+ influx could explain the remarkably lower Na+ accumulation in salt-tolerant cultivar when roots were under salt stress. All of these results indicated that the tillering nodes could mediate Na+ influx from the environment leading to salt-induced damage to the growth of winter wheat. (author)

  7. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

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    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  8. The optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration for the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming

    2015-07-20

    This study examined the optimal atmospheric CO2 concentration of the CO2 fertilization effect on the growth of winter wheat with growth chambers where the CO2 concentration was controlled at 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 ppm respectively. I found that initial increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced winter wheat growth through the CO2 fertilization effect. However, this CO2 fertilization effect was substantially compromised with further increase in CO2 concentration, demonstrating an optimal CO2 concentration of 889.6, 909.4, and 894.2 ppm for aboveground, belowground, and total biomass, respectively, and 967.8 ppm for leaf photosynthesis. Also, high CO2 concentrations exceeding the optima not only reduced leaf stomatal density, length and conductance, but also changed the spatial distribution pattern of stomata on leaves. In addition, high CO2 concentration also decreased the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) of leaf photosynthesis. However, the high CO2 concentration had little effect on leaf length and plant height. The optimal CO2 fertilization effect found in this study can be used as an indicator in selecting and breeding new wheat strains in adapting to future high atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

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    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  10. Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Augmenting the salt tolerance in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) through exogenously applied silicon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... physiology and biochemistry of wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) ...

  11. Whole genome association mapping of plant height in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Christine D Zanke

    Full Text Available The genetic architecture of plant height was investigated in a set of 358 recent European winter wheat varieties plus 14 spring wheat varieties based on field data in eight environments. Genotyping of diagnostic markers revealed the Rht-D1b mutant allele in 58% of the investigated varieties, while the Rht-B1b mutant was only present in 7% of the varieties. Rht-D1 was significantly associated with plant height by using a mixed linear model and employing a kinship matrix to correct for population stratification. Further genotyping data included 732 microsatellite markers, resulting in 770 loci, of which 635 markers were placed on the ITMI map plus a set of 7769 mapped SNP markers genotyped with the 90 k iSELECT chip. When Bonferroni correction was applied, a total of 153 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs were observed for plant height and the SSR markers (-log10 (P-value ≥ 4.82 and 280 (-log10 (P-value ≥ 5.89 for the SNPs. Linear regression between the most effective markers and the BLUEs for plant height indicated additive effects for the MTAs of different chromosomal regions. Analysis of syntenic regions in the rice genome revealed closely linked rice genes related to gibberellin acid (GA metabolism and perception, i.e. GA20 and GA2 oxidases orthologous to wheat chromosomes 1A, 2A, 3A, 3B, 5B, 5D and 7B, ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase orthologous to wheat chromosome 7A, ent-kaurene synthase on wheat chromosome 2B, as well as GA-receptors like DELLA genes orthologous to wheat chromosomes 4B, 4D and 7A and genes of the GID family orthologous to chromosomes 2B and 5B. The data indicated that besides the widely used GA-insensitive dwarfing genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 there is a wide spectrum of loci available that could be used for modulating plant height in variety development.

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgare

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    Sonja Petrović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity was analyzed based on agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular data. The main objectives of this study were: 1. to estimate genetic diversity of wheat germplasm using agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular markers, 2. to investigate the existence of genetic erosion within tested wheat germplasm, 3. to explore potential utilization of combination of agronomic, morphologic and molecular markers in plant breeding. Forty winter bread wheat varieties were used originating from Croatia, Austria, France, Italy and Russia. Field trial was conducted during two vegetation years (2007/2008, 2008/2009 in three replications according to randomized block design. Ten traits were included in agronomic and morphologic analysis. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW GS was evaluated for 16 varieties, whereas literature data are used for the rest. Starch composition analysis was based on amylose and amylopectin isolation, their quantity and ratio. For the SSR analysis 26 microsatellite primers were used, and for the AFLP analysis four primer combinations. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS Software 9.1.3, NTSYS ver.2.2., Arlequin ver2.0. and Powermarker ver.3.25. Analyzed varieties displayed highly significant differences (p<0,001 for all agronomic traits and for amylose/amylopectin ratio. High variability of HMW GS was found among varieties. Estimation of genetic diversity based on morphologic and molecular data were used to construct dendograms. AMOVA was used to evaluate variability based on molecular data. Genetic diversity was estimated among and within morphologic and molecular data. SSR and AFLP markers showed efficient discrimination power between highly related genotypes. Significant correlation was found out between two molecular methods which showed more accurate estimate of genetic diversity than by agronomic and morphologic data.

  13. Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to investigate the growth and physiological - biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to UV-B, drought, and their combined stresses. Both UV-B and drought treatments retarded seedling growth with UV-B having worse impact on wheat plants ...

  14. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruoka, Y; Garland-Campbell, K A; Carter, A H

    2015-06-01

    Potential novel and known QTL for race-specific all-stage and adult plant resistance to stripe rust were identified by genome-wide association mapping in the US PNW winter wheat accessions. Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the winter wheat breeding programs in the PNW. The goal of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular markers for these resistances through genome-wide association (GWAS) mapping in winter wheat accessions adapted to the PNW. Stripe rust response for adult plants was evaluated in naturally occurring epidemics in a total of nine environments in Washington State, USA. Seedling response was evaluated with three races under artificial inoculation in the greenhouse. The panel was genotyped with the 9K Illumina Wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and additional markers linked to previously reported genes and QTL for stripe rust resistance. The population was grouped into three sub-populations. Markers linked to Yr17 and previously reported QTL for stripe rust resistance were identified on chromosomes 1B, 2A, and 2B. Potentially novel QTL associated with race-specific seedling response were identified on chromosomes 1B and 1D. Potentially novel QTL associated with adult plant response were located on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, and 4B. Stripe rust was reduced when multiple alleles for resistance were present. The resistant allele frequencies were different among sub-populations in the panel. This information provides breeders with germplasm and closely linked markers for stripe rust resistance to facilitate the transfer of multiple loci for durable stripe rust resistance into wheat breeding lines and cultivars.

  15. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

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    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  16. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

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    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  17. A haplotype specific to North European wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsombalova, J.; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Peusa, H.; Jakobson, I.; Jarve, M.; Valárik, Miroslav; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 4 (2017), s. 653-664 ISSN 0925-9864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat * genetic diversity * polyploid wheat * introgression lines * molecular analysis * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * powdery mildew * spelta l. * map * Common wheat * Triticum aestivum L * Spelt * Triticum spelta L * Chromosome 4A * Zero alleles * Haplotype * Linkage disequilibrium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.294, year: 2016

  18. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

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    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  19. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

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    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  20. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

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    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  1. The Impact of Phosphorus Supply on Selenium Uptake During Hydroponics Experiment of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in China.

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    Liu, Hongen; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Jinfeng; Zhao, Peng; Qin, Shiyu; Nie, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace element for humans and animals, and Se fertilization is an efficient way to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops, thus enhance the beneficiary effects of Se in human and animal health. Due to the similarity of physical and chemical properties between phosphate () and selenite (), phosphorus (P) supply often significantly impacts the absorption of Se in plants, but little is known about how P supply influences the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se. In this study, the effects of P supply on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se in winter wheat were investigated in a hydroponic trial with medium Se level (0.1 mg Se L -1 ). P was applied with three concentrations (0.31, 3.1, and 31 mg P L -1 ) in the experiment. The results showed that increasing P supply significantly decreased the concentration and accumulation of Se in the roots, stems, and leaves of winter wheat. An increase in P supply significantly inhibited Se accumulation in the root cell wall, but enhanced Se distribution in the organelles and soluble fraction of root cells. These findings suggest that increased P supply inhibited the root-to-shoot transport of Se. An increase in P supply enhanced Se accumulation in the cell wall of plant stems (both apical and axillary stem) and cell organelles of plants leaves, but inhibited Se distribution in the soluble fraction of stems and leaves. This suggests that P supply enhances Se transportation across the cell membrane in shoots of winter wheat. In addition, increased P supply also altered the chemical forms of Se in tissues of winter wheat. These findings will help in understanding of the regulation grain Se accumulation and provide a practical way to enhance Se intake for humans inform Se-enriched grains.

  2. Economical factors of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. diversity: econometric stimation

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    S.S. Hamraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study tried to calculate attributed-based index and measurement of farmer’s attention to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed environmental, cropping and marketing attribute and evaluate social– economical factors influencing on this index. After this estimation, effective factors have selected. Related data to 102 Mashhad wheat producers, Iran were used for estimations Poisson regression. Results showed that in seed characteristics set; marketability and taste were more important factors. Also, results of this study corroborant previews study and only variables age and family number make difference. Also, education, farming and non–farming income, farming experience, farm area and loan receive have positive effect on these characteristics.

  3. Allelic variation at the vernalization and photoperiod sensitivity loci in Chinese winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Xiangfen eZhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 205 wheat cultivars from the Yellow and Huai valley of China were used to identify allelic variations of vernalization and photoperiod response genes, as well as the copy number variations (CNVs of Ppd-B1 and Vrn-A1 genes. A novel Vrn-D1 allele with 174-bp insertion in the promoter region of the recessive allele vrn-D1 was discovered in three Chinese wheat cultivars and designated as Vrn-D1c. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that cultivars with the Vrn-D1c allele exhibited significantly higher expression of the Vrn-D1 gene than that in cultivars with the recessive allele vrn-D1, indicating that the 174-bp insertion of Vrn-D1c contributed to the increase in Vrn-D1 gene expression and caused early heading and flowering. The five new cis-elements (Box II-like, 3-AF1 binding site, TC-rich repeats, Box-W1 and CAT-box in the 174-bp insertion possibly promoted the basal activity level of Vrn-D1 gene. Two new polymorphism combinations of photoperiod genes were identified and designated as Ppd-D1_Hapl-IX and Ppd-D1_Hapl-X. Association of the CNV of Ppd-B1 gene with the heading and flowering days showed that the cultivars with Ppd-B1_Hapl-VI demonstrated the earliest heading and flowering times, and those with Ppd-B1_Hapl-IV presented the latest heading and flowering times in three cropping seasons. Distribution of the vernalization and photoperiod response genes indicated that all recessive alleles at the four vernalization response loci, Ppd-B1_Hapl-I at Ppd-B1 locus, and Ppd-D1_Hapl-I at the Ppd-D1 locus were predominant in Chinese winter wheat cultivars. This study can provide useful information for wheat breeding programs to screen wheat cultivars with relatively superior adaptability and maturity.

  4. Response of soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to longtime enforced dormancy and time of spring vegetation recommencing

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    В. С. Хахула

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the results of studying the soft winter wheat response to the duration of enforced winter dormancy and the time of vegetation recommencing, their impact on growth, development and the survival of the crops. It is found that the impact of those factors in the conditions of central Forest-Steppe of Ukraine is essential, which is to be taken into consideration when scheduling the measures of spring and summer care over the cultivated crops, in particular, where the spring extra nutrition takes place, pesticides and growth regulators are applied, the spaced planting resowing or partial resowing issues are to be settled down. The ecological effect of spring vegetation recommencing dates does not expose annually, therefore it is not always possible to predict the plant development type, but it is possible, nevertheless, to influence the processes of growth, development and survival of plants throughout spring-summer period and the development of their production capacity by means of introducing the intense technologies, optimization of mineral nutrition and the use of plant growth regulators, protection from rogues, diseases, pests.

  5. Analysis of Yield and Yield Related Traits Variability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Izolda and Double Haploid Lines

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    Kozdój Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The yield-forming potential of winter wheat is determined by several factors, namely total number of shoots per plant and total number of spikelets per spike. The field experiments were conducted during three vegetation seasons at the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute – National Research Institute (PBAI–NRI, located in Radzików, Poland. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis of the structural yield-forming factor levels, which determine grain yield per spike and per plant of the DH lines and standard Izolda cultivar. Results indicate that several DH lines showed some differences in tested morphological structures of plant, yield factor levels and in grain yield per spike and per plant in comparison to standard Izolda, regardless of the year. Mean grain yield per plant of DH lines was 26.5% lower in comparison to standard Izolda only in the second year of study. It was caused by a reduction of productive tillers number. Structural yield-forming potential of DH lines was used in 38% and 59% and in case of Izolda in 47% and 61% (the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The mean grain yield per spike of DH lines was 14.8% lower than Izolda cultivar only in third year of experiment and it was caused by about 12% lower number of grains per spike. Structural yield-forming potential of DH spikes was used in 82.4%, 85.4% and 84.9% and in case of Izolda in 83.8%, 87% and 89.5% (the first, the second and the third year of experiment, respectively. The grain yield per winter wheat plant (both DH lines and standard Izolda was significantly correlated with the number of productive tillers per plant (r = 0.80. The grain yield per winter wheat spike (both DH lines and Izolda cultivar was significantly and highly correlated with the number of grains per spike (r = 0.96, number of fertile spikelets per spike (r = 0.87 and the spike length (r = 0.80. Variation of spike and plant structural yield-forming factors

  6. PCR-Based EST Mapping in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    J. PERRY GUSTAFSON

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs to hexaploid wheat is aimed to reveal the structure and function of the hexaploid wheat genome. Sixty eight ESTs representing 26 genes were mapped into all seven homologous chromosome groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L using a polymerase chain reaction technique. The majority of the ESTs were mapped to homologous chromosome group 2, and the least were mapped to homologous chromosome group 6. Comparative analysis between the EST map from this study and the EST map based on RFLPs showed 14 genes that have been mapped by both approaches were mapped to the same arm of the same homologous chromosome, which indicated that using PCR-based ESTs was a reliable approach in mapping ESTs in hexaploid wheat.

  7. Quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MSS

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number ... design with four liming variants along with three replications, in which the experimental field .... The sampling was done.

  8. The release of cytochrome c and the regulation of the programmed cell death progress in the endosperm of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan-Hong; Mao, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Zhu-Qing; Liu, Dong-Cheng; Min-Yu; Deng, Xiang-Yi; Li, Ji-Wei; Mei, Fang-Zhu

    2018-05-02

    It has been shown in mammalian systems that the mitochondria can play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis by releasing intermembrane proteins (such as cytochrome c) into the cytosol. Cytochrome c released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm activates proteolytic enzyme cascades, leading to specific nuclear DNA degradation and cell death. This pathway is considered to be one of the important regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that endosperm cell development in wheat undergoes specialized programmed cell death (PCD) and that waterlogging stress accelerates the PCD process; however, little is known regarding the associated molecular mechanism. In this study, changes in mitochondrial structure, the release of cytochrome c, and gene expression were studied in the endosperm cells of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar "huamai 8" during PCD under different waterlogging durations. The results showed that waterlogging aggravated the degradation of mitochondrial structure, increased the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), resulting in the advancement of the endosperm PCD process. In situ localization and western blotting of cytochrome c indicated that with the development of the endosperm cell, cytochrome c was gradually released from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm, and waterlogging stress led to an advancement and increase in the release of cytochrome c. In addition, waterlogging stress resulted in the increased expression of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), suggesting that the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) may be involved in endosperm PCD under waterlogging stress. The MPTP inhibitor cyclosporine A effectively suppressed cell death and cytochrome c release during wheat endosperm PCD. Our results indicate that the mitochondria play important roles in the PCD of endosperm cells and that

  9. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  10. Transgenic approach to improve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Cecília; Kisgyörgy, Boglárka N; Rakszegi, Mariann; Wilkinson, Mark D; Yang, Moon-Sik; Láng, László; Tamás, László; Bedo, Zoltán

    2009-07-01

    An amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) albumin gene, encoding the 35-kDa AmA1 protein of the seed, with a high content of essential amino acids, was used in the biolistic transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Cadenza. The transformation cassette carried the ama1 gene under the control of a powerful wheat endosperm-specific promoter (1Bx17 HMW-GS). Southern-blot analysis of T(1) lines confirmed the integration of the foreign gene, while RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses of the samples confirmed the transcription and translation of the transgene. The effects of the extra albumin protein on the properties of flour, produced from bulked T(2) seeds, were calculated using total protein and essential amino acid content analysis, polymeric/monomeric protein and HMW/LMW glutenin subunit ratio measurements. The results indicated that not only can essential amino acid content be increased, but some parameters associated with functional quality may also be improved because of the expression of the AmA1 protein.

  11. Toxic reactivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants to herbicide isoproturon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Le; Jiang, Lei; Song, Ning Hui; Yang, Hong

    2008-06-25

    The herbicide isoproturon is widely used for controlling weed/grass in agricultural practice. However, the side effect of isoproturon as contaminants on crops is unknown. In this study, we investigated isoproturon-induced oxidative stress in wheat ( Triticum aestivum). The plants were grown in soils with isoproturon at 0-20 mg/kg and showed negative biological responses. The growth of wheat seedlings with isoproturon was inhibited. Chlorophyll content significantly decreased at the low concentration of isoproturon (2 mg/kg), suggesting that chlorophyll was rather sensitive to isoproturon exposure. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an indicator of cellular peroxidation, showed an increase, indicating oxidative damage to plants. The isoproturon-induced oxidative stress resulted in a substantial change in activities of the majority of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes showed a general increase at low isoproturon concentrations and a decrease at high isoproturon concentrations. Activities of CAT in leaves showed progressive suppression under the isoproturon exposure. Analysis of nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) confirmed these results. We also tested the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and observed the activity stimulated by isoproturon at 2-10 mg/kg.

  12. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  13. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L. and durum (Triticum durum Desf. wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. П. Чебаков

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L. and hard (Triticum durum Desf. are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  14. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  15. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects

    OpenAIRE

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F

    2015-01-01

    Background Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. Results A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and express...

  16. Effects of tillage system and forecrop type on frequency of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum occurrence on culm base of some winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszard Weber; Włodzimierz Kita

    2012-01-01

    In the years 2001 - 2003, there were analyzed relations between the number of Fusarium culmorum and F. avenaceum, fungi found on culm base parts of stalks of seven winter wheat cultivars, and preceding crop type as well as the cultivation system. The research was carried out in Poland, on light soil plots of a Lower Silesia-based experimental station subordinate to the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG). The loglinear and correspondence analyses proved varying immunity of ...

  17. Genome-wide association mapping of resistance to eyespot disease (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) in European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and fine-mapping of Pch1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine D; Rodemann, Bernd; Ling, Jie; Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Plieske, Jörg; Polley, Andreas; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Zschäckel, Thomas; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2017-03-01

    Genotypes with recombination events in the Triticum ventricosum introgression on chromosome 7D allowed to fine-map resistance gene Pch1, the main source of eyespot resistance in European winter wheat cultivars. Eyespot (also called Strawbreaker) is a common and serious fungal disease of winter wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungi Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis (former name Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides). A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for eyespot was performed with 732 microsatellite markers (SSR) and 7761 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90 K iSELECT wheat array using a panel of 168 European winter wheat varieties as well as three spring wheat varieties and phenotypic evaluation of eyespot in field tests in three environments. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 1.20 (most resistant) to 5.73 (most susceptible) with an average value of 4.24 and a heritability of H 2  = 0.91. A total of 108 SSR and 235 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were identified by considering associations with a -log 10 (P value) ≥3.0. Significant MTAs for eyespot-score BLUEs were found on chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 3D, 5A, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7D for the SSR markers and chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B and 7D for the SNP markers. For 18 varieties (10.5%), a highly resistant phenotype was detected that was linked to the presence of the resistance gene Pch1 on chromosome 7D. The identification of genotypes with recombination events in the introgressed genomic segment from Triticum ventricosum harboring the Pch1 resistance gene on chromosome 7DL allowed the fine-mapping of this gene using additional SNP markers and a potential candidate gene Traes_7DL_973A33763 coding for a CC-NBS-LRR class protein was identified.

  18. Origin of Analytical Breeding of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the Tsar’s Russia, and in Ukraine in particular (End of XIX– Beginning of XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х. М. Піпан

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main factors of origin and development of analytical selection of winter wheat in Ukraine in late XIX - early XX century .. In particular highlight the role of scientific works of Charles Darwin, W. Rimpau, AL Sempolovskуу, IS Korzhinskуу and research institutions to increase attention to the study of local varieties of winter wheat and their improvement. Especially analyze values of Russia's first benefit from the breeding "Guide to Seed for the Advancement of cultivated plants", in which the author proposes methods for improving and creating new varieties. Since the end of XIX century selection were mainly involved in private owners on their own initiative, already in the beginning of XX century this trend more interested in the agricultural society, local and state authorities. Thanks to their support in the country organized congresses, meetings and conferences, set up research and field stations. It was during this period of transition took place in the national selection analysis.

  19. QTL analysis of falling number and seed longevity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Andreas; Nagel, Manuela; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Gierke, Peter Ulrich; Oberforster, Michael; Albrecht, Theresa; Mohler, Volker

    2018-02-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) and seed longevity (SL) are complex biological processes of major importance for agricultural production. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the German winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars History and Rubens was used to identify genetic factors controlling these two physiological seed traits. A falling number (FN) test was employed to evaluate PHS, while SL was measured using a germination test (and the speed of germination) after controlled deterioration. FN of the population was assessed in four environments; SL traits were measured in one environment. Four major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FN were detected on chromosomes 4D, 5A, 5D, and 7B, whereas for SL traits, a major QTL was found on chromosome 1A. The FN QTL on chromosome 4D that coincided with the position of the dwarfing gene Rht-D1b only had effects in environments that were free of PHS. The remaining three QTL for FN were mostly pronounced under conditions conducive to PHS. The QTL on the long arm of chromosome 7B corresponded to the major gene locus controlling late maturity α-amylase (LMA) in wheat. The severity of the LMA phenotype became truly apparent under sprouting conditions. The position on the long arm of chromosome 1A of the QTL for SL points to a new QTL for this important regenerative seed trait.

  20. Systemic and local regulation of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianfeng; Tian, Hui; Drijber, Rhae A; Gao, Yajun

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that the expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes in roots of plants could be regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known whether the regulation is systemic or not. The present study investigated the systemic and local regulation of multiple phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by four AM fungal species belonging to four genera in the roots of winter wheat. A split-root culture system with AM inoculated (MR) and non-inoculated root compartments (NR) was used to investigate the systemic or local responses of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes to colonization by four AM fungi in the roots of wheat. The expression of four Pi transporter, five nitrate transporter, and three ammonium transporter genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Of the four AM fungi tested, all locally increased expression of the AM-inducible Pi transporter genes, and most locally decreased expression of a Pi-starvation inducible Pi transporter gene. The addition of N in soil increased the expression of either Pi starvation inducible Pi transporters or AM inducible Pi transporters. Inoculation with AM fungi either had no effect, or could locally or systemically down-regulate expression of nitrogen transporter genes depending on gene type and AM fungal species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  2. Influence of nutrient signals and carbon allocation on the expression of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yuan, Xiaolei; Duan, Jianfeng; Li, Wenhu; Zhai, Bingnian; Gao, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of plant roots causes the down-regulation of expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes involved in direct nutrient uptake pathways. The mechanism of this effect remains unknown. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the expression of Pi or N transporter genes in roots of winter wheat colonized by AM fungus responded to (1) Pi or N nutrient signals transferred from the AM extra-radical hyphae, or (2) carbon allocation changes in the AM association. A three-compartment culture system, comprising a root compartment (RC), a root and AM hyphae compartment (RHC), and an AM hyphae compartment (HC), was used to test whether the expression of Pi or N transporter genes responded to nutrients (Pi, NH4+ and NO3-) added only to the HC. Different AM inoculation density treatments (roots were inoculated with 0, 20, 50 and 200 g AM inoculum) and light regime treatments (6 hours light and 18 hours light) were established to test the effects of carbon allocation on the expression of Pi or N transporter genes in wheat roots. The expression of two Pi transporter genes (TaPT4 and TaPHT1.2), five nitrate transporter genes (TaNRT1.1, TaNRT1.2, TaNRT2.1, TaNRT2.2, and TaNRT2.3), and an ammonium transporter gene (TaAMT1.2) was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of TaPT4, TaNRT2.2, and TaAMT1.2 was down-regulated by AM colonization only when roots of host plants received Pi or N nutrient signals. However, the expression of TaPHT1.2, TaNRT2.1, and TaNRT2.3 was down-regulated by AM colonization, regardless of whether there was nutrient transfer from AM hyphae. The expression of TaNRT1.2 was also down-regulated by AM colonization even when there was no nutrient transfer from AM hyphae. The present study showed that an increase in carbon consumption by the AM fungi did not necessarily result in greater down-regulation of expression of Pi or N transporter genes.

  3. Assessing Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Net Primary Production, Soil Respiration and Carbon Budget in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ecosystem under Mashhad Climatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y alizade

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The imbalance between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere by ecosystems has led to an increase in the average concentration of this greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere. Enhancing carbon sequestration in soil is an important issue to reduce net flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon content is obtained from the difference between carbon input resulting from plant biomass and carbon losses the soil through different ways including soil respiration. CO2 emission varies largely during the year and is considerably affected by management type. The goal of this investigation was to study the effects of application of manure and chemical fertilizer on CO2 flux and carbon balance in agricultural system. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the carbon dynamics and effect of fertilizer and manure management on soil respiration and carbon budget for winter wheat, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Faculty of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for two years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 . The experimental treatments were 150 and 250 kg chemical nitrogen (N1 and N2, manure (M, manure plus chemical nitrogen (F-M and control (C. CO2 emission was measured six times during growth season and to minimize daily temperature variation error, the measurement was performed between 8 to 11 am. Chambers length and diameter were 50 cm and 30 cm respectively and their edges were held down 3 cm in soil in time of sampling so that no plant live mass was present in the chamber. Carbon budgets were estimated for two years using an ecological technique. Results and Discussion The net primary production (NPP was significantly higher in the F2 and F-M treatments with 6467 and 6294kg ha-1 in the first year and 6260 and 6410 kg ha-1 in the second year, respectively. The highest shoot to root ratio was obtained in

  4. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  5. Proteome Analysis of Cold Response in Spring and Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Crowns Reveals Similarities in Stress Adaptation and Differences in Regulatory Processes between the Growth Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Vítámvás, P.; Planchon, S.; Renaut, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Prášil, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 4830-4845 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 2D-DIGE analysis * cold stress * spring and winter growth habit Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  6. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Deeper plant root systems are desired for improved water and nitrogen uptake in leaching environments. However, phenotyping for deep roots requires methods that enable plants to develop deep roots under realistic conditions. Winter cereals raise further complications as early growth occurs under ...

  7. Interactions between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci and associations of selected molecular markers with quality traits in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DH lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystkowiak, Karolina; Langner, Monika; Adamski, Tadeusz; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Krajewski, Paweł; Surma, Maria

    2017-02-01

    The quality of wheat depends on a large complex of genes and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci controlling technological quality traits and their stability across environments, and to assess the impact of interaction between alleles at loci Glu-1 and Glu-3 on grain quality. DH lines were evaluated in field experiments over a period of 4 years, and genotyped using simple sequence repeat markers. Lines were analysed for grain yield (GY), thousand grain weight (TGW), protein content (PC), starch content (SC), wet gluten content (WG), Zeleny sedimentation value (ZS), alveograph parameter W (APW), hectolitre weight (HW), and grain hardness (GH). A number of QTLs for these traits were identified in all chromosome groups. The Glu-D1 locus influenced TGW, PC, SC, WG, ZS, APW, GH, while locus Glu-B1 affected only PC, ZS, and WG. Most important marker-trait associations were found on chromosomes 1D and 5D. Significant effects of interaction between Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on technological properties were recorded, and in all types of this interaction positive effects of Glu-D1 locus on grain quality were observed, whereas effects of Glu-B1 locus depended on alleles at Glu-3 loci. Effects of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci per se were not significant, while their interaction with alleles present at other loci encoding HMW and LMW were important. These results indicate that selection of wheat genotypes with predicted good bread-making properties should be based on the allelic composition both in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, and confirm the predominant effect of Glu-D1d allele on technological properties of wheat grains.

  8. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  9. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also ...

  10. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Tsunashima, Masako; Hiei, Yukoh; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Wheat may now be transformed very efficiently by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Under the protocol hereby described, immature embryos of healthy plants of wheat cultivar Fielder grown in a well-conditioned greenhouse were pretreated with centrifuging and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. Transgenic wheat plants were obtained routinely from between 40 and 90 % of the immature embryos, thus infected in our tests. All regenerants were normal in morphology and fully fertile. About half of the transformed plants carried single copy of the transgene, which are inherited by the progeny in a Mendelian fashion.

  11. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... in response to vernalization (Flood and Halloran 1984;. Goncharov ... ering signal (florigen) that moves from leaves to apices and induces .... Weeding was done man- ually. ...... gene action for vernalization response in wheat.

  12. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... INTRODUCTION ... to control weeds in conjunction with cultural practices. Jarwar et al. (1999) .... Wheat grain yield is an interplay of yield components especially ... The biological yield expresses the overall growth of crop.

  13. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disadvantage of urea fertilizer is that considerable ... environmental cost associated with N losses via NH3 volatilization, NO3. - leaching .... Where Yf is the total biological yield (grain plus straw) of the fertilized plot (kg);. Yu is the total ... price, which is 9 Birr kg-1 of wheat grain yield for Hawzien and 11 ETB for Emba.

  14. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both biological and partial budget analysis reveals that the use of N at rate of 64 kg N ha-1 as UREAStabil and 64 kg N ha-1 as conventional urea could give optimum bread wheat yield in Hawzien and in Emba Alaje, respectively, and in areas where the rainfall distribution and soil type is similar with study districts where ...

  15. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop selection based on land capabilities has been used in several studies to assess the suitability of land for specific crops in order to determine the optimal cropping system. Maize, rice, wheat, barley, cotton, soybean and canola are the major crops found in the agricultural production systems of Golestan province, Iran. Soybean (Glycine max L.; Fabaceae is grown world-wide as an important staple and commercial crop. Kamkar et al., (2014 on assessment review of land suitability for cultivation of rapeseed and soybean in four basins over Golestan province, using GIS reported that only 11.82% of the total lands very suitable to rotate soybean after canola, used raster layers for them study were included climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC. The Geographical Information System (GIS offers a flexible and powerful tool as it can combine large volumes of different kinds of data into new datasets and display these new datasets in the form of informative and accessible thematic maps. The aim of this study was to perform land suitability assessments for wheat cultivation Golestan province, and to investigate the possibility of wheat cultivation. In this way, we used GIS and a comprehensive data set on wheat crop ecological requirements, agro climatological, topographic and soil data. Material and Methods Geographical Location of the Region The province of Golestan with an area of 21,500 square kilometers, is in the southeast of the Caspian Sea. This area extends from 36_440 N to 38_50 N and from 51_530 E to 56_140 E. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate. arid and semiarid areas has occupied more than 35% of Golestan province. The study area of the research, include agricultural lands and rangelands of Golestan province is present. Using 1: 50,000 maps of the national cartographic center of Iran, we created a 20 m

  16. Genetic control of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat genotypes were crossed under a partial diallel scheme, in which group 1 counted five lines and group 2 four lines. The 20 F1 ’s and their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results showed that the components associated with additive effects were more relevant than those associated with the dominance effects for these traits. Based on the KD /KR ratio, the dominant alleles are present in greater frequency in the first group of parents, while the opposite is true for the second group. Values of the gene proportion with positive and negative effects in the parents revealed an unequal distribution of dominant genes in the parents for almost all the traits except for number of grain per spike in the second group which showed an equal distribution.

  17. Development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expressing avidin gene conferring resistance to stored product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouseadaa, Heba H; Osman, Gamal H; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Hassanein, Sameh E; Abdelsattar, Mohamed T; Morsy, Yasser B; Alameldin, Hussien F; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Nour-Eldin, Hanan A; Salem, Reda; Gad, Adel A; Elkhodary, Soheir E; Shehata, Maher M; Mahfouz, Hala M; Eissa, Hala F; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2015-07-22

    Wheat is considered the most important cereal crop all over the world. The wheat weevil Sitophilus granarius is a serious insect pests in much of the wheat growing area worldwide and is responsible for significant loss of yield. Avidin proteins has been proposed to function as plant defense agents against insect pests. A synthetic avidin gene was introduced into spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Giza 168 using a biolistic bombardment protocol. The presence and expression of the transgene in six selected T0 transgenic wheat lines were confirmed at the molecular level. Accumulation of avidin protein was detected in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants. Avidin transgene was stably integrated, transcribed and translated as indicated by Southern blot, ELISA, and dot blot analyses, with a high level of expression in transgenic wheat seeds. However, no expression was detected in untransformed wheat seeds. Functional integrity of avidin was confirmed by insect bioassay. The results of bioassay using transgenic wheat plants challenged with wheat weevil revealed 100 % mortality of the insects reared on transgenic plants after 21 days. Transgenic wheat plants had improved resistance to Sitophilus granarius.

  18. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue

  19. Gamma rays induced variability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S. El-S.S.; Ragab, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was established in the experimental farm belonging to plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inchas to study the effect of gamma ray (0.200 and 300 Gy) on means of yield and yield attributes for irradiated populations of Giza 164 and Sakha 92, varieties in comparison with untreated control, Moreover, genetic variation was studied by estimate phenotypic, genotypic, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance under selection of bread wheat varieties (Giza 164 and Sakha 92). 1- In -M 1 - generation: (1995-1996) on plant with morphological change (dwarfness) was identified in 300Gy dose of Giza 164 variety. Moreover, this varient was confirmed and segregated in M 2 generation into three types of segregants (dwarf-semidwarf and tall stem). 2- Results showed that mean values of yield and yield attributes of irradiated populations in M 2 of Giza 164 and Sakha 92 varieties were insignificantly increased. High magnitudes of G.C-V.%, Hb% and Gs% for number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were obtained, however moderate magnitude was found for the weight of grains spike. The high values of heritability and genetic gains from selection for these triaits in the next generations. The correlation between grain yield and each of number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were positive and highly significant however, it was positive and significant for weight grain/spike. Some variants with morphological changes i.e. dwarf, semidward, tall stem, earlly maturity and brown spike were selected in M 2 generations. These variants surpassed their mother varieties for one or more of yield attributes suggesting the importance of further evaluation and confirmation of this variants in the next generations

  20. Cysteine proteases and wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under drought: A still greatly unexplored association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides about 19% of global dietary energy. Environmental stress, such as drought, affects wheat growth causing premature plant senescence and ultimately plant death. A plant response to drought is an increase in protease-mediated proteolysis with rapid degradation of proteins required for metabolic processes. Among the plant proteases that are increased in their activity following stress, cysteine proteases are the best characterized. Very little is known about particular wheat cysteine protease sequences, their expression and also localization. The current knowledge on wheat cysteine proteases belonging to the five clans (CA, CD, CE, CF and CP) is outlined, in particular their expression and possible function under drought. The first successes in establishing an annotated wheat genome database are further highlighted which has allowed more detailed mining of cysteine proteases. We also share our thoughts on future research directions considering the growing availability of genomic resources of this very important food crop. Finally, we also outline future application of developed knowledge in transgenic wheat plants for environmental stress protection and also as senescence markers to monitor wheat growth under environmental stress conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Massive expansion and differential evolution of small heat shock proteins with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ruochen; Ma, Chuang; Shi, Xue; Liu, Zhenshan; Wang, Zhonghua; Sun, Qixin; Cao, Jun; Xu, Shengbao

    2017-05-31

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the world's most important crops, is facing unprecedented challenges due to global warming. To evaluate the gene resources for heat adaptation in hexaploid wheat, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), the key plant heat protection genes, were comprehensively analysed in wheat and related species. We found that the sHSPs of hexaploid wheat were massively expanded in A and B subgenomes with intrachromosomal duplications during polyploidization. These expanded sHSPs were under similar purifying selection and kept the expressional patterns with the original copies. Generally, a strong purifying selection acted on the α-crystallin domain (ACD) and theoretically constrain conserved function. Meanwhile, weaker purifying selection and strong positive selection acted on the N-terminal region, which conferred sHSP flexibility, allowing adjustments to a wider range of substrates in response to genomic and environmental changes. Notably, in CI, CV, ER, MI and MII subfamilies, gene duplications, expression variations and functional divergence occurred before wheat polyploidization. Our results indicate the massive expansion of active sHSPs in hexaploid wheat may also provide more raw materials for evolving functional novelties and generating genetic diversity to face future global climate changes, and highlight the expansion of stress response genes with wheat polyploidization.

  2. Effects of nitrogen and irrigation on gluten protein composition and their relationship to yellow berry disorder in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, B.R.; Felix, F.R.; Chavez, T

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico and the rest of the world, the presence of yellow berry (YB) in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum) has been related with poor quality, this defect is associated with low protein content in the grains. However, the quality of the wheat depends not only on the protein content, but also on the composition of the gluten proteins. The effect of the various agronomic factors on the composition of wheat gluten has been a subject of study worldwide. However, in Mexico, wheat quality still remains an issue, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal agronomic conditions to produce wheat with good-quality gluten. For this reason, the effects of nitrogen (N) rates and irrigations on the amount of gliadin subclasses, glutenin subunits (two main groups) and grain protein content as well as the relation of these proteins to the YB content in wheat grains were investigated. The experiment was conducted on arable farmland in the Valley of Empalme, Sonora, Mexico (27 degree 58' N, 110 degree 49' W; 10 m altitude), during the fall-winter period of 2009-2010. Tarachi, the hard wheat cultivar studied, was selected for its relative susceptibility to the presence of elevated YB content in mature wheat kernels. Three levels of N (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (1, 2 or 3 auxiliary irrigations) were studied. Using a N rate of 150 kg ha-1 with 3 auxiliary irrigations, wheat with good-quality gluten was obtained. The results suggest that the YB disorder is primarily related to the amount of protein in the wheat grain. (author)

  3. The influence of cultivar, year and nitrogen supply on quality parameters of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum. L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Veselinka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments with 3 winter wheat (Triticum, aestivum. L; Lasta, Sremica and Pobeda was applied nitrogen (rate N as follows: 0, 60, 120 and 180 kg Nha-1 from 2000 to 2002. The varieties differed in their biological and production characteristics as well as in technological quality. The analyzed samples belonged to the international ISDV (Internationale Stickstoff Dauer Versuche stationary field trial established at the Rimski Šančevi Experiment Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Improvement of end use quality in winter wheat depends on thorough understanding of the influences of environment, variety, and their interaction. Grain protein content (GPC, sedimentation value (SED, energy dough, Hagberg falling number (HFN and bread crumb quality number were measured. Highly significant differences were detected among the environments (A, rate N (B and varieties (C for each of the quality variables. Both variety (V and environment (E had a significant effect on quality traits. Significant Vx E interactions indicated that quality trait evaluations must be undertaken for environments. The most influence on protein content and sedimentation value have been climatitic condition. According to lot of environment influence on falling number and dow energy the main part of variance it is genotype and phenotype variability. .

  4. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  5. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  6. Uptake, Translocation, and Biotransformation of Organophosphorus Esters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weining; Huang, Honglin; Lv, Jitao; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2017-12-05

    The uptake, translocation and biotransformation of organophosphate esters (OPEs) by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by a hydroponic experiment. The results demonstrated that OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more easily taken up by roots, and OPEs with lower hydrophobicity were more liable to be translocated acropetally. A total of 43 metabolites including dealkylated, oxidatively dechlorinated, hydroxylated, methoxylated, and glutathione-, and glucuronide- conjugated products were detected derived from eight OPEs, with diesters formed by direct dealkylation from the parent triesters as the major products, followed with hydroxylated triesters. Molecular interactions of OPEs with plant biomacromolecules were further characterized by homology modeling combined with molecular docking. OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more liable to bind with TaLTP1.1, the most important wheat nonspecific lipid transfer protein, consistent with the experimental observation that OPEs with higher hydrophobicity were more easily taken up by wheat roots. Characterization of molecular interactions between OPEs and wheat enzymes suggested that OPEs were selectively bound to TaGST4-4 and CYP71C6v1 with different binding affinities, which determined their abilities to be metabolized and form metabolite products in wheat. This study provides both experimental and theoretical evidence for the uptake, accumulation and biotransformation of OPEs in plants.

  7. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.-E; Zhou, Q.-X.

    2006-01-01

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  8. Biostimulation effects on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L) caused by low level red laser radiation with λ = 660 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Michtchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    The principal objective is to study the biostimulation effects caused by a semiconductor low level laser radiation with ? = 660 nm on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L). Seeds were treated before sowing with this laser light source. An increase in the growth of the stem of 12% with respect to control seeds was registered for seeds radiated by an intensity of 15mW/cm 2 and an irradiation time of 60 seconds. (Author)

  9. Anatomical Peculiarities in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties Under Copper Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabayeva, S.; Nurmahanova, A.; Akhmetova, A.; Narmuratova, M.; Asrandina, S.; Alybayeva, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0.25 mM, 0.5 mM) of Cu/sup 2+/ on anatomical parameters of leaves and roots was investigated in hydroponically grown five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (Kazakhstanskaya rannaya, Kazakhstanskaya-3, Melturn, Kaiyr and Shagala). The results showed that wheat varieties exposed to 0.5 mM Cu/sup 2+/ exhibited significant alterations in anatomical structure of leaves and roots. The thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, diameter of vascular bundles of leaves of almost all varieties showed a tendency to decrease under copper stress. Our experiments showed an activation of defense responses in the root anatomical structure like exodermis thickening in some varieties in the presence of copper in growth medium as compared to the control. This indicates that copper ions increase the thickness of exodermis, which reduce the absorption of toxic elements by root cells. Copper stress caused a decrease in the thickness of the lower and upper epidermis to varying degrees and reduction in the diameter of vascular bundles of wheat leaves. Copper stress caused a reduction in endodermis thickness thereby decreasing the diameter of the central cylinder of wheat roots. (author)

  10. QTL mapping of flag leaf-related traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiye; Xu, Hao; Liu, Gang; Guan, Panfeng; Zhou, Xueyao; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Du, Jinkun

    2018-04-01

    QTL controlling flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area and flag leaf angle were mapped in wheat. This study aimed to advance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying morphological traits of the flag leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from ND3331 and the Tibetan semi-wild wheat Zang1817 was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling flag leaf length (FLL), flag leaf width (FLW), flag leaf area (FLA), and flag leaf angle (FLANG). Using an available simple sequence repeat genetic linkage map, 23 putative QTLs for FLL, FLW, FLA, and FLANG were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2B, 3A, 3D, 4B, 5A, 6B, 7B, and 7D. Individual QTL explained 4.3-68.52% of the phenotypic variance in different environments. Four QTLs for FLL, two for FLW, four for FLA, and five for FLANG were detected in at least two environments. Positive alleles of 17 QTLs for flag leaf-related traits originated from ND3331 and 6 originated from Zang1817. QTLs with pleiotropic effects or multiple linked QTL were also identified on chromosomes 1B, 4B, and 5A; these are potential target regions for fine-mapping and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding programs.

  11. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Asim, A.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  12. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  13. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Julian R.; Bencivenga, Stefano; Cockram, James; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M.

    2018-01-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as “paired spikelets.” We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. PMID:29444813

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  15. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura E; Greenwood, Julian R; Bencivenga, Stefano; Zhang, Peng; Cockram, James; Mellers, Gregory; Ramm, Kerrie; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M; Boden, Scott A

    2018-03-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as "paired spikelets." We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of European hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Hellum Nielsen

    Full Text Available Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA. These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8 locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents.

  17. Screening commercial wheat (triticum aestivum l.) varieties for agrobacterium mediated transformation ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, N.; Maqbool, A.; Mlaik, K.

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is staple food crop of many countries including Pakistan. It has a large number of cultivars and genotypes. All genotypes have different tissue culture response that includes callus induction, regeneration and transformation efficiency. For transgenic plant production it is crucial to know tissue culture efficiency of a selected variety. Therefore, in the present study mature embryos of thirteen elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were evaluated for tissue culture response and their amenability to transformation. Each variety responded differently for callogenesis, transient GUS (glucuronidase) expression and regeneration. The results for callus induction and transient GUS expression ranged from 30-100% and 13-100%, respectively whereas regeneration response was quite different in tested varieties that ranged from 0-44%. Good quality callus was observed in all varieties except Dhurabi-11, Lasani-08, Millat and Pak-81. Maximum transient GUS expression (100%) was found in Faisalabad-2008. Highest regeneration (44%) was noticed in Pak-81. Results indicated that three varieties VIII-83, Faisalabad-2008 and Aas-11 are suitable for transformation in comparison to others. (author)

  18. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes, a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M(2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar 'Jinmai 47'. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M(2 and M(3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic

  20. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

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    Xiao-Qiang Zhao

    Full Text Available Heavy nitrogen (N application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed, respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  1. Over-expression of a tobacco nitrate reductase gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increases seed protein content and weight without augmenting nitrogen supplying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, "Nongda146" and "Jimai6358", by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying.

  2. Identification and comprehensive analyses of the CBL and CIPK gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Meng; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiatian; Wei, Shuya; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2015-11-04

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins belong to a unique group of calcium sensors in plant that decode the Ca(2+) signature by interacting with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although CBL-CIPK complexes have been shown to play important roles in the responses to various stresses in plants, little is known about their functions in wheat. A total of seven TaCBL and 20 TaCIPK genes were amplified from bread wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico expression analyses showed that TaCBL and TaCIPK genes were expressed at different levels in different tissues, or maintained at nearly constant expression levels during the whole life cycle of the wheat plant. Some TaCBL and TaCIPK genes showed up- or down-regulated expressions during seed germination. Preferential interactions between TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. Analyses of a deletion series of TaCIPK proteins with amino acid variations at the C-terminus provided new insights into the specificity of the interactions between TaCIPKs and TaCBLs, and indicated that the TaCBL-TaCIPK signaling pathway is very complex in wheat because of its hexaploid genome. The expressions of many TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were responsive to abiotic stresses (salt, cold, and simulated drought) and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCIPK24 exhibited improved salt tolerance through increased Na(+) efflux and an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. These results contribute to our understanding of the functions of CBL-CIPK complexes and provide the basis for selecting appropriate genes for in-depth functional studies of CBL-CIPK in wheat.

  3. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  4. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

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    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  5. Evolutionary agroecology: individual fitness and population yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Jacob; Du, Yan-Lei; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Xiao-Liang; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-09-01

    Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance. We tested this hypothesis by growing 35 cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in mixtures and monocultures, and analyzing the relationship between population yield in monoculture and individual yield in mixture. The relationship was unimodal, as predicted. The highest-yielding populations were from cultivars that had intermediate fitness, and these produced, on average, 35% higher yields than cultivars with the highest fitness. It is unlikely that plant breeding or genetic engineering can improve traits that natural selection has been optimizing for millions of years, but there is unutilized potential in traits that increase crop yield by decreasing individual fitness. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  7. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H 2 O 2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  9. Rheological characteristics of flours milled from different wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Ladislav Haris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological quality was studied of wheat flours from three varieties of Triticum aestivum L. (Arida, Meritto, Verita delivered to the mill for three years (2007–2009. Physico-chemical parameters observed during the purchase of grain (STN 461100-2 were not significantly different. Also milled flours from tested varieties have by processors required ash content, gluten, acceptable Zeleny index, α-amylase activity (falling number, but as the rheological properties of dough from these flours show, these parameters are unsuited enough (unsuitability of material for efficient processing of flour. Rheological evaluation showed that each variety is suitable for different processing direction. Therefore, if we deliberately separate lots of purchased grain, not only by basic physico-che­mi­cal properties listed in the current standards (CSN and STN, but also by their rheological properties, which are important and reliable indicator of the direction of the end-use processing of wheat flours, the flours will be more likely to succeed in specific cereal technology. For the production of bread was satisfactory rheological properties of dough from variety Arida. Verita variety is suitable for processing into wafers, and a variety Meritto for producing biscuits and crackers. Verita and Me­rit­to varieties so do not achieved the expected values of the rheological optimum for „classic“ bread processing (bakery products despite satisfactory gluten content and falling number to use this processing direction. Reported results show us the possibilities of more efficient selection of varieties or lots purchased grain of wheat for use in baking and buscuit industry by using rheological evaluation methods. Results were evaluated by analysis of data exploration (Boxplot, scattering graphs, classical nonparametric testing of hypotheses and the distribution of the data (Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman, rates central tendency and dispersion.

  10. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

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    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  11. Multisurface modeling of Ni bioavailability to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in various soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Yang; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Taylor, J Anita; Evans, Les J

    2018-07-01

    Continual efforts have been made to determine a simple and universal method of estimating heavy metal phytoavailability in terrestrial systems. In the present study, a mechanism-based multi-surface model (MSM) was developed to predict the partition of Ni(II) in soil-solution phases and its bioaccumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 19 Chinese soils with a wide range of soil properties. MSM successfully predicted the Ni(II) dissolution in 0.01 M CaCl 2 extracting solution (R 2  = 0.875). The two-site model for clay fraction improved the prediction, particularly for alkaline soils, because of the additional consideration of edge sites. More crucially, the calculated dissolved Ni(II) was highly correlated with the metal accumulation in wheat (R 2  = 0.820 for roots and 0.817 for shoots). The correlation coefficients for the MSM and various chemical extraction methods have the following order: soil pore water > MSM ≈ diffuse gradient technique (DGT) > soil total Ni > 0.43 M HNO 3  > 0.01 M CaCl 2 . The results suggested that the dissolved Ni(II) calculated using MSM can serve as an effective indicator of the bioavailability of Ni(II) in various soils; hence, MSM can be used as an supplement for metal risk prediction and assessment besides chemical extraction techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular and FISH analyses of a 53-kbp intact DNA fragment inserted by biolistics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partier, A; Gay, G; Tassy, C; Beckert, M; Feuillet, C; Barret, P

    2017-10-01

    A large, 53-kbp, intact DNA fragment was inserted into the wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genome. FISH analyses of individual transgenic events revealed multiple insertions of intact fragments. Transferring large intact DNA fragments containing clusters of resistance genes or complete metabolic pathways into the wheat genome remains a challenge. In a previous work, we showed that the use of dephosphorylated cassettes for wheat transformation enabled the production of simple integration patterns. Here, we used the same technology to produce a cassette containing a 44-kb Arabidopsis thaliana BAC, flanked by one selection gene and one reporter gene. This 53-kb linear cassette was integrated in the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome by biolistic transformation. Our results showed that transgenic plants harboring the entire cassette were generated. The inheritability of the cassette was demonstrated in the T1 and T2 generation. Surprisingly, FISH analysis performed on T1 progeny of independent events identified double genomic insertions of intact fragments in non-homoeologous positions. Inheritability of these double insertions was demonstrated by FISH analysis of the T1 generation. Relative conclusions that can be drawn from molecular or FISH analysis are discussed along with future prospects of the engineering of large fragments for wheat transformation or genome editing.

  13. Characterization of recombinant dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the bread wheat Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi; Hogan, Campbell J; Perugini, Matthew A; Soares da Costa, Tatiana P

    2018-05-09

    Recombinant wheat DHDPS was produced for the first time in milligram quantities and shown to be an enzymatically active tetramer in solution using analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering. Wheat is an important cereal crop with an extensive role in global food supply. Given our rapidly growing population, strategies to increase the nutritional value and production of bread wheat are of major significance in agricultural science to satisfy our dietary requirements. Lysine is one of the most limiting essential amino acids in wheat, thus, a thorough understanding of lysine biosynthesis is of upmost importance to improve its nutritional value. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.3.3.7) catalyzes the first committed step in the lysine biosynthesis pathway of plants. Here, we report for the first time the expression and purification of recombinant DHDPS from the bread wheat Triticum aestivum (Ta-DHDPS). The optimized protocol yielded 36 mg of > 98% pure recombinant Ta-DHDPS per liter of culture. Enzyme kinetic studies demonstrate that the recombinant Ta-DHDPS has a K M (pyruvate) of 0.45 mM, K M (l-aspartate-4-semialdehyde) of 0.07 mM, k cat of 56 s -1 , and is inhibited by lysine (IC 50 LYS of 0.033 mM), which agree well with previous studies using labor-intensive purification from wheat suspension cultures. We subsequently employed circular dichroism spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation and small angle X-ray scattering to show that the recombinant enzyme is folded with 60% α/β structure and exists as a 7.5 S tetrameric species with a R g of 33 Å and D max of 118 Å. This study is the first to report the biophysical properties of the recombinant Ta-DHDPS in aqueous solution and offers an excellent platform for future studies aimed at improving nutritional value and primary production of bread wheat.

  14. A genome-wide identification of chromosomal regions determining nitrogen use efficiency components in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Fabien; Le Gouis, Jacques; Dubreuil, Pierre; Lafarge, Stéphane; Praud, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    This study identified 333 genomic regions associated to 28 traits related to nitrogen use efficiency in European winter wheat using genome-wide association in a 214-varieties panel experimented in eight environments. Improving nitrogen use efficiency is a key factor to sustainably ensure global production increase. However, while high-throughput screening methods remain at a developmental stage, genetic progress may be mainly driven by marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to identify chromosomal regions associated with nitrogen use efficiency-related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using a genome-wide association approach. Two hundred and fourteen European elite varieties were characterised for 28 traits related to nitrogen use efficiency in eight environments in which two different nitrogen fertilisation levels were tested. The genome-wide association study was carried out using 23,603 SNP with a mixed model for taking into account parentage relationships among varieties. We identified 1,010 significantly associated SNP which defined 333 chromosomal regions associated with at least one trait and found colocalisations for 39 % of these chromosomal regions. A method based on linkage disequilibrium to define the associated region was suggested and discussed with reference to false positive rate. Through a network approach, colocalisations were analysed and highlighted the impact of genomic regions controlling nitrogen status at flowering, precocity, and nitrogen utilisation on global agronomic performance. We were able to explain 40 ± 10 % of the total genetic variation. Numerous colocalisations with previously published genomic regions were observed with such candidate genes as Ppd-D1, Rht-D1, NADH-Gogat, and GSe. We highlighted selection pressure on yield and nitrogen utilisation discussing allele frequencies in associated regions.

  15. Impact of humic acid and chemical fertilizer application on growth and grain yield of rainfed wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha/sup -1/ or 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha/sup -1/) and half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha/sup -1/ or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis. (author)

  16. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  17. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  18. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  19. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  20. Chromosome sorting and its applications in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, S.W.; Xiao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Cai, Y.F.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, B.H.; Yang, L.; Song, M.F.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, Y.; Meng, F.H.; Wang, S.H.; Liu, H.W.; Zhai, H.Q.; Yang, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 15 (2010), s. 1463-1468 ISSN 1001-6538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * flow cytogenetics * chromosome sorting Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2010

  1. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Use and Productivity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction At global level nitrogen (N fertilizers had drastic effects on crop yields increment during the last century. However, high application rates of this input have resulted to environmental pollution all around the world in addition decreased yields per unit of applied N is also reported in some countries. To fulfill increasing demands for agricultural crops with conservative application of N fertilizers, increasing N use efficiencies is recognized as a sustainable management. This calls for systematic studies on N use efficiency and its components at crop, field and regional levels. However, N efficiencies of agricultural crops at national level are not fully analyzed in Iran. In this research, forty years (1960-2010 data on yield and N application rate were analyzed for yield trend, N efficiencies and its related components for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production systems of Iran. Materials and Methods Required data of wheat yield and nitrogen fertilizer application rates during the 40 years study period was obtained from official web sites of national agricultural statistics as well as Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. Using these data partial nitrogen productivity (kg yield kg N-1; nitrogen use efficiency (kg yield kg-1 N, ignoring soil N, nitrogen uptake efficiency (%; nitrogen utilization efficiency (kg yield kg-1 absorbed N; and relative contribution of Nitrogen to grain yield (% was estimated based on previously reported methods. Yield and N fertilizer application rate were subjected to time series analysis and fertilizer rates were predicted for the next decade over the studied period. Results and Discussion The results indicated that during the studied period mean annual growth rate of wheat yield and nitrogen application were 2.9 and 6.9%, respectively leading to 3.4 fold increase in yield and 9.5 fold increase in N fertilizers so that fertilize application rate was changed from 25 to 240 kg ha-1. However, N fertilizer

  2. Role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviating salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, X.; Song, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-01-01

    fungi enhanced NUE by altering plant C assimilation and N uptake. AM plants had higher soluble sugar concentration and [K+]: [Na+] ratio compared with non-AM plants. It is concluded that AM symbiosis improves wheat plant growth at vegetative stages through increasing stomatal conductance, enhancing NUE...... role of AM fungus in alleviating salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Wheat plants inoculated or not inoculated with AM fungus were grown in two glasshouses with different CO2 concentrations (400 and 700 μmol l−1) and salinity......, accumulating soluble sugar, and improving ion homeostasis in wheat plants grown at elevated CO2 and salinity stress....

  3. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  4. Gluten of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subspecies spelta) as a source of peptides promoting viability and product yield of mouse hybridoma cell cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franěk, František

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 13 (2004), s. 4097-4100 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp spelta) * gluten * peptides Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2004

  5. Adaptation to rhizosphere acidification is a necessary prerequisite for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling resistance to ammonium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Tian, Zhongwei; Liu, Yang; Abid, Muhammad; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-11-01

    Because soil acidification accompanies ammonium (NH 4 + ) stress, the tolerance of higher plants to ammonium is associated with their adaptation to root medium acidification. However, the underlying mechanisms of this adaptation have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was thus to elucidate the effect of rhizosphere pH on NH 4 + tolerance in different winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were carried out on two wheat cultivars: AK58 (an NH 4 + -sensitive cultivar) and XM25 (an NH 4 + -tolerant cultivar). Four pH levels resembling acidified (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0) were tested and 5 mM NH 4 + nitrogen (AN) was used as a stress treatment, with 5 mM nitrate nitrogen used as a control. The addition of AN led to a severe reduction in biomass and an increase in free NH 4 + , amino acids, and the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in the shoots and roots of the two wheat cultivars. Further decreases in growth medium pH led to further increases in free NH 4 + , but decreases in total amino acids and the activities of GS and NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GDH). However, there was less of an increase in free NH 4 + and less of a reduction in the activities of GS and NADH-GDH in the cultivar XM25 compared with AK58. In addition, total soluble sugar content and the root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratio were also decreased by AN treatment, except in the shoots of XM25. Decreasing pH resulted in lower root-to-shoot soluble sugar ratios with greater reductions in the AK58 cultivar. These results indicate that wheat growth was inhibited significantly by the addition of NH 4 + combined with low pH. Low medium pH reduced the capacity for nitrogen assimilation and interrupted carbohydrate transport between the shoot and root. The NH 4 + -tolerant cultivar XM25 was better adapted to low rhizosphere pH due to its increased capacity for assimilating NH 4 + efficiently and thereby avoiding

  6. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Rajper, T.A.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F 1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  7. Gene expression, cellular localisation and function of glutamine synthetase isozymes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Stéphanie M.; Møller, Anders Laurell Blom; Dionisio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    ). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wheat GS sub-families together with the GS genes from other monocotyledonous species form four distinct clades. Immunolocalisation studies in leaves, stems and rachis in plants at flowering showed GS protein to be present in parenchyma, phloem companion and perifascicular......We present the first cloning and study of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Based on sequence analysis, phylogenetic studies and mapping data, ten GS sequences were classified into four sub-families: GS2 (a, b and c), GS1 (a, b and c), GSr (1 and 2) and GSe (1 and 2...... sheath cells. In situ localisation confirmed that GS1 transcripts were present in the perifascicular sheath cells whilst those for GSr were confined to the vascular cells. Studies of the expression and protein profiles showed that all GS sub-families were differentially expressed in the leaves, peduncle...

  8. Growth Responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivumL. var. HD 2329 Exposed to Ambient Air Pollution under Varying Fertility Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Singh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329 by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc. showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture.

  9. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

  10. Assessment of AquaCrop model in the simulation of durum wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth and yield under different water regimes in Tadla- Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassou BOUAZZAM

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models that clarify the effects of water on crop yield are useful tools for improving farm level water management and optimizing water use efficiency. In this study, AquaCrop was evaluated for Karim genotype which is the main durum winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. practiced in Tadla. AquaCrop is based on the water-driven growth module, in that transpiration is converted into biomass through a water productivity parameter. The model was calibrated on data from a full irrigation treatment in 2014/15 and validated on other stressed and unstressed treatments including rain-fed conditions in 2014/15 and 2015/16. Results showed that the model provided excellent simulations of canopy cover, biomass and grain yield. Overall, the relationship between observed and modeled wheat grain yield for all treatments combined produced an R2 of 0.79, a mean squared error of 1.01 t ha-1 and an efficiency coefficient of 0.68. The model satisfactory predicted the trend of soil water reserve. Consequently, AquaCrop can be a valuable tool for simulating wheat grain yield in Tadla plain, particularly considering the fact that the model requires a relatively small number of input data. However, the performance of the model has to be fine-tuned under a wider range of conditions.

  11. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  12. Effect of Glu-B3 Allelic Variation on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Sedimentation Volume in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqi Si

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation volume has long been used to characterize wheat flours and meals with the aim of predicting processing and end-product qualities. In order to survey the influence of low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs at Glu-B3 locus on wheat SDS sedimentation volume, a total of 283 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties including landraces and improved and introduced cultivars were analyzed using 10 allele-specific PCR markers at the Glu-B3 locus. The highest allele frequency observed in the tested varieties was Glu-B3i with 21.9% in all varieties, 21.1% in landraces, 25.5% in improved cultivars, and 12% in introduced cultivars. Glu-B3 locus represented 8.6% of the variance in wheat SDS sedimentation volume, and Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g, and Glu-B3h significantly heightened the SDS sedimentation volume, but Glu-B3a, Glu-B3c, and Glu-B3j significantly lowered the SDS sedimentation volume. For the bread-making quality, the most desirable alleles Glu-B3b and Glu-B3g become more and more popular and the least desirable alleles Glu-B3a and Glu-B3c got less and less in modern improved cultivars, suggesting that wheat grain quality in China has been significantly improved through breeding effort.

  13. Variability in Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties differing in nitrogen efficiency as assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Ruby; Gupta, Sarika; Ahmad, Altaf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Prasad, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for half of the world. Its productivity and agronomical practices, especially for nitrogen supplementation, is governed by the nitrogen efficiency (NE) of the genotypes. We analyzed 16 popular cultivated Indian varieties of wheat for their NE and variability estimates using a set of 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, derived from each wheat chromosome. These genotypes were categorized into three groups, viz., low, moderate, and high nitrogen efficient. Of these 16 genotypes, we have reported six, eight, and two genotypes in high, moderate, and low NE categories, respectively. The differential NE in these genotypes was supported by nitrogen uptake and assimilation parameters. The values of average polymorphic information content and marker index for these SSR markers were estimated to be 0.32 and 0.59, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient for all possible pairs of varieties ranged from 0.41 to 0.76, indicating the presence of considerable range of genetic diversity at molecular level. The dendrogram prepared on the basis of unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average algorithm grouped the 16 wheat varieties into three major clusters. The clustering was strongly supported by high bootstrap values. The distribution of the varieties in different clusters and subclusters appeared to be related to their variability in NE parameter that was scored. Genetically diverse parents were identified that could potentially be used for their desirable characteristics in breeding programs for improvement of NE in wheat.

  14. The effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon herbicides on the mitotic activity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) root tips

    OpenAIRE

    KUMAR, Sanjay; *, -; ARYA, Shashi Kiran; ROY, Bijoy Krishna; SINGH, Atul Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and isoproturon on 3 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (HUW 234, HUW 468, and HUW 533) were studied with regards to mitotic abnormalities and chromosomal behavior. Pre-soaked seeds were treated with both herbicides at concentrations of 50-1200 ppm. Both 2,4-D and isoproturon were highly mito-inhibitory and induced chromosomal abnormalities, such as precocious movement, stickiness, and chromosome bridges, with and without lagga...

  15. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  16. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-12-02

    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.

  17. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Mujeed, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  18. Effect of zinc-lysine on growth, yield and cadmium uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hussain, Afzal; Ali, Qasim; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Asma, Maliha

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread toxic trace elements found in agricultural soils due to various anthropogenic activities. The role of micronutrient-amino chelates on reducing Cd toxicity in crop plants is recently introduced. The current study was conducted to highlight the role of foliar application of zinc-lysine (Zn-lys) complex on biochemical and growth parameters and Cd uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in aged Cd-contaminated soil. Foliar concentration of Zn-lys (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L -1 ) was applied at different time intervals (2nd, 3rd, 5th and 7th week of sowing) and plants were harvested at maturity. Folliar application of Zinc-lys significantly increased the photosynthesis, grain yield, enzyme activities and Zn contents in different plant tissues. Zinc-lys reduced Cd contents in grains, shoot and root as well as reduced the oxidative stress in wheat linearly in a dose-additive manner. Taken together, Zn-lys chelate efficiently improved wheat growth and fortified Zn contents while reduced Cd concentration in plant in a Zn-deficient Cd-contaminated soil. Although, health risk index (HRI) from the soil sampling area seems to be lower than <1 for Cd but may exceed due to long-term consumption of grains produced from such contaminated soil. Foliar applied Zn-lys reduced HRI which may help to reduce health risks associated with Cd. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  20. Pollen-mediated gene flow in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a semiarid field environment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, María-Concepción; González, Águeda; Chueca, María-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties are being developed and field-tested in various countries. Concerns regarding gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to non-GM crops have stimulated research to estimate outcrossing in wheat prior to the release and commercialization of any transgenic cultivars. The aim is to ensure that coexistence of all types of wheat with GM wheat is feasible in accordance with current regulations. The present study describes the result of a field experiment under the semi-arid climate conditions of Madrid, Spain, at two locations ("La Canaleja" and "El Encin" experimental stations) in Madrid over a 3-year period, from 2005 to 2007. The experimental design consisted of a 50 × 50 m wheat pollen source sown with wheat cultivars resistant to the herbicide chlortoluron ('Deganit' and 'Castan' respectively) and three susceptible receptor cultivars ('Abental', 'Altria' and 'Recital') sown in replicated 1 × 1 m plots at different distances (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 m) and four directions. Outcrossing rates were measured as a percentage of herbicide-resistant hybrids using an herbicide-screening assay. Outcrossing was greatest near the pollen source, averaging 0.029% at 0 m distance at "La Canaleja" and 0.337% at "El Encin", both below the 0.9% European Union regulated threshold, although a maximum outcrossing rate of 3.5% was detected in one recipient plot. These percentages declined rapidly as the distance increased, but hybrids were detected at different rates at distances of up to 100 m, the maximum distance of the experiment. Environmental conditions, as drought in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, may have influenced the extent of outcrossing. These assays carried out in wheat under semi-arid conditions in Europe provide a more complete assessment of pollen-mediated gene flow in this crop.

  1. Effect of silicon application on physiological characteristics and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics and growth of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under late drought stress condition, an experiment was conducted at the Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Ramin, Khuzestan during year 2012. The experiment was conducted in the open environment as factorial randomized complete block design with three levels of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of available water content as the first factor and four levels of silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil as the second factor with three replications. The results showed that drought stress imposed a negative significant effect on all traits. The drought stress led to increased electrolyte leakage and proline content, cuticular wax, leaf silicon concentration, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD and grain potassium were decreased. The severe drought stress has most effect on electrolyte leakage (up to 53%. The application of silicon except the shoot/root parameter, on all characters have been affected so that application of 30 mg Si.kg-1 soil led to decrease electrolyte leakage up to 22.5% and increased SOD activity, proline content, cuticular wax grain K and flag leaf Si concentration, 25, 12.8, 21, 17 and 30% compared to control, respectively. In general, the results showed a positive effect of silicon on wheat plant under stress conditions that were higher than no stress condition.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Alleles from Chinese Wheat Landraces (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Hongqi Si

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS are of great importance in processing quality and participate in the formation of polymers in wheat. In this study, eight new LMW-GS alleles were isolated from Chinese wheat landraces (Triticum aestivum L. and designated as Glu-A3-1a, Glu-A3-1b, Glu-B3-1a, Glu-B3-1b, Glu-B3-1c, Glu-D3-1a, Glu-D3-1b, and Glu-D3-1c, which were located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 loci, respectively. Based on the proteins encoded, the number of deduced amino acids of Glu-B3 alleles was approximately 50 more than those of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles. The first cysteine of Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 alleles was located at the N-terminal domain, while that of Glu-B3 alleles was found in the repetitive domain, which may lead to the different functioning in forming disulfide bonds. All the eight genes were LMW-m types and the new allele of Glu-B3-1a which had nine cysteine residues may be the desirable LMW-GS gene for improving bread-making quality.

  3. Functional Analysis and Marker Development of TaCRT-D Gene in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Jiping Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-localized Ca2+-binding/buffering protein, is highly conserved and extensively expressed in animal and plant cells. To understand the function of CRTs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., particularly their roles in stress tolerance, we cloned the full-length genomic sequence of the TaCRT-D isoform from D genome of common hexaploid wheat, and characterized its function by transgenic Arabidopsis system. TaCRT-D exhibited different expression patterns in wheat seedling under different abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ORF of TaCRT-D displayed more tolerance to drought, cold, salt, mannitol, and other abiotic stresses at both seed germination and seedling stages, compared with the wild-type controls. Furthermore, DNA polymorphism analysis and gene mapping were employed to develop the functional markers of this gene for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding program. One SNP, S440 (T→C was detected at the TaCRT-D locus by genotyping a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL population (114 lines developed from Opata 85 × W7984. The TaCRT-D was then fine mapped between markers Xgwm645 and Xgwm664 on chromosome 3DL, corresponding to genetic distances of 3.5 and 4.4 cM, respectively, using the RIL population and Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines. Finally, the genome-specific and allele-specific markers were developed for the TaCRT-D gene. These findings indicate that TaCRT-D function importantly in plant stress responses, providing a gene target for genetic engineering to increase plant stress tolerance and the functional markers of TaCRT-D for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding.

  4. Functional Analysis and Marker Development of TaCRT-D Gene in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiping; Li, Runzhi; Mao, Xinguo; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Ca 2+ -binding/buffering protein, is highly conserved and extensively expressed in animal and plant cells. To understand the function of CRTs in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), particularly their roles in stress tolerance, we cloned the full-length genomic sequence of the TaCRT-D isoform from D genome of common hexaploid wheat, and characterized its function by transgenic Arabidopsis system. TaCRT-D exhibited different expression patterns in wheat seedling under different abiotic stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ORF of TaCRT-D displayed more tolerance to drought, cold, salt, mannitol, and other abiotic stresses at both seed germination and seedling stages, compared with the wild-type controls. Furthermore, DNA polymorphism analysis and gene mapping were employed to develop the functional markers of this gene for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding program. One SNP, S440 (T→C) was detected at the TaCRT-D locus by genotyping a wheat recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (114 lines) developed from Opata 85 × W7984. The TaCRT-D was then fine mapped between markers Xgwm645 and Xgwm664 on chromosome 3DL, corresponding to genetic distances of 3.5 and 4.4 cM, respectively, using the RIL population and Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines. Finally, the genome-specific and allele-specific markers were developed for the TaCRT-D gene. These findings indicate that TaCRT-D function importantly in plant stress responses, providing a gene target for genetic engineering to increase plant stress tolerance and the functional markers of TaCRT-D for marker-assistant selection in wheat breeding.

  5. Smoke produced from plants waste material elicits growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by improving morphological, physiological and biochemical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The experimental work presented in this study was carried out with the hypothesis that plant derived smoke enhanced the morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes of a cereal crop, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis that plant derived smoke acts as vegetative growth promoter, inexpensive, rapid and most appropriate eco-friendly bio-fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Plant derived smoke was generated by burning of plant material (leaf, straws etc in a specially designed furnace, and seeds were treated with this smoke for different time duration. Four level of plant derived smoke (1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h along with control were tested on four wheat cultivars in CRD repeated pot experiment. The smoke-related treatments modified number of morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat. Compared with the control, aerosol smoke treatment of the seeds significantly improved root length (2.6%, shoot length (7.7%, RFW (0.04%, SFW (0.7%, SDW (0.1% and leaf area (63.9%. All the smoke-related treatments significantly promoted RWC (17.3%, water potential (1.5%, osmotic potential (1.4% and MSI (14.6% whereas a pronounced increase in chlorophyll a (24.9%, chlorophyll b (21.7% and total chlorophyll contents (15.5% were recorded in response to aerosol-smoke treatments. Plant derived smoke exposure applied for short time i.e. 1 h & 2 h induced significant results as compared to prolonged PDS exposure (3 h and 4 h. The best results were observed in Pak-13 and Glaxy-13 wheat cultivars. These findings indicated that the plant-derived smoke treatment has a great potential to improve morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat crop.

  6. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  8. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furkan Orhan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200 mM NaCl, the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%.Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.

  9. The role of the F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shumei; Sun, Xiudong; Yin, Suhong; Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shan; Xu, Ying; Luo, Yin; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development. We identified a gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress named TaFBA1. TaFBA1 encodes a putative 325-amino-acid F-box protein with a conserved N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal AMN1 domain. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaFBA1 transcript accumulation was upregulated by high-salinity, water stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. To evaluate the functions of TaFBA1 in the regulation of drought stress responses, we produced transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing TaFBA1. Under water stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants had a higher germination rate, higher relative water content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), less chlorophyll loss, and less growth inhibition than WT. These results demonstrate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of these plants, which may be involved in their drought tolerance, was indicated by their lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MDA content, and cell membrane damage under drought stress compared to WT. The antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the transgenic plants than in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via overexpression of TaFBA1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The genetic characteristics in cytology and plant physiology of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines with different freezing tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Wang, Wenlong; Li, Qinxue; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines (NIL) named tafs (freezing sensitivity) and taft (freezing tolerance) were isolated in the laboratory and their various cytological and physiological characteristics under freezing conditions were studied. Proplastid, cell membrane, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were less damaged by freezing treatment in taft than tafs plants. Chlorophyll, ATP, and thylakoid membrane protein contents were significantly higher, but malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in taft than tafs plants under freezing condition. Antioxidant capacity, as indicated by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activity, and the relative gene expression were significantly greater in taft than tafs plants. Soluble sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly higher in taft plants than in tafs plants under both normal and freezing conditions. The upregulated expression levels of certain freezing tolerance-related genes were greater in taft than tafs plants under freezing treatment. The addition of sodium tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor, led to only partial freezing tolerance inhibition in taft plants and the down-regulated expression of some ABA-dependent genes. Thus, both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways are involved in the freezing tolerance of taft plants. At the same time, freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway.

  12. Epiphytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by producing phytohormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Kamlesh K; Kumar, Manish; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-05-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phyllosphere of different crop plants such as sugarcane, pigeonpea, mustard, potato and radish. The methylotrophic isolates were differentiated based on growth characteristics and colony morphology on methanol supplemented ammonium mineral salts medium. Amplification of the mxaF gene helped in the identification of the methylotrophic isolates as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium. Cell-free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with highest values of 98.3% observed using Methylobacterium sp. (NC4). Highest values of seedling length and vigour were recorded with Methylobacterium sp. (NC28). HPLC analysis of production by bacterial strains ranged from 1.09 to 9.89 μg ml(-1) of cytokinins in the culture filtrate. Such cytokinin producing beneficial methylotrophs can be useful in developing bio-inoculants through co-inoculation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs with other compatible bacterial strains, for improving plant growth and productivity, in an environment-friendly manner.

  13. Potassium up-regulates antioxidant metabolism and alleviates growth inhibition under water and osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Agarwal, R M

    2017-07-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to find out the effectivity of K on Triticum aestivum L cultivars. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used as an osmoticum to induce osmotic stress under sand culture setting up the water potential of external solution at -3 and -5 bars. In pots, plants were raised under restricted and normal irrigation and K was applied in varying doses (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha -1 ) and estimation of different physiological and biochemical parameters was done at two developmental stages, i.e., preflowering and flowering. Supplementation of K resulted in obvious increase in growth and activity of antioxidant enzymes in both normal and stressed plants. Added potassium increased total phenols and tannins thereby strengthening the components of both the enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system. Under both normal and stressed conditions, K-fed plants experienced significant increase in the synthesis of osmolytes like free proline, amino acids, and sugars which assumes special significance in growth under water stress conditions. Wheat plants accumulating greater K were able to counteract the water stress-induced changes by maintaining lower Na/K ratio.

  14. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  15. Validation of a 1DL earliness per se (eps) flowering QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Fish, Lesley; Simmonds, James; Orford, Simon; Wingen, Luzie U; Goram, Richard; Gosman, Nick; Bentley, Alison; Griffiths, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization, photoperiod and the relatively poorly defined earliness per se ( eps ) genes regulate flowering in plants. We report here the validation of a major eps quantitative trait locus (QTL) located on wheat 1DL using near isogenic lines (NILs). We used four independent pairs of NILs derived from a cross between Spark and Rialto winter wheat varieties, grown in both the field and controlled environments. NILs carrying the Spark allele, defined by QTL flanking markers Xgdm111 and Xbarc62 , consistently flowered 3-5 days earlier when fully vernalized relative to those with the Rialto. The effect was independent of photoperiod under field conditions, short days (10-h light), long days (16-h light) and very long days (20-h light). These results validate our original QTL identified using doubled haploid (DH) populations. This QTL represents variation maintained in elite north-western European winter wheat germplasm. The two DH lines used to develop the NILs, SR9 and SR23 enabled us to define the location of the 1DL QTL downstream of marker Xgdm111 . SR9 has the Spark 1DL arm while SR23 has a recombinant 1DL arm with the Spark allele from Xgdm111 to the distal end. Our work suggests that marker assisted selection of eps effects is feasible and useful even before the genes are cloned. This means eps genes can be defined and positionally cloned in the same way as the photoperiod and vernalization genes have been. This validation study is a first step towards fine mapping and eventually cloning the gene directly in hexaploid wheat.

  16. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  17. Changes in the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein during somatic embryogenesis in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Kairong; Wang Xiaozhe; Chen Xiong; Wang Yafu

    1997-01-01

    Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus formed from immature embryo of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in N 6 B 5 MS medium I supplemented with 2,4-D 2 mg/L, KT 0.5 mg/L, LH300 mg/L, sucrose 3% were sub-cultured and transferred respectively to N 6 B 5 MS medium II (2,4-D was decreased to 0.5 mg/L and 4 mol/L proline was added). Somatic embryos obtained from embryogenic callus, and plantlet formed from non-embryogenic callus through organogenesis respectively. By incorporation of 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine and 3 H-leucine into DNA, RNA and protein respectively, the rate of synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein during somatic embryogenesis were measured. A large amount of RNA and protein synthesized during the early somatic embryogenesis. The activities of RNA and protein synthesis reached the peak on the 4th and the 8th day respectively, then decreased a little, but kept a high level. The synthesis of DNA increased apparently during the early stage. No apparent change occurred when the embryogenic cell masses formed. The synthesis rate of RNA and protein in non-embryogenic callus were much less than that in embryogenic callus. Actinomycin and cycloheximide inhibited not only the synthesis of nucleic acid and protein, but also the growth of embryogenic callus and somatic embryogenesis. The earlier the inhibitors were added, the greater the influence was caused. The results indicate that the active expression of corresponding genes of wheat is the molecular base of somatic embryogenesis

  18. Effects of Bacillus subtilis on some physiological and biochemical parameters of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastochkina, Oksana; Pusenkova, Ludmila; Yuldashev, Ruslan; Babaev, Marat; Garipova, Svetlana; Blagova, Dar'ya; Khairullin, Ramil; Aliniaeifard, Sasan

    2017-12-01

    Endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) 10-4, producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderofores but not active in phosphate solubilization, exerted a protective effect on Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) plant grown under salinity (2% NaCl) stress. Exposure to salt stress resulted in an essential increase of proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the seedlings. At the same time the seedlings inoculated with B. subtilis 10-4 were characterized by decreased level of stress-induced Pro and MDA accumulation. It was revealed that both B. subtilis 10-4 and salinity caused increase in the content of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) in wheat seedlings as compared to SA content in the control, while B. subtilis 10-4 suppressed stress-induced SA accumulation. Water storage capacity (WSC) in leaf tissues was increased and stress-induced hydrolysis of statolite starch in root cap cells of the germinal roots was reduced by B. subtilis 10-4. The obtained data indicated that the activation of the defense reactions induced by B. subtilis 10-4 induced defense reactions may be connected with their ability to decrease the level of stress-induced oxidative and osmotic stress in seedlings and with the increase of endogenous SA level that can make a significant contribution to the implementation of the protective effect of B. subtilis 10-4 and is manifested in the improvement of plant growth, WSC of leaves and slowing down of the process of statolite starch hydrolysis under salinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Proteome approaches to characterize seed storage proteins related to ditelocentric chromosomes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Woo, Sun-Hee; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hisashi

    2002-09-01

    Changes in protein composition of wheat endosperm proteome were investigated in 39 ditelocentric chromosome lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Chinese Spring. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining has resolved a total of 105 protein spots in a gel. Quantitative image analysis of protein spots was performed by PDQuest. Variations in protein spots between the euploid and the 39 ditelocentric lines were evaluated by spot number, appearance, disappearance and intensity. A specific spot present in all gels was taken as an internal standard, and the intensity of all other spots was calculated as the ratio of the internal standard. Out of the 1755 major spots detected in 39 ditelocentric lines, 1372 (78%) spots were found variable in different spot parameters: 147 (11%) disappeared, 978 (71%) up-regulated and 247 (18%) down-regulated. Correlation studies in changes in protein intensities among 24 protein spots across the ditelocentric lines were performed. High correlations in changes of protein intensities were observed among the proteins encoded by genes located in the homoeologous arms. Locations of structural genes controlling 26 spots were identified in 10 chromosomal arms. Multiple regulators of the same protein located at various chromosomal arms were also noticed. Identification of structural genes for most of the proteins was found difficult due to multiple regulators encoding the same protein. Two novel subunits (1B(Z,) 1BDz), the structure of which are very similar to the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 12, were identified, and the chromosome arm locations of these subunits were assigned.

  20. Soil nutrient patchiness and genotypes interact on the quantity, quality and decomposition of roots versus shoots of Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, W.M.; Shen, Y.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that soil nutrient patchiness can differentially benefit the decomposition of root and shoot litters and that this facilitation depends on plant genotypes. Methods: We grew 15 cultivars (i. e. genotypes) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum

  1. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    47 ... unstable with respect to yield and yield components. ... Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the important staple ... stress affects many physiological and biochemical ... regulation as the osmolyte under adverse environmental.

  2. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique O, Olga L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  3. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  4. Development of TaqMan probes targeting the four major celiac disease epitopes found in α-gliadin sequences of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Muhovski, Yordan; Escarnot, Emmanuelle; Mingeot, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is caused by specific sequences of gluten proteins found in cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ). Among them, the α-gliadins display the highest immunogenicity, with four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. The toxicity of each epitope sequence can be reduced or even suppressed according to the allelic form of each sequence. One way to address the CD problem would be to make use of this allelic variability in breeding programs to develop safe varieties, but tools to track the presence of toxic epitopes are required. The objective of this study was to develop a tool to accurately detect and quantify the immunogenic content of expressed α-gliadins of spelt and bread wheat. Four TaqMan probes that only hybridize to the canonical-i.e. toxic-form of each of the four epitopes were developed and their specificity was demonstrated. Six TaqMan probes targeting stable reference genes were also developed and constitute a tool to normalize qPCR data. The probes were used to measure the epitope expression levels of 11 contrasted spelt accessions and three ancestral diploid accessions of bread wheat and spelt. A high expression variability was highlighted among epitopes and among accessions, especially in Asian spelts, which showed lower epitope expression levels than the other spelts. Some discrepancies were identified between the canonical epitope expression level and the global amount of expressed α-gliadins, which makes the designed TaqMan probes a useful tool to quantify the immunogenic potential independently of the global amount of expressed α-gliadins. The results obtained in this study provide useful tools to study the immunogenic potential of expressed α-gliadin sequences from Triticeae accessions such as spelt and bread wheat. The application of the designed probes to contrasted spelt accessions revealed a high variability and interesting low canonical epitope expression levels in the

  5. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  6. Concentration of benzoxazinoids in roots of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochmal, Anna; Kus, Jan; Martyniuk, Stefan; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2006-02-22

    Benzoxazinones are naturally occurring secondary metabolites of some Gramineae plants, responsible for their resistance to some pathogenic fungi and for their allelopathic action. Six varieties of winter wheat grown in fields under organic or conventional systems and 11 old accessions were tested for two consecutive seasons and three plant development stages for the concentration in their roots of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their degradation products. This is the first report of six benzoxazinones analyzed in plants grown in the field. An analytical technique employing LC-DAD was used for determination. It was shown that 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, its degradation product 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2-one, and the lactam 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-2-one were predominant compounds in all tested samples. Their concentrations significantly differed with plant development stage and season, but no significant differences were found between varieties and between plant cultivation systems. The concentrations of 2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) and its degradation product benzoxazolin-2-one (BOA) were much lower, ranging from 60 to 430 mg/kg of dry matter, depending on accession, stage of development, and season. There was no significant difference found between plants grown in different cultivation systems, but there were significant differences between old and new varieties; concentrations of DIBOA and its derivatives were significantly lower in old accessions. It was concluded that the concentrations of DIBOA and BOA, which are precursors of highly fungicidal 2-aminophenol, 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, and 2-acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, are theoretically high enough to protect plants against some soilborne pathogens.

  7. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, D.K.; Sen, Avijit; Misra, N.M.

    1988-01-01

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  9. Response of spring type wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars to different chilling treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late sowing of wheat in autumn due to environmental conditions or late harvesting of cotton crop results in substantial yield loss. It may be attributed to non-fulfillment of chilling requirements. The present study was conducted to identify the chilling requirement of autumn sown cultivars of wheat...

  10. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  11. INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY AND SELECTION FOR HIGH YIELDING MUTANTS IN BREAD WHEAT(TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOBIEH, S.EL-S.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 at the experimental farm belonging to Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Egypt.The aim of this study is to determine the effect of gamma rays(150, 200 and 250 Gy) on means of yield and its attributes for exotic wheat variety (vir-25) and induction of genetic variability that permits to perform visual selection through the irradiated populations, as well as to determine difference in seed protein patterns between vir-25 parent variety and some selectants in M2 generation.The results showed that the different doses of gamma rays had non-significant effect on mean value of yield/plant and significant effect on mean values of it's attributes. 0n the other hand, the considered genetic variability was generated as result of applying gamma irradiation. The highest amount of induced genetic variability was detected for number of grains/ spike, spike length and number of spikes/plant. Additionally, these three traits exhibited strong association with grain yield/plant, hence, they were used as a criterion for selection.Some variant plants were selected from radiation treatment 250 Gy, with 2-10 spikes per plant.These variant plants exhibited increasing in spike length and number of gains/spike.The results also revealed that protein electrophoresis were varied in the number and position of bands from genotype to another and various genotypes share bands with molecular weights 31.4 and 3.2 KD.Many bands were found to be specific for the genotype and the nine wheat mutants were characterized by the presence of bands of molecular weights: 151.9, 125.7, 14.1 and 5.7 KD at M-167.4, 21.7 and 8.2 at M-299.7 KD at M-3136.1, 97.6, 49.8, 27.9 and 20.6 KD at M-4 135.2, 95.3 and 28.1 KD at M-5 135.5, 67.7, 47.1, 32.3, 21.9 and 9.6 KD at M-6 126.1, 112.1, 103.3, 58.8, 20.9 and 12.1 KD at M-7 127.7, 116.6, 93.9, 55.0 and 47.4 KD at M-8 141.7, 96.1, 79.8, 68.9, 42.1, 32.7, 22.0 and 13

  12. Características tecnológicas de genótipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cultivados no cerrado Technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes grown in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de estudar as características grau de extração, proteína bruta, número de queda, alveografia, farinografia, volume específico e escore de pontos dos pães obtidos de amostras de grãos de genótipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. plantados no cerrado brasileiro. Amostras de grãos de trigo dos genótipos Embrapa 22, Embrapa 42, Önix, Taurum e Fundacep 27, plantados no cerrado brasileiro, safra 2003/2004 foram avaliadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no laboratório de Cereais do Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentação da Universidade de Passo Fundo, sendo os resultados experimentais analisados pelo emprego da análise de variância (Anova e nos modelos significativos as médias comparadas entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares de trigo foram classificadas com base na alveografia e número de queda em melhorador, pão e brando. Nos trigos classificados como melhoradores as propriedades funcionais dos pães foram inferiores, o que define a utilização destas farinhas para mesclas com trigos de menor força de glúten. No cerrado brasileiro é possível produzir trigo classe melhorador.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of flour extraction grade, protein content, falling number, alveography, farinography, specific volume and point score of bread made from samples of grain of wheat genotypes grown in the Brazilian Cerrado. Samples of wheat grains of genotypes Embrapa 22, Embrapa 42, Önix, Taurum and Fundacep 27, grown in the Brazilian Cerrado, 2003/2004 crop, were disposed in fully randomized design, in the Cereal Laboratory at the Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentação of the University of Passo Fundo. The results were analyzed by variance analysis and the means compared by Tukey's test at 5% error probability. The wheat cultivars were classified according to alveography and falling number in improved, bread and bland. In the wheat

  13. Shifts of microbial communities of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivation in a closed artificial ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youcai; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Jia, Nannan; Liu, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The microbial communities of plant ecosystems are in relation to plant growing environment, but the alteration in biodiversity of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities in closed and controlled environments is unknown. The purpose of this study is to analyze the change regularity of microbial communities with wheat plants dependent-cultivated in a closed artificial ecosystem. The microbial community structures in closed-environment treatment plants were investigated by a culture-dependent approach, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and Illumina Miseq high-throughput sequencing. The results indicated that the number of microbes decreased along with time, and the magnitude of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were 10(7)-10(8), 10(5), and 10(3)-10(4) CFU/g (dry weight), respectively. The analysis of PCR-DGGE and Illumina Miseq revealed that the wheat leaf surface and near-root substrate had different microbial communities at different periods of wheat ecosystem development and showed that the relative highest diversity of microbial communities appeared at late and middle periods of the plant ecosystem, respectively. The results also indicated that the wheat leaf and substrate had different microbial community compositions, and the wheat substrate had higher richness of microbial community than the leaf. Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Penicillium, Rhodotorula, Acremonium, and Alternaria were dominant in the wheat leaf samples, and Pedobacter, Flavobacterium, Halomonas, Marinobacter, Salinimicrobium, Lysobacter, Pseudomonas, Halobacillus, Xanthomonas, Acremonium, Monographella, and Penicillium were dominant populations in the wheat near-root substrate samples.

  14. Enhanced root and shoot growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Trichoderma harzianum from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Cigdem

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Trichoderma species can be used as biocontrol and plant growth promote agent. In this study, Trichoderma harzianum isolates were evaluated for their growth promotion effects on wheat in greenhouse experiments. Two isolates of T. harzianum were used. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Seeds were inoculated with conidial suspensions of each isolate. Wheat plants grown in steriled soil in pots. T. harzianum T8 and T15 isolates increased wheat length, root dry weight and shoot dry weight according to untreated control. Turkish isolates T8 and T15 did not produce damage in seeds nor in plants.

  15. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred Y; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-06-20

    The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen and resistance to multiple pathogens. At the molecular level, these three types of resistance may cover across the whole spectrum of pathogen specificities that are controlled by genes encoding different protein families in wheat. The objective of this study is to predict and analyze genes in three such families: NBS-LRR (nucleotide-binding sites and leucine-rich repeats or NLR), START (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein [STaR] related lipid-transfer) and ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporter. The focus of the analysis is on the patterns of relationships between these protein-coding genes within the gene families and QTLs detected for leaf rust resistance. We predicted 526 ABC, 1117 NLR and 144 START genes in the hexaploid wheat genome through a domain analysis of wheat proteome. Of the 1809 SNPs from leaf rust resistance QTLs in seedling and adult stages of wheat, 126 SNPs were found within coding regions of these genes or their neighborhood (5 Kb upstream from transcription start site [TSS] or downstream from transcription termination site [TTS] of the genes). Forty-three of these SNPs for adult resistance and 18 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the ABC genes whereas 14 SNPs for adult resistance and 29 SNPs for seedling resistance reside within coding or neighboring regions of the NLR gene. Moreover, we found 17 nonsynonymous SNPs for adult resistance and five SNPs for seedling resistance in the ABC genes, and five nonsynonymous SNPs for

  16. Effect of Boron Toxicity on Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çatav, Şükrü Serter; Genç, Tuncer Okan; Kesik Oktay, Müjgan; Küçükakyüz, Köksal

    2018-04-01

    Boron (B) toxicity, which occurs in semi-arid and arid environments, can adversely affect the growth and yield of many plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of boric acid (3, 6, 9 and 12 mM) on growth, oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters in root and shoot tissues of wheat seedlings. Our results indicate that B stress inhibits root and shoot growth of wheat in a concentration-dependent manner, and leads to increases in TBARS and H 2 O 2 contents in shoot tissue. Moreover, our findings suggest that high concentrations of B may exert a genotoxic effect on wheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the effect of B stress on genotoxicity in both root and shoot tissues of wheat.

  17. Induced mutation aiming at obtaining lodging resistance in wheat C V.Omid(Triticum Aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majd, F.; Rezazadeh, M.; Ghohari, A.

    1993-01-01

    Mutation breeding has been an important part breeding research for solving some of the existing problems related to wheat. A locally adopted wheat cultivar 'Omid' which is a traditionally tall wheat mostly cultivated in regions with a continental climate and is susceptible to lodging was chosen as research material. The nuclear research department for agriculture of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran initiated a mutation breeding program for creating genetic variability in wheat using this local cultivar. Seeds of this variety was irradiated with gamma radiation (50-150 Gy) to induce short straw mutants with greater lodging resistance and yield potential. from a total of about 20000 irradiated seeds 1500 plants showing promising agronomic character were isolated as potential mutants. Following progeny tests and selection 18 mutants lines entered preliminary yield trail. Further field trails at different locations gave two promising lines which are characterized by higher yield, lodging resistance and early maturity. (author). 3 tabs

  18. Lignin biosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): its response to waterlogging and association with hormonal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran-Nguyen; Son, SeungHyun; Jordan, Mark C; Levin, David B; Ayele, Belay T

    2016-01-25

    Lignin is an important structural component of plant cell wall that confers mechanical strength and tolerance against biotic and abiotic stressors; however it affects the use of biomass such as wheat straw for some industrial applications such as biofuel production. Genetic alteration of lignin quantity and quality has been considered as a viable option to overcome this problem. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lignin formation in wheat biomass has not been studied. Combining molecular and biochemical approaches, the present study investigated the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis in two wheat cultivars with varying lodging characteristics and also in response to waterlogging. It also examined the association of lignin level in tissues with that of plant hormones implicated in the control of lignin biosynthesis. Analysis of lignin biosynthesis in the two wheat cultivars revealed a close association of lodging resistance with internode lignin content and expression of 4-coumarate:CoA ligase1 (4CL1), p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase1 (C3H1), cinnamoyl-CoA reductase2 (CCR2), ferulate 5-hydroxylase2 (F5H2) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase2 (COMT2), which are among the genes highly expressed in wheat tissues, implying the importance of these genes in mediating lignin deposition in wheat stem. Waterlogging of wheat plants reduced internode lignin content, and this effect is accompanied by transcriptional repression of three of the genes characterized as highly expressed in wheat internode including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase6 (PAL6), CCR2 and F5H2, and decreased activity of PAL. Expression of the other genes was, however, induced by waterlogging, suggesting their role in the synthesis of other phenylpropanoid-derived molecules with roles in stress responses. Moreover, difference in internode lignin content between cultivars or change in its level due to waterlogging is associated with the level of cytokinin. Lodging resistance, tolerance against

  19. The ?-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its closely related species

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Peng-Fei; Wei, Yu-Ming; Ouellet, Th?r?se; Chen, Qing; Tan, Xin; Zheng, You-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isol...

  20. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  1. Selección de cepas de rizobios aisladas de ecosistemas ganaderos de Canadá, inoculadas en trigo (Triticum aestivum, L.. Selection of rhizobium strains isolated from livestock ecosystems of Canada, inoculated to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J Bécquer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un experimento de campo con el objetivo de seleccionar cepas de rizobios inoculadas en trigo (Triticum aestivum, L., var. Cuba-204. Se evaluaron varios indicadoress agroproductivos de la planta, tales como: peso seco aéreo, longitud del tallo, rendimiento de granos, peso de 1000 granos y rendimiento de nitrógeno. Como criterio de selección de los mejores tratamientos se consideraron los valores estadísticamente superiores al control fertilizado. Se utilizaron cuatro cepas de referencia, pertenecientes a diferentes géneros y especies de rizobios, y 10 cepas nativas, pertenecientes al género Sinorhizobium, que fueron aisladas de raíces de leguminosas (Melilotus y Medicago, adaptadas a ecosistemas ganaderos de Alberta, Canadá. Una de las cepas fue aislada de leguminosas adaptadas a suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos de esa misma zona geográfica. Las cepas crecieron en LMA y resuspendidas en CLM hasta lograr una UFC de 10(6 _ 10(8 cél/mL. Se utilizaron métodos estándar para la inoculación de cereales. Se aplicó un diseño experimental de bloques completamente aleatorizado, con 16 tratamientos y cuatro réplicas. Uno de los tratamientos se fertilizó con 150 kg/ha (NH4NO3. Se utilizó análisis de varianza. Las diferencias entre medias fueron halladas por la prueba LSD de Fisher (pA field experiment was carried out in order to select rhizobial strains inoculated to wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., var. Cuba-204. Several parameters of agricultural significance were assessed, such as: aerial dry weight, length of stems, grain yield, weight of 1 000 grains and nitrogen yield. As selection criterion of the best treatments, the statistically higher values compared to the fertilized control were considered. Four reference strains, belonging to several rhizobial genus and species were used, as well as ten native strains, belonging to Sinorhizobium that were isolated from roots of legumes (Melilotus and Medicago, adapted to Canadian

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  3. Effects of HMW-GS Ax1 or Dx2 absence on the glutenin polymerization and gluten micro structure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Liu, Tianhong; Ding, Mengyun; Wang, Jun; Li, Chunlian; Wang, Zhonghua; Li, Xuejun

    2018-02-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dough strength and extensibility are mainly determined by the polymerization of glutenin. The number of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) differs in various wheat varieties due to the silencing of some genes. The effects of Ax1 or Dx2 subunit absence on glutenin polymerization, dough mixing properties and gluten micro structure were investigated with two groups of near-isogenic lines. The results showed that Ax1 or Dx2 absence decreased the accumulation rate of glutenin polymers and thus delayed the rapid increase period for glutenin polymerization by at least ten days, which led to lower percentage of polymeric protein in mature grain. Ax1 or Dx2 absence significantly decreased the dough development time and dough stability, but increased the uniformity of micro structure. Lacunarity, derived from quantitative analysis of gluten network, is suggested as a new indicator for wheat quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...... at the floret initiation stage significantly decreased rates of photosynthetic carbon gain, transpiration and stomatal conductance in the two wheat cultivars. AMF increased the rates of photosynthesis, transpiration and stomatal conductance under drought conditions. Water deficits decreased electron transport...

  5. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Rafique, Q.; Rahman, A.U.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  7. Rust resistance evaluation of advanced wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes using pcr-based dna markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.U.; Younis, M.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective and environmental friendly approach for the control of wheat rust disease is the use of resistant genotypes. The present study was conducted to explore rust resistance potential of 85 elite wheat genotypes (36 varieties and 49 advanced lines) using various types of DNA markers like STS, SCAR and SSR. DNA markers linked with different genes conferring resistance to rusts (Leaf rust=Lr, Yellow rust=Yr and Stem rust=Sr) were employed in this study. A total of 18 genes, consisting of eleven Lr (lr1, lr10, lr19, lr21, lr28, lr34, lr39, lr46, lr47, lr51 and lr52), four Yr (yr5, yr18, yr26 and yr29) and three Sr genes (sr2, sr29, and sr36) were studied through linked DNA markers. Maximum number of Lr genes was found in 17 advanced lines and 9 varieties, Yr genes in 26 advanced lines and 20 wheat varieties, and Sr genes in 43 advanced lines and 27 varieties. Minimum number of Lr genes was found in advanced line D-97 and variety Kohinoor-83, Yr genes in wheat variety Bwp-97 and Sr genes in 6 advanced lines and 8 varieties. Molecular data revealed that genotypes having same origin, from a specified area showed resistance for similar type of genes. In this study, an average similarity of 84% was recorded among wheat genotypes. Out of 18 loci, 15 were found to be polymorphic. (author)

  8. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties; Cultivo In Vitro De Anteras De Trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) EN Las Variedades De Icatenza Y PAVON-76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique O, Olga L

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level.

  9. Determination of iron and copper contents in certain indigenous varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Abbas, N.; Shaheen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forty seven wheat varieties were tested for their iron and copper contents. The iron and copper contents were found to differ significantly (P 0.05) with respect to iron and copper contents. The variety named Dirk was found to possess the highest iron contents, while the variety Pasban-90 showed the highest copper contents. The varieties Dirk, Sariab, Tandojam-83, Punjab-88, Sarsabz, Punjab-81, Sandal and Sind-81 contained significantly higher iron contents as compared to other wheat varieties. The varieties, which contained the highest concentrations of copper, were Pasban-90, Chenab-79, Faisalabad-85, Lyp-73, Sind-81, Anmol-91, C-271, Rohtas-90 and Chakwal-86. However, the differences in copper contents among all these wheat varieties were non-significant (P>0.05). These varieties can therefore, be recommended to be included for future breeding and commercial exploitation. (author)

  10. Response of Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and SPAD-502 Measurement to Salinity and Nutrient Stress in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Haleem

    2017-09-12

    Abiotic stress can alter key physiological constituents and functions in green plants. Improving the capacity to monitor this response in a non-destructive manner is of considerable interest, as it would offer a direct means of initiating timely corrective action. Given the vital role that plant pigments play in the photosynthetic process and general plant physiological condition, their accurate estimation would provide a means to monitor plant health and indirectly determine stress response. The aim of this work is to evaluate the response of leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid (C-t) content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to changes in varying application levels of soil salinity and fertilizer applied over a complete growth cycle. The study also seeks to establish and analyze relationships between measurements from a SPAD-502 instrument and the leaf pigments, as extracted at the anthesis stage. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted in triplicate by employing distinct treatments of both soil salinity and fertilizer dose at three levels. Results showed that higher doses of fertilizer increased the content of leaf pigments across all levels of soil salinity. Likewise, increasing the level of soil salinity significantly increased the chlorophyll and Ct content per leaf area at all levels of applied fertilizer. However, as an adaptation process and defense mechanism under salinity stress, leaves were found to be thicker and narrower. Thus, on a per-plant basis, increasing salinity significantly reduced the chlorophyll (Chl(t)) and Ct produced under each fertilizer treatment. In addition, interaction effects of soil salinity and fertilizer application on the photosynthetic pigment content were found to be significant, as the higher amounts of fertilizer augmented the detrimental effects of salinity. A strong positive (R-2 = 0.93) and statistically significant (p < 0.001) relationship between SPAD-502 values and Chlt and between SPAD-502 values and Ct content (R-2 = 0

  11. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  12. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  13. Identification of the TaBTF3 gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the effect of its silencing on wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Zhen; Liu, Guo-Qin; Li, Cheng-Wei; Kang, Guo-Zhang; Guo, Tian-Cai

    2012-10-05

    The full-length cDNA (882bp) and DNA (1742bp) sequences encoding a basic transcription factor 3, designated as TaBTF3, were first isolated from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Subcellular localization studies revealed that the TaBTF3 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm and nucleus. In TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat seedlings obtained using the Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method, the chlorophyll pigment content was markedly reduced. However, the malonaldehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) contents were enhanced, and the structure of the wheat mesophyll cell was seriously damaged. Furthermore, transcripts of the chloroplast- and mitochondrial-encoded genes were significantly reduced in TaBTF3-silenced transgenic wheat plants. These results suggest that the TaBTF3 gene might function in the development of the wheat chloroplast, mitochondria and mesophyll cell. This paper is the first report to describe the involvement of TaBTF3 in maintaining the normal plant mesophyll cell structure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of intergeneric cross for production of doubled haploid wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Shaukat, S.; Kashif, M.; Khan, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of conventional breeding or hybridisation is to bring about homozygosity, for which 6 to 7 years may be required. Wheat and maize crosses have proved to be more efficient in DH lines production than anther culture methods, because of its lower genetic specificity. Doubled haploid technique facilitates the development of homozygous plants within one generation. The system is developed through haploid production, followed by chromosome doubling, to produce homozygous plants in a single generation. For doubled haploid production method wheat and maize crossing system is better than anther culture and ovule culture because maize pollens are highly responsive and produce stable progeny population. Wheat is being used as female parent and maize as a male parent for the production of doubled haploid. Moreover, Silver Nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) in tiller culture media can improve the frequency of haploid embryo production in this crossing system. Our result showed that DH production through wheat and maize crossing system was proved to be time saving (2 years) as compared to other conventional breeding methods (6 years). (author)

  15. Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    Phytase activity in grain is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism, and in food and feed. Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases (PAPhy). Mature wheat grain is dominated by TaPAPhy_a which, in the present work, has been characterized by extensive peptide...

  16. Molecular characterization of lipoxygenase genes on chromosome 4BS in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Ning; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-08-01

    This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.

  17. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  18. Comparative metabolic responses and adaptive strategies of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to salt and alkali stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Yang, Zongze; Li, Feng; Yan, Changrong; Zhong, Xiuli; Liu, Qi; Xia, Xu; Li, Haoru; Zhao, Long

    2015-07-07

    It is well known that salinization (high-pH) has been considered as a major environmental threat to agricultural systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between salt stress and alkali stress in metabolic profiles and nutrient accumulation of wheat; these parameters were also evaluated to determine the physiological adaptive mechanisms by which wheat tolerates alkali stress. The harmful effect of alkali stress on the growth and photosynthesis of wheat were stronger than those of salt stress. High-pH of alkali stress induced the most of phosphate and metal ions to precipitate; as a result, the availability of nutrients significantly declined. Under alkali stress, Ca sharply increased in roots, however, it decreased under salt stress. In addition, we detected the 75 metabolites that were different among the treatments according to GC-MS analysis, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars/polyols and others. The metabolic data showed salt stress and alkali stress caused different metabolic shifts; alkali stress has a stronger injurious effect on the distribution and accumulation of metabolites than salt stress. These outcomes correspond to specific detrimental effects of a highly pH environment. Ca had a significant positive correlation with alkali tolerates, and increasing Ca concentration can immediately trigger SOS Na exclusion system and reduce the Na injury. Salt stress caused metabolic shifts toward gluconeogenesis with increased sugars to avoid osmotic stress; energy in roots and active synthesis in leaves were needed by wheat to develop salt tolerance. Alkali stress (at high pH) significantly inhibited photosynthetic rate; thus, sugar production was reduced, N metabolism was limited, amino acid production was reduced, and glycolysis was inhibited.

  19. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pingping; Yin Ruochun; Chen Zhiyou; Wu Lifang; Yu Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation. The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1, 3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla. The seeds were germinated at 23 o C after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field. The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method. The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs. Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups, a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome, triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla, respectively. The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration, but no linear relationship was observed. Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T

  20. In situ assessment of morpho-physiological response of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) genotypes to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raziuddin; Faratullah; Ullah, N.; Hassan, G.; Swati, Z.A.; Bakht, J.; Shafi, M.; Akmal, M.

    2010-01-01

    In situ studies were conducted to assess the morpho-physiological responses of wheat genotypes to PEG-induced water stress. Wheat genotypes were raised in hydroponic cultures where plants were nourished with half strength Hoagland solution. Plants were exposed to 00, 10, 20, 30 and 40% PEG-6000 at 4-leaf stage. PEG was applied in split doses at the rate of 10% with an interval of 15 days. Significant differences (p=0.05) were recorded for all the parameters studied due to genotypes and PEG concentrations. Wheat genotypes showed negative but variable response to PEG concentrations for shoot length, root length, root/ shoot ratio and root mass whereas PEG imposed stress had positive impact on proline content and abscisic acid (ABA). Genotype Khattakwal attained maximum shoot length in PEG induced stress. Maximum root/shoot ratio and root mass was recorded in Ghaznavi-98 while Tatara and Khattakwal attained maximum relative water content. Endogenous proline and ABA content increased up to 10 fold in response to 40% PEG. Maximum proline was accumulated by Khattakwal whereas maximum ABA by ICP-3. (author)

  1. Toxicity of sulfadiazine and copper and their interaction to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Chunming

    2017-08-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the single and combined effect of different concentrations of sulfadiazine (SDZ) (1 and 10mgkg -1 ) and copper (Cu) (20 and 200mgkg -1 ) stresses on growth, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities of wheat seedlings and their accumulation. High SDZ or Cu level significantly inhibited the growth of wheat seedlings, but the emergence rate was only inhibited by high SDZ level. The presence of Cu reduced the accumulation of SDZ, whereas the effect of SDZ on the accumulation of Cu depended on their concentrations. Low Cu level significantly increased the chlorophyll content, while high Cu level or both SDZ concentrations resulted in a significant decrease in the chlorophyll content as compared to the control. Additionally, H 2 O 2 and MDA contents increased with the elevated SDZ or Cu level. The activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were also stimulated by SDZ or Cu except for the aerial part treated by low Cu level and root treated by high SDZ level. The joint toxicity data showed that the toxicity of SDZ to wheat seedlings was generally alleviated by the presence of Cu, whereas the combined toxicity of SDZ and Cu was larger than equivalent Cu alone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Induced mutations in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., for high protein and lysine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, P.; Fuentes, R.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of producing cultivars adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude 39-44 deg. South) with better protein content and high grain yield, in 1975 spring wheat seeds of genotypes Express and UACH-2-75 were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 15, 25 and 35 Krad. The M 1 generation was field sown and harvested individually, initiating plant selection in the M 2 generation. The selection process, through six generations, has permitted to identify some mutants of high protein content. Two mutants UACH-2-I and UACH-3-I have been included in the National Co-operative Wheat Program for yield. A second experiment was initiated in 1981 with the objective of obtaining mutants not only for high protein content but also for high lysine content. For this purpose seeds of the spring wheat genotypes Huenufen and Austral were irradiated with gamma rays in doses of 10 and 25 Krad. The M 1 generation was sown at a high density and harvested in bulk. Selection per plant will start in the M 2 generation, continuing in the following. (author)

  3. Genotoxic Effects of Superconducting Static Magnetic Fields (SMFs) on Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Pollen Mother Cells (PMCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Yin, Ruochun; Chen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lifang; Yu, Zengliang

    2007-04-01

    The effects of superconducting static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of wheat were investigated in order to evaluate the possible genotoxic effect of such non-ionizing radiation. The seeds of wheat were exposed to static magnetic fields with either different magnetic flux densities (0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 Tesla) for 5 h or different durations (1, 3 and 5 h) at a magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla. The seeds were germinated at 23oC after exposure and the seedlings were transplanted into the field. The PMCs from young wheat ears were taken and slides were made following the conventional method. The genotoxic effect was evaluated in terms of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome and fragments in PMCs. Although the exposed groups of a low field intensity (below 5 Tesla) showed no statistically significant difference in the aberration frequency compared with the unexposed control groups and sham exposed groups, a significant increase in the chromosomal bridge, lagging chromosome, triple-polar segregation or micronucleus was observed at a field strength of 5 Tesla or 7 Tesla, respectively. The analysis of dose-effect relationships indicated that the increased frequency of meiotic abnormal cells correlated with the flux density of the magnetic field and duration, but no linear relationship was observed. Such statistically significant differences indicated a potential genotoxic effect of high static magnetic fields above 5 T.

  4. Identifying loci influencing grain number by microsatellite screening in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2012-11-01

    Grain number (GN) is one of three major yield-related components in wheat. We used the Chinese wheat mini core collection to undertake a genome-wide association analysis of grain number using 531 SSR markers randomly located on all 21 chromosomes. Grain numbers of all accessions were measured in four trials, i.e. two environments in four growing seasons. Association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM) revealed that 27 SSR loci were significantly associated with mean GN (MGN) estimated by the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) method. These included numerous breeder favorable alleles with strong positive effects at 23 loci. Significant or extremely significant differences were detected on MGN between varieties conveying favored allele and varieties with other alleles. Moreover, statistical simulation showed that the favored alleles have additive genetic effects. Although modern varieties combined larger numbers of favored alleles, the numbers of favored alleles were not significantly different from those in landraces, especially those alleles contributing mostly to the phenotypic variation. These results indicate that there is still considerable genetic potential for use of markers for genome selection of GN for high yield in wheat.

  5. Effect of calcium on the salt tolerance of different wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.; Saqib, M.; Akhtar, J.

    2012-01-01

    In saline soil conditions the availability and uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ is reduced that results in the loss of membrane integrity and other disorders associated with Ca/sup 2+/ deficiency in plants. A wheat genotype efficient in uptake and utilization of calcium under saline conditions may be better able to withstand saline conditions in the field. Very little information is available on wheat response to salinity and low Ca/sup 2+/ as screening of wheat genotypes has usually been done against salinity alone. The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of different wheat genotypes against salinity at low and adequate calcium supply. The experiment was conducted in hydroponics with four treatments including T1: non-saline with adequate Ca/sup 2+/, T2: non-saline with low Ca/sup 2+/ (level of calcium was 1/4 of the adequate level), T3: saline (125 mM NaCl) with adequate Ca/sup 2+/ and T4: saline with low calcium. All the physical growth parameters including shoot length, root length, and shoot and root fresh weights were decreased significantly due to salinity and low calcium alone as well as in combination. Reduction was more pronounced under the combined stress of salinity and low calcium and different genotypes differed significantly in different stress treatments for shoot and root fresh weight production. In saline treatment (T3), the genotypes 25-SAWSN-39 and 25-SAWSN-31 showed better growth performance and accumulated lower Na+ and higher Ca/sup 2+/ where as the genotypes 25-SAWSN-35 and 25-SAWSN-47 showed less growth and had less accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ and high accumulation of Na+. In salinity + low calcium treatment the genotype 25-SAWSN-39 behaved as a tolerant genotype where as 25-SAWSN-31 behaved similar to the sensitive genotype and these differences were due to high accumulation of Ca/sup 2+/ in 25-SAWSN-39 and vice versa. This study shows that the salt tolerance of wheat genotypes differs with the availability and accumulation of calcium

  6. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  7. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, T.Z.

    1996-01-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK 6 9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs

  8. Detection of gold nanoparticles signal inside wheat (Triticum Aestivum.L) and oats (Avena sativa) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Nayyar, Harsh; Dharamvir, Keya; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructures have recently been reported by various research groups to induce growth enhancement in variety of crops. In this report 30-40 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at two concentrations were found to enhance the total biomass yield of wheat and oats. Treating plants with up to 100 µl /mL and 200 µl /mL of AuNPs shows an increased growth and germination rate. The noticeable difference in fresh weight and relative leaf water content were recorded. The fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy detected the gold nanoparticles inside the seedling.

  9. Photobiostimulation effects on germination and early growth of wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L) produced by a semiconductor laser with λ=980nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michtchenko, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the exposure of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) seeds to a IR laser radiation with λ=980nm produced by a semiconductor laser on germination and early growth had been studied under laboratory conditions. Seeds were irradiated to one of two laser intensities 15 mWcm - ''2 or 30 mWcm -2 for different periods of time 30, 60 or 120 s. Seeds exposed to a light intensity of 15mWcm -2 and an exposition time of 30 s. showed an increase on the percentage of seeds germinated normally while the percentage of seeds germinated abnormally decreased. At the same time there is a stimulation effect on the growth of the stem and on the growth of the root of 10% on wheat seedlings over control seedlings. Significant differences (ρ < 0.001) were observed between the control and the above treatment. (Author)

  10. The Alleviating Effect of Elevated CO2 on Heat Stress Susceptibility of Two Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, Sindhuja; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day...... in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after 1 day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison with plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll...... to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence crop performance under various climatic stresses....

  11. Evaluation of fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between characterictics of flour of common wheat varieties and fresh pasta-making qualitites was examined, and the fresh pasta-making properties of extra-strong varieties that have extra-strong dough were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between mixing time (PT) and hardness of boiled pasta, indicating that the hardness of boiled pasta was affected by dough properties. Boiled pasta made from extra-strong varieties, Yumechikara, Hokkai 262 and Hokkai 259, was harder than that from other varieties and commercial flour. There was a negative correlation between flour protein content and brightness of boiled pasta. The colors of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara and Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of standard manuring culture were superior to those of boiled pasta made from other varieties. Discoloration of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was caused by increase of flour protein content. On the other hand, discoloration of boiled pasta made from Hokkai 262 grown under the condition of heavy manuring culture was less than that of boiled pasta made from Yumechikara. These results indicate that pasta made from extra-strong wheat varieties has good hardness and that Hokkai 262 has extraordinary fresh pasta-making properties.

  12. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can enhance root elongation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xiuping; Han Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Liu Xueqin; Gu Xiaoxu; Chen Kun; Lu Donglian [Huazhong Agricultural University, College of Science, State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Biology (China)

    2012-06-15

    The potential effects of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) with a length ranging from 50 to 630 nm on the development and physiology of wheat plants were evaluated by examining their effects on seed germination, root elongation, stem length, and vegetative biomass at a concentration ranging from 10 to 160 {mu}g/mL in the plant. Results indicated that after 7 days of exposure to the o-MWCNTs medium, faster root growth and higher vegetative biomass were observed, but seed germination and stem length did not show any difference as compared with controls. Moreover, a physiological study was conducted at cellular level using a traditional physiological approach to evidence the possible alterations in morphology, the cell length of root zone, and the dehydrogenase activity of seedlings. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that o-MWCNTs could penetrate the cell wall and enter the cytoplasm after being taken up by roots. The cell length of root zone for the seedlings germinated and grown in the o-MWCNTs (80 {mu}g/mL) medium increased by 1.4-fold and a significant concentration-dependent increase in the dehydrogenase activity for the o-MWCNT-treated wheat seedlings was detected. These findings suggest that o-MWCNTs can significantly promote cell elongation in the root system and increase the dehydrogenase activity, resulting in faster root growth and higher biomass production.

  13. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes can enhance root elongation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuping; Han Heyou; Liu Xueqin; Gu Xiaoxu; Chen Kun; Lu Donglian

    2012-01-01

    The potential effects of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (o-MWCNTs) with a length ranging from 50 to 630 nm on the development and physiology of wheat plants were evaluated by examining their effects on seed germination, root elongation, stem length, and vegetative biomass at a concentration ranging from 10 to 160 μg/mL in the plant. Results indicated that after 7 days of exposure to the o-MWCNTs medium, faster root growth and higher vegetative biomass were observed, but seed germination and stem length did not show any difference as compared with controls. Moreover, a physiological study was conducted at cellular level using a traditional physiological approach to evidence the possible alterations in morphology, the cell length of root zone, and the dehydrogenase activity of seedlings. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that o-MWCNTs could penetrate the cell wall and enter the cytoplasm after being taken up by roots. The cell length of root zone for the seedlings germinated and grown in the o-MWCNTs (80 μg/mL) medium increased by 1.4-fold and a significant concentration-dependent increase in the dehydrogenase activity for the o-MWCNT-treated wheat seedlings was detected. These findings suggest that o-MWCNTs can significantly promote cell elongation in the root system and increase the dehydrogenase activity, resulting in faster root growth and higher biomass production.

  14. Determination of Main Plant Sterols in Turkish Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erdem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant sterols are belong to triterpenes family of natural products which includes more than 200 different types of plant sterols and more than 4000 other types of triterpenes. The optimization of method, specially the derivatization step as well as the corresponding analytical validation, is the main goal of this study. The optimum temperature, time and reagent volume of derivatization step were obtained at 60°C, 60 minutes and 50 µL, respectively. A rapid and sensitive gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for quantitative analysis of the most common plant sterols (β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol in 20 Turkish bread wheat cultivars using GC-MS-SIM. Separation of β-cholestanol (I.S, campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol was achieved on Rxi (5Sil MS column (60 m×0.25 mm. The limits of detection for β-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol were 0.074, 0.054 and 0.064 mg kg-1, respectively with RSD ≤ 0.66%. The obtained concentrations of campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol from 20 Turkish bread wheat cultivars ranged from: 15.30 to 76.02, 4.27 to 23.23 and 303.21 to 682.66 mg kg-1, respectively.

  15. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-02-18

    Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0%) and 2,788 (41.5%) rare alleles with frequencies of varieties displayed a wider average LD decay across the whole genome for locus pairs with r(2)>0.05 (Pvarieties. LD decay distances were also somewhat different for each of the 21 chromosomes, being higher for most of the chromosomes in modern varieties (<5 ∼ 25 cM) compared to landraces (<5 ∼ 15 cM), presumably indicating the influences of domestication and breeding. This study facilitates predicting the marker density required to effectively associate genotypes with traits in Chinese wheat genetic resources.

  16. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Amin Ullah; Hadi, Fazal; Midrarullah; Nawaz, Muhammad Asif; Rahman, Khaista

    2017-07-01

    Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increases MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzymes. A significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R 2  = 0.966 ∗∗∗ ), phenolic (R 2  = 0.741 ∗ ) and chlorophyll (R 2  = 0.853 ∗∗ ). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R 2  = 0.983 ∗∗∗ ) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation-induced chromosome breakages in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    Meiosis and pollen fertility were studied in the M 2 generation in four varieties of hexaploid wheat. Meiosis was characterized by the formation of interchange configurations, such as rings and chains of four chromosomes in several cells. Chromosomal aberrations showed linear relationship with gamma irradiation; 45 kR dose induced the highest chromosomal abnormalities. Most multivalents were interchange rings of four chromosomes. Translocations involving two pairs of homologous or nonhomologous chromosomes seemed to be higher in frequency than those involving more than two pairs of chromosomes. Anaphase abnormalities, such as laggards, bridges and fragments and unequal segregation of chromosomes, were frequently observed. Pollen fertility was considerably reduced in the M 2 plants arising form the treatments of higher doses of gamma rays because of the induced chromosome interchanges. (author)

  18. Influence of stress conditions on irradiated wheat cultivar (triticum aestivum L.). Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, T Z [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This study was carried out from 1992-1994. It aimed to study genetic improvement in yield components namely: shoot length, shoot dry weight, and leaf area at 4, 8, and 12 weeks age under salt stress condition; plant, dry weight/plant earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100 - grain weight at harvest time under drought stress in three mutagenic generations. Results of the two experiments showed that the most suitable mutagenic dose was 75 Gy gamma ray, which caused improvement in stress tolerance for SK{sub 6}9 wheat cultivar by increased growth behaviour, and/or maintaining an active metabolism in plants under salinity and drought conditions. 3 tabs.

  19. Ammonium sulphate and urea use efficiency in wheat (triticum aestivum) through isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, M.A.; Pappa, J.L.; Aldana, F.

    1993-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out to evaluate the use efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer in wheat crop, using urea and ammonium sulphate 5% N-15 atom excess. The experiments were conducted at the ICTA Experimental Center 'Labor Ovalle', Quetzaltenango. In one of them, the time of the largest use efficiency by the crop was determined, for which three times of applications were evaluated: at sowing, 35 and 55 days after sowing with a total rate of 100 kg nitrogen per hectare, applying fertilizer dissolved in water. In the other experiment the application of fertilizer solid and dissolved in water was compared. The use efficiency was similar for nitrogen sources, but not for time and type of application being 35 days and fertilizer dissolved the treatments with best use efficiency

  20. The application and implications of gamma radiation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandapore, A.A.K.; Hasnain, S.M.; Sayal, O.U.

    1999-01-01

    The cultivars Khyber 87 (irrigated areas) and Pirsabak 91 (rainfed areas) of wheat were irradiated with varying level of gamma rays at Agriculture Research Institute, D.I. Khan during 1995-96. Observations were noted for plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per spike, 1000-grain weight and grains yield per plant and found highly significant after analysis. Low level of radiation; 10 Krad and 15 Krad has shown some stimulation upon plant growth and yield, but slight higher level caused decline in mean value of corresponding character. Both varieties behaved different for quality and quantity attributes although radiation time and environmental factors were controlled. The overall performance of Pirsabak 91 was praiseworthy. Hence this variety is suggested to the farmers for multiplication and researchers for exploration

  1. [Resistance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to preharvest sprouting: an association analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, S P; Dobrotvorskaia, T V

    2012-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the data about 1422 bread wheat accessions with estimated preharvest sprouting was carried out. Close associations of preharvest sprouting resistance with the grain color and with resistance to Fusarium head blight were revealed, as well as weak, but statistically significant, associations with the type of development, awnedness, and reduced height genes Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 (insensitive to gibberellin GA3). The pedigree analysis showed that the cluster structures of the gene pools of the North American red-grained and white-grained varieties are practically identical. In both groups, varieties that are resistant to preharvest sprouting differ from susceptible ones in the percentage of the contributions of the Crimean and Mediterranean landraces. Resistance is associated with a high contribution by the Crimean landrace and susceptibility is associated with a high contribution by the Mediterranean landrace.

  2. Expression and functional analysis of TaASY1 during meiosis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langridge Peter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes is required for normal chromosome segregation and the exchange of genetic material via recombination during meiosis. Synapsis is complete at pachytene following the formation of a tri-partite proteinaceous structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC. In yeast, HOP1 is essential for formation of the SC, and localises along chromosome axes during prophase I. Homologues in Arabidopsis (AtASY1, Brassica (BoASY1 and rice (OsPAIR2 have been isolated through analysis of mutants that display decreased fertility due to severely reduced synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Analysis of these genes has indicated that they play a similar role to HOP1 in pairing and formation of the SC through localisation to axial/lateral elements of the SC. Results The full length wheat cDNA and genomic clone, TaASY1, has been isolated, sequenced and characterised. TaASY1 is located on chromosome Group 5 and the open reading frame displays significant nucleotide sequence identity to OsPAIR2 (84% and AtASY1 (63%. Transcript and protein analysis showed that expression is largely restricted to meiotic tissue, with elevated levels during the stages of prophase I when pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes occur. Immunolocalisation using transmission electron microscopy showed TaASY1 interacts with chromatin that is associated with both axial elements before SC formation as well as lateral elements of formed SCs. Conclusion TaASY1 is a homologue of ScHOP1, AtASY1 and OsPAIR2 and is the first gene to be isolated from bread wheat that is involved in pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes.

  3. Physiological, Biochemical, Epigenetic and Molecular Analyses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum Genotypes with Contrasting Salt Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress exerts significant impact on plant’s growth, development, and productivity. Productivity of crop plants under salt stress is lagging behind because of our limited knowledge about physiological, biochemical, epigenetic, and molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in plants. This study aimed to investigate physio-biochemical, molecular indices and defense responses of selected wheat cultivars to identify the most contrasting salt-responsive genotypes and the mechanisms associated with their differential responses. Physio-biochemical traits specifically membrane stability index, antioxidant potential, osmoprotectants and chlorophyll contents, measured at vegetative stage, were used for multivariate analysis to identify the most contrasting genotypes. Genetic and epigenetic analyses indicated the possible mechanisms associated with differential response of the wheat genotypes under salt stress. Better antioxidant potential, membrane stability, increased accumulation of osmolytes/phytophenolics, and higher K+/Na+ ratio under 200 mM NaCl stress identified Kharchia-65 to be the most salt-tolerant cultivar. By contrast, increased MDA level, reduced soluble sugar, proline, total chlorophyll, total phenolics contents, and lower antioxidant potential in HD-2329 marked it to be sensitive to the stress. Genetic and bioinformatics analyses of HKT1;4 of contrasting genotypes (Kharchia-65 and HD-2329 revealed deletions, transitions, and transversions resulting into altered structure, loss of conserved motifs (Ser-Gly-Gly-Gly and Gly-Arg and function in salt-sensitive (HD-2329 genotype. Expression analysis of HKTs rationalized the observed responses. Epigenetic variations in cytosine methylation explained tissue- and genotype-specific differential expression of HKT2;1 and HKT2;3.

  4. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.; Naseer-ud-Din, G.M.; Ilahi, F.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of bromoxynil + MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free -1 -1 control. Bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha/sup -1/) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ ) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  5. Comparative efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides in wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzad, M.A.; Nadeem, M.A.; Sarwar, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of different post-emergence herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat during a Rabi season 2008-09. Experiment comprised of six treatments, i.e. weed-infested control, pyroxasulfone at 50 g a.i ha/sup -1/, metribuzin at 250 g a.i ha/sup -1/, isoproturon at 1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/, clodinafop propargyl at 240 g a.i ha/sup -1/ and bromoxynil+MCPA at 247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/ as post-emergence herbicides. Results revealed that Post-emergence application of isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha-1) proved to be best for obtaining maximum grain plus straw yield up to the level of weed-free control. Bromoxynil+MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) and clodinafop propargyl (240 g a.i ha-1) also gave maximum spike bearing tillers, number of grains spike-1 and 1000-grain weight. Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) strictly reduced the weeds population as well as biomass as compared to weed-infested control. Poor weed control was achieved by using pyroxasulfone and metribuzin treatments. Hence, post-emergence Isoproturon (1080 g a.i ha/sup -1/) followed by bromoxynil + MCPA (247+247 g a.i ha/sup -1/) was provide to be the most effective herbicide against weeds and resulted in maximum wheat yield. (author)

  6. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  7. In vitro evaluation of boron tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondić-Špika Ankica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat tolerance to high boron concentrations was determined using mature embryo culture. The testing was performed on a modified MS nutrient medium to which boric acid was added in two concentrations: 15 mM and 30 mM. The control medium contained no excess boric acid. The experiment involved 14 Serbian varieties. After one month of cultivation callus fresh weight (CFW was measured and reductions of fresh callus weight (RFCW at boron (B concentration of 15 mM in relation to the control were calculated. The genotypes differed significantly according to their reaction to different B concentrations. Six genotypes had RFCWs below 50.0 %, while eight genotypes had RFCWs above 50.1 %. Cultivars Nevesinjka and Pesma were considered the most tolerant genotypes, while cultivars Balada and Vila were the most sensitive. The results confirmed that differences in genotype reactions to excess B are visible at the cellular level and that they may serve as a selection criterion. .

  8. Use of irradiated pollen for differential gene transfer in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snape, J.W.; Parker, B.B.; Simpson, E.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Payne, P.I.; Law, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The use of irradiated pollen to bring about limited gene transfer in wheat has been investigated. Doses of X-rays of 2Kr, 3Kr and 5Kr were used to generate M/sub 1/ progeny between maternal and paternal genotypes differing in quantitative and major gene characters. Cytological studies of M/sub 1/ plants revealed hybrids with widespread aneuploidy and structural rearrangements in the paternal genome. These effects resulted in phenotypic variation between M/sub 1/ progeny and complex multivalent formation at meiosis. All M/sub 1/ plants at the 5Kr and 3Kr doses were sterile and all but 2 plants at the 2Kr dose. Studies of the two M/sub 2/ families from these plants revealed disturbances in genotype frequencies for some of the marker loci with an excess of maternal homozygotes and a deficit of paternal homozygotes. This was also reflected in a more maternal appearance for quantitative characters. These results are interpreted as showing that irradiation damage to the paternal genome in M/sub 1/ plants results in the differential transmission of maternal alleles.

  9. The use of irradiated pollen for differential gene transfer in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snape, J.W.; Parker, B.B.; Simpson, E.; Ainsworth, C.C.; Payne, P.I.; Law, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    The use of irradiated pollen to bring about limited gene transfer in wheat has been investigated. Doses of X-rays of 2Kr, 3Kr and 5Kr were used to generate M 1 progeny between maternal and paternal genotypes differing in quantitative and major gene characters. Cytological studies of M 1 plants revealed hybrids with widespread aneuploidy and structural rearrangements in the paternal genome. These effects resulted in phenotypic variation between M 1 progeny and complex multivalent formation at meiosis. All M 1 plants at the 5Kr and 3Kr doses were sterile and all but 2 plants at the 2Kr dose. Studies of the two M 2 families from these plants revealed disturbances in genotype frequencies for some of the marker loci with an excess of maternal homozygotes and a deficit of paternal homozygotes. This was also reflected in a more maternal appearance for quantitative characters. These results are interpreted as showing that irradiation damage to the paternal genome in M 1 plants results in the differential transmission of maternal alleles. (orig.)

  10. Streptomyces tritici sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junwei; Shi, Linlin; Li, Wenchao; Wang, Jiabin; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2018-02-01

    Two novel actinomycete isolates, designated strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3, were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains coincided with those of the genus Streptomyces. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the two isolates exhibited 99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with each other and that they were most closely related to Streptomyces violaceorectus DSM 40279 T (98.8, 99.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains clustered together and formed a separate subclade. Furthermore, a combination of DNA-DNA hybridization results and some physiological and biochemical properties demonstrated that the two strains could be distinguished from its closest relative. Therefore, it is proposed that strains NEAU-A4 T and NEAU-A3 should be classified as representatives of a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomycestritici sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-A4 T (=CGMCC 4.7393 T =DSM 104540 T ).

  11. RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of Herbaspirillum seropedicae colonizing wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, V C S; Camilios-Neto, D; Bonato, P; Balsanelli, E; Tadra-Sfeir, M Z; Faoro, H; Chubatsu, L S; Donatti, L; Wajnberg, G; Passetti, F; Monteiro, R A; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2016-04-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is a diazotrophic and endophytic bacterium that associates with economically important grasses promoting plant growth and increasing productivity. To identify genes related to bacterial ability to colonize plants, wheat seedlings growing hydroponically in Hoagland's medium were inoculated with H. seropedicae and incubated for 3 days. Total mRNA from the bacteria present in the root surface and in the plant medium were purified, depleted from rRNA and used for RNA-seq profiling. RT-qPCR analyses were conducted to confirm regulation of selected genes. Comparison of RNA profile of root attached and planktonic bacteria revealed extensive metabolic adaptations to the epiphytic life style. These adaptations include expression of specific adhesins and cell wall re-modeling to attach to the root. Additionally, the metabolism was adapted to the microxic environment and nitrogen-fixation genes were expressed. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis was activated, and PHB granules were stored as observed by microscopy. Genes related to plant growth promotion, such as auxin production were expressed. Many ABC transporter genes were regulated in the bacteria attached to the roots. The results provide new insights into the adaptation of H. seropedicae to the interaction with the plant.

  12. Analysis of diversity and linkage disequilibrium along chromosome 3B of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Aniko; Didier, Audrey; Koenig, Jean; Exbrayat, Florence; Charmet, Gilles; Balfourier, François

    2009-11-01

    A highly polymorphic core collection of bread wheat and a more narrow-based breeding material, gathered from pedigrees of seven modern cultivars, was analysed in order to compare genetic diversity indices and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns along the chromosome 3B with microsatellite (SSR) and Diversity Arrays Technology markers. Five ancestral gene pools could be identified within the core collection, indicating a strong geographical structure (Northwest Europe, Southeast Europe, CIMMYT-ICARDA group, Asia, Nepal). The breeding material showed a temporal structure, corresponding to different periods of breeding programmes [old varieties (from old landraces to 1919), semi-modern varieties (1920-1959), modern varieties (1960-2006)]. Basic statistics showed a higher genetic diversity in the core collection than in the breeding material, indicating a stronger selection pressure in this latter material. More generally, the chromosome 3B had a lower diversity than the whole B-genome. LD was weak in all studied materials. Amongst geographical groups, the CIMMYT-ICARDA pool presented the longest ranged LD in contrast to Asian accessions. In the breeding material, LD increased from old cultivars to modern varieties. Genitors of seven modern cultivars were found to be different; most marker pairs in significant LD were observed amongst genitors of Alexandre and Koreli varieties, indicating an important inbreeding effect. At low genetic distances (0-5 cM), the breeding material had higher LD than the core collection, but globally the two materials had similar values in all classes. Marker pairs in significant LD are generally observed around the centromere in both arms and at distal position on the short arm of the chromosome 3B.

  13. Effects of rhizobial bacteria on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S homayoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major agricultural problems and it is limiting crop productivity in many parts of the cultivated areas all over the world. Saline soils are differentiated by the presence of great ratios of Na/Ca, Na/K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl/NO3 (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 and high levels of neutral salts in the surface layers, which are resulting from the capillary action (Al-Falih, 2002. Osmotic stress occurs when soluble salts increase in the soils and then results in specific ion toxicity (Agarwal & Ahmad, 2010. Therefore, one of the most important side effects of salinity is nutritional disorders. High concentration of NaCl in the root medium usually reduces nutrients uptake and affects the transportation of potassium and calcium ions in plant. (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 reported that the salinity of soils changes ionic strength of the substrate and it can influence mineral nutrient uptake and translocation. Salinity also changes the mineral nutrient availability and disrupts the mineral relations of plants. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of rhizobial bacteria inoculation on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils. Material and methods Soil sample was collected from Astan Ghodse Razavi farm, Mashhad Iran, and then was dried and passed through a 12-mesh (approximately 2 mm screen. Soil sample was divided into three parts and then was placed into three containers. Each container was watered by a different proportion of saline water (EC= 10 dS.m-1. Salinity of soils was regularly monitored until three salinities (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 came out. Then, a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement was carried out in a greenhouse condition. The experimental factors included four levels of inoculation (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum and control and three levels of soil salinity (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 with

  14. Isobolographic Analysis for Mixture Effects of Mesosulfuron-Methyl+Iodosulfuron with Pinoxaden in Wheat (Triticum aestivum

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    masoud kargar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Farmers usually combine various herbicides with the aim of reducing the number of machinery passes across the field, preventing weed resistance to herbicides, and saving time and money. Combination of herbicides is not only recommended for the management of herbicide resistance, but for increasing efficacy compare with a single herbicide application and expanding spectrum weed control. Materials and Methods: In order to assess the mixing herbicides that used in wheat, several experiments were conducted in the Research greenhouse and Farm of Agricultural Faculty of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. The greenhouse experiments were arranged in a completely randomize design with a factorial arrangement of treatments with four replications. Greenhouse studies were included two combination experiments. Experiments included of 7 doses (0, 2.25, 4.5, 9, 13.5, and 18 g ai ha-1 of mesosulfuron-methyl+iodosulfuron and (0, 5.6, 11.25, 22.5, 33.75, and 45 g ai ha-1 of pinoxaden (Axial 10% EC, EC; Syngenta, Switzerland alone on wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu and littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris minor Rtez.. Wild oat seeds were sown in pots directly. Littleseed canarygrass seeds were placed in petri dishes with 9 cm diameter which contains a layer of filter paper then 6 ml of KNO3 solution (2 g L-1 was added to each petri dish. Petri dishes were kept for 10 days at 4 to 5 °C in the refrigerator in darkness condition and then transferred to a germinator with 20/10 °C temperature in 45/65% relative humidity for a 16/8 h day/night. Then, they were planted in 1L plastic pots filled with a mixture of clay, loam soil, and sand (1:1:1 v/v/v. The pots were irrigated every two days. The seedlings were thinned to 4 plants in per pot. The spray treatment was done at the three to four-leaf stage by using an overhead trolley sprayer (Matabi 121030 Super Agro 20 L sprayer; Agratech Services-Crop Spraying Equipment, Rossendale, UK, equipped

  15. Effect of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Azotobacter Application on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Qualitative Traits under Dry Condition of Khorramabad

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    behroz amraei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is the most important agricultural product which provides the biggest fraction of food to meet human needs. Human aims to increase agricultural productions via increasing of the yield per area and application different agronomic practices like fertilizers. As a result of these activities, some issues like environmental pollution and particularly pollution of water and soil resources with some pollutants which can enter in the human food chain and threaten their health became a global concern.. Sustainable agriculture is a system that is able to improve the environmental situation with optimum use of available resources and has a great role in supplying human food demands and promoting life quality of human societies. One of the most important principles of sustainable agriculture is the application of bio- fertilizers in agroecosystems to decrease the amount of chemical compounds. Mycorrhizal symbiosis is one of the ecological practices represents the ancient history of the symbiotic relation of the Mycorrhiza fungus with plants in most of the ecosystems. Most of the plants (about 95 percent of vascular plant species at least can have a symbiotic relation with one of the mycorrhizal species. Reviewing the influence of glumous spp. fungus on the growth of Wheat shows the role of fungus in increasing the contents of phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and calcium in plant seeds and shoot. Also Azotobacter as a bacterial biofertilizer leads to more absorption and increasing the concentration of some necessary elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, mg, Fe, and the protein content of crops. Material and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 agronomical year with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications. In this experiment the effects of two biological fertilizers (1. Mycorrhiza in two levels of M1= inoculation and M2= no inoculation, 2

  16. Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Aamer; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Riaz; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Delayed sowing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton-based system reduces the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system. In this scenario, relay cropping of wheat in standing cotton might be a viable option to ensure the timely wheat sowing with simultaneous improvement in wheat yields and system profitability. This 2-year study (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) aimed to evaluate the influence of sowing dates and relay cropping combined with different management techniques of cotton sticks on the wheat yield, soil physical properties, and the profitability of the cotton-wheat system. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz. (S1) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, (S2) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator, (S3) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November as relay crop in standing cotton with broadcast method, (S4) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, and (S5) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator. The highest seed cotton yield was observed in the S5 treatment which was statistically similar with the S3 and S4 treatments; seed cotton yield in the S1 and S2 treatments has been the lowest in both years of experimentation. However, the S2 treatment produced substantially higher root length, biological yield, and grain yield of wheat than the other treatments. The lower soil bulk density at 0-10-cm depth was recorded in the S2 treatment which was statistically similar with the S5 treatment during both years of experimentation. The volumetric water contents, net

  17. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  18. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Li

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./faba bean (Vicia faba L. intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  20. The dynamic process of interspecific interactions of competitive nitrogen capture between intercropped wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Dong, Yan; Li, Haigang; Shen, Jianbo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7-12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants.

  1. Impact of transgene genome location on gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Maqsood; Hansen, Jennifer L; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Zemetra, Robert S

    2017-08-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) (ABD) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) (CD) can cross and produce hybrids that can backcross to either parent. Such backcrosses can result in progeny with chromosomes and/or chromosome segments retained from wheat. Thus, a herbicide resistance gene could migrate from wheat to jointed goatgrass. In theory, the risk of gene migration from herbicide-resistant wheat to jointed goatgrass is more likely if the gene is located on the D genome and less likely if the gene is located on the A or B genome of wheat. BC 1 populations (jointed goatgrass as a recurrent parent) were analyzed for chromosome numbers and transgene transmission rates under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions. Transgene retention in the non-sprayed BC 1 generation for the A, B and D genomes was 84, 60 and 64% respectively. In the sprayed populations, the retention was 81, 59 and 74% respectively. The gene transmission rates were higher than the expected 50% or less under sprayed and non-sprayed conditions, possibly owing to meiotic chromosome restitution and/or chromosome non-disjunction. Such high transmission rates in the BC 1 generation negates the benefits of gene placement for reducing the potential of gene migration from wheat to jointed goatgrass. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Interaction effects on uptake and toxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances and cadmium in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Fan, Ziyan; Sun, Lihui; Zhou, Tao; Xing, Yuliang; Liu, Lifen

    2017-03-01

    A vegetation study was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and Cadmium (Cd) on soil enzyme activities, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rapeseed (Brassica campestris L.) from co-contaminated soil. Soil urease activities were inhibited significantly but catalase activities were promoted significantly by interaction of PFASs and Cd which had few effects on sucrase activities. Joint stress with PFASs and Cd decreased the biomass of plants and chlorophyll (Chl) content in both wheat and rapeseed, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were increased in wheat but inhibited in rapeseed compared with single treatments. The bioconcentration abilities of PFASs in wheat and rapeseed were decreased, and the translocation factor of PFASs was decreased in wheat but increased in rapeseed with Cd addition. The bioaccumulation and translocation abilities of Cd were increased significantly in both wheat and rapeseed with PFASs addition. These findings suggested important evidence that the co-existence of PFASs and Cd reduced the bioavailability of PFASs while enhanced the bioavailability of Cd in soil, which increased the associated environmental risk for Cd but decreased for PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of soil drought stress on plant regeneration efficiency and endogenous hormone levels of immature embryos in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, X.; Wang, K.; Liu, C.; Du, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the water supply in soil for wheat mother donor plants was controlled, leading to drought stress conditions, and the relative soil water content (RSWC) was measured in different soil depths. The immature embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 13 days post anthesis (DPA) were used to test regeneration capacity. The accumulation of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) including abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the wheat embryos grown under the two conditions was measured. The results indicated that RSWC difference between the drought treatment and the irrigated control was more than 13% at the various soil depths, with the maximum difference was observed at 40 cm depth. Tissue culture evaluation showed that the plant regeneration efficiency of the immature embryos grown under drought stress treatment was significantly higher than that of the tissues grown under the control condition. Assay for PGR found that the drought stress caused obviously increased concentration of endogenous ABA and H2O2, and slightly decreased level of IAA in the target tissues. Therefore, it seems that the concentration of endogenous ABA, IAA, and H2O2 in immature wheat embryos is very important in regeneration capacity. Drought stress can improve the regeneration capacity by changing the levels of ABA, IAA, and H2O2. Our results would be helpful to efficient development of genetically modified wheat plants through improvement of regeneration via manipulating the endogenous PGRs. (author)

  4. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for endogenous reference gene for specific detection and quantification of common wheat-derived DNA (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautrin, Sonia; Zhang, David

    2007-01-01

    A species-specific endogenous reference gene system was developed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by targeting the ALMT1 gene, an aluminium-activated malate transporter. The primers and probe were elaborated for real-time PCR-based qualitative and quantitative assay. The size of amplified product is 95 base pairs. The specificity was assessed on 17 monocot and dicot plant species. The established real-time PCR assay amplified only T. aestivum-derived DNA; no amplification occurred on other phylogenetically related species, including durum wheat (T. durum). The robustness of the system was tested on the DNA of 15 common wheat cultivars using 20 000 genomic copies per PCR the mean cycle threshold (Ct) values of 24.02 +/- 0.251 were obtained. The absolute limits of detection and quantification of the real-time PCR assay were estimated to 2 and 20 haploid genome copies of common wheat, respectively. The linearity was experimentally validated on 2-fold serial dilutions of DNA from 650 to 20 000 haploid genome copies. All these results show that the real-time PCR assay developed on the ALMT1 gene is suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for PCR-based specific detection and quantification of T. aestivum-derived DNA in various applications, in particular for the detection and quantification of genetically modified materials in common wheat.

  5. Logistic Regression Analysis of the Response of Winter Wheat to Components of Artificial Freezing Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improvement of cold tolerance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through breeding methods has been problematic. A better understanding of how individual wheat cultivars respond to components of the freezing process may provide new information that can be used to develop more cold tolerance culti...

  6. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...

  7. Evaluation of Salt Stress Effect on the Agro-Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. at the Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Golkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of salt stress on some agro-physiological traits in ten varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L. and durum (Triticum turgidum L. wheats in seedling stage. A greenhouse experiment was carried out as a split plot experiment based on a completely randomized design with four replications in hydroponic condition. Different agronomic and physiological traits (such as Na+, K+, Ca+2 contents and relative water content (RWC were studied. Salinity showed significant effect on all of the studied traits, except for root dry weight and the ratio of Na+/Ca+2. Increase in NaCl level led to significant reductions in all studied traits. The studied genotypes showed significant difference for radicle length, leaf length, seedling dry weight, leaf dry weight, root dry weight, RWC and Na+, K+, Ca+2 concentrations and Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca+2 ratios. The genotype × salinity interaction was significant for RWC, Na+, Ca+2 and Na+/Ca+2. The salt stress increased the leaf Na+ while it decreased the K+ and Ca2+ concentrations. The greatest shoot dry weight (0.035 g, root dry weight (0.024 g and Na+/Ca+2 ratio (1.71 were found in genotype Alamot (bread wheat and the greatest plantlet length (12 cm was observed in genotype Verinak. The greatest rootlet length (14.63 cm, dry weight of seedlings (0.057 g, RWC (82.20%, membrane stability (0.59, K+ (3.38 mg/g dry weight and the smallest Na+/K+ ratio (0.17 were detected in genotype Toos (bread wheat. The genotype Toos was identified as the most tolerant genotype to salt stress.

  8. Evaluation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Seed Quality of Certified Seed and Farm-Saved Seed in Three Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaei Fardin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the seed quality aspects of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and the extent of weed seed contamination present in wheat seeds produced in different regions of Iran. Four districts (cities, each including 12 fields (six certified seed fields and six farm-saved seed fields, were selected in each regions (provinces. One kilogram of the wheat seed sample was collected from each field for analysis in the laboratory. Wheat seeding was commonly done by farm-saved seed sourced from within the farm due to the high costs of certified seeds purchased from outside sources, followed by the low seed quality. The use of a farm-saved seed resulted in a higher germination rate and a lower mean time to germination compared with another system. The more positive temperatures experienced by mother plants could decrease the number of normal seedling and seedling length vigor index. Generally there was virtually no difference about physiological quality between certified seed and farm-saved seed sector that is related to lower quality of certified seed. The certified produced seeds had the lower number of weed seed, species and genus before and after cleaning. The highest seed purity and 1000 seed weight was obtained from the certified seed production system. The need for cleaning the farm-saved seed samples before sowing is one of the important findings of this survey.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of NB-ARC resistant genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their expression during leaf rust infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saket; Kazmi, Andaleeb Z; Ahmed, Zainab; Roychowdhury, Gargi; Kumari, Veena; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-07-01

    NB-ARC domain-containing resistance genes from the wheat genome were identified, characterized and localized on chromosome arms that displayed differential yet positive response during incompatible and compatible leaf rust interactions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal crop; however, its production is affected severely by numerous diseases including rusts. An efficient, cost-effective and ecologically viable approach to control pathogens is through host resistance. In wheat, high numbers of resistance loci are present but only few have been identified and cloned. A comprehensive analysis of the NB-ARC-containing genes in complete wheat genome was accomplished in this study. Complete NB-ARC encoding genes were mined from the Ensembl Plants database to predict 604 NB-ARC containing sequences using the HMM approach. Genome-wide analysis of orthologous clusters in the NB-ARC-containing sequences of wheat and other members of the Poaceae family revealed maximum homology with Oryza sativa indica and Brachypodium distachyon. The identification of overlap between orthologous clusters enabled the elucidation of the function and evolution of resistance proteins. The distributions of the NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were found to be balanced among the three wheat sub-genomes. Wheat chromosome arms 4AL and 7BL had the most NB-ARC domain-containing contigs. The spatio-temporal expression profiling studies exemplified the positive role of these genes in resistant and susceptible wheat plants during incompatible and compatible interaction in response to the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina. Two NB-ARC domain-containing sequences were modelled in silico, cloned and sequenced to analyze their fine structures. The data obtained in this study will augment isolation, characterization and application NB-ARC resistance genes in marker-assisted selection based breeding programs for improving rust resistance in wheat.

  10. Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism(FSRAP markers for the construction of a genetic linkage map of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lingbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel fluorescent sequence-related amplified polymorphism (FSRAP markers were developed based on the SRAP molecular marker. Then, the FSRAP markers were used to construct the genetic map of a wheat (Triticum aestivumL. recombinant inbred line population derived from a Chuanmai 42×Chuannong 16 cross. Reproducibility and polymorphism tests indicated that the FSRAP markers have repeatability and better reflect the polymorphism of wheat varieties compared with SRAP markers. A total of 430 polymorphic loci between Chuanmai 42 and Chuannong 16 were detected with 189 FSRAP primer combinations. A total of 281 FSARP markers and 39 SSR markers re classified into 20 linkage groups. The maps spanned a total length of 2499.3cM with an average distance of 7.81cM between markers. A total of 201 markers were mapped on the B genome and covered a distance of 1013cM. On the A genome, 84 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 849.6cM. On the D genome, however, only 35 markers were mapped and covered a distance of 636.7cM. No FSRAP markers were distributed on the 7D chromosome. The results of the present study revealed that the novel FSRAP markers can be used to generate dense, uniform genetic maps of wheat.

  11. [Analysis of diversity of Russian and Ukrainian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotvorskaia, T V; Martynov, S P

    2011-07-01

    The allelic diversity of high-moleculat-weght glutenin subunits (H WIGS) in Russian and Ukrainian bread wheat cultivars was analyzed. The diversity of spring wheat cultivars for alleles of the Glu-1 loci is characterized by medium values of the polymorphism index (polymorphism information content, PlC), and in winter wheats it varies from high at the Glu-A1 locus to low at the Glu-D1 locus. The spring and winter cultivars differ significantly in the frequencies of alleles of the glutenin loci. The combination of the Glu-A1b, Glu-B1c, and Glu-D1a alleles prevails among the spring cultivars, and the combination of the Glu-A1a, Glu-B1c, and Glu-D1d alleles prevails among the winter cultivars. The distribution of the Glu-1 alleles significantly depends on the moisture and heat supply in the region of origin of the cultivars. Drought resistance is associated with the Glu-D1a allele in the spring wheat and with the Glu-B1b allele in the winter wheat. The sources of the Glu-1 alleles were identified in the spring and wheat cultivars. The analysis of independence of the distribution of the spring and winter cultivars by the market classes and by the alleles of the HMWGS loci showed a highly significant association of the alleles of three Glu-1 loci with the market classes in foreign cultivars and independence or a weak association in the Russian and Ukrainian cultivars. This seems to be due to the absence of a statistically substantiated system of classification of the domestic cultivars on the basis of their quality.

  12. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  13. Starch characteristics of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) overexpressing the Dx5 high molecular weight glutenin subunit are substantially equivalent to those in nonmodified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckles, Diane M; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    The effects of engineering higher levels of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Dx5 subunit on starch characteristics in transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain were evaluated. This is important because of the interrelationship between starch and protein accumulation in grain, the strong biotechnological interest in modulating Dx5 levels and the increasing likelihood that transgenic wheat will be commercialized in the U.S. Unintended effects of Dx5 overexpression on starch could affect wheat marketability and therefore should be examined. Two controls with native levels of Dx5 were used: (i) the nontransformed Bobwhite cultivar, and (ii) a transgenic line (Bar-D) expressing a herbicide resistant (bar) gene, and they were compared with 2 transgenic lines (Dx5G and Dx5J) containing bar and additional copies of Dx5. There were few changes between Bar-D and Dx5G compared to Bobwhite. However, Dx5J, the line with the highest Dx5 protein (×3.5) accumulated 140% more hexose, 25% less starch and the starch had a higher frequency of longer amylopectin chains. These differences were not of sufficient magnitude to influence starch functionality, because granule morphology, crystallinity, amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, and the enthalpy of starch gelatinization and the amylose-lipid complex melting were similar to the control (P > 0.05). This overall similarity was borne out by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Function Analysis, which could not distinguish among genotypes. Collectively our data imply that higher Dx5 can affect starch accumulation and some aspects of starch molecular structure but that the starches of the Dx5 transgenic wheat lines are substantially equivalent to the controls. Transgenic manipulation of biochemical pathways is an effective way to enhance food sensory quality, but it can also lead to unintended effects. These spurious changes are a concern to Government Regulatory Agencies and to those Industries that market the product. In this study we

  14. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  15. Uncovering leaf rust responsive miRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-throughput sequencing and prediction of their targets through degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Dutta, Summi; Singh, Dharmendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression. High-throughput sequencing was used for transcriptome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profiling in retort to leaf rust using mock and pathogen-inoculated resistant and susceptible near-isogenic wheat plants. A total of 1056 mature miRNAs were identified, of which 497 miRNAs were conserved and 559 miRNAs were novel. The pathogen-inoculated resistant plants manifested more miRNAs compared with the pathogen infected susceptible plants. The miRNA counts increased in susceptible isoline due to leaf rust, conversely, the counts decreased in the resistant isoline in response to pathogenesis illustrating precise spatial tuning of miRNAs during compatible and incompatible interaction. Stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR was used to profile 10 highly differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high-throughput sequencing data. The spatio-temporal profiling validated the differential expression of miRNAs between the isolines as well as in retort to pathogen infection. Degradome analysis provided 701 predicted target genes associated with defense response, signal transduction, development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. The obtained results indicate that wheat isolines employ diverse arrays of miRNAs that modulate their target genes during compatible and incompatible interaction. Our findings contribute to increase knowledge on roles of microRNA in wheat-leaf rust interactions and could help in rust

  16. Characterization of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, TaEXPB23, involved in the abiotic stress response and phytohormone regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang yang; Li, Ai xiu; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mei rong; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Expansins are proteins that are generally accepted to be key regulators of cell wall extension and plant growth. We examined the expression pattern of TaEXPB23, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, under exogenous phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. In addition, we evaluated its function in the tolerance to salt stress and high temperature (HT) by overexpressing it in transgenic tobacco plants. In subcellular localization assays, TaEXPB23 localized to the cell wall. Expression analysis demonstrated that the transcription pattern of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaEXPB23 transcript expression was upregulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salt stress, but downregulated by exogenous gibberellins (GA₃), ethylene (ET), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). Overexpression of TaEXPB23 in tobacco (tabacum) conferred tolerance to salt stress by enhancing water retention ability (WRA) and decreasing osmotic potential (OP). However, transgenic plants overexpressing TaEXPB23 did not show any improvement in the tolerance to HT stress. These results suggested that TaEXPB23 is regulated by phytohormones and is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Pónya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation.

  18. Integration of physio-biochemical processes at different phenological stages of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) plants in response to heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, N.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of heat stress imposed at different growth stages of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. Four wheat cultivars namely S-24, Saher-2006, Lasani and AARI-10 were subjected to high temperature (HT) stress at tillering and booting phenological phases. Under stress conditions, root and shoot fresh weights, membrane thermostability (MTS) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were significantly perturbed in all four wheat cultivars at both developmental stages. However, HT stress did not influence all the other attributes significantly including shoot fresh weight, chlorophyll a and b pigments, photosynthetic rate (A), leaf water (w), internal CO/sub 2/ (Ci), osmotic (s) and turgor (p) potentials, transpiration rate (E), water-use-efficiency (A/E), stomatal conductance (gs) as well as Fv/Fm ratio. Among all wheat cultivars, cv. Lasani performed better in shoot and root fresh weight, and chlorophyll a contents at the tillering stage, while in MTS at the booting phase, cv. S-24 in shoot fresh weight, E, and gs at the boot stage and highest MTS and WUE at the tillering stage. However, cv. AARI-10 performed well in root fresh weight, w, s, p,,WUE and NPQ when stress was applied at the boot stage, while E and Fv/Fm in this cultivar on exposure to stress at the tillering stage. Cultivar Saher-2006 performed better in gs, leaf s and p at the tillering stage, while Fv/Fm was recorded better at the boot stage and A in the same cultivar at all growth stages. Overall, HT stress applied at different growth stages was only effective in altering root fresh weight, MTS and NPQ in all four wheat cultivars. Of all wheat cultivars, cv. AARI-10 performed better in growth and physiological attributes examined in the present study under HT stress applied at different phenological stages. (author)

  19. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  1. A pseudo-response regulator is misexpressed in the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a mutant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, James; Turner, Adrian; Griffiths, Simon; Snape, John W; Laurie, David A

    2007-09-01

    Ppd-D1 on chromosome 2D is the major photoperiod response locus in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). A semi-dominant mutation widely used in the "green revolution" converts wheat from a long day (LD) to a photoperiod insensitive (day neutral) plant, providing adaptation to a broad range of environments. Comparative mapping shows Ppd-D1 to be colinear with the Ppd-H1 gene of barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is a member of the pseudo-response regulator (PRR) gene family. To investigate the relationship between wheat and barley photoperiod genes we isolated homologues of Ppd-H1 from a 'Chinese Spring' wheat BAC library and compared them to sequences from other wheat varieties with known Ppd alleles. Varieties with the photoperiod insensitive Ppd-D1a allele which causes early flowering in short (SD) or LDs had a 2 kb deletion upstream of the coding region. This was associated with misexpression of the 2D PRR gene and expression of the key floral regulator FT in SDs, showing that photoperiod insensitivity is due to activation of a known photoperiod pathway irrespective of day length. Five Ppd-D1 alleles were found but only the 2 kb deletion was associated with photoperiod insensitivity. Photoperiod insensitivity can also be conferred by mutation at a homoeologous locus on chromosome 2B (Ppd-B1). No candidate mutation was found in the 2B PRR gene but polymorphism within the 2B PRR gene cosegregated with the Ppd-B1 locus in a doubled haploid population, suggesting that insensitivity on 2B is due to a mutation outside the sequenced region or to a closely linked gene.

  2. Characterization of Triticum aestivum Abscisic Acid Receptors and a Possible Role for These in Mediating Fusairum Head Blight Susceptibility in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cameron S.; Rajagopalan, Nandhakishore; Risseeuw, Eddy P.; Surpin, Marci; Ball, Fraser J.; Barber, Carla J.; Buhrow, Leann M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Page, Jonathan E.; Todd, Chris D.; Abrams, Suzanne R.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-characterized plant hormone, known to mediate developmental aspects as well as both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Notably, the exogenous application of ABA has recently been shown to increase susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the causative agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other cereals. However roles and mechanisms associated with ABA’s modulation of pathogen responses remain enigmatic. Here the identification of putative ABA receptors from available genomic databases for Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) and Brachypodium distachyon (a model cereal) are reported. A number of these were cloned for recombinant expression and their functionality as ABA receptors confirmed by in vitro assays against protein phosphatases Type 2Cs. Ligand selectivity profiling of one of the wheat receptors (Ta_PYL2DS_FL) highlighted unique activities compared to Arabidopsis AtPYL5. Mutagenic analysis showed Ta_PYL2DS_FL amino acid D180 as being a critical contributor to this selectivity. Subsequently, a virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to knockdown wheat Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) in planta, yielding plants with increased early stage resistance to FHB progression and decreased mycotoxin accumulation. Together these results confirm the existence of a family of ABA receptors in wheat and Brachypodium and present insight into factors modulating receptor function at the molecular level. That knockdown of Ta_PYL4AS_A (and similar) leads to early stage FHB resistance highlights novel targets for investigation in the future development of disease resistant crops. PMID:27755583

  3. The role of ZIP transporters and group F bZIP transcription factors in the Zn-deficiency response of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evens, Nicholas P; Buchner, Peter; Williams, Lorraine E; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the molecular basis of zinc (Zn) uptake and transport in staple cereal crops is critical for improving both Zn content and tolerance to low-Zn soils. This study demonstrates the importance of group F bZIP transcription factors and ZIP transporters in responses to Zn deficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Seven group F TabZIP genes and 14 ZIPs with homeologs were identified in hexaploid wheat. Promoter analysis revealed the presence of Zn-deficiency-response elements (ZDREs) in a number of the ZIPs. Functional complementation of the zrt1/zrt2 yeast mutant by TaZIP3, -6, -7, -9 and -13 supported an ability to transport Zn. Group F TabZIPs contain the group-defining cysteine-histidine-rich motifs, which are the predicted binding site of Zn 2+ in the Zn-deficiency response. Conservation of these motifs varied between the TabZIPs suggesting that individual TabZIPs may have specific roles in the wheat Zn-homeostatic network. Increased expression in response to low Zn levels was observed for several of the wheat ZIPs and bZIPs; this varied temporally and spatially suggesting specific functions in the response mechanism. The ability of the group F TabZIPs to bind to specific ZDREs in the promoters of TaZIPs indicates a conserved mechanism in monocots and dicots in responding to Zn deficiency. In support of this, TabZIPF1-7DL and TabZIPF4-7AL afforded a strong level of rescue to the Arabidopsis hypersensitive bzip19 bzip23 double mutant under Zn deficiency. These results provide a greater understanding of Zn-homeostatic mechanisms in wheat, demonstrating an expanded repertoire of group F bZIP transcription factors, adding to the complexity of Zn homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. Kinetics of phosphorus and potassium release from rock phosphate and waste mica enriched compost and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, D; Biswas, D R

    2008-06-01

    An attempt was made to study the efficient use of rice straw and indigenous source of phosphorus and potassium in crop production through composting technology. Various enriched composts were prepared using rice straw, rock phosphate (RP), waste mica and bioinoculant (Aspergillus awamori) and kinetics of release of phosphorus and potassium from enriched composts and their effect on yield and nutrient uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum) were carried out. Results showed sharp increases in release in water-soluble P and K from all the composts at 8th to 12th day of leaching, thereafter, it decreased gradually. Maximum release of water-soluble P and K were obtained in ordinary compost than enriched composts during the initial stages of leaching, but their differences narrowed down at latter stages. Data in pot experiments revealed that enriched composts performed poorly than diammonium phosphate during initial stages of crop growth, but they out yielded at the latter stages, particularly at maturity stage, as evident from their higher yield, uptake, nutrient recoveries and fertility status of P and K in soils. Moreover, enriched composts prepared with RP and waste mica along with A. awamori resulted in significantly higher biomass yield, uptake and recoveries of P and K as well as available P and K in soils than composts prepared without inoculant. Results indicated that enriched compost could be an alternate technology for the efficient management of rice straw, low-grade RP and waste mica in crop production, which could help to reduce the reliance on costly chemical fertilizers.

  5. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  6. Evapotranspiration in winter wheat under different grazing and tillage practices in the southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precipitation in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) is highly variable both spatially and temporally with recurring periods of severe drought. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – summer fallow system with conventional tillage is the principal dryland cropping system in this region for both grazing an...

  7. Development of frost tolerance in winter wheat as modulated by differential root and shoot temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, C.W.; van Hasselt, P.R

    Winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban), grown in nutrient solution, were exposed to differential shoot/root temperatures (i.e., 4/4, 4/20, 20/4 and 20/20 degrees C) for six weeks. Leaves grown at 4 degrees C showed an increase in frost tolerance from - 4 degrees C down to -11 degrees

  8. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  9. Gene architecture and expression analyses provide insights into the role of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shivi; Himani; Sembi, Jaspreet K; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) are redox sensor proteins that maintain a steady-state of H 2 O 2 in plant cells. They exhibit distinct sub-cellular localization and have diverse functionality in response to different stimuli. In this study, a total of 14 TaGPX genes and three splice variants were identified in the genome of Triticum aestivum and evaluated for various physicochemical properties. The TaGPX genes were scattered on the various chromosomes of the A, B, and D sub-genomes and clustered into five homeologous groups based on high sequence homology. The majority of genes were derived from the B sub-genome and localized on chromosome 2. The intron-exon organization, motif and domain architecture, and phylogenetic analyses revealed the conserved nature of TaGPXs. The occurrence of both development-related and stress-responsive cis-acting elements in the promoter region, the differential expression of these genes during various developmental stages, and the modulation of expression in the presence of biotic and abiotic stresses suggested their diverse role in T. aestivum. The majority of TaGPX genes showed higher expression in various leaf developmental stages. However, TaGPX1-A1 was upregulated in the presence of each abiotic stress treatment. A co-expression analysis revealed the interaction of TaGPXs with numerous development and stress-related genes, which indicated their vital role in numerous biological processes. Our study revealed the opportunities for further characterization of individual TaGPX proteins, which might be useful in designing future crop improvement strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  11. Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraan, Nisreen A; Sartawe, Fatima Al-Batool; Qaryouti, Muien M

    2013-07-15

    The molecular response of plants to abiotic stresses has been considered a process mainly involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Nevertheless, recent findings have suggested new layers of regulation and complexity. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. Plants gain resistance to abiotic stress by reprogramming metabolism and gene expression. GABA is proposed to be a signaling molecule involved in nitrogen metabolism, regulating the cytosolic pH, and protection against oxidative damage in response to various abiotic stresses. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the GABA shunt pathway-specific response in five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hurani 75, Sham I, Acsad 65, Um Qayes and Nodsieh) to salt and osmotic stress in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation), and characterization of the glutamate decarboxylse gene (GAD) m-RNA level were determined using RT-PCR techniques. Our data showed a marked increase in GABA, MDA and GAD m-RNA levels under salt and osmotic stress in the five wheat cultivars. Um Qayes cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, GABA accumulation, and MDA level under salt and osmotic stresses. The marked increase in GAD gene expression explains the high accumulation of the GABA level under both stresses. Our results indicated that the GABA shunt is a key signaling and metabolic pathway that allows wheat to adapt to salt and osmotic stress. Based on our data, the Um Qayes wheat cultivar is the cultivar most recommended to be grown in soil with high salt and osmotic contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Heterologous expression of a plastid EF-Tu reduces protein thermal aggregation and enhances CO2 fixation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) following heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Momcilović, Ivana; Clemente, Thomas E; Nersesian, Natalya; Trick, Harold N; Ristic, Zoran

    2008-10-01

    Heat stress is a major constraint to wheat production and negatively impacts grain quality, causing tremendous economic losses, and may become a more troublesome factor due to global warming. At the cellular level, heat stress causes denaturation and aggregation of proteins and injury to membranes leading to alterations in metabolic fluxes. Protein aggregation is irreversible, and protection of proteins from thermal aggregation is a strategy a cell uses to tolerate heat stress. Here we report on the development of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) events, expressing a maize gene coding for plastidal protein synthesis elongation factor (EF-Tu), which, compared to non-transgenic plants, display reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced heat injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation after exposure to heat stress. The results support the concept that EF-Tu ameliorates negative effects of heat stress by acting as a molecular chaperone. This is the first demonstration of the introduction of a plastidal EF-Tu in plants that leads to protection against heat injury and enhanced photosynthesis after heat stress. This is also the first demonstration that a gene other than HSP gene can be used for improvement of heat tolerance and that the improvement is possible in a species that has a complex genome, hexaploid wheat. The results strongly suggest that heat tolerance of wheat, and possibly other crop plants, can be improved by modulating expression of plastidal EF-Tu and/or by selection of genotypes with increased endogenous levels of this protein.

  13. Impact of Low-Energy Ion Beam Implantation on the Expression of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposons in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya Huiyuan; Jiao Zhen; Gu Yunhong; Wang Weidong; Qin Guangyong; Huo Yuping

    2007-01-01

    Retrotransposon-like elements are major constituents of most eukaryotic genomes. For example, they account for roughly 90% of the wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome. Previous study on a wheat strain treated by low-energy N + ions indicated the variations in AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism ) markers. One such variation was caused by the re-activation of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons, implying that the mutagenic effects of low-energy ions might work through elevated activation of retrotransposons. In this paper an expression profile of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in wheat treated by low-energy N + ions is reported. The reverse transcriptase (RT) domains of these retrotransposons were amplified by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequentially cloned. 42 and 65 clones were obtained from the treated (CL) and control materials (CK), respectively. Sequence analysis of each clone was performed by software. Phylogeny and classification were calculated responding to the sequences of the RT domains. All the results show that there is much difference in the RT domain between the control sample and the treated sample. Especially, the RT domains from the treated group encode significantly more functional ORF (open reading frames) than those from the control sample. This observation suggests that the treated sample has higher activation of retrotransposons, possibly as a consequence of low-energy ion beam irradiation. It also suggests that retrotransposons in the two groups impact the host gene expression in two different ways and carry out different functions in wheat cells

  14. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

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    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  15. Genotype-dependent Burst of Transposable Element Expression in Crowns of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during Cold Acclimation

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    Debbie Laudencia-Chingcuanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of four hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throughout the experiment in three of the genotypes. In winter Norstar, the most cold-hardy of the four genotypes, a subset of the TEs showed a burst of expression after vernalization saturation was achieved. About 47% of the TEs were expressed, and both Class I (retrotransposons and Class II (DNA transposons types were well represented. Gypsy and Copia were the most represented among the retrotransposons while CACTA and Mariner were the most represented DNA transposons. The data suggests that the Vrn-A1 region plays a role in the stage-specific induction of TE expression in this genotype.

  16. Short periods of high temperature during meiosis prevent normal meiotic progression and reduce grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, "C 306" and a poor chapatti variety, "Sonalika." About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2'-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be "variety or genotype" specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  19. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheatTriticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomically important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Illumina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheatTriticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679xJing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1,703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it will be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, fine mapping of QTL/gene controlling agronomically important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  20. Low light intensity effects on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing energy consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. As a primary source of energy, light is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low light intensity at different stages on growth, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, biological production and antioxidant defence systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 3 intensity-controlled stages according to growth period (a total of 65 days): seedling stage (first 20 days), heading and flowering stage (middle 30 days) and grain filling stage (last 15 days). Initial light condition of the control was 420 μmol m-2 s-1 and the light intensity increased with the growth of wheat plants. The light intensities of group I and II at the first stage and the last stage were adjusted to the half level of the control respectively. For group III, the first and the last stage were both adjusted to half level of the control. During the middle 30 days, all treatments were kept the same intensity. The results indicated that low-light treatment at seedling stage, biomass, nutritional contents, components of inedible biomass and healthy index (including peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content) of wheat plants have no significant difference to the control. Furthermore, unit kilojoule yield of group I reached 0.591 × 10-3 g/kJ and induced the highest energy efficiency. However, low-light treatment at grain filling stage affected the final production significantly.

  1. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  2. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  3. Dynamics of the diazotroph Bacillus polymyxa in the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) after inoculation and its effect on uptake of 15N-labelled fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouzou, L.; Cheneby, D.; Nicolardot, B.; Heulin, T.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment under glasshouse conditions with a sandy soil was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots with Bacillus polymyxa on N uptake by plants and to investigate the effect of N fertilization on the dynamics of this strain. Different treatments were considered: (i) amended (100 kg N ha −1 ) or not with 15 N labelled ammonium nitrate; (ii) inoculated (2.5 10 7 spores per seed and 0.5 10 9 spores kg −1 soil) or not with B. polymyxa CF43. No promoting effect on wheat growth (dry yield) or N uptake was observed after inoculation under these experimental conditions; 62 per cent of the N fertilizer was assimilated by plants during the first 33 days. Inoculation had no effect on the quantity of soil adhering to the roots. Soluble organic C and inorganic N concentrations were higher in the soil adhering to the roots than in bulk soil. However, the nitrate concentration in soil adhering to the roots was influenced by inoculation at the beginning of plant growth, nitrate supply to the root system being delayed by its probable retention in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, total bacteria in roots, soil adhering to the roots and bulk soil was not affected by N fertilization. The number of B. polymyxa cells measured by an AB-ELISA method increased first in the bulk soil and later in the soil adhering to the roots after inoculation. Fertilization with N decreased the B. polymyxa population in adhering soil, competitive suppression of diazotrophs by non-fixing bacteria probably being induced by the presence of large amounts of nutrients in the rhizosphere when N was added. (author)

  4. Effect of split n fertilizer application on physio-agronomic traits of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Hussain, I.; Din, R.U.; Haider, S.; Abbas, A.; Qamar, M.; Noman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Low soil fertility is one of the main wheat yield limiting factors under rainfed conditions. Farmers usually apply full N dose at seeding. However, winter showers during vegetative growth period provide an opportunity to apply N in split doses. Study was conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal split doses at tiller formation and stem elongation stages. Maximum grain yield (5.20 t ha/sup -1/) was achieved when N was applied at the rate 120 kg ha in three equal split doses at planting, tiller formation and stem elongation stages. N application in 2 and 3 split doses resulted in 25 - 50% grain yield advantage at all N rates as compared to single basal N dose. Split N application was associated with significant increase (P<0.05) in spikes m, 1000 grain weight and dry matter production. Split N application was also linked with better flag leaf chlorophyll retention and cooler crop canopies during grain filling stages which showed positive association with grain yield. (author)

  5. Atividade de glutationa S-transferase na metabolização de acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae Glutathione S-transferase activity in acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen metabolization in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivumL. (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel Lourenzi Barbosa Novelli

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar a seletividade em plantas dos herbicidas acetochlor, atrazine e oxyfluorfen em relação à atividade da glutationa S-transferase (GST em plantas de milho (Zea mays L., sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. e trigo (Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae. A atividade da GST foi detectada às 24, 48 e 72 horas após as aplicaç��es dos tratamentos. Os tratamentos do experimento consistiram de aplicação com água (controle, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 e oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. As maiores atividades de GST foram observadas na presença de acetochlor, principalmente às 48 horas após o tratamento. Esses aumentos foram 105, 148 e 118% em relação ao controle para milho, sorgo e trigo, respectivamente. É sugerido que a GST pode ter papel na degradação de acetochlor e pode ser uma das razões para a seletividade desse herbicida para essas culturas.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the acetochlor, atrazine and oxyfluorfen herbicides plant selectivity, in relation to glutathione S-transferase activity (GST in maize (Zea mays L., sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L (Poaceae plants. GST activity was detected 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment applications. The experiment's treatments consisted of spraying plants with water (control, acetochlor (3 L.ha-1`, atrazine (4 L.ha-1 and oxyfluorfen (1 L.ha-1. The highest GST activities were observed in presence of acetochlor, mainly at 48 hours after treatment. These increments were 105, 148 and 118% when compared to maize, sorghum and wheat control groups, respectively. It is suggested that the GST may have a role in acetochlor degradation and it may be a reason for this herbicide's selectivity in these crops.

  6. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  7. Response of growth characters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to co-inoculation of farmyard manure, Trichoderma spp. and Psudomunas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahsavari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cattle manure, benefit fungi of Trichoderma species and Psudomunas spp. bacteria on seedling emergence parameters, growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a pot experiment was carried out in factorial (23 arrangement based on a randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments were three levels of cattle manure (10, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, three Trichoderma species (T. viridae, T. harzianum, T. hamatum and either application or non- application of Psudomunas bacteria. Analysis of data showed that control plants and 10 t.ha-1 cattle manure treatments had significantly effect on emergence percentage and field emergence rate compared to 20 and 30 t.ha-1 cattle manure. In the current experiment, the maximum grain yield was observed in 20 t.ha-1 inoculated with both T. viridae and T. harzianum. Application of 10 and 20 t.ha-1cattle manure markedly increased harvest index and biomass by 39.72 and 19.47%, respectively compared to control treatment (no manure application. Also, T. viridae fugues improved plant biomass compared to T. harzianum. The fungus of T. harzianum enhanced harvest index rather than T. viridae and T. hamatum. Application of Psudomunas bacteria significantly increased plant biomass and harvest index compared to pots without bacteria application. Results showed that colony counts of three Trichoderma species in the soil rhizosphere enhanced when rates of cattle manure application increased. The most of soil microbial population was observed in 30 t.ha-1 level of cattle manure inoculated with T. harzianum (74.68 × 108cfu mg-1 dry soil.

  8. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  10. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Survey of Associations among Soil Properties and Climatic Factors on Weed Distribution in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kermanshah Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan veisi

    2016-11-01

    of different districts by rows. Data on weed communities and environmental factors of all districts were analyzed through with ordination methods like canonical correspondence analysis (CCA and weed species distribution and environmental factors displayed in ordination diagrams. These ordination methods were done with mean density of 29 abundant weed species for CCA using CANOCO (Version 4.5. Ordination plots were produced for both sampling sites and weed species associated with environmental factors. For CCA, we used site elevation, humidity for 10 years period, daily raining for a 10 years period. Soil characteristic included calcium, phosphor, potassium, nitrogen, sodium, magnesium, pH were determined. Sand, clay and silt in soils were measured and elevation of each field was gained by GPS. Results and discussion 162 weed species belonging to 33 plant families were identified in these fields. Multivariate analyses with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that changes in the weed species distribution were due to soil characters (pH, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sodium, Potassium, silt percent, clay and loam in soil tissue, cation exchange capacity, EC and environmental conditions during former years. The first and second RDA axes described 64% of variations in the weed populations affected by climatic factors. Winter wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L., ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud., wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and canary seed (Phalaris brachystacys Link. in areas of high temperature and low altitude, had a wide distribution. High evaporation increased wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch., Corn cleavers (Galium tricornutum Dandy. and Vetch (Vicia assyriaca Boiss. density during last decade. Where the soil nitrogen and phosphorus rates were high, Wild barely (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch. density was found frequently in wheat fields of Kermanshah. In the wheat fields of Kermanshah, Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and wild safflower

  12. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC AMMONIA DOES NOT AFFECT LOW-TEMPERATURE HARDENING OF WINTER-WHEAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLEMENT, JMAM; VENEMA, JH; VANHASSELT, PR

    The effect of atmospheric NH3 on low-temperature hardening of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was investigated. Growth and photosynthesis were stimulated by ammonia exposure. After a 14 d exposure at moderate temperatures (day/night 18.5/16 degrees C) total nitrogen content was

  13. Variability in carbon dioxide fluxes among six winter wheat paddocks managed under different tillage and grazing practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from six winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) paddocks (grain only, graze-grain, and graze-out) managed under conventional till (CT) and no-till (NT) systems were synthesized for the 2016-2017 growing season to compare the magnitudes and seasonal dynamics of CO2 fluxes and...

  14. Chlorophyll fluorescence as a parameter for frost hardiness in winter wheat. A comparison with other hardiness parameters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; vanHasselt, PR

    1996-01-01

    Frost hardiness of winter wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) was measured during an eight weeks hardening period using chlorophyll fluorescence. Determination of frost induced damage after freezing, measured as the decrease of photochemical capacity of photosystem II (F-V/F-M =

  15. Identification of Changes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds Proteome in Response to Anti–trx s Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Methodology/Principal Findings Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. Conclusions/Significance A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds. PMID:21811579

  16. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Zhang, Huizhen; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin h (trx h) is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s) gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h) gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  17. Identification of changes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seeds proteome in response to anti-trx s gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thioredoxin h (trx h is closely related to germination of cereal seeds. The cDNA sequences of the thioredoxin s (trx s gene from Phalaris coerulescens and the thioredoxin h (trx h gene from wheat are highly homologous, and their expression products have similar biological functions. Transgenic wheat had been formed after the antisense trx s was transferred into wheat, and it had been certified that the expression of trx h decreased in transgenic wheat, and transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through analyzing the differential proteome of wheat seeds between transgenic wheat and wild type wheat, the mechanism of transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was studied in the present work. There were 36 differential proteins which had been identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. All these differential proteins are involved in regulation of carbohydrates, esters, nucleic acid, proteins and energy metabolism, and biological stress. The quantitative real time PCR results of some differential proteins, such as trx h, heat shock protein 70, α-amylase, β-amylase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, 14-3-3 protein, S3-RNase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and WRKY transcription factor 6, represented good correlation between transcripts and proteins. The biological functions of many differential proteins are consistent with the proposed role of trx h in wheat seeds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A possible model for the role of trx h in wheat seeds germination was proposed in this paper. These results will not only play an important role in clarifying the mechanism that transgenic wheat has high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting, but also provide further evidence for the role of trx h in germination of wheat seeds.

  18. Study of Allelopathic Interaction of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Some Weed Species Using Equal - Compartment – Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Labbafi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for weed management one of them is putting allelopathic and cover crop in weed management programs. In order to study the effect of sowing time (delayed sowing, synchronic sowing and wheat cultivars (Shiraz, Roshan, Tabasi, Niknejad on allelopathic interaction of wheat and weed species (Secale cereale L., Avena ludoviciana L.: monocotyledon, Convolvulus arvensis L. and Vicia villosa L.: dicotyledon, an experiment was conducted with factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design and 4 replications. According to the results, the inhibitory effect of wheat on monocot weeds (oat and rye was more than in synchronic sowing and the inhibitory effect of wheat on dicot weeds (bindweed and vetch was more than in delayed sowing. Effect of wheat cultivars on rye and oat (except hypocotyls length was inhibitory and that of vetch was stimulatory. Hypocotyls length showed the most sensitivity to released allelochemicals from wheat cultivars, because root has the most contact with allelochemicals in the soil.

  19. Quantitative structure analysis of genetic diversity among spring bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) from different geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Lin; Wagner, Carola; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Genetic diversity in spring bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) was studied in a total of 69 accessions. For this purpose, 52 microsatellite (SSR) markers were used and a total of 406 alleles were detected, of which 182 (44.8%) occurred at a frequency of bread wheats was H ( e ) = 0.65. A comparatively higher diversity was observed between wheat varieties from Southern European countries (Austria/Switzerland, Portugal/Spain) corresponding to those from other regions.

  20. The role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongxiang; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Fangfang; Li, Yongchun; Ren, Jiangping; Wang, Xiang; Niu, Hongbin; Yin, Jun

    2013-06-01

    Thioredoxin h can regulate the redox environment in the cell and play an important role in the germination of cereals. In the present study, the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat with down-regulation of thioredoxin h was used to study the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during germination of wheat seeds, and to explore the mechanism of the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat seeds having high resistance to pre-harvest sprouting. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of protein disulfide isomerase in the thioredoxin s antisense transgenic wheat was up-regulated, which induced easily forming glutenin macropolymers and the resistance of storage proteins to degradation. The expression of serine protease inhibitor was also up-regulated in transgenic wheat, which might be responsible for the decreased activity of thiocalsin during the germination. The expression of WRKY6 in transgenic wheat was down-regulated, which was consistent with the decreased activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase. In transgenic wheat, the activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase were down-regulated, indicating that the metabolism of amino acid was lower than that in wild-type wheat during seed germination. A putative model for the role of thioredoxin h in protein metabolism during wheat seed germination was proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with increased resistance to the storage pest obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens--mediated].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui-Ming; Jia, Hai-Yan; Feng, De-Shun; Wang, Hong-Gang

    2006-05-01

    The transgenic wheat of improved resistance to the storage pest was production. We have introduced the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene (CpTI) into cultured embryonic callus cells of immature embryos of wheat elite line by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Independent plantlets were obtained from the kanamycin-resistant calli after screening. PCR and real time PCR analysis, PCR-Southern and Southern blot hybridization indicated that there were 3 transgenic plants viz. transformed- I, II and III (T- I, T-II and T-III). The transformation frequencies were obviously affected by Agrobacterium concentration, the infection duration and transformation treatment. The segregations of CpTI in the transgenic wheat progenies were not easily to be elucidated, and some transgenic wheat lines (T- I and T-III) showed Mendelian segregations. The determinations of insect resistance to the stored grain insect of wheat viz. the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) indicated that the 3 transgenic wheat progeny seeds moth-resistance was improved significantly. The seed moth-eaten ratio of T- I, T-II, T-III and nontransformed control was 19.8%, 21.9%, 32.9% and 58.3% respectively. 3 transgenic wheat T1 PCR-positive plants revealed that the 3 transgenic lines had excellent agronomic traits. They supplied good germplasm resource of insect-resistance for wheat genetic improvement.

  2. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  3. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  4. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  5. Soil zinc and cadmium availability and uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by long-term organic matter management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Roman; Costerousse, Benjamin; Mayer, Jochen; Mäder, Paul; Thonar, Cécile; Frossard, Emmanuel; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread problem in human mineral nutrition. It is mainly caused by imbalanced diets with low contents of bioavailable Zn. This is in particular a problem in populations depending on cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as a major source of this essential micronutrient element. Increasing Zn concentrations in wheat grains (biofortification) is therefore an important challenge. At the same time, increased uptake of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) must be prevented. Agronomic practises influence soil properties such as pH and soil organic carbon and thus also have an indirect effect on phytoavailable soil Zn and Cd concentrations and the uptake of these metals by wheat in addition to direct inputs with fertilizers and other amendments. This study investigated the effects of long-term organic matter management on the phytoavailability of soil Zn and Cd and their uptake by wheat on plots of two Swiss long-term field trials. In one trial (DOK), a farming system comparison trial established in 1978, we compared plots under conventional management with mineral fertilization either in combination or not with farmyard manure application to plots under biodynamic organic management and control plots with no fertilizer application. In the second trial (ZOFE), established in 1949, we compared different fertilizer regimes on conventionally managed plots, including plots with application of mineral fertilizers only, farmyard manure, or compost and control plots with no fertilizer application. Soil physico-chemical and biological properties were determined at the beginning of the growing season. Soil Zn and Cd availabilities were assessed by the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) method and by DTPA extraction before and after wheat cultivation. Additionally, various wheat yield components and element concentrations in shoots and grains were measured at harvest. In the ZOFE trial, soil Zn and Cd concentrations were lowest in the mineral

  6. Assessment of Drought Tolerance Indices and their Relation with ISSR Markers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam FIROOZI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress that reduced crop yield especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to identifying drought tolerance, 39 cultivars of spring, facultative and winter type wheat varieties were planted as subplots within the irrigation plots (main plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research filed of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran. In 2/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on stress susceptibility, geometric mean productivity and harmonic indices, �Sepahan�, �Karaj 3�, �Bahar� and �Yavaroos� were known as the best varieties; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on the mentioned indices, �Hirmand�, �Bahar�, �Yavaroos� and �Marvdasht� were the best one. According to biplot resulted from principle coordinate analysis, in 2/3 continuous irrigation �Moghan 1�, �Golestan�, �Kavir�, �Maroon�, �Karkheh�, �Chanaab�, �10�, �6�, �Bahar� and �Sepahan�; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation �Golestan�, �10�, �Niknejad�, �Maroon�, �Darab�, �Falat�, �Arta�, �Marvdasht�, �Bahar� and �Hirmand� were identified as the most tolerant cultivars. According to multiple regression analysis in subject of agronomic traits, 43, 33 and 25 informative ISSR markers identified in control, 2/3 and 1/3 continuous irrigation conditions, respectively. Also among these markers, there were significant relationship between P12L3 and P21L3 markers with plant height and spike length; P4L1 and P22L1 markers with flag leaf length; P19L4 markers and number of node; P30L4 markers and awn length; P10L1 and P22L1 with peduncle to plant height ratio in all of stress and non-stress conditions.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among Syrian durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtar, S; Moualla, M Y; Kalhout, A; Röder, M S; MirAli, N

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 49 wheat varieties (37 durum and 12 bread wheat) was assayed using 32 microsatellites representing 34 loci covering almost the whole wheat genome. The polymorphic information content (PIC) across the tested loci ranged from 0 to 0.88 with average values of 0.57 and 0.65 for durum and bread wheat respectively. B genome had the highest mean number of alleles (10.91) followed by A genome (8.3) whereas D genome had the lowest number (4.73). The correlation between PIC and allele number was significant in all genome groups accounting for 0.87, 074 and 0.84 for A, B and D genomes respectively, and over all genomes, the correlation was higher in tetraploid (0.8) than in hexaploid wheat varieties (0.5). The cluster analysis discriminated all varieties and clearly divided the two ploidy levels into two separate clusters that reflect the differences in genetic diversity within each cluster. This study demonstrates that microsatellites markers have unique advantages compared to other molecular and biochemical fingerprinting techniques in revealing the genetic diversity in Syrian wheat varieties that is crucial for wheat improvement.

  8. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi modify nutrient allocation and composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to heat-stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabral, Carmina; Ravnskov, Sabine; Tringovska, Ivanka

    2016-01-01

    - and micronutrient concentrations in aboveground biomass; evaluation of AM fungal structures in roots and assessment of light-use efficiency of plants. Results AM increased grain number in wheat under heat-stress, and altered nutrient allocation and tiller nutrient composition. Heat increased number of arbuscules...... in wheat root, whereas number of vesicles and total colonization were unaffected. Heat increased photosystem II yield and the electron transfer rate, whereas non-photochemical quenching decreased during the first 2 days of heat-stress. Conclusions Nutrient allocation and –composition in wheat grown under...

  10. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  11. Putative interchromosomal rearrangements in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring' revealed by gene locations on homoeologous chromosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Zheng, Z.; Wei, Y.M.; Zheng, Y.L.; Yan, G.J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, MAR 11 2015 (2015) ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Interchromosomal rearrangements * Wheat genome * Translocation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  12. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Muhammad K.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Arain, Muhammad B.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Jalbani, Nusrat; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Baig, Jameel A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mg kg -1 ). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  13. Transcript-specific, single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery and linkage analysis in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M; Barker, Gary L A; Berry, Simon T; Coghill, Jane A; Gwilliam, Rhian; Kirby, Susan; Robinson, Phil; Brenchley, Rachel C; D'Amore, Rosalinda; McKenzie, Neil; Waite, Darren; Hall, Anthony; Bevan, Michael; Hall, Neil; Edwards, Keith J

    2011-12-01

    Food security is a global concern and substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the growing world population. Wheat is one of the three most important crops for human and livestock feed. However, the complexity of the genome coupled with a decline in genetic diversity within modern elite cultivars has hindered the application of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programmes. A crucial step in the successful application of MAS in breeding programmes is the development of cheap and easy to use molecular markers, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms. To mine selected elite wheat germplasm for intervarietal single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we have used expressed sequence tags derived from public sequencing programmes and next-generation sequencing of normalized wheat complementary DNA libraries, in combination with a novel sequence alignment and assembly approach. Here, we describe the development and validation of a panel of 1114 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in hexaploid bread wheat using competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction genotyping technology. We report the genotyping results of these markers on 23 wheat varieties, selected to represent a broad cross-section of wheat germplasm including a number of elite UK varieties. Finally, we show that, using relatively simple technology, it is possible to rapidly generate a linkage map containing several hundred single-nucleotide polymorphism markers in the doubled haploid mapping population of Avalon × Cadenza. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Effect of lime, magnesium and boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their residual effects on mungbean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hossain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during 2007-2008 season in the research field of Wheat Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur to know the effect of lime, Magnesium (Mg and Boron (B on yield and yield components of wheat and also theirresidual effect on mungbean. The geographical position of the area is between 25°62´ N, 88°63´ E and 38.20 meter above sea level. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications, both in wheat and mungbean. Treatmentsfor wheat were (I recommended fertilizer + Mg + B, (II recommended fertilizer + lime + B + Mg, (III recommended fertilizer + lime + Mg, (IV recommended fertilizer + lime + B and (V control (Only recommended fertilizer and for mungbean were (I recommendedfertilizer + Mg + B, (II 75% of recommended dose, (III recommended fertilizer + B, (IVrecommended fertilizer + Mg and (V control (without fertilizers. Results showed that the highest yield and yield components of wheat were recorded from recommended fertilizers +lime + B + Mg treated plot and the second highest were recorded from recommended fertilizers + lime + Mg treated plot. The lowest was recorded in control plot (only recommended fertilized. In case of mungbean the highest was found from recommended fertilizers + B treated plot, this treatment was limed in previously cultivated wheat crop and the lowest was recorded from control plot (without fertilizer.

  15. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M.M.; Alsahli A.A.; Al-Ghamdi A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gua...

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to three imidazolium-based ionic liquids in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaqi; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Lusheng; Du, Zhongkun; Wang, Jinhua; Wei, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered environmentally friendly solvents and are widely applied in various fields; however, some researchers have noted the toxicity of ILs to plants cultivated in nutrient solution. To evaluate the toxicities of ILs to wheat seedlings in soil, the natural growth environment of plants, a study was performed using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different anions: 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C 8 mim]Cl), 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 8 mim]Br) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C 8 mim]BF 4 ). After 13 d of exposure to these three ILs at 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg -1 in brown soil, wheat seedlings were randomly sampled to evaluate growth (shoot length, root length, pigment content and proline content), lipid peroxidation, oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) and activities of the detoxification enzyme glutathione-s-transferase and other antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. The experimental results showed that all three ILs had inhibitory effects on the growth of wheat seedlings and induced the generation of reactive oxygen species, which indicated that the wheat seedlings suffered oxidative stress. Moreover, antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced after exposure to [C 8 mim]Cl, [C 8 mim]Br and [C 8 mim]BF 4 , demonstrating that oxidative damage may be the primary underlying mechanism of IL toxicity in wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  18. Metabolism of pentachlorophenol in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Tetrachlorocatechol as a primary metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Sandermann, H. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Wheat cell suspension cultures were incubated with [U- 14 C] pentachlorophenol (PCP; 1 ppm, 48 h, 27 0 C). Soluble metabolites were formed in ∼ 50% yield, another ∼ 31% of the applied radioactivity being incorporated into the insoluble residue. The soluble metabolite fraction, and its β-D-glucoside conjugate components, the total insoluble residue, and its lignin components, were all found to contain a novel polar PCP derivative besides smaller amounts of tetrachlorohydroquinone and PCP. The novel derivative also predominated in intact wheat plants and was identified as tetrachlorocatechol by TLC, HPLC, GC, and EI as well as CI mass spectroscopy. Tetrachlorocatechol is a potential mutagen, so that the soluble and insoluble conjugates formed in wheat from PCP may present a toxicological hazard

  19. Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Genetically Modified Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous reference genes (ERG) and their derivate analytical methods are standard requirements for analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Development and validation of suitable ERGs is the primary step for establishing assays that monitoring the genetically modified (GM) contents in food/feed samples. Herein, we give a review of the ERGs currently used for GM wheat analysis, such as ACC1, PKABA1, ALMT1, and Waxy-D1, as well as their performances in GM wheat analysis. Also, we discussed one model for developing and validating one ideal RG for one plant species based on our previous research work.

  20. The Competitive Response Investigation of Eighteen Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars with Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh abdolahi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The crop competitive ability is an important and profitable factor for increment impact on the weeds, and decreasing their yield loss. Characteristics such as height, leaf area, growth rate and tillering ability could be effective on competitive ability of cultivar ability. Primary growth rate is important on competitiveness, and any other factors that provides fast establishment of crops growth can be effective too. Thus, utilization of cultivars with height competitiveness ability is one of the considerable strategies for integrated weed managements. Many studies had shown that there are high correlation between crop height and its competitiveness ability. Asef et al (2 reported that tall cultivars reduced weed biomass more than dwarf cultivars due to light intercept and shading. Safahani- langrodi et al (32 in competition condition tall cultivars had high weed tolerance and cause to decrease weed biomass and set seed. There are an important relationship between LAI and weed competition. Hiffle et al. (13 showed cultivars with higher leaf area index had a greater yield stability. Dianat et al. (10 reported that in weed competitive conditions, there are significant difference in the number of tillers among wheat cultivars, while competitor and non-competitor cultivars have most and lowest tiller numbers respectively. Nadery and Ghadiri (25 showed that increasing wild mustard density decreased tiller number and more yield loss in weed competition have caused by decreased number of tillers. Materials and Methods: Experiment was conducted in order to study morphological characteristics and yield of wheat (T. aestivum cultivars in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. competition in greenhouse, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, during 2013-2014. Treatments were 18 wheat cultivars [Karkheh, Alborz, Azadi, Shahpasand, Sepahan, Flat, Ghods, Roshan, Sorkh¬tokhm, Moghan3, Alvand, MS-81-14, Yarvarus, Shahriyar, Golestn, Bam, Niknajad, Karaj3

  1. Meiosis peculiarities featured by first-generation spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under the influence of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen', L.A.; Volodin, V.G.; Elef, A.V.; Mikhalenko, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The study of meiosis of spring wheat represented by three varieties revealed intervarietal differences according to the frequency and types of disturbances. Gamma-irradiation with 10 kCi dose increased the disturbance frequency during meiosis in all varieties. However, there were substantial differences in the variety response to the irradiation. (authors)

  2. Physiological and biochemical constituents as predictive appreciation for selection of drought tolerant cultivars in wheat (triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal-ud-Din; Khan, S.U.; Gurmani, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A pot study was undertaken to assess the effect of drought stress imposed at various growth stages on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of wheat. Five commercial wheat cultivars viz. Chakwal-97, Inqalab-91, Margalla-99, NR-234 and Wafaq-2001 were grown in pots. The plants were subjected to three consecutive drought cycles at tillering, pre-anthesis and milky growth stages. Measurements pertaining to various physiological and biochemical parameters such as relative water content (RWC), proline, superoxide dismutase (SOD), membrane stability index (MSI), yield and yield components were made. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in all the test varieties when drought was imposed at any growth stage. The reduction was highest (39-64%) when stress was imposed at pre-anthesis followed by tillering growth stage. The wheat variety Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 performed better by giving higher yield and produced greater numbers of filled seeds per spike compared to other varieties. Under water stress proline contents were higher in the drought-tolerant cultivar Wafaq-2001. The same variety showed higher membrane stability index and antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity under drought stress conditions. The results suggest that pre-anthesis growth stage is the most sensitive towards drought stress. Wheat cultivars: Wafaq-2001 and Inqalab-91 showed best tolerance response against drought stress. Higher proline, RWC and SOD activity under drought stress seems to be the most reliable parameters enabling the discrimination of varieties for drought tolerance. (author)

  3. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  4. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B. A.; Lucas, S. J.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2015), s. 740-752 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : D genome donor of wheat * chromosome 5D * comparative genomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.090, year: 2015

  5. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G.; Strzalka, K.

    1994-01-01

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T 2 ∼100 μs and T 2 ∼1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding

  6. Evolution and diversity of PAPhy_a phytase in the genepool of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Krogh; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Higher phytase activity in food and feedstuffs is desirable in order to counter the antinutritional effects of phytate. The most promising platform where this might be achieved through plant breeding is wheat and its Triticeae relatives. They already accumulate notable amounts of phytase...

  7. GWAS for plant growth stages and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvested in three regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Baibulatova, Aida; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Tokhetova, Laura; Chudinov, Vladimir; Sereda, Grigoriy; Ganal, Martin; Griffiths, Simon; Abugalieva, Saule

    2017-11-14

    Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are emerging as powerful tools for the understanding of the inheritance of complex traits via utilization of high throughput genotyping technologies and phenotypic assessments of plant collections. In this study, phenotyping and genotyping data on 194 spring wheat accessions from Kazakhstan, Russia, Europe, and CIMMYT were assessed for the identification of marker-trait associations (MTA) of agronomic traits by using GWAS. Field trials in Northern, Central and Southern regions of Kazakhstan using 194 spring wheat accessions revealed strong correlations of yield with booting date, plant height, biomass, number of spikes per plant, and number of kernels per spike. The accessions from Europe and CIMMYT showed high breeding potential for Southern and Central regions of the country in comparison with the performance of the local varieties. The GGE biplot method, using average yield per plant, suggested a clear separation of accessions into their three breeding origins in relationship to the three environments in which they were evaluated. The genetic variation in the three groups of accessions was further studied using 3245 polymorphic SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. The application of Principal Coordinate analysis clearly grouped the 194 accessions into three clades according to their breeding origins. GWAS on data from nine field trials allowed the identification of 114 MTAs for 12 different agronomic traits. Field

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  9. Genetic variability, path-coefficient and correlation studies in twenty elite bread-wheat (triticum aestivum L.) lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, M.Y.; Asif, M.; Ahmad, I.; Kisana, N.A.; Ahmad, Z.; Asim, M.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty bread-wheat elite lines of diverse origin, developed by various research institutes in the country, were tested and evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) under optimum irrigated conditions. Significant variation was observed for all the traits studied viz: days to heading, days to maturity, kernel weight, test weight and grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations were computed and the direct and indirect contributions of each trait towards grain-yield were determined. Grain-yield showed significant association with test weight and kernel weight. Direct positive effects of kernel weight and test weight towards grain-yield suggest the effectiveness of these traits to select and identify the desirable wheat- genotypes for a target environment. (author)

  10. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after one day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained...... higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison to plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll contents and increased leaf sucrose contents in both cultivars grown at ambient and elevated CO2. The content of hexoses in the leaves increased mainly in the tolerant cultivar in response...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  11. The Membrane Topology of ALMT1, an Aluminum-Activated Malate Transport Protein in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hirotoshi; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kano, Yoshio; Ryan, Peter R; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The wheat ALMT1 gene encodes an aluminum (Al)-activated malate transport protein which confers Al-resistance. We investigated the membrane topology of this plasma-membrane localized protein with immunocytochemical techniques. Several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused and histidine (His)-tagged chimeras of ALMT1 were prepared based on a computer-predicted secondary structure and transiently expressed in cultured mammalian cells. Antibodies raised to polypeptide epitopes of ALMT1 were used ...

  12. Effects of ozone on growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Nahid; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Inada, Hidetoshi; Hoshino, Daiki; Kondo, Taisuke; Izuta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    To clarify the effects of O 3 on crop plants cultivated in Bangladesh, two Bangladeshi wheat cultivars (Sufi and Bijoy) were grown in plastic boxes filled with Andisol and exposed daily to charcoal-filtered air or O 3 at 60 and 100 nl l -1 (10:00-17:00) from 13 March to 4 June 2008. The whole-plant dry mass and grain yield per plant of the two cultivars at the final harvest were significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3 . Although there was no significant effect of O 3 on stomatal diffusive conductance to H 2 O of flag leaf, net photosynthetic rate of the leaf was significantly reduced by the exposure to O 3. The sensitivity of growth, yield, yield components and leaf gas exchange rates to O 3 was not significantly different between the two cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that ambient levels of O 3 may detrimentally affect wheat production in Bangladesh. - The exposure to ambient levels of ozone decreases growth, yield and leaf gas exchange rates of two Bangladeshi cultivars of wheat.

  13. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of different depth of grain colour on antioxidant capacity during water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Oon Ha; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesised that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain colour group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity was reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups. These findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple colouring. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of Low Doses of Gamma Radiation and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of gamma radiation at the rates of 0.0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy on growth characteristics and total yield of wheat fertilized with 40,80 and 100 kg ha of urea as a source of nitrogen. The application of 100 kg N ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha 1 of grain and 10477 kg ha of straw yield. The nitrogen fertilization increased significantly plant height, 1000-grain weight grain and straw yield. Nitrogen at 100 kg ha -1 produced 8170 kg ha -1 of grain and 10477 kg ha -1 of straw yield. Also, the radiation dose (20 Gy) produced 4895 kg ha -1 of grain and 9150 kg ha 1 of straw yield. The interaction of both radiation dose (20 Gy) and nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) increased significantly the spike length, 1000-grain weight and consequently the total grain and straw yield. It can be concluded from the present study that pretreatment of wheat grain by gamma radiation dose (20 Gy) before.planting and using nitrogen fertilization (100 kg ha -1 ) may be considered as promising useful in increasing the efficiency of wheat productivity, which is very important crop in Egypt

  16. Association of yield-related traits in founder genotypes and derivatives of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yield improvement is an ever-important objective of wheat breeding. Studying and understanding the phenotypes and genotypes of yield-related traits has potential for genetic improvement of crops. Results The genotypes of 215 wheat cultivars including 11 founder parents and 106 derivatives were analyzed by the 9 K wheat SNP iSelect assay. A total of 4138 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci were detected on 21 chromosomes, of which 3792 were mapped to single chromosome locations. All genotypes were phenotyped for six yield-related traits including plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet number per spike (SNPS, kernel number per spike (KNPS, kernel weight per spike (KWPS, and thousand kernel weight (TKW in six irrigated environments. Genome-wide association analysis detected 117 significant associations of 76 SNPs on 15 chromosomes with phenotypic explanation rates (R 2 ranging from 2.03 to 12.76%. In comparing allelic variation between founder parents and their derivatives (106 and other cultivars (98 using the 76 associated SNPs, we found that the region 116.0–133.2 cM on chromosome 5A in founder parents and derivatives carried alleles positively influencing kernel weight per spike (KWPS, rarely found in other cultivars. Conclusion The identified favorable alleles could mark important chromosome regions in derivatives that were inherited from founder parents. Our results unravel the genetic of yield in founder genotypes, and provide tools for marker-assisted selection for yield improvement.

  17. Assessment and Reaction of Triticum aestivum Genotypes to Fusarium graminearum and effects on Traits Related to Grain Yield and Seed Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Matthew Randolph

    2001-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), causal organism of fusarium head blight (FHB), has become a major pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) throughout North America. Since its discovery in the United States, the disease has spread south and east until at present it is an annual threat for growers of winter wheat in the Mid-Atlantic region. Yield losses for soft red winter (SRW) wheat averaged 908 kg ha-1 in the FHB outbreak of 1998 (Griffey et al., 1999). The economic loss from this single FHB...

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Beech, Robin; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-11-03

    Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl). Each gene was represented by two to three homeoalleles, which are named as TaCslXY_ZA, TaCslXY_ZB, or TaCslXY_ZD, where X denotes the Csl subfamily, Y the gene number and Z the wheat chromosome where it is located. A quarter of these genes were predicted to have 2 to 3 splice variants, resulting in a total of 137 putative translated products. Approximately 45% of TaCsl genes were located on chromosomes 2 and 3. Sequences from the subfamilies C and D were interspersed between the dicots and grasses but those from subfamily A clustered within each group of plants. Proximity of the dicot-specific subfamilies B and G, to the grass-specific subfamilies H and J, respectively, points to their common origin. In silico expression analysis in different tissues revealed that most of the genes were expressed ubiquitously and some were tissue-specific. More than half of the genes had introns in phase 0, one-third in phase 2, and a few in phase 1. Detailed characterization of the wheat Csl genes has enhanced the understanding of their structural, functional, and evolutionary features. This information will be helpful in designing experiments for genetic manipulation of hemicellulose synthesis with the goal of developing improved cultivars for biofuel production and increased tolerance against various stresses.

  19. The Multifarious PGPR Serratia marcescens CDP-13 Augments Induced Systemic Resistance and Enhanced Salinity Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajnish Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the plant growth promoting (PGP potential of a bacterial isolate CDP-13 isolated from 'Capparis decidua' plant, and its ability to protect plants from the deleterious effect of biotic and abiotic stressors. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Serratia marcescens. Among the PGP traits, the isolate was found to be positive for ACC deaminase activity, phosphate solubilization, production of siderophore, indole acetic acid production, nitrogen fixation, and ammonia production. CDP-13 showed growth at an increased salt (NaCl concentration of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. The inoculation of S. marcescens enhanced the growth of wheat plant under salinity stress (150-200 mM. It significantly reduced inhibition of plant growth (15 to 85% caused by salt stressors. Application of CDP-13 also modulated concentration (20 to 75% of different osmoprotectants (proline, malondialdehyde, total soluble sugar, total protein content, and indole acetic acid in plants suggesting its role in enabling plants to tolerate salt stressors. In addition, bacterial inoculation also reduced the disease severity caused by fungal infection, which illustrated its ability to confer induced systemic resistance (ISR in host plants. Treatment of wheat plants with the test organism caused alteration in anti-oxidative enzymes activities (Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and Peroxidase under various salinity levels, and therefore minimizes the salinity-induced oxidative damages to the plants. Colonization efficiency of strain CDP-13 was confirmed by CFU count, epi-fluorescence microscopy, and ERIC-PCR-based DNA fingerprinting approach. Hence, the study indicates that bacterium CDP-13 enhances plant growth, and has potential for the amelioration of salinity stress in wheat plants. Likewise, the results also provide insights into biotechnological approaches to

  20. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  1. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under contrasting nitrogen environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. M. Al Naggar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha and high-N (180 kg N/ha.The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  2. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under contrasting nitrogen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Naggar, A.M.M.; Shabana, R.; Abd-El-Aleem, M.M.; El-Rashidy, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N) and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha) and high-N (180 kg N/ha).The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n) in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  3. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Yield under Different Levels of Cadmium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. N81 under different levels of cadmium nitrate. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Trichoderma harzianum at two levels (with and without inoculation and four levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 50, 100, 150 mg l-1 were the treatment. Results of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed that inoculation of Trichoderma increased biological yield (46% and straw yield (30% as compared to control. Cadmium pollution has led to significant decrease in harvest index, grain number per spike and partitioning coefficient up to 5, 20, 24 and 38 percent compared to control, respectively. Furthermore, cadmium and fungus interaction were significant in terms of spike number, grain weight per spike, grain yield and tolerance index. Maximum grain yield and tolerance index were recorded in Trichoderma inoculation under cadmium-free plots which nearly increased 65 and 53 percent, respectively. In conclusion, using Trichoderma under cadmium pollution could improve wheat growth, yield and tolerance index

  4. Allelopathic effects of leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees on germination and early seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the growth promotory or inhibitory allelopathic effects of agroforestry trees on other plants is necessary for selection of suitable crops to be cultivated in their vicinity. In this experiment, aqueous leaf extracts of three agroforestry trees (Populus deltoides, Melia azedarach and Morus alba were evaluated on germination and seedling growth of wheat applied at concentration 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g L-1 while distilled water was used as control treatment. Lower concentration of extracts (1 and 1.5 g L-1 of P. deltoides stimulated percent germination, root and stem height and dry biomass while higher concentration (2 and 2.5 g L-1 had no effect on these parameters. Mean germination time (MGT was not affected by the extract and its concentration. Aqueous extracts of M. azedarach and M. alba at concentration > 1 g L-1 significantly lowered the studied parameters except MGT which was significantly prolonged. Negative allelopathy was more evident at the highest aqueous extract concentration (2.5 g L-1 of the two trees. Extracts of M. alba were found more growth inhibitory than those of M. azedarach. The study suggests that lower concentration of leaf extracts of P. deltoides imparts stimulatory while M. azedarch and M. alba have negative allelopathic effects on wheat germination.

  5. Relative efficiency of Azotobacter and Azospirillum on yield and P utilization by wheat (Triticum Aestivum) with various N levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aishwath, O.P.; Dravid, M.S.; Yadav, B.R.

    2002-01-01

    Efficiency of 32 P labelled single superphosphate along with N levels (0, 60, 80 and 120 kg/ha) and biofertilizers (Azotobacter and Azospirillum) was studied on wheat in Typic ustifluvent (saline phase) soil. Average grain and straw yield, total P uptake, per cent P derived by crop from applied phosphorus and its utilization in grain and straw increased either with Azospirillum or Azotobacter inoculation. However, the magnitude of increase in these attributes was of higher extent in presence of Azotobacter as compared to Azospirillum. The yield, uptake and utilization of P increased with increasing levels of N. Per cent Pdff was higher with all levels of N over control, whereas, it was at par with their successive levels. Interaction effect between levels of nitrogen and biofertilizers were also positive and significant at all levels of N with respect to yield and uptake of P, while per cent Pdff and its utilization by wheat was more pronounced at 60 and 80 kg N ha -1 in the presence of Azotobacter. Azospirillum was more effective at 60 kg of N than the other levels. Generally, Azotobacter performed better than the Azospirillum with respect to all parameters. (author)

  6. Physiological and biochemical changes during drought and recovery periods at tillering and jointing stages in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Qi, Lei Kang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Tian, Zhongwei; Jiang, Dong; Snider, John L; Dai, Tingbo

    2018-03-15

    Defining the metabolic strategies used by wheat to tolerate and recover from drought events will be important for ensuring yield stability in the future, but studies addressing this critical research topic are limited. To this end, the current study quantified the physiological, biochemical, and agronomic responses of a drought tolerant and drought sensitive cultivar to periods of water deficit and recovery. Drought stress caused a reversible decline in leaf water relations, membrane stability, and photosynthetic activity, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation and membrane injury. Plants exhibited osmotic adjustment through the accumulation of soluble sugars, proline, and free amino acids and increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities. After re-watering, leaf water potential, membrane stability, photosynthetic processes, ROS generation, anti-oxidative activities, lipid peroxidation, and osmotic potential completely recovered for moderately stressed plants and did not fully recover in severely stressed plants. Higher photosynthetic rates during drought and rapid recovery after re-watering produced less-pronounced yield declines in the tolerant cultivar than the sensitive cultivar. These results suggested that the plant's ability to maintain functions during drought and to rapidly recover after re-watering during vegetative periods are important for determining final productivity in wheat.

  7. Mode of inheritance of low-N tolerance adaptive traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under contrasting nitrogen environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Naggar, A.M.M.; Shabana, R.; Abd-El-Aleem, M.M.; El-Rashidy, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Because of essential economic and ecological concerns, there is increased interest worldwide in developing wheat cultivars that are more efficient in utilizing nitrogen (N) and better suited to N limitations. The objective of the present investigation was to get information on the type of gene action controlling the inheritance of wheat low-N tolerance traits in order to start a breeding program for improving such traits. Six parents of contrasting low-N tolerance were crossed in a diallel fashion. Evaluation of 6 parents, 15 F1crosses and 15 F2 crosses was done using a randomized complete block design with three replications under two levels of soil N, i.e. low-N (0 kg N/ha) and high-N (180 kg N/ha).The magnitude of dominance variance inF2's for all studied traits was much greater than that of additive variance under both high N and low N, suggesting that selection should be postponed to later segregating generations in order to eliminate masking effects of dominance variance and take advantage of the additive variance for the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield traits. Narrow-sense heritability (h2n) in F2's was generally of higher magnitude under low-N than high-N, suggesting that it is better to practice selection for studied nitrogen efficiency and grain yield traits under low-N conditions to obtain higher values of selection gain.

  8. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  9. Assessment of two carrier materials for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Salma; Shahid, Izzah; Mehnaz, Samina; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-12-01

    Biofertilizers are usually carrier-based inoculants containing beneficial microorganisms. Incorporation of microorganisms in carrier material enables easy-handling, long-term storage and high effectiveness of biofertilizers. Objective of the present study was to assess enriched biogas sludge and soil as biofertilizer carriers on growth and yield of wheat. Six phosphate solubilizing strains were used in this study. Three phosphate solubilizing strains, 77-NS2 (Bacillus endophyticus), 77-CS-S1 (Bacillus sphaericus) and 77-NS5 (Enterobacter aerogenes) were isolated from the rhizosphere of sugarcane, two strains, PSB5 (Bacillus safensis) and PSB12 (Bacillus megaterium) from the rhizosphere of wheat and one halophilic phosphate solubilizing strain AT2RP3 (Virgibacillus sp.) from the rhizosphere of Atriplex amnicola, were used as bioinoculants. Phosphate solubilization ability of these strains was checked in vitro in Pikovskaya medium, containing rock phosphate (RP) as insoluble P source, individually supplemented with three different carbon sources, i.e., glucose, sucrose and maltose. Maximum phosphate solubilization; 305.6μg/ml, 217.2μg/ml and 148.1μg/ml was observed in Bacillus strain PSB12 in Pikovskaya medium containing sucrose, maltose and glucose respectively. A field experiment and pot experiments in climate control room were conducted to study the effects of biogas sludge and enriched soil based phosphorous biofertilizers on growth of wheat. Bacillus strain PSB12 significantly increased root and shoot dry weights and lengths using biogas sludge as carrier material in climate control room experiments. While in field conditions, significant increase in root and shoot dry weights, lengths and seed weights was seen by PSB12 and PSB5 (Bacillus) and Enterobacter strain 77-NS5 using biogas sludge as carrier. PSB12 also significantly increased both root and shoot dry weights and lengths in field conditions when used as enriched soil based inoculum. These results

  10. Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Li, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    of interaction of water deficits and/or a high-temperature event (32 degrees C) during vegetative growth (terminal spikelet) with either of these stress events applied during generative growth (anthesis) in wheat. Influence of combinations of stress on protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins...... and glutenins) in grains and stress-induced changes on the albumin and gliadin proteomes were investigated by 2-DE and MS. The synthesis of individual protein fractions was shown to be affected by both the type and time of the applied stresses. Identified drought or high-temperature-responsive proteins included...... proteins involved in primary metabolism, storage and stress response such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, peroxiredoxins and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Several proteins, e.g. heat shock protein and 14-3-3 protein changed in abundance only under multiple high temperatures....

  11. Heat stress and recovery of photosystem II efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars acclimated to different growth temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haque, Sabibul; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on photosystem II (PS II) efficiency and post-stress recovery was studied in four wheat cultivars using chlorophyll fluorescence. The main aim was to examine the cultivar differences in relation to inhibition and recovery of PSII functionality after heat stress...... and 25 °C) and subjected to heat stress (40 °C) for two days at early tillering and three days at anthesis and early grain development stages. The plants were returned to their original growth conditions after heat stress and recovery was observed for three days. The maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv...... heat tolerance characteristics as compared to the other three cultivars. The largest decrease in Fv/Fm and F′q/F′m after heat stress occurred in the cultivar PWS7, which did not recover completely after 72 h. All cultivars grown at 25 °C had a slightly increased heat tolerance and better recovery...

  12. Effect of agroforestry system on yield attributes of wheat (Triticum Aestivum l.) under shallow water table conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, R.; Agnihotri, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen tree rows of Eucalyptus tereticornis were planted at G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar, located in tarai region of Uttaranchal in a Nelder fan design in March 1989 at the angle of 24øN' from each other starting from north in anticlockwise direction. Area per tree was 30 m 2 . Wheat was intercropped with Eucalyptus tereticornis of 21st November, 1996. Each row of trees was one treatment. There were 15 treatments with control as sole crop. Various yield attributes, net radiation and water table depth were measured below trees and in control, simultaneously. In treatments 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 early vegetative growth was observed below trees. Higher yield attributing characters were also observed in some of the treatments below trees. In general, treatment 9 (192-216ø) gave better yield attributes than that of control

  13. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine mapping TaFLW1, a major QTL controlling flag leaf width in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shulin; Xu, Feng; Li, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yan; Lin, Musen; Gao, Zhongxia; Su, Xiuhong; Xu, Xiaowu; Jiang, Ge; Zhang, Shuang; Jia, Haiyan; Kong, Zhongxin; Zhang, Lixia; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2013-08-01

    Flag leaf width (FLW) is directly related to photosynthetic capacity and yield potential in wheat. In a previous study, Qflw.nau-5A controlling FLW was detected on chromosome 5A in the interval possessing Fhb5 for type I Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance using a recombinant inbred line population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai. Qflw.nau-5A near-isogenic line (NIL) with the background of Mianyang 99-323 and PH691 was developed and evaluated. FLW inheritance was investigated using two F2 populations developed from crossing the Qflw.nau-5A NILs with their recurrent parents. One hundred ten and 28 recombinants, which included 10 and 5 types of recombinants, were identified from 2816 F2 plants with Mianyang 99-323 background and 1277 F2 plants with PH691 background, respectively, and phenotyped in field trials for FLW and type I FHB resistance. Deletion bin mapping was applied to physically map Qflw.nau-5A. The introduction of Wangshuibai Qflw.nau-5A allele reduced the FLW up to 3 mm. In the F2 populations, Qflw.nau-5A was inherited like a semi-dominant gene, and was therefore designated as TaFLW1. The FLW of the recombinant lines displayed a distinct two-peak distribution. Recombinants with wider leaves commonly have Mianyang 99-323 or PH691 chromatin in the 0.2 cM Xwmc492-Xwmc752 interval that resided in the 5AL12-0.35-0.57 deletion bin, and recombinants with narrow leaves were Wangshuibai genotype in this interval. Phenotypic recombination between FLW and type I FHB resistance was identified, implying TaFLW1 was in close linkage with Fhb5. These results should aid wheat breeders to break the linkage drag through marker-assisted selection and assist in the map-based cloning of TaFLW1.

  15. Identification of isoforms of microRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their role in leaf rust pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summi Dutta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bread wheat, a type of grass under genus Triticum and species aestivum covers the largest land area when production of cereal crops is considered. Being an allohexaploid (2n=6x=42; AABBDD, its genome is contributed by three progenitors and is evolutionarily rich. Rust in leaves, caused by Puccinia triticina, severely affects grain quality. MicroRNAs are considered as major components of gene silencing and so have deep role to play during stress. Post transcriptional modification of miRNAs which generates isomiRNAs significantly affects target specificity especially when the modification occurs in 5′end. A total of four small RNA libraries were prepared through next-generation Illumina sequencing techniques from leaves of two wheat Near Isogenic Lines (NILs, HD2329 (susceptible and HD2329 + LR24 (resistant. Prior to this, one set of the two NILs was mock inoculated and considered as control (with sRNA library code named SM-mi and RM-mi while other was treated with urediniospores of leaf rust fungus (with sRNA library code named SPI-mi and RPI-mi. Clean reads in all four libraries were previously used for prediction of 559 novel miRNAs and in the current study it was used to detect isoforms of these miRNAs. A total of 237 isoforms were detected for 41 miRNAs. These isoforms included both 5′ and 3′ modifications of miRNAs. There were 27 miRNAs with 5′ modifications and five miRNAs with 3′ modifications while nine miRNAs showed both types of modifications.

  16. Phenotypic Correlation Between Yield and Yield components of Read wheat (Triticum Aestivum L) in Drought Simulated Conditions in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimurto, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Establishing the presence and magnitude of x watering regimes interaction and stability of yield under drought simulated conditions would allow plant breeders select the drought tolerant wheat genotypes based on their performance at different rainfall patterns in different locations, not on overall mean yield. Development of drought tolerant wheat varieties in Kenya in an easier, cheaper and more efficient way is required most of it's land area is marginal. Four moisture stress regimes which simulated terminal, early, mid and late drought were created under rain shelter by supplying 70, 82, 94, 106 mm of moisture up to seedling stage, tillering, anthesis and grain filling, respectively. control had 118 mm of moisture applied at all stages. Four test genotypes R748, R830, R831 and R833 were tested together with one check variety, Duma. Yields for each genotype in two seasons were analysed using ANOVA and genotype x watering regimes assessed. Yield stability was also analysed using regression analysis. The result showed that genotype x watering regimes interaction was highly significant, suggesting that genotypes responded differently to increases water levels in each season. This indicated that selecting of drought tolerant genotypes for marginal areas under rain shelter should be based on those rainfall regimes. Yield stability across watering regimes varied among genotypes with Duma and R830 being the most stable cultivars, indicating that they only do well in low water levels. Genotypes R748 and R831 were the most unstable among all the test cultivars. R748 was the most responsive to increasing levels, indicating that it can be grown in low and high rainfall areas. The study showed that selection of stable drought tolerant cultivars using mobile rain shelters is possible

  17. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA for Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Production Systems of Iran: 1- Comparison of Inputs Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural intensification has serious environmental consequences such as depletion of non-renewable resources, emission of greenhouse gases, threatening of biodiversity and pollution of both surface and underground water resources. The life cycle assessment (LCA provides a standard method for assessing environmental impacts from various economic activities, including agriculture, and covers a wide range of impact categories across the entire production chain. Over the past few decades, food production in Iran has been increased drastically due to heavier use of chemical inputs. Since the use of LCA method is overlooked for assesseing the effects of agricultural intensification in Iran and few researches are conducted at local level (such as province, cities, the purpose of this research is evaluation of wheat production systems throughout the country based on the level of intensification using LCA method. Materials and Methods Fourteen provinces covering 80 percent of total cultivated area of wheat production in the country were subjected to a cradle to gate LCA study using the standard method. The selected provinces were classified as low, medium and high input based on the level of intensification and all inputs and emissions were estimated within the system boundaries during inventory stage. Required data for yield, and level of applied inputs for 14 provinces were collected from the official databases of the Ministry of Jihad Agriculture. The various environmental impacts including, abiotic resource depletion, land use, global warming potential, acidification and eutrophication potential, human, aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity potential of wheat production systems over the country was studied based on emission coefficients and characterization factors provided by standard literatures. The integrated effects of emission of each impact category were calculated per functional units (hectare cultivated area as well as ton

  18. Seasonal growth attributes of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) genotypes in response to moisture regimes under semi arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmad, W.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment for the comparison among different wheat genotypes (Iqbal-2000, Chenab-2000, Aqab-2000) for its maximum yield potential in response to different moisture regimes, a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement in triplicate run was carried out during the year 2006-07. Factors were: wheat genotypes (Iqbal-2000, Chenab-2000, Aqab-2000) in main plots and five irrigation levels 0= no irrigation (control), 1= irrigation at tillering, 2= irrigation at tillering + booting, 3= irrigation at tillering + booting + anthesis and 4= irrigation at tillering + booting + anthesis + milking in subplots. Results showed that maximum LAI was attained on 2 February and 4 March harvest and genotype Iqbal-2000 was superior compared to other genotypes. Irrigated treatments significantly increased LAI than control (0) treatments at all harvest dates. Iqbal-2000 showed maximum CGR (32.69 g m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/) and LAD (319.42) compared with lowest CGR (25.49 g m/sup -2/ d/sup -1/) and LAD (278.50) given by genotype Chenab-2000 under 3 and 4 treatments throughout the growing season. Radiation use efficiency ranged from 17.58-18.27 DM MJ-1 of intercepted radiation. Mean accumulated radiation interception (754, 736 and 784 MJm-2) was assessed in genotypes (Iqbal-2000, Chenab-2000 and Aqab-2000), respectively but not significant effect on net assimilation rate. Genotype Iqbal-2000 and Aqab-2000 had highest TDM (21670; 21220 kg ha/sup -1/) respectively while 4 (Irrigation at tillering + booting + anthesis + milking) had the highest TDM 22240 kg ha/sup -1/ verses I0 (no irrigation) 18070 kg ha/sup -1/. Aqab-2000 showed the highest grain yield (5458.78 kg ha/sup -1/) as compared to Chenab-2000 (4536.71 kg ha/sup -1/) whereas 4 (Irrigation at tillering + booting + anthesis + milking) produced more grain yield (6376.25 kg ha/sup -1/) than all other irrigation treatments. (author)

  19. Indentification of radiation treatment of wheat (triticum aestivum. L) and rice (oryza sativa. L) samples using thermoluminescence of contaminating minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.M.; Bhatti, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation is gaining popularity worldwide and this technology is important to improve quality and reduce the post harvest losses of food. Because of the rapid commercialization of irradiated foods throughout the world, compliance of different regulations relating to use of technology in different countries and demand of consumers for clear labelling of irradiated foods, there is need for the development of analytical methods to detect radiation treatment of food. Among several methods studied so far, thermoluminescence (TL) is an important method that can be used to find out the irradiation history of food that contain even a very minute amount of dust particles. In this study, the irradiated and unirradiated wheat and rice samples were analyzed using the TL method. The samples were purchased from the local market of Peshawar and irradiated to radiation doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator at the Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar. The mineral contaminants were isolated by jet water, ultrasonic treatment, and density gradient. TL glow curves of the isolated minerals from irradiated and unirradiated samples were recorded between the temperature ranges of 50-500 degree C using a TL reader. Generally, the glow curves for irradiated samples showed much higher TL intensities (TL 1 ) than the unirradiated samples. The results were normalized by re-irradiation of mineral samples to gamma-ray dose of 1.0 kGy followed by determination of the second glow curves (TM). The ratio of the area of first glow curve to that of second glow curve (TL 1 /TL 2 ) was calculated for selected temperature intervals and compared with the recommended values for unirradiated and irradiated samples. Finally, the shapes of the glow curves for irradiated and unirradiated samples were also analyzed. On the ba- sis of these results (comparison of TL-intensities, TL 1 /TL 2 ratios and shapes of the glow curves), all the irradiated and unirradiated

  20. Supplemental exogenous NPK application alters biochemical processes to improve yield and drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Rana Nauman; Waraich, E A; Ali, H; Nawaz, F; Ashraf, M Y; Ahmad, R; Awan, M I; Ahmad, S; Irfan, M; Hussain, S; Ahmad, Z

    2016-02-01

    The recent food security issues, combined with the threats from climate change, demand future farming systems to be more precise and accurate to fulfill the ever increasing global food requirements. The role of nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in stimulating plant growth and development is well established; however, little is known about their function, if applied in combination, in improving crop yields under environmental stresses like drought. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined foliar spray of supplemental NPK (NPKc) on physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enhance the drought tolerance potential of wheat for improved yield. Foliar NPKc markedly influenced the accumulation of osmoprotectants and activity of both nitrogen assimilation and antioxidant enzymes. It significantly improved the concentration of proline (66 %), total soluble sugars (37 %), and total soluble proteins (10 %) and enhanced the activity of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, catalase, and peroxidase by 47, 45, 19, and 8 %, respectively, with respect to no spray under water-deficit conditions which, in turn, improve the yield and yield components. The accumulation of osmolytes and activity of antioxidant machinery were more pronounced in drought tolerant (Bhakkar-02) than sensitive genotype (Shafaq-06).

  1. Path coefficient and correlation of yield and yield associated traits in candidate bread wheat (triticum aestivum l)lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, T.; Haider, S.; Qureshi, M. J.; Shah, G. S.; Zamir, R.

    2005-01-01

    Yield and yield contributing traits were studied in candidate bread wheat lines to find out the genetic contribution of the different characters towards grain yield at NIFA, Peshawar during 2001-02. All the characteristics studied differed significantly from each other. Days to heading showed negative and significant correlation with harvest index and grain yield but was negative and non-significant with the biological yield. Days to maturity were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with biological yield; harvest index and grain yield and level of correlations were significant with harvest index and grain yield. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with harvest index and grain yield. Biological yield had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index and grain yield. Harvest index had positive and highly significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients revealed that important characters influencing grain yield are harvest index and biological yield. Path analysis showed the importance in order of harvest index, biological yield, plant height, days to maturity and days to heading with grain yield. (author)

  2. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J; Madrid, Susan M; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B; Scheller, Henrik V

    2010-04-01

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm-specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and threefold relative to wild type. The grains were shrivelled and had a 25%-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10%-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water-extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water-extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase-expressing grains were also shrivelled, and the seed weight was decreased by 20%-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild-type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15%-40% increase in water-unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13% and 34%. In all the plants, the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  3. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  4. Prediction of yield losses in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) caused by yellow rust in relation to epidemiological factors in Faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Afzal, M.; Noorka, I.R.; Iqbal, Z.; Akhtar, N.; Iiftikhar, Y.; Kamran, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty six genotypes were screened against yellow rust to check their level of susceptibility or resistance. Among 36 genotypes screened against yellow rust, 18 were susceptible, 6 were moderately susceptible to susceptible, 7 were moderately resistant to moderately susceptible and 5 genotypes remained resistant. Yield losses were predicted in wheat on the basis of varying level of yellow rust severities. It was observed that susceptible genotypes showed higher yield losses as compared to resistant genotypes. Maximum severity of 90% of yellow rust resulted in 54% to 55% calculated and predicted losses, respectively. While 40, 50, 60 and 70% disease severity of yellow rust caused 35-34%, 38-37%, 42-40% and 46-47% calculated and predicted losses, respectively. However, the decline in losses was observed as the genotypes changed their reaction from susceptible to moderate susceptible. Similarly, losses were diminished as the varieties/lines showed moderate resistant reaction from moderate susceptible. Minimum temperature and relative humidity remained positively correlated while the maximum temperature showed negative correlation with stripe rust severity. With the increase of minimum temperature and relative humidity a rise up in stripe rust infection was seen while as the maximum temperature increased stripe rust infection decreased on different genotypes. It may be concluded from the study that environmental factors played major role in the spread of the disease which result in yield losses. (author)

  5. Inoculating wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with the endophytic bacterium Serratia sp. PW7 to reduce pyrene contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Wang, Wanqing; Sun, Kai; Lin, Xianghao; Li, Shuang; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Ling, Wanting

    2017-08-03

    This research was conducted to find an optimal inoculation way for a pyrene-degrading endophytic Serratia sp. PW7 to colonize wheat for reducing pyrene contamination. Three inoculation ways, which are soaking seeds in inocula (TS), dipping roots of seedlings in inocula (TR), and spraying inocula on leaves of seedlings (TL), were used in this study. Inoculated seedlings and noninoculated seedlings (CK) were, respectively, cultivated in Hoagland solutions supplemented with pyrene in a growth chamber. The results showed that strain PW7 successfully colonized the inoculated seedlings in high numbers, and significantly promoted the growth of seedlings (TS and TR). More importantly, strain PW7 reduced pyrene levels in the seedlings and the Hoagland solutions. Compared to the noninoculated seedlings, the pyrene contents of the inoculated seedlings were decreased by 35.7-86.3% in the shoots and by 26.8-60.1% in the roots after 8-day cultivation. By comparing the efficiencies of decreasing pyrene residues, it can be concluded that TR was an optimal inoculation way for endophytic strains to colonize the inoculated plants and to reduce the pyrene contamination. Our findings provide an optimized inoculation way to reduce organic contamination in crops by inoculating plants with functional endophytic bacteria.

  6. Evaluation of Spring Bread Wheat Lines (Triticum aestivum L. and Their Classification by Using Some Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Daryani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain superior genotypes from 30 advanced spring bread wheat cultivars a field experiment in RCBD was carried out in 1388. Traits like yield, yield components, harvest index, peduncle length, awn length, number of leaf, plant height, flag leaf area, penultimate leaf area, days to booting, days to spike emergence, days to flowering and physiological maturity were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant difference among genotypes for the traits measured at %1 probability level. This indicates considerable genetic variations among the lines evaluated. Cluster analysis of traits measured, grouped lines into three categories. Eight lines were located in third cluster with respect to some traits including grain yield and other important traits like biological yield, number of seed per spike, spike length, peduncle length, plant height, flag leaf area, and number of spike per m² were found to be superior. By using factor analysis, five factors determined 78.99% of total variation. In this analysis, the first factor could account for 35% of total variation and nominated as effective factor on grain yield. Line with accession number of N-75-5 was found to be highest yielding (289.5 g/m2 (as compared with the other lines.

  7. Evaluation of Spring Bread Wheat Lines (Triticum aestivum L. and Their Classification by Using Some Agronomic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A .R. Tarinejad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain superior genotypes from 30 advanced spring bread wheat cultivars a field experiment in RCBD was carried out in 1388. Traits like yield, yield components, harvest index, peduncle length, awn length, number of leaf, plant height, flag leaf area, penultimate leaf area, days to booting, days to spike emergence, days to flowering and physiological maturity were recorded. Analysis of variance showed significant difference among genotypes for the traits measured at %1 probability level. This indicates considerable genetic variations among the lines evaluated lines. Cluster analysis through Ward method, by using all of the traits, grouped lines into three clusters. Eight lines located in third cluster with respect to some traits including grain yield and other important traits like biological yield, number of seed per spike, spike length, peduncle length, plant height, flag leaf area, and number of spike per m² were superior. Factor analysis, five factors discriminated 78.99% of total variation. In this analysis, the first factor could determine 35% of total variation and nominated as effective factor on grain yield. Line with accession number N-75-5 was found to be highest yielding (289.5 g/m2 (as compared with the other lines.

  8. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance.

  9. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga Christensen; Lind Bouquin, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm-specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) KDEL were used....... Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10%-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water-extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water-extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase......-expressing grains were also shrivelled, and the seed weight was decreased by 20%-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild-type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15%-40% increase in water-unextractable arabinoxylan...

  10. THE ROLE OF MATH/BTB PROTEINS IN EGG CELL AND AT THE ONSET OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Leljak-Levanić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The conserved BTB and MATH domains are presented in a variety of proteins as a single copy domain, together or in combination with other types of domains. Different functional roles have been identified for BTB proteins such as transcription repression, cytoskeleton regulation as well as protein ubiquitination/degradation in which amino-terminal MATH domain is responsible for substrate specificity. Although the function of MATH/BTB proteins is not clear, distribution of these proteins from yeast to human and domain conservation suggest that they are critical in some cellular functions. In wheat we have identified existence of at least three MATH/BTB domain proteins encoding genes (TaMATH/BTB, TaMATH/BTB-Ec, TaMATH/BTB-2c which expression was analyzed in different vegetative tissues, egg cells, zygotes and during embryo development. TaMATH/BTB was found to be expressed ubiquitously, while transcript of TaMATH/BTB-Ec is presented only in the egg cell. TaMATH/BTB-2c is induced after fertilization, with the highest expression level in 2-celled stage proembryo. Subcellular localization of TaMATH/BTB-2c was analyzed after generating GFP-fusion proteins. Besides the complete coding region, deletions of either MATH or BTB domain were fused to GFP. Expression and subcellular localization indicates a putative role of TaMATH/BTB-2c in cell polarity.

  11. Generation of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulating heterologous endo-xylanase or ferulic acid esterase in the endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harholt, Jesper; Bach, Inga C; Lind-Bouquin, Solveig; Nunan, Kylie J.; Madrid, Susan M.; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Holm, Preben B.; Scheller, Henrik V.

    2009-12-08

    Endo-xylanase (from Bacillus subtilis) or ferulic acid esterase (from Aspergillus niger) were expressed in wheat under the control of the endosperm specific 1DX5 glutenin promoter. Constructs both with and without the endoplasmic reticulum retention signal KDEL were used. Transgenic plants were recovered in all four cases but no qualitative differences could be observed whether KDEL was added or not. Endo-xylanase activity in transgenic grains was increased between two and three fold relative to wild type. The grains were shriveled and had a 25-33% decrease in mass. Extensive analysis of the cell walls showed a 10-15% increase in arabinose to xylose ratio, a 50% increase in the proportion of water extractable arabinoxylan, and a shift in the MW of the water extractable arabinoxylan from being mainly larger than 85 kD to being between 2 kD and 85 kD. Ferulic acid esterase expressing grains were also shriveled and the seed weight was decreased by 20-50%. No ferulic acid esterase activity could be detected in wild type grains whereas ferulic acid esterase activity was detected in transgenic lines. The grain cell walls had 15-40% increase in water unextractable arabinoxylan and a decrease in monomeric ferulic acid between 13 and 34%. In all the plants the observed changes are consistent with a plant response that serves to minimize the effect of the heterologously expressed enzymes by increasing arabinoxylan biosynthesis and cross-linking.

  12. Effects of water deficit on breadmaking quality and storage protein compositions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiaxing; Liu, Dongmiao; Deng, Xiong; Zhen, Shoumin; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2018-03-12

    Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in changes in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins were investigated. Water deficiency produced a shorter grain-filling period, a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule size and increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality. Reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the total gliadin and glutenin content and the accumulation of individual components were significantly increased by water deficiency. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 144 individual storage protein spots with significant accumulation changes in developing grains under water deficit. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that water deficiency resulted in significant upregulation of 12 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and 46 low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of storage protein biosynthesis-related transcription factors Dof and Spa was upregulated by water deficiency. The present results illustrated that water deficiency leads to increased accumulation of storage protein components and upregulated expression of Dof and Spa, resulting in an improvement in glutenin strength and breadmaking quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Application of 32P to investigate Mycorrhiza and streptomyces efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum) at various levels of phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, M.R.; Majid, F.; Mazaheri, D.; Naseri Tafti, M.; Nour Mohammad, G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the symbiosis of Mycorrhiza and Streptomyes from actinomycetes with the roots of wheat as bio fertilizers that could provide plant nutrients and plant protection, a research was established with different levels of phosphorus under greenhouse conditions. On the other hand, the interaction of two microorganisms, to achieve a good fertilization formula, was also studied. To obtain precise results, 32 P was utilized. A factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with 3 replications was used in which 4 levels of P(0, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.60 g pot -1 ) were applied for each microorganism 2 levels (one with and one without using) in form of seed inoculation are used. Results showed that, using mycorrhiza had a positive and significant effect on all characters. By increasing the phosphorus levels, however, the mycorrhizal activity increased at 0.40 g pot-1 which indicated a good activity. There were negative or antagonistic interaction between two microorganisms and all characters were reduced by using them together. (author)

  14. Evaluation of reciprocal cross populations for spike-related traits in early consecutive generations of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlu Imren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breeding effort on increasing grain yield of wheat will incessantly continue because it is indispensable product. Obtaining the genetic information such as genotypic variation, heritability, genetic advance is the fundamental components of these studies. It is important that the maternal effects are put forward throughout successive generations because of genotypic and/or environmental effects as far as variation. This research was conducted to investigate changes of reciprocal crosses throughout successive generations and determine selection criteria for high yield in early generations. For this purpose, the populations were analyzed with regard to genotypic and phenotypic variation coefficient, heritability, genetic advance and Unweighted Pair Group Method (UPGMA cluster analysis for real crosses, reciprocals and all genotypes separately. According to the results, heritability and genetic advance values of traits investigated were highly varied throughout successive generations among real crosses, reciprocals and all genotypes. This finding indicated that non-additive gen effects or epitasis played a role in inheritance of all traits. Dissimilarity of crosses than their reciprocals indicated variation of successive generation. Dissimilarity value of each parent differed as generation progresses according to combination created. This condition suggested that there were maternal effects in this population throughout successive generations. Grain weight per spike, spike harvest index and spike density had high direct and indirect effects on the grain yield at all of three generations, it proved that these traits can be a selection criterion for early generations. Sana was the best parent and ‘Bezostaja x Krasunia’ and ‘Krasunia x Pehlivan’ were best performance in most of traits at all generations.

  15. Uptake of atmospheric {sup 15}NO{sub 2} and its incorporation into free amino acids wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.; Rennenberg, H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Nussbaum, S.; Fuhrer, J. [Eidgenoessische Forschungsanstalt fuer Agrikulturchemie und Umwelthygiene, Liebefeld-Bern (Switzerland); Gfeller, H.; Schlunegger, U.P. [Inst. fuer Organische Chemie der Univ. Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Brunold, C. [Pflanzenphysiologisches Institut der Univ. Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    Five-week-old wheat plants were exposed, under controlled environmental conditions to 60 nl l{sup -1} {sup 15}NO{sub 2} or to purified air. After 48 and 96 h of exposure, leaves, stalks and roots were analysed for {sup 15}N-enrichment in {alpha}-amino nitrogen of soluble, free amino acids. In addition, the in vitro nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1) and nitrite reductase (NiR, EC 1.7.7.1) activities were determined in leaves. NR activity in the leaves decreased continuously during the 96-h exposure to purified air. In the leaves exposed to {sup 15}NO{sub 2}, NR activity increased within the first 24 h, then decreased, and reached the level of controls after 96 h. NiR activity in leaves exposed to purified air was almost constant during the 96-h exposure. In leaves exposed to {sup 15}NO{sub 2}, NiR activity increased within the first 48 h, then decreased, and reached the level of controls after 72 h. Exposure to {sup 15}NO{sub 2} enhanced the total content of soluble, free amino acids in all tissues analysed. Most of this increase was attributed to Glu in the leaves and to Asn plus Gln in the stalks and the roots. After 48 h exposure to {sup 15}NO{sub 2} the highest {sup 15}N-enrichment in the {alpha}-amino grou of soluble, free amino acids was observed in the leaves, the lowest enrichment in the roots. The main labelled amino compounds were Glu (with 8.0% {sup 15}N enrichment compared to the control), {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 7.9%), Ala (7.2%), Ser (6,8%), Asp (5,5%) and Gln (4.6%). Appreciable incorporation of {sup 15}N into Asn was not found. After 96 h exposure to {sup 15}NO{sub 2} the {sup 15}N enrichment in the {alpha}-amino group of soluble, free amino acids in the leaves declined as compared to the values obtained after 48 h fumigation. The possible pathway and the time course of {sup 15}N incorporation into soluble, free amino acids from the {sup 15}NO{sub 2} absorbed are discussed. (au) (41 refs.)

  16. Estudio de parámetros hídricos foliares en trigo (Triticum aestivum L. y su uso en selección de genotipos resistentes a sequía Leaf water parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their use in the selection of drought resistant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO ORTIZ

    2003-06-01

    , CRA y AO, y otra que consideró la pendiente y el promedio de psish y CRA. Luego se correlacionó el orden de los genotipos de ambas selecciones con los ordenes establecidos para los métodos de calculo de AO y se estableció que el orden que considera la pendiente y el promedio de ysh, CRA y AO se correlaciona con los ordenes establecidos por los tres métodos de cálculo de AO. Los parámetros hídricos foliares CRA, psish y AO no estuvieron correlacionados con el rendimiento bajo estrés hídrico. La pendiente de psish se correlacionó negativamente con el rendimiento, lo que indica que el AO permite a la planta sobrevivir al estrés pero no tener mayor rendimiento. Se concluye que con la metodología utilizada es posible seleccionar genotipos resistentes a sequía en base a la pendiente y el promedio de los parámetros psish, CRA y AO obtenidos en campo, removiendo parte del ruido ambientalThe leaf water parameters ys (solute potential, RWC (relative water content and OA (osmotic adjustment characterize the response of plants to water stress and presumably allow the identification of better adapted genotypes. These parameters, however, are highly influenced by the environment what makes their analysis difficult. In this work we hypothesize that it is possible to characterize and select drought resistant wheat genotypes based on the field value of the leaf water parameters using the appropriate analytical techniques. Thirty one wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were grown in two field trials, one irrigated and one non-irrigated that received 218.3 mm of winter rain. The statistical design was a randomized complete block with two replicates. Between 77 and 121 days after emergence (DC 41 to DC 77, five samplings of relative water content (RWC and solute potential of hydrated flag leaves (psish were made in each replication of each trial (10 observations per trial. The replicates were sampled in alternate days with a 24-h interval between 12:00 and 14:00 h

  17. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method; Zamarzanie wody zwiazanej w ziarnach pszenicy (Triticum aestivum L.) badane metoda relaksacji magnetycznej dla protonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G. [Inst. Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Strzalka, K. [Inst. Biologii Molekularnej, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T{sub 2}{approx}100 {mu}s and T{sub 2}{approx}1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding. 7 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  19. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Tyagi, Anshika; Mishra, Poonam; Priyadarshini, Anupama; Singh, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  20. Comparative study of plant growth promoting bacteria in minimizing toxic effects of chromium on growth and metabolic activities in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseem, S.; Ahmed, A.; Yasin, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, effect of inoculation of five bacterial strains i.e., Kushneria avicenniae AHT, Halomonas sp. AST, Bacillus sp. AMP2, Halomonas venusta APA and Arthrobacter mysorens AHA on the growth of Triticum aestivum var. Inqilab 97 was observed under various concentrations (0, 10 and 20 mu gml-1) of different chromium salts (CrCl/sub 3/, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/). Bacterial inoculation caused reduction in the chromium uptake (22-32, 5-22 and 2-18%) of seedlings both at 10 and 20 mu g ml-1 CrCl3, K/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/ and K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ when compared with respective non- inoculated treatment. Also increase in acid phosphatase and peroxidase contents was recorded due to bacterial inoculations compared to control. (author)

  1. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  2. Introgression lines of Triticum aestivum x Aegilops tauschii: Agronomic and nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty-five single homozygous substitution lines (SLs) of the Aegilops tauschii D genome in Chinese Spring (CS) hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic background were evaluated for agronomic, phenotypic and ionome profiles during three years of field experiments. An augmented design with a r...

  3. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, were determined. Heat and UV-B irradiation alone caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigment content, radical scavenging activity and super oxide radical scavenging activity in the two studied plants. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were stimulated in response to UV and/or heat stresses. The elevation of enzyme activities was higher under heat than under UV-B, especially in T. aestivum. According to our findings, it can be concluded that combined heat and UV-B provided cross-tolerance; otherwise, single stress was found to aggravate the responses.

  4. The Effect of Supplemental Irrigation on Canopy Temperature Depression, Chlorophyll Content, and Water Use Efficiency in Three Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. Varieties Grown in Dry Regions of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latief A. Al-Ghzawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One critical challenge facing the world is the need to satisfy the food requirements of the dramatically growing population. Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in the wheat-producing regions; therefore, wheat yield stability is a major objective of wheat-breeding programs in Jordan, which experience fluctuating climatic conditions in the context of global climate change. In the current study, a two-year field experiment was conducted for exploring the effect of four different water regimes on the yield, yield components, and stability of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; T. durum Desf. Jordanian cultivars as related to Canopy Temperature Depression (CTD, and Chlorophyll Content (measured by Soil-Plant Analysis Development, SPAD. A split plot design was used in this experiment with four replicates. Water treatment was applied as the main factor: with and without supplemental irrigation; 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of field capacity were applied. Two durum wheat cultivars and one bread wheat cultivar were split over irrigation treatments as a sub factor. In both growing seasons, supplemental irrigation showed a significant increase in grain yield compared to the rain-fed conditions. This increase in grain yield was due to the significantly positive effect of water availability on yield components. Values of CTD, SPAD, harvest index, and water use efficiency (WUE were increased significantly with an increase in soil moisture and highly correlated with grain yield. Ammon variety produced the highest grain yield across the four water regimes used in this study. This variety was characterized by the least thermal time to maturity and the highest values of CTD and SPAD. It was concluded that Ammon had the highest stability among the cultivars tested. Furthermore, CTD and SPAD can be used as important selection parameters in breeding programs in Jordan to assist in developing high-yielding genotypes under drought and heat stress conditions.

  5. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR...... markers were found to be polymorphic, whereas only 2,532 of the ~7,000 DArT markers were polymorphic. A Mantel test between the genetic distances calculated based on the SSR and DArT data showed a strong positive correlation between the two marker types, with a Pearson's value (r) of 0.66. We assessed...... the genetic diversity and allelic frequencies among the accessions based on spring- versus winter-wheat type as well as between landraces and cultivars. We also analyzed the changes in genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in these samples over time. We observed separation based on both vernalization type...

  6. Studies on some ecophysiological traits associated with competitiveness of old and new Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars against wild oat ( Avena ludoviciana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eskandar zand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 1996-1997 growing season in Mashhad, NE of Iran to evaluate the genetic improvement in ecophysiological traits that enhance the competitiveness of Iranian winter wheat (Triticum aestivuml against wild oat ( Avena ludovicianal. Six Iranian winter wheat cultivars which have been released during the past 40 years were used for this experiment. A factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each cultivar was planted at its own optimum seeding rate with and without competition with wild oat. Wild oat was planted at a constant density of 80 plants per square meter. The results showed that more recent cultivars had much higher competitive ability compared to earlier cultivars. Alvand (the most recent cultivar had higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and relative leaf area growth rate (RLGR compared to Bezostaya. Alvand had a higher proportion of its leaf area in higher canopy layer. Wild oat was also shorter in height when it was competing with Alvand compared to Bezostaya. It was found that following characteristics were the most important criteria in competitive ability of winter wheat against wild oats: 1 leaf area at the end of tillering stage. 2 final leaf area index. 3 relative leaf area index, and 4 the canopy layer where the higher leaf area was measured

  7. Quantification of the effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1 to predict spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) heading time across diverse environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bangyou; Biddulph, Ben; Li, Dora; Kuchel, Haydn; Chapman, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Heading time is a major determinant of the adaptation of wheat to different environments, and is critical in minimizing risks of frost, heat, and drought on reproductive development. Given that major developmental genes are known in wheat, a process-based model, APSIM, was modified to incorporate gene effects into estimation of heading time, while minimizing degradation in the predictive capability of the model. Model parameters describing environment responses were replaced with functions of the number of winter and photoperiod (PPD)-sensitive alleles at the three VRN1 loci and the Ppd-D1 locus, respectively. Two years of vernalization and PPD trials of 210 lines (spring wheats) at a single location were used to estimate the effects of the VRN1 and Ppd-D1 alleles, with validation against 190 trials (~4400 observations) across the Australian wheatbelt. Compared with spring genotypes, winter genotypes for Vrn-A1 (i.e. with two winter alleles) had a delay of 76.8 degree days (°Cd) in time to heading, which was double the effect of the Vrn-B1 or Vrn-D1 winter genotypes. Of the three VRN1 loci, winter alleles at Vrn-B1 had the strongest interaction with PPD, delaying heading time by 99.0 °Cd under long days. The gene-based model had root mean square error of 3.2 and 4.3 d for calibration and validation datasets, respectively. Virtual genotypes were created to examine heading time in comparison with frost and heat events and showed that new longer-season varieties could be heading later (with potential increased yield) when sown early in season. This gene-based model allows breeders to consider how to target gene combinations to current and future production environments using parameters determined from a small set of phenotyping treatments.

  8. Impact assessment of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mustard (Brassica spp.) production and its adaptation strategies in different districts of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V.; Patel, H. R.; Yadav, S. B.; Patil, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gujarat is the western-most state of India with a long (1600 km) sea coast on the Arabian Sea. Average annual rainfall ranges from as high as 1900 mm in the sub-humid southeast to as low as 250 mm in the arid north. There are three distinct crop seasons- rainy (June to September), winter (Oct.-Nov. through Feb.-March) and summer (Feb-March through May-June). Wheat and mustard are grown during winter seasons. The past climatic records suggested increasing trends in rainfall( 2 to 5 mm per year), maximum (0.03 to 0.05 0C per year) and minimum temperatures (0.02 to 0.05 0C per year) at most of places in Gujarat. But the minimum temperature is fould to be increasing significantly at all the locations. This affects the winter season crops viz. wheat and mustard adversely. Simulation results with DSSAT CERES-wheat model revealed that with increase in temperature by 2 0C in different months (November to February) the decrease in wheat yield is observed between 7 to 29 per cent. The impact of increase in maximum temperature during early (November) and late (February) is less (24.8 %). The climate change projections during 2071-2100 using PRECIS output suggested that there would be increase in maximum temperature by 3.2 to 5.2 0C in different districts of Gujarat over baseline period of 1961-1990 while minimum temperature is project to increase by 2.8 to 5.8 0C. Rainfall is also projected to increase by 28 to 70 per cent in different districts. The impact of climate change on wheat would be reduction in its duration by 14-20 days and the grain yield would be reduced by 20-55 per cent in different districts. In case of mustard crops the duration of crop would be reduced by 11 to 16 days and seed yield would be reduced by 32-50 per cent. In order to mitigate the ill effect of climate change, various adaptation strategies vis change in dates of sowing, change in variety, additional irrigation and fertilizer applications were simulated. Shifting of sowing dates of wheat by 15

  9. Characterization of a Wheat Breeders' Array suitable for high-throughput SNP genotyping of global accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M; Winfield, Mark O; Burridge, Amanda J; Downie, Rowena C; Benbow, Harriet R; Barker, Gary L A; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; Bentley, Alison R; Alda, Mark; Jack, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Edwards, Keith J

    2017-03-01

    Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilization of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819 571 previously characterized wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35 143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions. To assess their suitability, the markers have been validated using a commercial high-density Affymetrix Axiom ® genotyping array (the Wheat Breeders' Array), in a high-throughput 384 microplate configuration, to characterize a diverse global collection of wheat accessions including landraces and elite lines derived from commercial breeding communities. We demonstrate that the Wheat Breeders' Array is also suitable for generating high-density genetic maps of previously uncharacterized populations and for characterizing novel genetic diversity produced by mutagenesis. To facilitate the use of the array by the wheat community, the markers, the associated sequence and the genotype information have been made available through the interactive web site 'CerealsDB'. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Molecular diversity of α-gliadin expressed genes in genetically contrasted spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) accessions and comparison with bread wheat (T. aestivum ssp. aestivum) and related diploid Triticum and Aegilops species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Benjamin; Bertin, Pierre; Mingeot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The gluten proteins of cereals such as bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum ) and spelt ( T. aestivum ssp. spelta ) are responsible for celiac disease (CD). The α-gliadins constitute the most immunogenic class of gluten proteins as they include four main T-cell stimulatory epitopes that affect CD patients. Spelt has been less studied than bread wheat and could constitute a source of valuable diversity. The objective of this work was to study the genetic diversity of spelt α-gliadin transcripts and to compare it with those of bread wheat. Genotyping data from 85 spelt accessions obtained with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to select 11 contrasted accessions, from which 446 full open reading frame α-gliadin genes were cloned and sequenced, which revealed a high allelic diversity. High variations among the accessions were highlighted, in terms of the proportion of α-gliadin sequences from each of the three genomes (A, B and D), and their composition in the four T-cell stimulatory epitopes. An accession from Tajikistan stood out, having a particularly high proportion of α-gliadins from the B genome and a low immunogenic content. Even if no clear separation between spelt and bread wheat sequences was shown, spelt α-gliadins displayed specific features concerning e.g. the frequencies of some amino acid substitutions. Given this observation and the variations in toxicity revealed in the spelt accessions in this study, the high genetic diversity held in spelt germplasm collections could be a valuable resource in the development of safer varieties for CD patients.

  11. Mechanism of Resistance in two Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia: Homoptra: Aphididae) in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinga, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is a recent pest of small cereals that is causing severe yield losses in farmers' fields and farmers have demanded a resistant wheat line. In wheat the pest causes both direct and indirect damage resulting in losses of up to 90%. Control of the aphid is a major constraint in the production of wheat in Kenya requiring the use of more than one systematic insecticide application.This cost is prohibitive.Breeding wheat for resistance to Russian wheat is the cheapest alternative and is the international trend. The use of Russian wheat aphid resistant cultivars may reduce the impact of these pest on cereal production. A study was therefore conducted in Kenya to understand and determine the genetics of inheritance pattern of D. noxia present in two new sources of resistance (RWA 8 and RWA 16). These two new sources would be potential donors of D. noxia resistance in breeding programmes. The two resistant donors with unknown resistance genes for Diuraphis noxia were crossed with susceptible Kenyan commercial wheat cultivar, Heroe. Resistant reaction of F 1 ,BC 1 and F2 indicated that resistance in the two lines differed. Resistant in RWA 8 may be controlled by a single dominant genes while RWA 16 by two incomplete dominant genes. It is unknown wether these genes are identical to any known, designated resistance genes. However, their resistance has been shown to be effective on the RWA population in Kenya. As studies continue on these genes at molecular level, it is recommended that resistant populations are carried on through the breeding programme to possibly identify and release a resistant variety for commercial production

  12. Global QTL Analysis Identifies Genomic Regions on Chromosomes 4A and 4B Harboring Stable Loci for Yield-Related Traits Across Different Environments in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Guan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in wheat production are needed to address global food insecurity under future climate conditions, such as high temperatures. The grain yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a quantitatively inherited complex trait that is strongly influenced by interacting genetic and environmental factors. Here, we conducted global QTL analysis for five yield-related traits, including spike yield, yield components and plant height (PH, in the Nongda3338/Jingdong6 doubled haploid (DH population using a high-density SNP and SSR-based genetic map. A total of 12 major genomic regions with stable QTL controlling yield-related traits were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5A, 6A, and 7A across 12 different field trials with timely sown (normal and late sown (heat stress conditions. Co-location of yield components revealed significant tradeoffs between thousand grain weight (TGW and grain number per spike (GNS on chromosome 4A. Dissection of a “QTL-hotspot” region for grain weight on chromosome 4B was helpful in marker-assisted selection (MAS breeding. Moreover, this study identified a novel QTL for heat susceptibility index of thousand grain weight (HSITGW on chromosome 4BL that explains approximately 10% of phenotypic variation. QPh.cau-4B.2, QPh.cau-4D.1 and QPh.cau-2D.3 were coincident with the dwarfing genes Rht1, Rht2, and Rht8, and haplotype analysis revealed their pleiotropic architecture with yield components. Overall, our findings will be useful for elucidating the genetic architecture of yield-related traits and developing new wheat varieties with high and stable yield.

  13. Economic Evaluation for Integrated Use of Glyphosate Herbicide and Tillage Combinations Applied before Sowing of Rain-Fed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Malik, M. A.; Ansar, M.; Qureshi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Low average yield, scarce soil moisture and less soil fertility are major problems of rain-fed wheat. Economic feasibility of different tillage systems integrated with glyphosate herbicide and wheat crop productivity was determined through field experiments conducted at the University Research Farm of Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan during summer and winter seasons of 2012-13 and 2013-14. Different combinations of tillage and glyphosate herbicide were used in the fallow period (summer season) that were consisted of following treatments viz. T1 = 1 Mould board Plowing + 8 Cultivations, T2 = No-Till + Glyphosate, T3 = 1 Mould board Plowing + Glyphosate, T4 = 1 MB Plowing + 4 Cultivations, T5 = 1 Disc Harrowing + Glyphosate, T6 = 1 Disc Harrowing + 4 Cultivations and T7 = 1 Chiseling + Glyphosate. Results showed that the highest yield viz. 3.5132, 3.1242 t ha-1 were obtained in the case of conventional tillage (T1) and reduced tillage (T4), respectively with a net profit of 888.92 and 839.35 $ ha-1. The yield was positively affected by tillage intensity. In conclusion, T1 is recommended for getting maximum net return from wheat grown in rain-fed areas of Pakistan. (author)

  14. Overexpression of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bZIP transcription factor gene, TabZIP6, decreased the freezing tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings by down-regulating the expression of CBFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wangting; Yang, Yaling; Wang, Weiwei; Guo, Guangyan; Liu, Wei; Bi, Caili

    2018-03-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins play important roles against abiotic stress in plants, including cold stress. However, most bZIPs involved in plant freezing tolerance are positive regulators. Only a few bZIPs function negatively in cold stress response. In this study, TabZIP6, a Group C bZIP transcription factor gene from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was cloned and characterized. The transcript of TabZIP6 was strongly induced by cold treatment (4 °C). TabZIP6 is a nuclear-localized protein with transcriptional activation activity. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TabZIP6 showed decreased tolerance to freezing stress. Microarray as well as quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that CBFs and some key COR genes, including COR47 and COR15B, were down-regulated by cold treatment in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis lines. TabZIP6 was capable of binding to the G-box motif and the CBF1 and CBF3 promoters in yeast cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that TabZIP6, as well as the other two Group S bZIP proteins involved in cold stress tolerance in wheat, Wlip19 and TaOBF1, can form homodimers by themselves and heterodimers with each other. These results suggest that TabZIP6 may function negatively in the cold stress response by binding to the promoters of CBFs, and thereby decreasing the expression of downstream COR genes in TabZIP6-overexpressing Arabidopsis seedlings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Gui Zhang

    Full Text Available Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L, a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs. The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW and spike length (SL of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH was significantly lower.

  17. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C Lynne

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis showed that TaHsfA6f was expressed constitutively in green organs but was markedly up-regulated during heat stress. Overexpression of TaHsfA6f in transgenic wheat using a drought-inducible promoter resulted in up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and a number of other heat stress protection genes that included some previously unknown Hsf target genes such as Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) and the large isoform of Rubisco activase. Transgenic wheat plants overexpressing TaHsfA6f showed improved thermotolerance. Transactivation assays showed that TaHsfA6f activated the expression of reporter genes driven by the promoters of several HSP genes (TaHSP16.8, TaHSP17, TaHSP17.3, and TaHSP90.1-A1) as well as TaGAAP and TaRof1 (a co-chaperone) under non-stress conditions. DNA binding analysis revealed the presence of high-affinity TaHsfA6f-binding heat shock element-like motifs in the promoters of these six genes. Promoter truncation and mutagenesis analyses identified TaHsfA6f-binding elements that were responsible for transactivation of TaHSP90.1-A1 and TaGAAP by TaHsfA6f. These data suggest that TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that directly regulates TaHSP, TaGAAP, and TaRof1 genes in wheat and its gene regulatory network has a positive impact on thermotolerance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Isolation and identification of phosphate solubilizer Azospirillum, Bacillus and Enterobacter strains by 16SrRNA sequence analysis and their effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahir, M.; Mirza, M.S.; Zaheer, A.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Smidt, H.; Hameed, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from wheat rhizosphere and investigate their potential for plant growth promotion. Three phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated by serial dilution method from the rhizosphere of wheat grown under wheat-cotton

  19. Canola versus Wheat Rotation Effects on Subsequent Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola (Brassica napus L.) (WC) is considered the most promising, domestically-produced oilseed feedstock for biodiesel production and for diversifying wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-based cropping systems in the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA (PNW). A law passed in 2006 requires that at least t...

  20. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  1. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  3. Growth stage-based modulation in physiological and biochemical attributes of two genetically diverse wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown in salinized hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios

  4. Quantification of the effects of VRN1 and Ppd-D1 to predict spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) heading time across diverse environments

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Bangyou; Biddulph, Ben; Li, Dora; Kuchel, Haydn; Chapman, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Heading time is a major determinant of the adaptation of wheat to different environments, and is critical in minimizing risks of frost, heat, and drought on reproductive development. Given that major developmental genes are known in wheat, a process-based model, APSIM, was modified to incorporate gene effects into estimation of heading time, while minimizing degradation in the predictive capability of the model. Model parameters describing environment responses were replaced with functions of...

  5. Natural Variation in Elicitation of Defense-Signaling Associates to Field Resistance Against the Spot Blotch Disease in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma; Ranabir Sahu; Sudhir Navathe; Vinod K. Mishra; Ramesh Chand; Pawan K. Singh; Arun K. Joshi; Shree P. Pandey

    2018-01-01

    Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies us...

  6. Allelic state at the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 marking the dwarfing gene Rht8 in Egyptian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes released from 1947 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Khaled F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rht8 is widely used in dry environments such as Mediterranean regions where it increases plant adaptability. Variation at the Gatersleben wheat microsatellite Xgwm261 locus, whose 192-bp allele closely linked to the dwarfing gene Rht8, on chromosome 2D within 0.6 cM, was used to screen thirty Egyptian bread wheat genotypes released from (1947-2004 to assess the variation at this locus. There were three microsatellite allelic variants based on size. Screening of this wheat collection showed that the three alleles Xgwm261-165, Xgwm261-174 and Xgwm261-192 bp were the most frequent. The highest allele frequency was observed for a Xgwm261-165 bp fragment (65.52% followed by a Xgwm261-174 bp fragment (24.14%. However, the allele frequency of a Xgwm261-192 bp fragment among these wheat genotypes was 10.34%. The percentage distribution of dwarfing alleles for the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 in the Egyptian wheat breeding programs was 30, 20, 20 and 30% for the wheat breeding program Giza, Sakha, Gemmiza and Sids, respectively. PIC for Xgwm261 was 0.527. Genetic heritage of Egyptian genotypes at the microsatellite locus Xgwm261 is consequence of new parental components usage, carriers short plant and early maturity attributes and consequent selection progeny with these traits in breeding programs. The present study will be helpful in characterization Egyptian wheat genotypes, as well as in accurate selection of parents for wheat breeding program in Egypt.

  7. Accumulation, translocation and impact of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in wheat (Triticum aestivum spp.): Influence of diameter and crystal phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Laurette, Julien, E-mail: julien.laurette@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Herlin-Boime, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.herlin@cea.fr [URA2453 CEA-CNRS, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (LFP), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Khodja, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire d' Etude des Elements Legers (LEEL), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fayard, Barbara, E-mail: fayard@lps.u-psud.fr [UMR8502 CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des solides (LPS), Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ID21 beamline, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Flank, Anne-Marie, E-mail: anne-marie.flank@synchrotron-soleil.fr [SOLEIL, Saint Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Intensive production of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) would lead to their release in the environment. Their ecotoxicological impact is still poorly documented, while their use in commercial goods is constantly increasing. In this study we compare root accumulation and root-to-shoot translocation in wheat of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameters ranging from 14 nm to 655 nm, prepared in water. NP distribution in plant tissues was mapped by synchrotron-radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence, observed by transmission electron microscopy and quantified in the different compartments of plant roots by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission. Our results provide evidence that the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs accumulate in roots and distribute through whole plant tissues without dissolution or crystal phase modification. We suggest a threshold diameter, 140 nm, above which NPs are no longer accumulated in wheat roots, as well as a threshold diameter, 36 nm, above which NPs are accumulated in wheat root parenchyma but do not reach the stele and consequently do not translocate to the shoot. This accumulation does not impact wheat seed germination, biomass and transpiration. It does not induce any modification of photosynthesis nor induce oxidative stress. However exposure of wheat plantlets to the smallest NPs during the first stages of development causes an increase of root elongation. Collectively, these data suggest that only the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs may be accumulated in wheat plants, although in limited amounts and that their impact is moderate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NP diameter, but not crystallinity, influences their transfer in plant tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat roots accumulate TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter up to 36 nm but not 140 nm TiO{sub 2}-NPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter lower than 36 nm are translocated from wheat root to shoot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 100 mg

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of a trans-acting small interfering RNA producing locus regulating leaf rust responsive gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Summi; Kumar, Dhananjay; Jha, Shailendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-11-01

    A novel leaf rust responsive ta-siRNA-producing locus was identified in wheat showing similarity to 28S rRNA and generated four differentially expressing ta-siRNAs by phasing which targeted stress responsive genes. Trans-acting-small interfering RNAs (Ta-siRNAs) are plant specific molecules generally involved in development and are also stress responsive. Ta-siRNAs identified in wheat till date are all responsive to abiotic stress only. Wheat cultivation is severely affected by rusts and leaf rust particularly affects grain filling. This study reports a novel ta-siRNA producing locus (TAS) in wheat which is a segment of 28S ribosomal RNA but shows differential expression during leaf rust infestation. Four small RNA libraries prepared from wheat Near Isogenic Lines were treated with leaf rust pathogen and compared with untreated controls. A TAS with the ability to generate four ta-siRNAs by phasing events was identified along with the microRNA TamiR16 as the phase initiator. The targets of the ta-siRNAs included α-gliadin, leucine rich repeat, trans-membrane proteins, glutathione-S-transferase, and fatty acid desaturase among others, which are either stress responsive genes or are essential for normal growth and development of plants. Expression of the TAS, its generated ta-siRNAs, and their target genes were profiled at five different time points after pathogen inoculation of susceptible and resistant wheat isolines and compared with mock-inoculated controls. Comparative analysis of expression unveiled differential and reciprocal relationship as well as discrete patterns between susceptible and resistant isolines. The expression profiles of the target genes of the identified ta-siRNAs advocate more towards effector triggered susceptibility favouring pathogenesis. The study helps in discerning the functions of wheat genes regulated by ta-siRNAs in response to leaf rust.

  9. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  10. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengyun; Li, Miao; Li, Tingting; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yunyi; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yaqiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Guangxiao; Wang, Yuesheng; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  11. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivar Selection Affects Double-Crop and Relay-Intercrop Soybean (Glycine max L. Response on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field research (2003–2005 evaluated the effect of wheat row spacing (19 and 38 cm and cultivar on double-cropped (DC soybean response, 38-cm wheat on relay-intercrop (RI response, and wheat cultivar selection on gross margins of these cropping systems. Narrow-row wheat increased grain yield 460 kg ha−1, light interception (LI 7%, and leaf area index (LAI 0.5 compared to wide rows, but did not affect DC soybean yield. High yielding wheat (P25R37 with greater LI and LAI produced lower (330 kg ha−1 soybean yields in an RI system than a low yielding cultivar (Ernie. Gross margins were $267 ha−1 greater when P25R37 was RI with H431 Intellicoat (ITC soybean compared to Ernie. Gross margins were similar for monocrop H431 non-coated (NC or ITC soybean, P25R37 in 19- or 38-cm rows with DC H431 NC soybean, and P25R37 in 38-cm rows with RI H431 ITC soybean in the absence of an early fall frost.

  12. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyun Ma

    Full Text Available Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  13. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  14. PCR-based isolation and identification of full-length low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Jiang, Wei; Guo, Xiaoli; Yang, Wenlong; Sun, Jiazhu; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-12-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are encoded by a multi-gene family and are essential for determining the quality of wheat flour products, such as bread and noodles. However, the exact role or contribution of individual LMW-GS genes to wheat quality remains unclear. This is, at least in part, due to the difficulty in characterizing complete sequences of all LMW-GS gene family members in bread wheat. To identify full-length LMW-GS genes, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was established, consisting of newly designed conserved primers and the previously developed LMW-GS gene molecular marker system. Using the PCR-based method, 17 LMW-GS genes were identified and characterized in Xiaoyan 54, of which 12 contained full-length sequences. Sequence alignments showed that 13 LMW-GS genes were identical to those found in Xiaoyan 54 using the genomic DNA library screening, and the other four full-length LMW-GS genes were first isolated from Xiaoyan 54. In Chinese Spring, 16 unique LMW-GS genes were isolated, and 13 of them contained full-length coding sequences. Additionally, 16 and 17 LMW-GS genes in Dongnong 101 and Lvhan 328 (chosen from the micro-core collections of Chinese germplasm), respectively, were also identified. Sequence alignments revealed that at least 15 LMW-GS genes were common in the four wheat varieties, and allelic variants of each gene shared high sequence identities (>95%) but exhibited length polymorphism in repetitive regions. This study provides a PCR-based method for efficiently identifying LMW-GS genes in bread wheat, which will improve the characterization of complex members of the LMW-GS gene family and facilitate the understanding of their contributions to wheat quality.

  15. Definition of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family members in a set of standard bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. Most of the LMW-GSs are encoded by a multi-gene family located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at...

  16. Functional and DNA-protein binding studies of WRKY transcription factors and their expression analysis in response to biotic and abiotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Lopamudra; Kumar, Dhananjay; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2018-01-01

    WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, plays vital roles in pathogen defense, abiotic stress, and phytohormone signalling. Little is known about the roles and function of WRKY transcription factors in response to rust diseases in wheat. In the present study, three TaWRKY genes encoding complete protein sequences were cloned. They belonged to class II and III WRKY based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Twenty-two DNA-protein binding docking complexes predicted stable interactions of WRKY domain with W-box. Quantitative real-time-PCR using wheat near-isogenic lines with or without Lr28 gene revealed differential up- or down-regulation in response to biotic and abiotic stress treatments which could be responsible for their functional divergence in wheat. TaWRKY62 was found to be induced upon treatment with JA, MJ, and SA and reduced after ABA treatments. Maximum induction of six out of seven genes occurred at 48 h post inoculation due to pathogen inoculation. Hence, TaWRKY (49, 50 , 52 , 55 , 57, and 62 ) can be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well as for crop improvement programs for stress resistance. The results of the present study will enhance knowledge towards understanding the molecular basis of mode of action of WRKY transcription factor genes in wheat and their role during leaf rust pathogenesis in particular.

  17. Weed infestation of spring common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and in-crop weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a wheat crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009-2011 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included various types of stubble crops ploughed in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and methods of weed control in spring wheat (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. On average during the study period, all stubble crops used reduced the air-dry weight of weds in the treatments with mechanical weed management relative to the control treatment. Irrespective of the weed control method, the number of weeds in the wheat crop was significantly lower only after the ploughing in of white mustard. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to other weed control methods. The white mustard and legume mixture cover crops had a reducing effect on the number of weed species in relation to the treatment without cover crops. The highest floristic diversity of weed communities was found in the spring wheat crop in which only mechanical weeding alone was used.

  18. Influence of the nitrate concentration and source in the incorporation of 14CO2 by the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat (triticum aestivum) and maize (zea mays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Angulo, R.M.; Gines Diaz, M.J.; Garcia Pineda, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the concentration and source of nitrogen in the culture media has been studied regarding its influence in the activity of the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat and maize during the first month of development. Wheat and maize has been chosen as plants representatives of two different types of CO 2 assimilation: C3 and M- respectively. Plants have been grown in hydroponic media and under temperature, humidity and nutrient salts control. A negative effect of NH 4 has been observed in the enzymatic activity of wheat seedlings, being this effect more remarkable as NH 4 concentration increases and as long the time of treatment. In our experimental conditions the most favorable source of nitrogen has been N0 3 NH 4 . The specific activity of the enzyme from wheat is about four times higher than in maize, even it decreases with time. This decreasing has not been observed in maize, with the exception of total absence of nitrogen in the media. We have not seen significant differences between the two photo periods which have been tested. Also, no differences have been found in the enzyme activities at the different NO 3 NH 4 concentrations assayed, and it seems that RuBP-carboxylase metabolism is only affected in the case of absolute stress. (Author) 20 refs

  19. TaFlo2-A1, an ortholog of rice Flo2, is associated with thousand grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Ma, Xiaoling; Habibullah Khan, Sultan; Shoaib, Muhammad; Song, Yanhong; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2017-10-16

    The Flo2 gene is a member of a conserved gene family in plants. This gene has been found to be related to thousand grain weight (TGW) in rice. Its orthologs in hexaploid wheat were cloned, and the haplotype variation in TaFlo2-A1 was tested for association with TGW. The cloned sequences of TaFlo2-A1, TaFlo2-B1 and TaFlo2-D1 contained 23, 23 and 24 exons, respectively. The deduced proteins of TaFlo2-A1 (1734 aa), TaFlo2-B1 (1698 aa) and TaFlo2-D1 (1682 aa) were highly similar (>94%) and exhibited >77% similarity with the rice FLO2 protein. Like the rice FLO2 protein, four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs were observed in the deduced TaFLO2 protein. An 8-bp InDel (-10 to -17 bp) in the promoter region and five SNPs in first intron of TaFlo2-A1 together formed two haplotypes, TaFlo2-A1a and TaFlo2-A1b, in bread wheat. TaFlo2 was located on homeologous group 2 chromosomes. TaFlo2-A1 was inferred to be located on deletion bin '2AL1-0.85-1.00'. The TaFlo2-A1 haplotypes were characterized in the Chinese Micro Core Collection (MCC) and Pakistani wheat collection using the molecular marker TaFlo2-Indel8. TaFlo2-A1 was found to be associated with TGW but not with grain number per spike (GpS) in both the MCC and Pakistani wheat collections. The frequency of TaFlo2-A1b (positive haplotype) was low in commercial wheat cultivars; thus this haplotype can be selected to improve grain weight without negatively affecting GpS. The expression level of TaFlo2-A1 in developing grains at 5 DAF (days after flowering) was positively correlated with TGW in cultivars carrying the positive haplotype. This study will likely lead to additional investigations to understand the regulatory mechanism of the Flo2 gene in hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker 'TaFlo2-InDel8' could be incorporated into the kit of wheat breeders for use in marker-assisted selection.

  20. The clone of wheat dehydrin-like gene wzy2 and its functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) Zhengyin No.1 as the material, the complete cDNA sequence of dehydrin wzy2 was cloned and the code sequence of wzy2 was transformed into yeast (Pichia pastoris) for eukaryotic expression. We also analyzed the relationship between wheat dehydrin wzy2 gene and drought ...

  1. Exploring the genetics of fertility restoration controlled by Rf1 in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-density linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Manuel; Albrecht, Theresa; Hartl, Lorenz; Mohler, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid wheat breeding has the potential to significantly increase wheat productivity compared to line breeding. The induction of male sterility by the cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. is a widely discussed approach to ensure cross-pollination between parental inbred lines in hybrid wheat seed production. As fertility restoration in hybrids with this cytoplasm is often incomplete, understanding the underlying genetics is a prerequisite to apply this technology. A promising component for fertility restoration is the restorer locus Rf1, which was first detected on chromosome 1A of the restorer accession R3. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses to locate Rf1 and estimate its effect in populations involving the restorer lines R3, R113 and L19. Molecular markers linked to Rf1 in these populations were used to analyse the genomic target region in T. timopheevii accessions and common wheat breeding lines. The QTL analyses revealed that Rf1 interacted with a modifier locus on chromosome 1BS and the restorer locus Rf4 on chromosome 6B. The modifier locus significantly influenced both the penetrance and expressivity of Rf1. Whereas Rf1 exhibited expressivity higher than that of Rf4, the effects of these loci were not additive. Evaluating the marker haplotype for the Rf1 region, we propose that the restoring Rf1 allele may be derived exclusively from T. timopheevii. The present study demonstrates that interactions between restorer and modifier loci play a critical role in fertility restoration of common wheat with the cytoplasm of T. timopheevii.

  2. E3 ubiquitin ligase gene CMPG1-V from Haynaldia villosa L. contributes to powdery mildew resistance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfei; Li, Yingbo; Fei, Fei; Wang, Zongkuan; Wang, Wei; Cao, Aizhong; Liu, Yuan; Han, Shuang; Xing, Liping; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Tang, Sanyuan; Huang, Xiahe; Shen, Qianhua; Xie, Qi; Wang, Xiue

    2015-10-01

    Powdery mildew is one of the most devastating wheat fungal diseases. A diploid wheat relative, Haynaldia villosa L., is highly resistant to powdery mildew, and its genetic resource of resistances, such as the Pm21 locus, is now widely used in wheat breeding. Here we report the cloning of a resistance gene from H. villosa, designated CMPG1-V, that encodes a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase. Expression of the CMPG1-V gene was induced in the leaf and stem of H. villosa upon inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) fungus, and the presence of Pm21 is essential for its rapid induction of expression. CMPG1-V has conserved key residues for E3 ligase, and possesses E3 ligase activity in vitro and in vivo. CMPG1-V is localized in the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and partially in trans-Golgi network/early endosome vesicles. Transgenic wheat over-expressing CMPG1-V showed improved broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance at seedling and adult stages, associated with an increase in expression of salicylic acid-responsive genes, H2 O2 accumulation, and cell-wall protein cross-linking at the Bgt infection sites, and the expression of CMPG1-V in H. villosa was increased when treated with salicylic acid, abscisic acid and H2 O2 . These results indicate the involvement of E3 ligase in defense responses to Bgt fungus in wheat, particularly in broad-spectrum disease resistance, and suggest association of reactive oxidative species and the phytohormone pathway with CMPG1-V-mediated powdery mildew resistance. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development of a new marker system for identifying the complex members of the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Dongcheng; Yang, Wenlong; Liu, Kunfan; Sun, Jiazhu; Guo, Xiaoli; Li, Yiwen; Wang, Daowen; Ling, Hongqing; Zhang, Aimin

    2011-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) play an important role in determining the bread-making quality of bread wheat. However, LMW-GSs display high polymorphic protein complexes encoded by multiple genes, and elucidating the complex LMW-GS gene family in bread wheat remains challenging. In the present study, using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with conserved primers and high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, we developed a new molecular marker system for identifying LMW-GS gene family members. Based on sequence alignment of 13 LMW-GS genes previously identified in the Chinese bread wheat variety Xiaoyan 54 and other genes available in GenBank, PCR primers were developed and assigned to conserved sequences spanning the length polymorphism regions of LMW-GS genes. After PCR amplification, 17 DNA fragments in Xiaoyan 54 were detected using capillary electrophoresis. In total, 13 fragments were identical to previously identified LMW-GS genes, and the other 4 were derived from unique LMW-GS genes by sequencing. This marker system was also used to identify LMW-GS genes in Chinese Spring and its group 1 nulli-tetrasomic lines. Among the 17 detected DNA fragments, 4 were located on chromosome 1A, 5 on 1B, and 8 on 1D. The results suggest that this marker system is useful for large-scale identification of LMW-GS genes in bread wheat varieties, and for the selection of desirable LMW-GS genes to improve the bread-making quality in wheat molecular breeding programmes.

  4. Three endoplasmic reticulum-associated fatty acyl-coenzyme a reductases were involved in the production of primary alcohols in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Xu, Feng; Li, Yang; Shi, Xue; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2018-03-05

    The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between the plant and the environment. The cuticle is composed of cutin and wax. Cuticular wax plays an important role in the survival of plants by serving as the interface between plants and their biotic and abiotic environments, especially restricting nonstomatal water loss. Leaf cuticular waxes of hexaploid wheat at the seedling stage mainly consist of primary alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids, alkane and esters. Primary alcohols account for more than 80% of the total wax load. Therefore, we cloned several genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases from wheat and analyzed their function in yeast and plants. We propose the potential use of these genes in wheat genetic breeding. We reported the cloning and characterization of three TaFARs, namely TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8, encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductases (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 were expressed at the higher levels in the seedling leaf blades, and were expressed moderately or weakly in stamen, glumes, peduncle, flag leaf blade, sheath, spike, and pistil. The heterologous expression of three TaFARs in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to the production of C24:0 and C26:0 primary alcohols. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rice (Oryza sativa) led to increased accumulation of C24:0-C30:0 primary alcohols. Transient expression of GFP protein-tagged TaFARs revealed that the three TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The three TaFAR genes were transcriptionally induced by drought, cold, heat, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) infection, abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJa) treatments. These results indicated that wheat TaFAR6, TaFAR7 and TaFAR8 are involved in biosynthesis of very-long-chain primary

  5. Isolation, chemical characterization, and free radical scavenging activity of phenolics from Triticum aestivum L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Iwona; Pecio, Lukasz; Ciesla, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-19

    Fourteen phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were isolated and 19 were identified in the aerial parts of Triticum aestivum L. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of the data obtained by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. T. aestivum L. was found to be rich in flavones, especially in luteolin derivatives. Three of the isolated compounds, including luteolin 6-C-[6Glc″-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], luteolin 6-C-[5Rib″-O-E-feruoyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], and 3',4',5'-O-trimethyltricetin 7-O-[β-D-glucuropyranosyl(1″→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside], have been reported for the first time in the plant kingdom. The amount of individual phenolics, in winter wheat, was also determined. Additionally, the free radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds was tested in a simple and rapid thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical test (TLC-DPPH•) with image processing.

  6. The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

    2012-01-01

    We present an experiment done on a bar + wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose w...

  7. Natural Variation in Elicitation of Defense-Signaling Associates to Field Resistance Against the Spot Blotch Disease in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Sahu, Ranabir; Navathe, Sudhir; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Singh, Pawan K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2018-01-01

    Spot blotch, caused by the hemibiotropic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana , is amongst the most damaging diseases of wheat. Still, natural variation in expression of biochemical traits that determine field resistance to spot blotch in wheat remain unaddressed. To understand how genotypic variations relate to metabolite profiles of the components of defense-signaling and the plant performance, as well as to discover novel sources of resistance against spot blotch, we have conducted field studies using 968 wheat genotypes at 5 geographical locations in South-Asia in 2 years. 46 genotypes were identified as resistant. Further, in independent confirmatory trials in subsequent 3 years, over 5 geographical locations, we re-characterized 55 genotypes for their resistance (above 46 along with Yangmai#6, a well characterized resistant genotype, and eight susceptible genotypes). We next determined time-dependent spot blotch-induced metabolite profiles of components of defense-signaling as well as levels of enzymatic components of defense pathway (such as salicylic acid (SA), phenolic acids, and redox components), and derived co-variation patterns with respect to resistance in these 55 genotypes. Spot blotch-induced SA accumulation was negatively correlated to disease progression. Amongst phenolic acids, syringic acid was most strongly inversely correlated to disease progression, indicating a defensive function, which was independently confirmed. Thus, exploring natural variation proved extremely useful in determining traits influencing phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to complex environments. Further, by overcoming environmental heterogeneity, our study identifies germplasm and biochemical traits that are deployable for spot blotch resistance in wheat along South-Asia.

  8. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Adamski,Tadeusz; Krystkowiak,Karolina; Kuczynska,Anetta; Mikolajczak,Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz,Piotr; Ponitka,Aleksandra; Surma,Maria; Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina,Aurelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the proportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable G...

  9. The Fusarium crown rot pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum triggers a suite of transcriptional and metabolic changes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonathan J; Carere, Jason; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Stiller, Jiri; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank; Colgrave, Michelle L; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Henry, Robert J; Kazan, Kemal

    2017-03-01

    Fusarium crown rot caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum is a disease of wheat and barley, bearing significant economic cost. Efforts to develop effective resistance to this disease have been hampered by the quantitative nature of resistance and a lack of understanding of the factors associated with resistance and susceptibility. Here, we aimed to dissect transcriptional responses triggered in wheat by F. pseudograminearum infection. We used an RNA-seq approach to analyse host responses during a compatible interaction and identified >2700 wheat genes differentially regulated after inoculation with F. pseudograminearum . The production of a few key metabolites and plant hormones in the host during the interaction was also analysed. Analysis of gene ontology enrichment showed that a disproportionate number of genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism, signalling and transport were differentially expressed in infected seedlings. A number of genes encoding pathogen-responsive uridine-diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) potentially involved in detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were differentially expressed. Using a F. pseudograminearum DON-non-producing mutant, DON was shown to play an important role in virulence during Fusarium crown rot. An over-representation of genes involved in the phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine biosynthesis pathways was observed. This was confirmed through metabolite analyses that demonstrated tryptamine and serotonin levels are induced after F. pseudograminearum inoculation. Overall, the observed host response in bread wheat to F. pseudograminearum during early infection exhibited enrichment of processes related to pathogen perception, defence signalling, transport and metabolism and deployment of chemical and enzymatic defences. Additional functional analyses of candidate genes should reveal their roles in disease resistance or susceptibility. Better understanding of host

  10. Absorption and accumulation of aluminum and barium in eight Sindh wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) varieties and their availability in its soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Kazi, T.G.; Sahito, S.; Shaikh, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The determination of the aluminum and barium contents in eight wheat varieties and the soil have been carried out using wet acid digestion method by nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for dissolution of two heavy metals, aluminum and barium. The certified and representative samples of eight wheat varieties and the soil of experimental plot of NIA, Tandojam Sindh, Pakistan was done by atomic absorption spectrometry. The experimental study was conducted using six samples for each eight wheat varieties of FSC and RD as stand reference materials and representative samples, its soil was collected from nuclear institute of agriculture (NIA), Tandojam. The characteristics mean of each element for six samples of each variety of representative samples found to be 30.14,15.06, 26.5, 19.05, 23.78, 38.77, 29.23 and 25.6 of the aluminum and 3.81, 6.73, 7.38, 7.17, 3.34, 5.99, 17.34 and 16.4 mg/kg of the barium for Anmol, TJ-83, albadgar-93, Mehran-89, Soughat-90, Sarsabaz, Kiran and SKD-10/9 varieties respectively and its soil contain 50607.1 mg/kg respectively in respectively in representative samples which are compared with certified samples which is at the 95% confidence limit. (author)

  11. Signaling molecule methylglyoxal ameliorates cadmium injury in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by a coordinated induction of glutathione pool and glyoxalase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Nie, Qian; Yang, Cong-Li; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Zhi-Hao

    2018-03-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) now is found to be an emerging signaling molecule. It can relieve the toxicity of cadmium (Cd), however its alleviating mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, compared with the Cd-stressed seedlings without MG treatment, MG treatment could stimulate the activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) in Cd-stressed wheat seedlings, which in turn induced an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH). Adversely, the activated enzymes related to GSH biosynthesis and increased GSH were weakened by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), 2,4-dihydroxy-benzylamine (DHBA) and 1,3-bischloroethyl-nitrosourea (BCNU, both are specific inhibitors of GR), buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitors of GSH biosynthesis), and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, GSH scavenger), respectively. In addition, MG increased the activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) in Cd-treated seedlings, followed by declining an increase in endogenous MG as comparision to Cd-stressed seedlings alone. On the contrary, the increased glyoxalase activity and decreased endogenous MG level were reversed by NAC and specific inhibitors of Gly I (isoascorbate, IAS; squaric acid, SA). Furthermore, MG alleviated an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Cd-treated wheat seedlings. These results indicated that MG could alleviate Cd toxicity and improve the growth of Cd-stressed wheat seedlings by a coordinated induction of glutathione pool and glyoxalase system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative studies about the influence of salicylic and acetylsalicilic acid on content of assimilatory pigments in the primary leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia PURCAREA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA and some of its derivates are phenolic compounds recently recognized as plant growth regulators involved in many physiological processes including photosynthesis. One of the important derivates of Salicylic Acid is the Acetylsalicylic Acid. In the present investigation we studied the influence of exogenous Acetylsalicylic and Salicylic acid with different concentrations on the assimilatory pigments contents of the primary leaves of wheat seedlings in comparison with the same parameters of the control lots which were treated with water. The wheat seedlings were soaked for 6 hours in 0.01mM; 0.1mM; 0.5mM and 1 mM SA or ASA solutions and in water for the control lot, germinated for 7 days on filter paper moistened with water. After that, we planted the plantlets in sand and sprayed their coleoptiles and primary leaves, each day for an additional 7 days, with water. In the 14th days of germination we determined the content of assimilatory pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. The results showed that exogenous 0.01 mM, 0.1mM, 0.5 mM or 1.0 mM SA solution treatments cause more significant increases in the assimilatory pigments contents in leaves of wheat plantlets than treatments with ASA solutions of the same concentrations do.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of Pseudomonas and Serratia sp. containing ACC-deaminase for improving growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salt-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Ghani, Usman; Naveed, Muhammad; Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Asghar, Hafiz Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Ethylene synthesis is accelerated in response to various environmental stresses like salinity. Ten rhizobacterial strains isolated from wheat rhizosphere taken from different salt affected areas were screened for growth promotion of wheat under axenic conditions at 1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m(-1). Three strains, i.e., Pseudomonas putida (N21), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N39) and Serratia proteamaculans (M35) showing promising performance under axenic conditions were selected for a pot trial at 1.63 (original), 5, 10 and 15 dS m(-1). Results showed that inoculation was effective even in the presence of higher salinity levels. P. putida was the most efficient strain compared to the other strains and significantly increased the plant height, root length, grain yield, 100-grain weight and straw yield up to 52, 60, 76, 19 and 67%, respectively, over uninoculated control at 15 dS m(-1). Similarly, chlorophyll content and K(+)/Na(+) of leaves also increased by P. putida over control. It is highly likely that under salinity stress, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid-deaminase activity of these microbial strains might have caused reduction in the synthesis of stress (salt)-induced inhibitory levels of ethylene. The results suggested that these strains could be employed for salinity tolerance in wheat; however, P. putida may have better prospects in stress alleviation/reduction.

  14. Effect of exo-polysaccharides producing bacterial inoculation on growth of roots of wheat(Triticum aestivum L. ) plants grown in a salt-affected soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Hasnain, S.; Berge, O.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of soil salinity on physico-chemical and biological properties renders the salt-affected soils unsuitable for soil microbial processes and growth of the crop plants. Soil aggregation around roots of the plants is a function of the bacterial exo-polysaccharides, however, such a role of the EPS-producing bacteria in the saline environments has rarely been investigated. Pot experiments were conducted to observe the effects of inoculating six strains of exo-polysaccharides-producing bacteria on growth of primary (seminal) roots and its relationship with saccharides, cations (Ca 2+, Na +, K +) contents and mass of rhizosheath soils of roots of the wheat plants grown in a salt-affected soil. A strong positive relationship of RS with different root growth parameters indicated that an integrated influence of various biotic and abiotic RS factors would have controlled and promoted growth of roots of the inoculated wheat plants. The increase in root growth in turn could help inoculated wheat plants to withstand the negative effects of soil salinity through an enhanced soil water uptake, a restricted Na +i nflux in the plants and the accelerated soil microbial process involved in cycling and availability of the soil nutrients to the plants. It was concluded that inoculation of the exo- polysaccharides producing would be a valuable tool for amelioration and increasing crop productivity of the salt-affected soils

  15. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes applied through seed-priming influence early germination, root hair, growth and yield of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav

    2018-06-01

    Reports of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) incorporated into plants have indicated better yield and productivity, yet the phenomena need in-depth understanding especially when agricultural crops are tested. We primed wheat seeds with MWCNTs to understand the effects on germination, growth, anatomy, physiology and yield. This study, carried out in field conditions, is a step forward over the previous reports. Early germination, excessive root hair, denser stomata and larger root length result in faster growth and higher yield of wheat plants. Denser root hair facilitated the uptake of both water and essential minerals such as phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), which boosted the crop yield by significantly improving grain yield per plant from 1.53 to 2.5 g, a 63% increase. Increase in cell elongation by 80% was recorded, while xylem and phloem sizes dilated to almost 83% and 85% of control, thus enhancing their capacity to conduct water and nutrients. Augmented growth of MWCNT-primed wheat, enhancement in grain number, biomass, stomatal density, xylem-phloem size, epidermal cells, and water uptake is observed while finding no DNA damage. This opens up an entirely new aspect to using cost-effective nanomaterials (the MWCNTs were produced in-house) for enhancing the performance of crop plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  17. The temporal and species dynamics of photosynthetic acclimation in flag leaves of rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) under elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.; Zeng, Q.; Xie, Z.; Tang, H.; Zhu, C. (Chinese Academy of Sciences. State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Nanjing (China)); Hasegawa, T. (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences. Agro-Meteorology Div., Tsukuba (Japan)); Ziska, L. (Crop Systems and Global Change Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States)); Jia, X. (Chinese Academic of Sciences/Nanjing Botanical Garden Memorial Sun Yat-Sen. Jiangsu Institute of Botany, Nanjing (China))

    2012-07-15

    In this study, we tested for the temporal occurrence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2}] in the flag leaf of two important cereal crops, rice and wheat. In order to characterize the temporal onset of acclimation and the basis for any observed decline in photosynthetic rate, we characterized net photosynthesis, g{sub s}, g{sub m}, C{sub i}/C{sub a}, C{sub i}/C{sub c}, V{sub cmax}, J{sub max}, cell wall thickness, content of Rubisco, cytochrome (Cyt) f, N, chlorophyll and carbohydrate, mRNA expression for rbcL and petA, activity for Rubisco, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) at full flag expansion, mid-anthesis and the late grain-filling stage. No acclimation was observed for either crop at full flag leaf expansion. However, at the mid-anthesis stage, photosynthetic acclimation in rice was associated with RuBP carboxylation and regeneration limitations, while wheat only had the carboxylation limitation. By grain maturation, the decline of Rubisco content and activity had contributed to RuBP carboxylation limitation of photosynthesis in both crops at elevated [CO{sub 2}]; however, the sharp decrease of Rubisco enzyme activity played a more important role in wheat. Although an increase in non-structural carbohydrates did occur during these later stages, it was not consistently associated with changes in SPS and SS or photosynthetic acclimation. Rather, over time elevated [CO{sub 2}] appeared to enhance the rate of N degradation and senescence so that by late-grain fill, photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2}] in the flag leaf of either species was complete. These data suggest that the basis for photosynthetic acclimation with elevated [CO{sub 2}] may be more closely associated with enhanced rates of senescence, and, as a consequence, may be temporally dynamic, with significant species variation. (Author)

  18. Preliminary evidence for associations between molecular markers and quantitative traits in a set of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Mandoulakani, Babak; Nasri, Shilan; Dashchi, Sahar; Arzhang, Sorour; Bernousi, Iraj; Abbasi Holasou, Hossein

    The identification of polymorphic markers associated with various quantitative traits allows us to test their performance for the exploitation of the extensive quantitative variation maintained in gene banks. In the current study, a set of 97 wheat germplasm accessions including 48 cultivars and 49 breeding lines were evaluated for 18 agronomic traits. The accessions were also genotyped with 23 ISSR, nine IRAP and 20 REMAP markers, generating a total of 658 clear and scorable bands, 86% of which were polymorphic. Both neighbor-joining dendrogram and Bayesian analysis of clustering of individuals revealed that the accessions could be divided into four genetically distinct groups, indicating the presence of a population structure in current wheat germplasm. Associations between molecular markers and 18 agronomic traits were analyzed using the mixed linear model (MLM) approach. A total of 94 loci were found to be significantly associated with agronomic traits (P≤0.01). The highest number of bands significantly associated with the 18 traits varied from 11 for number of spikelets spike -1 (NSS) to two for grain yield in row (GRY). Loci ISSR16-9 and REMAP13-10 were associated with three different traits. The results of the current study provide useful information about the performance of retrotransposon-based and ISSR molecular markers that could be helpful in selecting potentially elite gene bank samples for wheat-breeding programs. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, H.; Shahbaz, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess salt tolerance of some newly developed and candidate cultivars of wheat using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Ten wheat cultivars including five newly developed (S-24, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and Inqlab-91) and five candidate (P .B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10 and G.A-20) were grown in sand culture. Salt stress (150 mM NaCl in Hoagland's nutrient solution) was applied at the seedling stage. A significant reduction in plant biomass production was recorded in all wheat cultivars. Cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 showed less reduction in biomass production as compared with the other cultivars. Different gas exchange attributes such as leaf net photosynthetic rate (A), transpiration rate ( E), and stomatal conductance (gs) were also adversely affected due to salt stress and were positively associated with the plant biomass production of the genotypes under saline stress. More negative effects in relation to these gas exchange attributes were recorded in cvs. Lasani, G.A-20 and ARRI-10 than those in the other cultivars. Leaf maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm), maximum fluorescence at steady state (Fms ), and photochemical fluorescence quenching (Qp) increased while maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of electron transport (Qp), electron transport rate ( ETR ) and non-photochemical quenching (Qn) decreased due to imposition of salt stress. The adverse effects of salt stress on these chlorophyll fluorescence attributes were minimum in cultivars S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008. A significant positive correlation was recorded between biomass production, different gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. Overall, cvs. S-24, Saher-2006 and Fsd-2008 were ranked as salt tolerant on the basis of their performance in biomass production, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. (author)

  20. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35-40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55-60% FC and well-watered at 75-80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods.

  1. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Adamski

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

  2. The effect of soil extracts from a monoculture of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under different tillage systems on the germination of its seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in the period 2006-2008. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous soil extracts from the soil of a spring wheat monoculture on seed germination energy and capacity, the length of the first leaf and of the longest radicle as well as the number of radicles. Moreover, the content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was compared in the last year of the study. The soil used to prepare the solutions came from a field experiment established on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil. Spring wheat, cv. Zebra, was grown using plough tillage and two conservation tillage methods in the presence of undersown crops (red clover, Westerwolds ryegrass and stubble crops (lacy phacelia, white mustard. Germination energy of the seeds watered with the soil extracts from the ploughed plots was significantly higher than this trait in the seeds watered with the extracts from the conservation tillage treatments with spring disking of the catch crops. Germination energy and capacity of spring wheat in the control treatment watered with distilled water were significantly higher compared to the other treatments under evaluation. Spring wheat watered with the aqueous extract prepared from the soil obtained from the plough tillage treatment produced a significantly longer first leaf compared to the treatments in which both conservation tillage methods had been used. The shortest leaf and the lowest number of radicles were produced by the seedlings watered with the soil extract from the treatment with the white clover stubble crop. Radicle length was not significantly differentiated by the soil extracts under consideration. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the rendzina soil determined during the spring period was higher than that determined in the autumn. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was lower in the conservation tillage treatments with autumn incorporation of the catch crops than in the plots in which

  3. Effect of Silicon on the Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Salt Stress at Different Growth Stages: Case Study for the Management of Irrigation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A M, Daoud; M M, Hemada; N, Saber; A A, El-Araby; L, Moussa

    2018-04-03

    This paper aims to determine the most tolerant growth stage(s) of wheat to salinity stress with the addition of silicon. The aim was to investigate whether saline water could be used instead of good quality water for irrigation without implicating a greater risk to crop production. Local wheat cv. Gimmiza 11 was germinated and grown in sand cultures. Four different NaCl salinity levels were used as treatments: 0, 60, 90 and 120 mM. This was in the presence of 0 and 0.78 mM Si which added as sodium meta- silicate (Na₂SiO₃·9H₂O). Both the NaCl and Si treatments were carried out using a full strength nutrient solution that was adjusted at pH 6.0 and used for irrigation in four replications. The application of Si with the saline nutrient media significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in plant leaves at the booting stage compared to the other stages. This was associated with a marked decline in the H₂O₂ content. At the booting stage, the Si treatment promoted CAT activity in 120 mM NaCl-stressed leaves compared to the leaves treated with only 120 mM NaCl solution. SOD showed greater prevalence at the booting stage when Si was added into the saline media, and it also revealed maximum activity at the milky stage with salinity stress. This was associated with a smaller reduction in shoot fresh and dry weights, greater reduction in the leaf Na⁺ content and an increase in the K⁺ content, which ultimately increased the cytosolic K⁺/Na⁺ ratio. Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid (total photosynthetic pigments) were also higher at the booting stage of salt-stressed plants treated with Si compared to other stages. Accordingly, Si application enhanced the salt tolerance of wheat and reduced the inhibitory effect of Na⁺ and oxidative stress damage as growth proceeded towards maturity, particularly at the booting stage. This shows that saline water can be used for wheat irrigation at the booting stage (much water is

  4. Effect of Silicon on the Tolerance of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to Salt Stress at Different Growth Stages: Case Study for the Management of Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoud A.M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the most tolerant growth stage(s of wheat to salinity stress with the addition of silicon. The aim was to investigate whether saline water could be used instead of good quality water for irrigation without implicating a greater risk to crop production. Local wheat cv. Gimmiza 11 was germinated and grown in sand cultures. Four different NaCl salinity levels were used as treatments: 0, 60, 90 and 120 mM. This was in the presence of 0 and 0.78 mM Si which added as sodium meta- silicate (Na2SiO3·9H2O. Both the NaCl and Si treatments were carried out using a full strength nutrient solution that was adjusted at pH 6.0 and used for irrigation in four replications. The application of Si with the saline nutrient media significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities in plant leaves at the booting stage compared to the other stages. This was associated with a marked decline in the H2O2 content. At the booting stage, the Si treatment promoted CAT activity in 120 mM NaCl-stressed leaves compared to the leaves treated with only 120 mM NaCl solution. SOD showed greater prevalence at the booting stage when Si was added into the saline media, and it also revealed maximum activity at the milky stage with salinity stress. This was associated with a smaller reduction in shoot fresh and dry weights, greater reduction in the leaf Na+ content and an increase in the K+ content, which ultimately increased the cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio. Chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid (total photosynthetic pigments were also higher at the booting stage of salt-stressed plants treated with Si compared to other stages. Accordingly, Si application enhanced the salt tolerance of wheat and reduced the inhibitory effect of Na+ and oxidative stress damage as growth proceeded towards maturity, particularly at the booting stage. This shows that saline water can be used for wheat irrigation at the booting stage (much water is consumed

  5. Chromosomes 3B and 4D are associated with several milling and baking quality traits in a soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A H; Garland-Campbell, K; Morris, C F; Kidwell, K K

    2012-04-01

    Wheat is marketed based on end-use quality characteristics and better knowledge of the underlying genetics of specific quality parameters is essential to enhance the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a 'Louise' by 'Penawawa' mapping population was grown in two crop years at two locations in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and data were collected on 17 end-use quality traits using established quality analysis protocols. Using an established genetic linkage map, composite interval mapping was used to identify QTL associated with 16 of the 17 quality traits. QTL were found on 13 of the 21 wheat chromosomes. A large number of QTL were located on chromosomes 3B and 4D and coincided with traits for milling quality and starch functionality. Chromosome 3B contained 10 QTL, which were localized to a 26.2 cM region. Chromosome 4D contained 7 QTL, all of which were located on an 18.8 cM region of this chromosome. The majority of the alleles for superior end-use quality were associated with the cultivar Louise. The identified QTL detected remained highly significant independent of grain yield and protein quantity. The identification of these QTL for end-use quality gives key insight into the relationship and complexity of end-use quality traits. It also improves our understanding of these relationships, thereby allowing plant breeders to make valuable gains from selection for these important traits.

  6. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Promoting certified seed availability of wheat (triticum aestivum L) through public-private partnership and its impact on yield in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Mian, M.A.; Omer, M.; Abbass, K.; Rehman, O.U.

    2012-01-01

    The use of poor quality seed results in poor crop stand and eventually in lesser vegetative growth leading to poor crop yield. Hence, it is the need of the time to enhance provision of certified seed of improved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the District. All the agronomic practices were the same in both -2 treatments. The number of fertile tillers m were significantly higher in certified seed source than the farmer's own seed that resulted in significant increase in grain yield. Other yield contributing parameters including number of spikelet per spike, numbers of grains per spike and 1000 grain weight were at par in both seed sources. It was concluded that healthy and pure seed source gave high seed germination and good crop stand which enabled the plants to withstand abiotic stress especially drought during the crop season. The seed multiplication of crop varieties of rainfed areas can be done in irrigated areas to ensure the quality of seed and its availability in rainfed areas, which ultimately will increase the income of the farming community of the area. (author)

  8. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat Sourav, Pradip, Sufi, Shatabdi and Bijoy were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28C to 30C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in Sourav, 58.41% in Pradip, 73.01% in Sufi, 55.46% in Shatabdi and 53.42% in Bijoy.

  9. Effect of Iron Oxides (Ordinary and Nano and Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSWC Coated Sulfur on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Plant Iron Concentration and Growth

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    S Mazaherinia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the effects of ordinary iron oxide (0.02-0.06 mm and nano iron oxide (25-250 nm and five levels of both iron oxides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 %w/w and two levels of sulfurous granular compost (MSW (0 and 2% w/w on plant height, spike length, grain weight per spike, total plant dry matter weight and thousands grain weight of wheat. The experimental factors were combined in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Results showed that nano iron oxide was superior over ordinary iron oxide in all parameters studied. Fe concentration, spike length, plant height, grain weight per spike, total plant dry weight and thousands grain weight showed increasing trend per increase in both of iron oxides levels. Also, all parameters studied in sulfurous granular compost (MSW treatment were superior over granular compost without sulfurous (MSW. This increase in all parameters were significantly higher when urban solid waste compost coated with sulfur coupled with nano iron oxide compared to urban sulfurous granular compost (MSW along with ordinary iron oxide. Keywords: Sulfurous granular compost (MSW, Nano and ordinary iron oxides, Wheat

  10. Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride BEHBOUDI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP, Germination Rate (GR, Germination Value (GV, Mean Germination Time (MGT, Pick Value (PV and Mean Daily Germination (MDG. In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.

  11. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated precision genome editing of an endogenous gene in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) using a DNA repair template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yidong; Patron, Nicola; Kay, Pippa; Wong, Debbie; Buchanan, Margaret; Cao, Ying-Ying; Sawbridge, Tim; Davies, John P; Mason, John; Webb, Steven R; Spangenberg, German; Ainley, William M; Walsh, Terence A; Hayden, Matthew J

    2018-05-07

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been used to engineer targeted genome modifications in various plants. While targeted gene knockouts resulting in loss of function have been reported with relatively high rates of success, targeted gene editing using an exogenously supplied DNA repair template and site-specific transgene integration has been more challenging. Here, we report the first application of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-directed editing of a native gene in allohexaploid bread wheat to introduce, via a supplied DNA repair template, a specific single amino acid change into the coding sequence of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) to confer resistance to imidazolinone herbicides. We recovered edited wheat plants having the targeted amino acid modification in one or more AHAS homoalleles via direct selection for resistance to imazamox, an AHAS-inhibiting imidazolinone herbicide. Using a cotransformation strategy based on chemical selection for an exogenous marker, we achieved a 1.2% recovery rate of edited plants having the desired amino acid change and a 2.9% recovery of plants with targeted mutations at the AHAS locus resulting in a loss-of-function gene knockout. The latter results demonstrate a broadly applicable approach to introduce targeted modifications into native genes for nonselectable traits. All ZFN-mediated changes were faithfully transmitted to the next generation. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Loci associated with resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a core collection of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulli, Peter; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. (Pst) remains one of the most significant diseases of wheat worldwide. We investigated stripe rust resistance by genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) in 959 spring wheat accessions from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service National Small Grains Collection, representing major global production environments. The panel was characterized for field resistance in multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance under greenhouse conditions. A genome-wide set of 5,619 informative SNP markers were used to examine the population structure, linkage disequilibrium and marker-trait associations in the germplasm panel. Based on model-based analysis of population structure and hierarchical Ward clustering algorithm, the accessions were clustered into two major subgroups. These subgroups were largely separated according to geographic origin and improvement status of the accessions. A significant correlation was observed between the population sub-clusters and response to stripe rust infection. We identified 11 and 7 genomic regions with significant associations with stripe rust resistance at adult plant and seedling stages, respectively, based on a false discovery rate multiple correction method. The regions harboring all, except three, of the QTL identified from the field and greenhouse studies overlap with positions of previously reported QTL. Further work should aim at validating the identified QTL using proper germplasm and populations to enhance their utility in marker assisted breeding. PMID:28591221

  13. Early plant growth and biochemical responses induced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 lipopolysaccharides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are attenuated by procyanidin B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ochoa, Juan; López-Marmolejo, Mariel; Hernández-Esquivel, Alma Alejandra; Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Suárez-Soria, Laura Nicolasa; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL -1 ). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots. The LPS treatment induced a high increase in total peroxidase (POX) (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and ionically bound cell wall POX content in roots, when compared to respective controls. Early plant growth and biochemical responses observed in wheat seedlings treated with LPS were inhibited by the addition of procyanidin B2 (5 μg mL -1 ), a B type proanthocyanidin (PAC), plant-derived polyphenolic compound with binding properties of LPS. All results suggest first that the ionically bound cell wall POX enzymes could be a molecular target of A. brasilense LPS, and second that the recognition or association of LPS by plant cells is required to activate plant responses. This last event could play a critical role during plant growth regulation by A. brasilense LPS.

  14. Responses of Seed Yield, Yield Components and Some Morpho-physiological Traits of Wheat Cultivars (Triticum aestivum to the Application Methods of Fulzyme Biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eslami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of application methods of Fulzym biofertilizer (containing Bacillus subtilis on yield, yield components and some morpho-physiological characteristics of four cultivars wheat, an experiment was conducted in field of Astan Quds Razavi in 2010- 2011. The experiment performed was in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Four wheat cultivars (Falat, Pishtaz, Bahar and Toos were assigned to main plots and four biofertilizer application methods (as seed inoculation, using in irrigation water, seed inoculation and irrigation and control to sub plots. Results indicated that Falat had the lowest plant height (61.5 cm than other varieties. Plant height of Toos and Pishtaz were about 14.5 percent higher than Falat. Application methods of Fulzym increased chlorophyll content and plant height. Highest chlorophyll contents were obtained when seeds inoculated by Fulzyme and used through irrigation. At the end of growing season, it was found that chlorophyll content of Falat and Toos flag leaves were higher than Pishtaz and Bahar. It was also revealed that Bahar when Fulzyme was used showed a better response to treatments than other varieties as for as biological and seed yields were concerned. Highest seed yield produced by irrigation and combination of seed inoculation and irrigation (9063 and 8609 kg.ha-1 and lowest seed yield (5858 kg.ha-1 to Falat in the control treatment.

  15. Identification and development of a functional marker of TaGW2 associated with grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenqi; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-01-01

    The OsGW2 gene is involved in rice grain development, influencing grain width and weight. Its ortholog in wheat, TaGW2, was considered as a candidate gene related to grain development. We found that TaGW2 is constitutively expressed, with three orthologs expressing simultaneously. The coding sequence (CDS) of TaGW2 is 1,275 bp encoding a protein with 424 amino acids, and has a functional domain shared with OsGW2. No divergence was detected within the CDS sequences in the same locus in ten varieties. Genome-specific primers were designed based on the sequence divergence of the promoter regions in the three orthologous genes, and TaGW2 was located in homologous group 6 chromosomes through CS nulli-tetrasomic (NT). Two SNPs were detected in the promoter region of TaGW2-6A, forming two haplotypes: Hap-6A-A (-593A and -739G) and Hap-6A-G (-593G and -769A). A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed based on the -593 A-G polymorphism to distinguish the two haplotypes in TaGW2-6A. This gene was fine mapped 0.6 cM from marker cfd80.2 near the centromere in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Two hundred sixty-five Chinese wheat varieties were genotyped and association analysis revealed that Hap-6A-A was significantly associated with wider grains and higher one-thousand grain weight (TGW) in two crop seasons. qRT-PCR revealed a negative relationship between TaGW2 expression level and grain width. The Hap-6A-A frequencies in Chinese varieties released at different periods showed that it had been strongly positively selected in breeding. In landraces, Hap-6A-A is mainly distributed in southern Chinese wheat regions. Association analysis also indicated that Hap-6A-A not only increased TGW by more than 3 g, but also had earlier heading and maturity. In contrast to Chinese varieties, Hap-6A-G was the predominant haplotype in European varieties; Hap-6A-A was mainly present in varieties released in the former Yugoslavia, Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary

  16. Evaluation of ash from some tropical plants of Nigeria for the control of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enikuomehin, O A; Ikotun, T; Ekpo, E J

    1998-01-01

    Eleven ash samples, from organs of nine tropical plants, were screened for their abilities to inhibit mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of a Nigerian isolate of Sclerotium rolfsii on agar and in the soil. Ten ash samples showed some activity against mycelial growth of S. rolfsii in vitro. Ash samples from Delonix regia stem wood, Mangifera indica leaf and Vernonia amygdalina leaf were most effective as each totally inhibited mycelial growth of S. rolfsii in vitro. Ocimum gratissimum leaf ash, D. regia wood ash and Musa paradisiaca flower bract ash inhibited sclerotial germination on agar. Nine ash samples protected seeds against pre-emergence rot. Ash from M. indica leaf, V. amygdalina leaf and Azadirachta indica leaf protected seedlings against post-emergence infection. Eichornia crassipes ash, which was ineffective in vitro, offered some protection to seeds in soil against pre-emergence rot. The study demonstrates potentials of ash samples from tropical plants in control of S. rolfsii on wheat.

  17. The effect of high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium on the yield components of transgenic spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) constitutively expressing the bar gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áy, Zoltán; Mihály, Róbert; Cserháti, Mátyás; Kótai, Éva; Pauk, János

    2012-01-01

    We present an experiment done on a bar(+) wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium-an effective component of nonselective herbicides-during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  18. The Effect of High Concentrations of Glufosinate Ammonium on the Yield Components of Transgenic Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Constitutively Expressing the bar Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Áy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experiment done on a bar+ wheat line treated with 14 different concentrations of glufosinate ammonium—an effective component of nonselective herbicides—during seed germination in a closed experimental system. Yield components as number of spikes per plant, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, and yield per plant were thoroughly analysed and statistically evaluated after harvesting. We found that a concentration of glufosinate ammonium 5000 times the lethal dose was not enough to inhibit the germination of transgenic plants expressing the bar gene. Extremely high concentrations of glufosinate ammonium caused a bushy phenotype, significantly lower numbers of grains per spike, and thousand kernel weights. Concerning the productivity, we observed that concentrations of glufosinate ammonium 64 times the lethal dose did not lead to yield depression. Our results draw attention to the possibilities implied in the transgenic approaches.

  19. Effect of γ-radiation on the activities of superoxide dimutase, catalase and peroxidase on the germinating wheat grain (Triticum aestivum,L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, M.; Chatterjee, G.C.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of γ-radiation on several enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in different parts of germinating wheat seeds has been studied. It was found that superoxide dismutase activity under the influence of γ-radiation was highest in the embryo part and showed maximum activity, 24 hours after germination. The activity exhibited a gradual decline with time. catalase and peroxidase, the stimulatory efect being maximum in the case of catalase activity. The catalase and peroxidase activities were found to be maximally localised in the embryo part and the highest value was attained after 72 hrs. in the case of catalase and after 48 hrs in the case of peroxidase activity. The results indicate that γ-radiation stimulates free radical generation in the embryo along with subsequent increase in the activities of superoside dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. (author)

  20. The impact of photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a mutations on the photoperiod pathway across the three genomes of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lindsay M; Turner, Adrian S; Laurie, David A

    2012-07-01

    Flowering time is a trait that has been extensively altered during wheat domestication, enabling it to be highly productive in diverse environments and providing a rich source of variation for studying adaptation mechanisms. Hexaploid wheat is ancestrally a long-day plant, but many environments require varieties with photoperiod insensitivity (PI) that can flower in short days. PI results from mutations in the Ppd-1 gene on the A, B or D genomes, with individual mutations conferring different degrees of earliness. The basis of this is poorly understood. Using a common genetic background, the effects of A, B and D genome PI mutations on genes of the circadian clock and photoperiod pathway were studied using genome-specific expression assays. Ppd-1 PI mutations did not affect the clock or immediate clock outputs, but affected TaCO1 and TaFT1, with a reduction in TaCO1 expression as TaFT1 expression increased. Therefore, although Ppd-1 is related to PRR genes of the Arabidopsis circadian clock, Ppd-1 affects flowering by an alternative route, most likely by upregulating TaFT1 with a feedback effect that reduces TaCO1 expression. Individual genes in the circadian clock and photoperiod pathway were predominantly expressed from one genome, and there was no genome specificity in Ppd-1 action. Lines combining PI mutations on two or three genomes had enhanced earliness with higher levels, but not earlier induction, of TaFT1, showing that there is a direct quantitative relationship between Ppd-1 mutations, TaFT1 expression and flowering. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. TaUBA, a UBA domain-containing protein in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), is a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Shuang-shuang; Ma, Jun-xia; Guo, Guang-yan; Zhang, Xue-yong; Liu, Xu; Bi, Cai-li

    2015-05-01

    TaUBA functions as a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in transgenic Arabidopsis, either the UBA domain or the zinc finger domain is crucial for TaUBA's function. TaUBA (DQ211935), which is a UBA domain-containing protein in wheat, was cloned and functionally characterized. Southern blot suggested that TaUBA is a low copy gene in common wheat. qRT-PCR assay showed that the expression of TaUBA was strongly induced by salt and drought stress. When suffering from drought and salt stresses, lower proline content and much higher MDA content in the TaUBA overexpressors were observed than those of the wild-type control, suggesting TaUBA may function as a negative regulator of salt and drought stress response in plants. To study whether the UBA domain or the zinc finger domain affects the function of TaUBA, TaUBAΔUBA (deletion of UBA domain) and TaUBA-M (Cys464Gly and Cys467Gly) overexpression vectors were constructed and transformed into Arabidopsis. Upon drought and salt stresses, the TaUBAΔUBA-and TaUBA-M-overexpressed plants accumulated much more proline and lower MDA than the wild-type control, the TaUBA-overexpressors lost water more quickly than TaUBAΔUBA-and TaUBA-M-overexpressed plants as well as the wild-type control, suggesting that overexpression of TaUBAΔUBA or TaUBA-M improved the drought and salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and the possibility of ubiquitination role in the regulation of osmolyte synthesis and oxidative stress responses in mediating stress tolerance. qRT-PCR assay of stress-related genes in transgenic plants upon drought and salt stresses suggested that TaUBA may function through down-regulating some stress related-transcription factors and by regulating P5CSs to cope with osmotic stress.

  2. Phenological Variation and its Relation with Yield in several Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars under Normal and Late Sowing Mediated Heat Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrun NAHAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenological performance in relation to yield of five modern varieties of wheat �Sourav�, �Pradip�, �Sufi�, �Shatabdi� and �Bijoy� were evaluated under two growing environments; one is normal growing environment (sowing at November 30 and the other is post anthesis heat stressed environment (sowing at December 30. In case of late seeding, the varieties phased a significant level of high temperature stress that also significantly affected the required days to germination, booting, anthesis, maturity of all varieties including the yield as compared to normal sowing treatment. The temperature during the grain filling or grain maturing period was near 23�C in case of normal seeding and it was near about 28�C to 30�C and sometimes reached above this range in the later period of late seeded treatment. In the normal sowing treatment the germination period was lower than the late sowing treatment as during that time the temperature was higher as compared to late sowing condition where temperature was lower. Days to anthesis and booting decreased due to late sown heat stress condition regardless the cultivars. These phenological characteristics under heat stressed condition led the wheat cultivars to significantly lower the grain yield as compared to normal condition. Due to heat stress, the yield reduction was 69.53% in �Sourav�, 58.41% in �Pradip�, 73.01% in �Sufi�, 55.46% in �Shatabdi� and 53.42% in �Bijoy�.

  3. The Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldia villosa contributes to resistances towards both biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Liping Xing

    Full Text Available The SGT1 protein is essential for R protein-mediated and PAMPs-triggered resistance in many plant species. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of the Hv-SGT1 gene from Haynaldiavillosa (2n = 14, VV. Analysis of the subcellular location of Hv-SGT1 by transient expression of a fusion to GFP indicated its presence in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Levels of Hv-SGT1 transcripts were increased by inoculation with either the biotrophic pathogen Blumeriagraminis DC. f. Sp. tritici (Bgt or the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Fusariumgraminearum (Fg. Levels of Hv-SGT1 showed substantial increase following treatment with H2O2 and methyl jasmonate (MeJA, only slightly induced following exposure to ethephon or abscisic acid, but not changed following exposure to salicylic acid. The demonstration that silencing of Hv-SGT1 substantially reduced resistance to Bgt indicated that Hv-SGT1 was an essential component of disease resistance in H. villosa. The over-expression of Hv-SGT1 in Yangmai 158 enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, and this correlated with increased levels of whole-cell reactive oxygen intermediates at the sites of penetration by the pathogens. Compared with wild-type plants, the expression levels of genes related to the H2O2 and JA signaling pathways were lower in the Hv-SGT1 silenced plants and higher in the Hv-SGT1 over-expressing plants. Therefore, the involvement of Hv-SGT1 in H2O2 production correlates with the hypersensitive response and jasmonic acid signaling. Our novel demonstration that wheat with over-expressed Hv-SGT1 showed enhanced resistance to both powdery mildew and FHB suggests that it could served as a transgenic genetic resource in wheat breeding for multiple disease resistance.

  4. Overexpression of heat stress-responsive TaMBF1c, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Multiprotein Bridging Factor, confers heat tolerance in both yeast and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Dandan; Wang, Fei; Geng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Peng, Huiru; Sun, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we found an ethylene-responsive transcriptional co-activator, which was significantly induced by heat stress (HS) in both thermo-sensitive and thermo-tolerant wheat. The corresponding ORF was isolated from wheat, and named TaMBF1c (Multiprotein Bridging Factor1c). The deduced amino acid sequence revealed the presence of conserved MBF1 and helix-turn-helix domains at the N- and C-terminus, respectively, which were highly similar to rice ERTCA (Ethylene Response Transcriptional Co-Activator) and Arabidopsis MBF1c. The promoter region of TaMBF1c contained three heat shock elements (HSEs) and other stress-responsive elements. There was no detectable mRNA of TaMBF1c under control conditions, but the transcript was rapidly and significantly induced by heat stress not only at the seedling stage, but also at the flowering stage. It was also slightly induced by drought and H2O2 stresses, as well as by application of the ethylene synthesis precursor ACC, but not, however, by circadian rhythm, salt, ABA or MeJA treatments. Under normal temperatures, TaMBF1c-eGFP protein showed predominant nuclear localization with some levels of cytosol localization in the bombarded onion epidermal cells, but it was mainly detected in the nucleus with almost no eGFP signals in cytosol when the bombarded onion cells were cultured under high temperature conditions. Overexpression of TaMBF1c in yeast imparted tolerance to heat stress compared to cells expressing the vector alone. Most importantly, transgenic rice plants engineered to overexpress TaMBF1c showed higher thermotolerance than control plants at both seedling and reproductive stages. In addition, transcript levels of six Heat Shock Protein and two Trehalose Phosphate Synthase genes were higher in TaMBF1c transgenic lines than in wild-type rice upon heat treatment. Collectively, the present data suggest that TaMBF1c plays a pivotal role in plant thermotolerance and holds promising possibilities for improving heat tolerance

  5. A domain-based approach for analyzing the function of aluminum-activated malate transporters from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis thaliana in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Ariyoshi, Michiyo; Ryan, Peter R; Furuichi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2014-12-01

    Wheat and Arabidopsis plants respond to aluminum (Al) ions by releasing malate from their root apices via Al-activated malate transporter. Malate anions bind with the toxic Al ions and contribute to the Al tolerance of these species. The genes encoding the transporters in wheat and Arabidopsis, TaALMT1 and AtALMT1, respectively, were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized electrophysiologically using the two-electrode voltage clamp system. The Al-activated currents generated by malate efflux were detected for TaALMT1 but not for AtALMT1. Chimeric proteins were generated by swapping the N- and C-terminal halves of TaALMT1 and AtALMT1 (Ta::At and At::Ta). When these chimeras were characterized in oocytes, Al-activated malate efflux was detected for the Ta::At chimera but not for At::Ta, suggesting that the N-terminal half of TaALMT1 is necessary for function in oocytes. An additional chimera, Ta(48)::At, generated by swapping 17 residues from the N-terminus of AtALMT1 with the equivalent 48 residues from TaALMT1, was sufficient to support transport activity. This 48 residue region includes a helical region with a putative transmembrane domain which is absent in AtALMT1. The deletion of this domain from Ta(48)::At led to the complete loss of transport activity. Furthermore, truncations and a deletion at the C-terminal end of TaALMT1 indicated that a putative helical structure in this region was also required for transport function. This study provides insights into the structure-function relationships of Al-activated ALMT proteins by identifying specific domains on the N- and C-termini of TaALMT1 that are critical for basal transport function and Al responsiveness in oocytes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of 137Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.-G.

    2001-01-01

    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l -1 ) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml -1 ). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l -1 , further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed

  7. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Y.-G. E-mail: yongguan.zhu@adelaide.edu.au

    2001-07-01

    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l{sup -1}) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml{sup -1}). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l{sup -1}, further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed.

  8. Long-term manure amendments and chemical fertilizers enhanced soil organic carbon sequestration in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Li, Jianwei; Guo, Doudou; Lin, Shan; Lu, Guoan

    2017-06-01

    The carbon sequestration potential is affected by cropping system and management practices, but soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential under fertilizations remains unclear in north China. This study examined SOC change, total C input to soil and, via integration of these estimates over years, carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE, the ratio of SOC change over C input) under no fertilization (control), chemical nitrogen fertilizer alone (N) or combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NP, NK, PK and NPK), or chemical fertilizers combined with low or high (1.5×) manure input (NPKM and 1.5NPKM). Results showed that, as compared with the initial condition, SOC content increased by 0.03, 0.06, 0.05, 0.09, 0.16, 0.26, 0.47 and 0.68 Mg C ha -1 year -1 under control, N, NK, PK, NP, NPK, NPKM and 1.5NPKM treatments respectively. Correspondingly, the C inputs of wheat and maize were 1.24, 1.34, 1.55, 1.33, 2.72, 2.96, 2.97 and 3.15 Mg ha -1 year -1 respectively. The long-term fertilization-induced CSE showed that about 11% of the gross C input was transformed into SOC pool. Overall, this study demonstrated that decade-long manure input combined with chemical fertilizers can maintain high crop yield and lead to SOC sequestration in north China. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three homoeologous Ta14S genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Xinguo Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Ta14S homoeologs and assess their functions in wheat seed development. The genomic and cDNA sequences of three Ta14S homoeologous genes encoding 14-3-3 proteins were isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that the three homoeologs consisted of five exons and four introns and were very highly conserved in the coding regions and in exon/intron structure, whereas the cDNA sequences were variable in the 5′ and 3′-UTR. The three genes, designated as Ta14S-2A, Ta14S-2B and Ta14S-2D, were located in homoeologous group 2 chromosomes. The polypeptide chains of the three Ta14S genes were highly similar. These genes were most homologous to Hv14A from barley. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the three Ta14S genes were differentially expressed in different organs at different developmental stages and all exhibited greater expression in primary roots of 1-day-old germlings than in other tissues. Comparison of the expression patterns of the three homoeologous genes at different times after pollination also revealed that their expression was developmentally regulated. The transcription of Ta14S-2B was clearly higher during seed germination, whereas expressions of Ta14S-2A and Ta14S-2D were up-regulated at the beginning of seed imbibition (0–12 h, but declined thereafter. The results suggested that the three Ta14S homoeologous genes have regulatory roles in seed development and germination.

  10. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp. Aestivum) Altay2000, zgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytýn98, ES14, Harmankaya99 ...

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  12. Soil compaction limits root development, radiation-use efficiency and yield of three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Anne Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    . The RUE was positively correlated with an estimated effective rooting depth across cultivars, while DM yield was not. This correlation probably was a result of restrictions on stomatal opening mediated by drought stress and abscisic acid produced in the root system in response to occasional soil drying...

  13. Estimates of genetic variability in mutated population of triticum aestivum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.; Siddiqui, K.A.; Soomoro, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    M 2 populations of four cultivars of Mexican origin (Mexipak-65, Nayab, Pak-70 and 6134 x C-271) and two locally bred cultivars (H-68 and C-591) of bread wheat, triticum aestivum (2n = 6x = AA BB DD) derived from six irradiation treatments (gamma rays 60sub(Co); 10, 15 and 20 kR and fast neutrons; 300, 600 and 900 RADS) were critically examined for spike length, spikelets per spike, grains per spike and grain yield. Genotypes varied significantly (p>=0.01) for all the characters. Irradiation treatment were instrumental in creating significant variability for all the characters, indicating that varieties did not perform uniformly across different gamma rays as well as fast neutron treatments. In the M 2 generation there was a considerable increase in variance for all the four metrical traits. Comparisons were made between controls and treated populations. Mutagenic treatments shifted the mean values mostly towards the negative direction, but the shift was not unidirectional nor equally effective for all the characters. The differences in mean values and the nature of variability observed in M 2 indicated a possible preference of selection M 3 generation. In general, estimates of genetic variability and heritability (b.s) increased with increasing doses of gamma rays and fast neutrons. Genetic advance also exhibited similar trend. The observed variability can be utilized in the evolution of new varieties. (authors)

  14. Nutritional characteristics of ancient Tuscan varieties of Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisetta Ghiselli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important cereal in human consumption. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in ancient wheat varieties. The latter represent an important source of germplasm, characterised by a broader genetic base and, therefore, a potential source of biodiversity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the optimal balance between the presence of secondary metabolites having beneficial effects on health and technological features that ensure successful baking quality. The experimental trial was performed in 2011-2012 on three organic farms located in three different areas within the province of Siena (Tuscany. In each location, an overall evaluation of the commercial, rheological and functional properties of five ancient Tuscan bread wheat varieties (Andriolo, Frassineto, Gentil rosso, Inallettabile 96, Verna as compared with a commercial modern variety (Palesio was carried out. The ancient varieties were compared both singularly (pure and in combination (mixtures of two varieties in equal proportion, respectively. Biometric and productive parameters were detected for each plot (32 plots in each farm. Macro- and trace elements, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (antiradical power, ARP were similarly determined on representative whole grain samples. Rheological analysis was carried out on flour samples. The multivariate statistical analysis using principal components analysis was performed on all variables analysed. The results showed a significant environment effect on the different parameters measured and did not reveal significant improvements in the variables measured when varieties were cultivated in mixtures. However, the study did reveal various interesting trends that are warranting of further investigation. The most interesting effect from a nutritional and functional point of view is the relationship between ARP, rheological properties, protein content and gluten content. These

  15. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  16. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  17. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - effect of elevated levels of CO{sub 2} on winter wheat under two moisture regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, U.N.; Burnett, R.B.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1987-12-31

    This report deals with the second-year (1985-86) findings of an on going experiment with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and under two moisture regimes. The results for the first year are given in the U.S. Department of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Research Division Response of Vegetation to Carbon Dioxide. The purpose of the second year`s experiment was to verify the results of 1984-85. However, based on the performance and the results of 1984-85 experiments, a few modifications were made.

  18. Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. II. Adjustment of photosynthetic capacity in winter wheat and winter rye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.R.; Savitch, L.V.; Ivanov, A.G.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Monopol), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Katepwa), and winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) grown at 5 degrees C and moderate irradiance (250 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (5/250) exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition at low temperature in comparison to plants grown at 20 degrees C and 250 micromoles m -2 s -1 (20/250). However, 5/250 plants exhibited a higher photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure (0.32-0.63) than 20/250 plants (0.18-0.21), measured as 1 - q p , the coefficient of photochemical quenching. Plants grown at 20 degrees C and a high irradiance (800 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (20/800) also exhibited a high PSII excitation pressure (0.32-0.48). Similarly, plants grown at 20/800 exhibited a comparable tolerance to photoinhibition relative to plants grown at 5/250. In contrast to a recent report for Chlorella vulgaris (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694), this tolerance to photoinhibition occurs in winter rye with minimal adjustment to polypeptides of the PSII light-harvesting complex, chlorophyll a/b ratios, or xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. However, Monopol winter wheat exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity upon growth at 5/250, in comparison to Katepwa spring wheat. We demonstrate that low-temperature-induced tolerance to photoinhibition is not a low-temperature-growth effect per se but, instead, reflects increased photosynthetic capacity in response to elevated PSII excitation pressure, which may be modulated by either temperature or irradiance

  19. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  20. Evaluation of omega-3 fatty acids content and antioxidant activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. leaves Avaliação do teor de ácidos graxos ômega-3 e atividade antioxidante em folhas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.