WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter spring year

  1. Condition of larval (furcilia VI) and one year old juvenile Euphausia superba during the winter-spring transition in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtue, Patti; Meyer, Bettina; Freier, Ulrich; Nichols, Peter D.; Jia, Zhongnan; King, Rob; Virtue, Jacob; Swadling, Kerrie M.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Kawaguchi, So

    2016-09-01

    Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, is an important species in the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Information on krill condition during winter and early spring is slowly evolving with our enhanced ability to sample at this time of year. However, because of the limited spatial and temporal data, our understanding of fundamental biological parameters for krill during winter is limited. Our study assessed the condition of larval (furcilia VI) and one year old juvenile krill collected in East Antarctica (115°E-130°E and 64°S-66°S) from September to October 2012. Krill condition was assessed using morphometric, elemental and biochemical body composition, growth rates, oxygen uptake and lipid content and composition. Diet was assessed using fatty acid biomarkers analysed in the krill. The growth rate of larvae was 0.0038 mm day with an inter-moult period of 14 days. The average oxygen uptake of juvenile krill was 0.30±0.02 μl oxygen consumed per mg dry weight per hour. Although protein was not significantly different amongst the krill analysed, the lipid content of krill was highly variable ranging from 9% to 27% dry weight in juveniles and from 4% to 13% dry weight in larvae. Specific algal biomarkers, fatty acids ratios, levels of both long-chain (≥C20) monounsaturated fatty acids and bacterial fatty acids found in krill were indicative of the mixed nature of dietary sources and the opportunistic feeding capability of larval and juvenile krill at the end of winter.

  2. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  3. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and season on daily milk yield (DMY) and mineral composition of pasture-based dairy cows. This was done by collecting data from 20 Friesian, 20 Jersey and 20 Friesian × Jersey crossbred cows in the early stage of their 4th parity in winter and spring, ...

  4. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  5. Climate Change Impacts on Winter and Spring Runoff and Recharge in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, E. A.; Potter, K. W.

    2011-12-01

    Our research seeks to quantify the impacts of warming winter temperatures and increased winter precipitation on water resources in Wisconsin. We are currently working to calibrate a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Black Earth Creek Watershed, and will be using a newly-created frost module to examine the impacts of warming winter temperatures on winter and spring infiltration. As a class 1 trout stream, Black Earth Creek is of particular interest as a sensitive and economically important natural resource. Research carried out over 2010 utilized a one-dimensional soil model (Simultaneous Heat and Water, or SHAW) that simulates heat and water fluxes as well as frost processes. This model was driven by climate data obtained from a set of statistically-downscaled and de-biased General Circulation Model (GCM) data for historic and projected future for the years 2046-2065 and 2081-2100 under the SRES A1B emissions scenario. This research suggested that warming temperatures and reduced snow cover, along with a projected increase in winter precipitation, would lead to decreased soil frost formation and a commensurate increase in winter and spring infiltration and recharge. The one-dimensional structure of the model, however, made it difficult to calibrate at the landscape scale, as it is fundamentally unable to replicate the complex spatial processes that are critically important to hydrologic response. We hope that the PRMS model, driven with the same modeled climatic data, will be able to confirm the results of our SHAW modeling; namely that winter and spring recharge will increase significantly in a warming climate. Such an increase in recharge could have profound impacts on Wisconsin fisheries, agriculture, and development.

  6. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  7. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  8. The effect of different winter and early spring removal treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regrowth of parent tillers was appreciable only where clipping was lenient (to 10 cm). Burning destroyed all parent tillers. Lateral tillers developed poorly on all plots mown in early and mid-winter and on those burned in late winter and early spring. Lateral tillers yielded best all over treatment times when cutting was intense ...

  9. The effect of different winter and early spring removal treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral tillers developed poorly on all plots mown in early and mid-winter and on those burned in late winter and early spring. Lateral tillers yielded best all over treatment times when cutting was intense (to 5 cm). Herbage yields from lateral growth were higher when treatments were applied in April and August, than when ...

  10. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  11. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  12. Aggressiveness Changes in Populations of Didymella pinodes over Winter and Spring Pea Cropping Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloi, G.; Montarry, J.; Guibert, M.; Andrivon, D.; Michot, D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ascochyta blight, caused by the necrotrophic ascomycete Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in winter and spring pea crops. Despite different climatic conditions, epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting gene flow either between the two crops or from reservoir sources during the cropping season. This should lead to similar pathogenicity characteristics in isolates sampled from the two crops. However, these hypotheses have never been formally tested. We therefore sampled a total of 520 D. pinodes strains throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots (WP and SP, respectively) and from winter and spring trap plants (TWP and TSP). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. These results support the idea that alloinoculum contributes to the carryover of epidemics between winter and spring crops and that the most aggressive isolates are selected as an epidemic progresses. IMPORTANCE Ascochyta blight, caused by Didymella pinodes, is responsible for severe losses in pea crops. While previous studies have shown that ascochyta blight epidemics on winter and spring crops are due to a single population of D. pinodes, suggesting that isolates from the two crops present similar pathogenicity characteristics, that hypothesis have never been tested. Genetic analysis of subpopulations sampled throughout a growing season from winter and spring pea plots revealed high genetic diversity within subpopulations, whereas pathogenicity tests showed that mean aggressiveness increases over the course of an epidemic. PMID:27208102

  13. Water Use and Water Use Efficiency of Winter and Spring Camelina in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of crop water use (WU) in dryland semiarid environments is important for crop water use efficiency (WUE) and optimizing crop production systems. The WU and WUE of winter camelina (Camelina sativa) 'Joelle' and spring camelina 'CO46' were evaluated in a 2-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. Winter camelina was grown between 19 September 2012 and 15 July 2013 and spring camelina was grown between 5 May and 5 August 2013 in plots each 3 m×9 m. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. Soil water content measurements were obtained from the surface 1.22 m at preplant and post harvest. Seasonal WU varied from 351mm for winter camelina to 346 mm for spring camelina in 2013. Water use efficiencies for winter camelina were 5.5, 3.9, and 1.6 kg ha-1 mm-1for above ground biomass, seed, and oil, respectively. Water use efficiencies for spring camelina were 5.5, 3.6, and 1.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 for biomass, seed, and oil, respectively, though differences in WU and WUE were not significant between winter and spring camelina.

  14. Relationships between NDVI and Leaf Area Index for spring and winter camelina in Northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Allen, Brett; long, Dan; Isbell, Terry; Gesch, Russ; Brown, Jack; Hatfield, Jerry; Archer, David; Oblath, Emily; Vigil, Merle; Kiniry, Jim

    2016-04-01

    To our knowledge no research has been reported on the relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and leaf area index (LAI) in spring and winter camelina. Relationships between NDVI and LAI for winter camelina (Camelina sativa) "Joelle" and spring camelina "CO46" were determined and evaluated in a 3-yr field study conducted in Sidney Montana under dryland conditions. The NDVI and LAI were measured weekly throughout the growing season. The NDVI was continually measured at one sample per second across the whole plot using a Crop Circle ACS-470 active crop canopy sensor. The LAI was measured at two locations at 12 samples per plot using an AccuPar model LP-80 Ceptometer. Treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design in plots of 3 m×9 m. Temporal dynamics of NDVI and LAI in various growth stages of both spring and winter camelina were evaluated throughout 2013, 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Significant linear relationships between NDVI and LAI were obtained for both spring and winter camelina when all the measurements were pooled across three growing seasons. Coefficients of determination (R2) of linearity were 0.77 and 0.79 for spring and winter camelina, respectively.

  15. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  16. The impact of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation on the frequency of spring dust storms over Tarim Basin in northwest China in the past half-century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yong; Huang Anning; Zhou Yang; Huang Ying; Zhu Xinsheng

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency of spring dust storms over Tarim Basin in northwest China and the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is investigated by using the observed dust storm frequency (DSF) and the 10 m wind velocity at 36 stations in Tarim Basin and the National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1961–2007. The spring DSF (winter NAO) index shows a clear decreasing (increasing) linear trend over 1961–2007. The winter NAO correlates well with the subsequent spring DSF over Tarim Basin on both interannual and interdecadal time scales and its interannual to interdecadal variation plays an important role in the spring DSF. Two possible physical mechanisms are identified. One is related to the large scale anomalous circulations in spring in the middle to high troposphere modulated by the winter NAO, providing the background of dynamical conditions for the dust storm occurrences. The other is related to the shifts in the local horizontal sea level pressure (SLP) gradients and 10 m wind speed, corresponding to changes in the large scale circulations in spring. The decrease in the local 10 m wind speed due to the reduced horizontal SLP gradients over Tarim Basin during the strong winter NAO years contributes to the decline of the DSF in the subsequent spring. (letter)

  17. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  18. The utilization by sheep of winter and spring Smuts finger and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on Smuts finger (Digitaria eriantha ssp. eriantha) and Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures during a winter and spring period to study the effect of postruminal energy and/or protein supplementation on the selection pattern and performance of sheep. In a further experiment the digestion ...

  19. Titan's cloud seasonal activity from winter to spring with Cassini/VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S.; Le, Mouelic S.; Rannou, P.; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, R.H.; Barnes, J.W.; Griffith, C.A.; Burgalat, J.; Baines, K.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Since Saturn orbital insertion in July 2004, the Cassini orbiter has been observing Titan throughout most of the northern winter season (October 2002-August 2009) and the beginning of spring, allowing a detailed monitoring of Titan's cloud coverage at high spatial resolution with close flybys on a monthly basis. This study reports on the analysis of all the near-infrared images of Titan's clouds acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) during 67 targeted flybys of Titan between July 2004 and April 2010.The VIMS observations show numerous sporadic clouds at southern high and mid-latitudes, rare clouds in the equatorial region, and reveal a long-lived cloud cap above the north pole, ubiquitous poleward of 60??N. These observations allow us to follow the evolution of the cloud coverage during almost a 6-year period including the equinox, and greatly help to further constrain global circulation models (GCMs). After 4. years of regular outbursts observed by Cassini between 2004 and 2008, southern polar cloud activity started declining, and completely ceased 1. year before spring equinox. The extensive cloud system over the north pole, stable between 2004 and 2008, progressively fractionated and vanished as Titan entered into northern spring. At southern mid-latitudes, clouds were continuously observed throughout the VIMS observing period, even after equinox, in a latitude band between 30??S and 60??S. During the whole period of observation, only a dozen clouds were observed closer to the equator, though they were slightly more frequent as equinox approached. We also investigated the distribution of clouds with longitude. We found that southern polar clouds, before disappearing in mid-2008, were systematically concentrated in the leading hemisphere of Titan, in particular above and to the east of Ontario Lacus, the largest reservoir of hydrocarbons in the area. Clouds are also non-homogeneously distributed with longitude at southern mid

  20. The influence of boreal spring Arctic Oscillation on the subsequent winter ENSO in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Yu, Bin

    2017-05-01

    This study examines the influence of boreal spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) on the subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) using 15 climate model outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that, out of the 15 CMIP5 models, CCSM4 and CNRM-CM5 can well reproduce the significant AO-ENSO connection. These two models capture the observed spring AO related anomalous cyclone (anticyclone) over the subtropical western-central North Pacific, and westerly (easterly) winds over the tropical western-central Pacific. In contrast, the spring AO-related anomalous circulation over the subtropical North Pacific is insignificant in the other 13 models, and the simulations in these models cannot capture the significant influence of the spring AO on ENSO. Further analyses indicate that the performance of the CMIP5 simulations in reproducing the AO-ENSO connection is related to the ability in simulating the spring North Pacific synoptic eddy intensity and the spring AO's Pacific component. Strong synoptic-scale eddy intensity results in a strong synoptic eddy feedback on the mean flow, leading to strong cyclonic circulation anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific, which contributes to a significant AO-ENSO connection. In addition, a strong spring AO's Pacific component and associated easterly wind anomalies to its south may provide more favorable conditions for the development of spring AO-related cyclonic circulation anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific.

  1. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the composition of candy (pollen and protein substitute were analysed. Three groups of ten bee colonies each were formed - the control, unfed group, pollen candy fed and protein substitute candy fed. In the period from 22/02/2016 and 04/04/2016 three control measurements were performed during which the number of bees, the number of brood cells and weight of the bee colonies were determined. The research has shown that supplemental feeding of the bee colony in late winter in order to encourage the rapid spring development is justified. Namely, at the final measurements in April, the results showed differences between groups. The treated colonies had higher net hive weight, a greater number of bees and statistically significantly more brood cells. The results of this study confirm that the technological measure of supplemental feeding in late winter should be performed on all commercial apiaries for the production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, queen bees and bee venom.

  2. Surface Temperatures on Titan During Northern Winter and Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde ,V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E.; Mamoutkine, A.; Gorius, N. J. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004-2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 plus or minus 0.3 to 89.7 plus or minus 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 plus or minus 0.5 to 91.5 plus or minus 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the subsolar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 plus or minus 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north-south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  3. SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON TITAN DURING NORTHERN WINTER AND SPRING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Romani, P. N.; Samuelson, R. E. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mamoutkine, A. [ADNET Systems, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States); Gorius, N. J. P. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Coustenis, A. [Laboratoire d’Etudes Spatiales et d’Instrumentation en Astrophysique (LESIA), Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, 5, place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Tokano, T., E-mail: donald.e.jennings@nasa.gov [Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz, D-50923 Köln (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Meridional brightness temperatures were measured on the surface of Titan during the 2004–2014 portion of the Cassini mission by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer. Temperatures mapped from pole to pole during five two-year periods show a marked seasonal dependence. The surface temperature near the south pole over this time decreased by 2 K from 91.7 ± 0.3 to 89.7 ± 0.5 K while at the north pole the temperature increased by 1 K from 90.7 ± 0.5 to 91.5 ± 0.2 K. The latitude of maximum temperature moved from 19 S to 16 N, tracking the sub-solar latitude. As the latitude changed, the maximum temperature remained constant at 93.65 ± 0.15 K. In 2010 our temperatures repeated the north–south symmetry seen by Voyager one Titan year earlier in 1980. Early in the mission, temperatures at all latitudes had agreed with GCM predictions, but by 2014 temperatures in the north were lower than modeled by 1 K. The temperature rise in the north may be delayed by cooling of sea surfaces and moist ground brought on by seasonal methane precipitation and evaporation.

  4. Pollution characteristic of VOCs of ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing CHANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to further explore the pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds in ambient air in winter and spring in Shijiazhuang City, the pollution characteristics of 62 volatile organic compounds (VOCs, monthly and quarterly variation, the correlation between VOCs and PM2.5, and the main sources of VOCs are investigated by using EPA TO-15 method. It shows that 40 organic compounds of the 64 VOCs have been quantitatively determined in winter and spring in the city, which are mainly acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, toluene, ethyl acetate, etc.. In the no-quantitatively determined components, higher ethanol, butyl acetate, butane etc. are detected. The VOCs concentration has positive correlation with the PM2.5 concentration during haze days.

  5. Proteome Analysis of Cold Response in Spring and Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Crowns Reveals Similarities in Stress Adaptation and Differences in Regulatory Processes between the Growth Habits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Vítámvás, P.; Planchon, S.; Renaut, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Prášil, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2013), s. 4830-4845 ISSN 1535-3893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 2D-DIGE analysis * cold stress * spring and winter growth habit Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.001, year: 2013

  6. How Do Trees Know When to Flower? Predicting Reproductive Phenology of Douglas-fir with Changing Winter and Spring Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevey, J.; St Clair, B.; Harrington, C.

    2016-12-01

    Flowering at the right time is one of the primary ways that plants are adapted to their environment. Trees that flower too early risk cold damage to vulnerable new tissues and those that flower too late miss peak resources or may mistime flowering to coincide with other trees, altering outcrossing rates and gene flow. Past observations indicate that temperature cues over winter and spring influence the timing of flowering in many tree species. Understanding these cues is important for predicting how flowering phenology of trees will change with a changing climate.We developed predictive models of flowering for Douglas-fir, an abundant and commercially important tree in the Pacific Northwest. We assembled over 10,000 flowering observations of trees from 11 sites across western Oregon and Washington. We modeled the dates of flowering using hourly temperature data; our models of flowering were adapted from previous models of vegetative budburst and height growth initiation developed for Douglas-fir. Preliminary results show that both chilling (cold) and forcing (warm) temperatures over winter and spring are important determinants of flowering time for Douglas-fir. This suggests that as spring temperatures warm in the future, Douglas-fir across the Pacific Northwest will flower earlier, unless plants experience insufficient chilling over winter, in which case it is possible that Douglas-fir may flower later than in the past, or not flower at all. At one site, Douglas-fir genotypes from different geographic regions flowered in the same order from year to year, indicating that both temperature and heredity influence flowering. Knowledge of the environmental and genetic cues that drive the timing of flowering can help predict how changes in temperature under various climate models could change flowering time across sites. These models may also indicate the geographic areas where future climate could enhance or reduce flowering of Douglas-fir in the future.

  7. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, Dennis G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  8. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  9. Retrieval of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infective larvae from grass contaminated in winter and in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Abdallah da Rocha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of infective larvae (L3 of Trichostrongylus colubriformis was evaluated on Brachiaria, Coast-cross and Aruana forage grasses. Feces of sheep parasitized exclusively by T. colubriformis were deposited in winter and spring on experimental plots whose grasses were cut at two heights: 5 cm and 30 cm. One, two, four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks after depositing the feces, fecal and forage samples were collected for the retrieval and quantification of L3. Retrieval of L3 from feces and forage was negligible in winter due to the dry weather, although a few larvae were retrieved in the last larval collections. However, L3 retrieval from fecal samples was greater in spring, especially two weeks after feces were deposited on 30 cm high grasses. At this time, the L3 retrieval rate from the three forage grasses differed significantly (P <0.05, with Aruana grass showing the highest average L3 retrieval rate, followed by Coast-cross and Brachiaria. In conclusion, the winter drought proved very unfavorable for the presence of L3 in the environment, and the microclimate of Aruana pastureland was generally the most favorable for the retrieval of infective larvae.

  10. Regional-scale winter-spring temperature variability and chilling damage dynamics over the past two centuries in southeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Jianping; Zhang, Qi-Bin; Lv, Lixin; Zhang, Chao [Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Beijing (China)

    2012-08-15

    Winter-spring cold extreme is a kind of serious natural disaster for southeastern China. As such events are recorded in discrete documents, long and continuous records are required to understand their characteristics and driving forces. Here we report a regional-scale winter-spring (January-April) temperature reconstruction based on a tree-ring network of pine trees (Pinus massoniana) from five sampling sites over a large spatial scale (25-29 N, 111-115 E) in southeastern China. The regional tree-ring chronology explains 48.6% of the instrumental temperature variance during the period 1957-2008. The reconstruction shows six relatively warm intervals (i.e., {proportional_to}1849-1855, {proportional_to}1871-1888, {proportional_to}1909-1920, {proportional_to}1939-1944, {proportional_to}1958-1968, 1997-2007) and five cold intervals (i.e., {proportional_to}1860-1870, {proportional_to}1893-1908, {proportional_to}1925-1934, {proportional_to}1945-1957, {proportional_to}1982-1996) during 1849-2008. The last decade and the 1930s were the warmest and coldest decades, respectively, in the past 160 years. The composite analysis of 500-hPa geopotential height fields reveals that distinctly different circulation patterns occurred in the instrumental and pre-instrumental periods. The winter-spring cold extremes in southeastern China are associated with Ural-High ridge pattern for the instrumental period (1957-2008), whereas the cold extremes in pre-instrumental period (1871-1956) are associated with North circulation pattern. (orig.)

  11. Climate model assessment of changes in winter-spring streamflow timing over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jonghun; Knutson, Thomas R.; Milly, Paul C. D.

    2018-01-01

    Over regions where snow-melt runoff substantially contributes to winter-spring streamflows, warming can accelerate snow melt and reduce dry-season streamflows. However, conclusive detection of changes and attribution to anthropogenic forcing is hindered by brevity of observational records, model uncertainty, and uncertainty concerning internal variability. In this study, a detection/attribution of changes in mid-latitude North American winter-spring streamflow timing is examined using nine global climate models under multiple forcing scenarios. In this study, robustness across models, start/end dates for trends, and assumptions about internal variability is evaluated. Marginal evidence for an emerging detectable anthropogenic influence (according to four or five of nine models) is found in the north-central U.S., where winter-spring streamflows have been coming earlier. Weaker indications of detectable anthropogenic influence (three of nine models) are found in the mountainous western U.S./southwestern Canada and in extreme northeastern U.S./Canadian Maritimes. In the former region, a recent shift toward later streamflows has rendered the full-record trend toward earlier streamflows only marginally significant, with possible implications for previously published climate change detection findings for streamflow timing in this region. In the latter region, no forced model shows as large a shift toward earlier streamflow timing as the detectable observed shift. In other (including warm, snow-free) regions, observed trends are typically not detectable, although in the U.S. central plains we find detectable delays in streamflow, which are inconsistent with forced model experiments.

  12. Regional meteorological drivers and long term trends of winter-spring nitrate dynamics across watersheds in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Jill; Eimers, M Catherine; Casson, Nora J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Campbell, John L.; Likens, Gene E; Mitchell, Myron J; Nelson, Sarah J.; Shanley, James B.; Watmough, Shaun A.; Webster, Kara L

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the contribution of winter rain-on-snow (ROS) events to annual and seasonal nitrate (N-NO3) export and identified the regional meteorological drivers of inter-annual variability in ROS N-NO3 export (ROS-N) at 9 headwater streams located across Ontario, Canada and the northeastern United States. Although on average only 3.3 % of annual precipitation fell as ROS during winter over the study period, these events contributed a significant proportion of annual and winter N-NO3 export at the majority of sites (average of 12 and 42 %, respectively); with the exception of the most northern catchment, where total winter precipitation was exceptionally low (average 77 mm). In years with a greater magnitude of ROS events, the timing of the peak N-NO3 export period (during spring melt) was redistributed to earlier in the year. Variability in ROS frequency and magnitude amongst sites was high and a generalised linear model demonstrated that this spatial variability could be explained by interactive effects between regional and site-specific drivers. Snowpack coverage was particularly important for explaining the site-specific ROS response. Specifically, ROS events were less common when higher temperatures eliminated snow cover despite increasing the proportion of winter rainfall, whereas ROS event frequency was greater at sites where sufficient snow cover remained. This research suggests that catchment response to changes in N deposition is sensitive to climate change; a vulnerability which appears to vary in intensity throughout the seasonally snow-covered temperate region. Furthermore, the sensitivity of stream N-NO3 export to ROS events and potential shifts (earlier) in the timing of N-NO3 export relative to other nutrients affect downstream nutrient stoichiometry and the community composition of phytoplankton and other algae.

  13. Climate warming and decreasing total column ozone over the Tibetan Plateau during winter and spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankai Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The long-term trends of the total column ozone (TCO over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and factors responsible for the trends are analysed in this study using various observations and a chemistry–climate model (CCM. The results indicate that the total column ozone low (TOL over the TP during winter and spring is deepening over the recent decade, which is opposite to the recovery signal in annual mean TCO over the TP after mid-1990s. The TOL intensity is increasing at a rate of 1.4 DU/decade and the TOL area is extending with 50,000 km2/decade during winter for the period 1979–2009. The enhanced transport of ozone-poor air into the stratosphere and elevated tropopause due to the rapid and significant warming over the TP during winter reduce ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and hence lead to the deepening of the TOL. Based on the analysis of the multiple regression model, the thermal dynamical processes associated with the TP warming accounts for more than 50% of TCO decline during winter for the period 1979–2009. The solar variations during 1995–2009 further enlarge ozone decreases over the TP in the past decade. According to the CCM simulations, the increases in NOx emissions in East Asia and global tropospheric N2O mixing ratio for the period 1979–2009 contribute to no more than 20% reductions in TCO during this period.

  14. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  15. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  16. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  17. Nitrogen reserves, spring regrowth and winter survival of field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa) defoliated in the autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Catherine; Castonguay, Yves; Nadeau, Paul; Bélanger, Gilles; Drapeau, Raynald; Laberge, Serge; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Chalifour, François-P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars ('AC Caribou' and 'WL 225') defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 degrees C) after the second summer defoliation. The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in 'WL 225', but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar 'AC Caribou'. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage proteins that are positively related to the vigour of spring

  18. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  19. A meteorologically-driven yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravet, F. W.; Cremins, W. J.; Taylor, T. W.; Ashburn, P.; Smika, D.; Aaronson, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A yield reduction model for spring and winter wheat was developed for large-area crop condition assessment. Reductions are expressed in percentage from a base yield and are calculated on a daily basis. The algorithm contains two integral components: a two-layer soil water budget model and a crop calendar routine. Yield reductions associated with hot, dry winds (Sukhovey) and soil moisture stress are determined. Input variables include evapotranspiration, maximum temperature and precipitation; subsequently crop-stage, available water holding percentage and stress duration are evaluated. No specific base yield is required and may be selected by the user; however, it may be generally characterized as the maximum likely to be produced commercially at a location.

  20. Daily steps are low year-round and dip lower in fall/winter: findings from a longitudinal diabetes cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Ron J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher walking levels lead to lower mortality in type 2 diabetes, but inclement weather may reduce walking. In this patient population, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study to objectively quantify seasonal variations both in walking and in two vascular risk factors associated with activity levels, hemoglobin A1C and blood pressure. Methods Between June 2006 and July 2009, volunteer type 2 diabetes patients in Montreal, Quebec, Canada underwent two weeks of pedometer measurement up to four times over a one year follow-up period (i.e. once/season. Pedometer viewing windows were concealed (snap-on cover and tamper proof seal. A1C, blood pressure, and anthropometric parameters were also assessed. Given similarities in measures for spring/summer and fall/winter, and because not all participants completed four assessments, spring and summer values were collapsed as were fall and winter values. Mean within-individual differences (95% confidence intervals were computed for daily steps, A1C, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, by subtracting spring/summer values from fall/winter values. Results Among 201 participants, 166 (82.6% underwent at least one fall/winter and one spring/summer evaluation. Approximately half were women, the mean age was 62.4 years (SD 10.8, and the mean BMI was 30.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.7. Step counts averaged at a sedentary level in fall/winter (mean 4,901 steps/day, SD 2,464 and at a low active level in spring/summer (mean 5,659 steps/day, SD 2,611. There was a -758 (95% CI: -1,037 to -479 mean fall/winter to spring/summer within-individual difference. There were no significant differences in A1C or in anthropometric parameters. Systolic blood pressure was higher in fall/winter (mean 137 mm Hg, SD 16 than spring/summer (133 mm Hg, SD 14 with a mean difference of 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.3 to 5.7. Conclusions Daily step counts in type 2 diabetes patients are low, dipping lower during fall/winter. In this

  1. Winter-spring 2001 United States streamflow probabilities based on anticipated neutral ENSO conditions and recent NPO status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; McCabe, G.J.; Redmond, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of historical floods and seasonal streamflows during years with neutral El NiñoSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) conditions in the tropical Pacific and “negative” states of the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) in the North Pacific—like those expected next year—indicates that (1) chances of having maximum-daily flows next year that are near the longterm averages in many rivers are enhanced, especially in the western states, (2) chances of having near-average seasonal-average flows also may be enhanced across the country, and (3) locally, chances of large floods and winter-season flows may be enhanced in the extreme Northwest, chances of large winter flows may be diminished in rivers in and around Wisconsin, and chances of large spring flows may be diminished in the interior southwest and southeastern coastal plain. The background, methods, and forecast results that lead to these statements are detailed below, followed by a summary of the successes and failures of last year’s streamflow forecast by Dettinger et al. (1999).

  2. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  3. Winter and spring diving behavior of bowhead whales relative to prey

    KAUST Repository

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads

    2013-10-23

    Background Little is known about bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) foraging behavior and what concentrations of prey are required to balance the energetic trade-offs of feeding. We used satellite telemetry, archival depth recorders, and water column echo sounding data to study bowhead whale diving behavior relative to prey depth and concentration in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Results Between March and May 2008 to 2011, nine bowhead whales were tagged in Disko Bay, West Greenland with instruments that collected data on location and diving over a period of 1 to 33 days. The frequency of U-dives (presumed to be foraging dives) was low during winter months but more than doubled in spring concurrent with a decrease in diving depth. The mean speed of the horizontal bottom phase of the U-dives was 0.9 ms-1 and on average, whales spent 37% of their time at the bottom phase of the dive. In March, bowhead whales presumably fed on copepods (Calanus spp.) close to the seabed (between 100 and 400 m). In April and May, after the copepods ascended to shallower depths, bowhead whales also dove to shallower depths (approximately 30 m) more often. However, echo sounding surveys in the vicinity of feeding whales in early May indicated that patches of copepods could still be found close to the seabed. Conclusions There was a marked change in diving behavior from winter through spring and this was likely in response to the changes in sea ice conditions, primary production and potential copepod abundance in the upper part of the water column. Depth and duration of dives changed significantly during this period; however, other dive parameters (for example the proportion of time spent feeding on the bottom of U-dives) remained fairly constant indicating a constant feeding effort. Bowhead whales target copepods at or close to the seabed in winter months in Disko Bay and continue feeding on copepods when they migrate to the surface. However, bowhead whales leave West Greenland before peak

  4. Leaching of nitrate and phosphorus after autumn and spring application of separated solid manures to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2012-01-01

    ) leaching. We studied the leaching of nitrate and P in lysimeters with winter wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L.) after autumn incorporation versus spring surface application of solid manure fractions, and we compared also spring applications of mineral N fertilizer and pig slurry. Leaching was compared...... N). Total P leaching was 40–165 g P/ha/yr, and the application of solid manure in autumn did not increase P leaching. The nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of solid manure N was similar after autumn and spring application (17–32% of total N). We conclude that from an environmental perspective...

  5. Chemical ozone losses in Arctic and Antarctic polar winter/spring season derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements 2002–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sonkaew

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric ozone profiles are retrieved for the period 2002–2009 from SCIAMACHY measurements of limb-scattered solar radiation in the Hartley and Chappuis absorption bands of ozone. This data set is used to determine the chemical ozone losses in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices by averaging the ozone in the vortex at a given potential temperature. The chemical ozone losses at isentropic levels between 450 K and 600 K are derived from the difference between observed ozone abundances and the ozone modelled taking diabatic cooling into account, but no chemical ozone loss. Chemical ozone losses of up to 30–40% between mid-January and the end of March inside the Arctic polar vortex are reported. Strong inter-annual variability of the Arctic ozone loss is observed, with the cold winters 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 showing chemical ozone losses inside the polar vortex at 475 K, where 1.7 ppmv and 1.4 ppmv of ozone were removed, respectively, over the period from 22 January to beginning of April and 0.9 ppmv and 1.2 ppmv, respectively, during February. For the winters of 2007/2008 and 2002/2003, ozone losses of about 0.8 ppmv and 0.4 ppmv, respectively are estimated at the 475 K isentropic level for the period from 22 January to beginning of April. Essentially no ozone losses were diagnosed for the relatively warm winters of 2003/2004 and 2005/2006. The maximum ozone loss in the SCIAMACHY data set was found in 2007 at the 600 K level and amounted to about 2.1 ppmv for the period between 22 January and the end of April. Enhanced losses close to this altitude were found in all investigated Arctic springs, in contrast to Antarctic spring. The inter-annual variability of ozone losses and PSC occurrence rates observed during Arctic spring is consistent with the known QBO effects on the Arctic polar vortex, with exception of the unusual Arctic winter 2008/2009.

    The maximum total ozone mass loss of about 25 million tons was found in the

  6. Carry-over or compensation? The impact of winter harshness and post-winter body condition on spring-fattening in a migratory goose species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    effect of winter harshness on post-winter body condition. However, this effect was compensated along the spring migration corridor, and did not persist long enough to influence future reproduction. This highlights the importance of temporal scale when assessing impacts of environmental effects......Environmental conditions at one point of the annual cycle of migratory species may lead to cross-seasonal effects affecting fitness in subsequent seasons. Based on a long-term mark-resighting dataset and scoring of body condition in an arctic breeding goose species, we demonstrate a substantial......, and suggests a state-dependent physiological mechanism adjusting energy accumulation according to internal energy stores carried into spring. In support of these findings, the development of body condition was unaffected by whether geese used supplementary feeding sites or not. While there was no effect...

  7. Water uptake of Alaskan tundra evergreens during the winter-spring transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jonathan G; Oberbauer, Steven F; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Starr, Gregory; Mortazavi, Behzad; Olivas, Paulo C

    2016-02-01

    The cold season in the Arctic extends over 8 to 9 mo, yet little is known about vascular plant physiology during this period. Evergreen species photosynthesize under the snow, implying that they are exchanging water with the atmosphere. However, liquid water available for plant uptake may be limited at this time. The study objective was to determine whether evergreen plants are actively taking up water while under snow and/or immediately following snowmelt during spring thaw. In two in situ experiments, one at the plot level and another at the individual species level, (2)H-labeled water was used as a tracer injected beneath the snow, after which plant stems and leaves were tested for the presence of the label. In separate experiments, excised shoots of evergreen species were exposed to (2)H-labeled water for ∼5 s or 60 min and tested for foliar uptake of the label. In both the plot-level and the species-level experiments, some (2)H-labeled water was found in leaves and stems. Additionally, excised individual plant shoots exposed to labeled water for 60 min took up significantly more (2)H-label than shoots exposed ∼5 s. Evergreen tundra plants take up water under snow cover, some via roots, but also likely by foliar uptake. The ability to take up water in the subnivean environment allows evergreen tundra plants to take advantage of mild spring conditions under the snow and replenish carbon lost by winter respiration. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Testing competing hypotheses for chronology and intensity of lesser scaup molt during winter and spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, M.J.; Anteau, A.C.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    We examined chronology and intensity of molt and their relationships to nutrient reserves (lipid and protein) of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) to test predictions of two competing hypotheses. The "staggered cost" hypothesis states that contour-feather molt is nutritionally costly and should not occur during nutritionally costly periods of the annual cycle unless adequate nutrients are available. The "breeding plumage" hypothesis states that prealternate molt must be complete prior to nesting, regardless of nutrient availability. Males and females were completing prebasic molt during winter (Louisiana) and had similar molt intensities. Females underwent prealternate molt during spring migration (Illinois and Minnesota) and prebreeding (Manitoba) periods; 53% and 93% of females were in moderate to heavy molt in Minnesota and Manitoba, respectively, despite experiencing other substantial nutritional costs. Intensity of prealternate molt was not correlated with lipid reserves even though females, on average, were nutritionally stressed. Molt intensity was not negatively correlated with protein reserves at any location. Chronology and intensity of prealternate molt varied little and were not temporally staggered from other nutritionally costly events. Prealternate molt did not influence nutrient reserves, and nutrient reserves likely were not the ultimate factor influencing chronology or intensity of prealternate molt of females. We surmise that nutrients required for prealternate molt come from exogenous sources and that the "staggered cost" hypothesis does not explain chronology of prealternate molt in female Lesser Scaup; rather, it appears that molt must be complete prior to nesting, consistent with the "breeding plumage" hypothesis. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  9. [Waterbird habitat-selection during winter and spring in reclaimed coastal wetlands in Nanhui Dongtan, Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun-Ying; Heng, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Xiao; Wang, Tian-Hou

    2011-12-01

    From December 2009 to May 2010 goose and duck (Anatidae) community censuses in winter and shorebird (Charadriiforms) community censuses in spring were conducted across three types artificial wetlands (urban lake wetland, restorative wetland, abandoned wetland) along the coast of Nanhui, Shanghai. Correlation analyses were undertaken between community indices and habitat factors. The results showed there were significant differences in the density of geese and ducks among the wetlands, but no difference in the number of species. The density of geese and ducks in the restorative wetland was 3.77 times that of abandoned wetland and 6.03 times that of urban lake wetlands. The number of species and density of shorebirds in restorative wetlands was 2.88 and 5.70 times that of abandoned wetlands. We found significant differences in the number and density of shorebird species between restorative and abandoned wetlands. The number of species density of geese and ducks and the Shannon-Wiener (H') index were positively correlated with water area. The number of species and H' were negatively correlated with vegetation area. The number of species, species density and H' and evenness were negatively correlated with vegetation coverage. H' was positively correlated with mean water level. The results showed that the number and density of shorebird species were positively correlated with bare muddy areas. Aquaculture ponds and paddy fields in reclaimed area is efficient sufficient compensation mechanism to maintain more water areas for waterbirds and to control vegetation expansion and maintain shorebird habitat after coastal reclamation.

  10. Zooplankton community dynamics in the N. Aegean front (E. Mediterranean in the winter spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton community composition was studied in the North Aegean frontal area in the winter-spring period along a trophic gradient going from the less saline and cold modified Black Sea water to the high salinity and temperature waters of Levantine origin. Samples were collected at the upper 100 m of three stations positioned along this gradient by using three nets with different mesh sizes (45 μm, 200 μm and 500 μm. Τhe community composition (all sizes was differentiated along the gradient with smoother seasonal succession and higher diversity with increasing oligotrophy and salinity. The temporal variability of the community composition revealed significant changes in the January-April period as well as gradual decrease of diversity index values at the station positioned within the front.  The major characteristic at this station was the abrupt increment and dominance of Centropages typicus in April, especially within the layer occupied by the modified Black Sea water. Significant difference in the community composition between March and April was a common feature in the whole study area and for all zooplankton fractions, though not of the same strength. The inflow of the Black Sea water and the trophic gradient were found to be important factors for the observed temporal variability and its spatial differentiation, while changes in the phytoplankton and protozoa abundance and community composition could account for the seasonal succession in species dominance.

  11. Lightning Evolution In Two North Central Florida Summer Multicell Storms and Three Winter/Spring Frontal Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, J. A.; Uman, M. A.; Pilkey, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    We present the first lightning evolution studies, via the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and radar, performed in North Central Florida. Parts of three winter/spring frontal storms (cold season) and two complete summer (warm season) multicell storms are studied. Storm parameters measured are as follows: total number of flashes, flash-type classification, first flashes, flash initiation altitude, flash initiation power, flash rate (flashes per minute), charge structure, altitude and temperature ranges of the inferred charge regions, atmospheric isotherm altitude, radar base reflectivity (dBZ), and radar echo tops (EET). Several differences were found between summer multicell and winter/spring frontal storms in North Central Florida: (1) in winter/spring storms, the range of altitudes that all charge regions occupy is up to 1 km lower in altitude than in summer storms, as are the 0°C, -10°C, and -20°C isotherms; (2) lightning activity in summer storms is highly correlated with changes in radar signatures, in particular, echo tops; and (3) the LMA average initiation power of all flash types in winter/frontal storms is about an order of magnitude larger than that for summer storms. In relation to storms in other geographical locations, North Central Florida seasonal storms were found to have similarities in most parameters studied with a few differences, examples in Florida being (1) colder initiation altitudes for intracloud flashes, (2) charge regions occupying larger ranges of atmospheric temperatures, and (3) winter/spring frontal storms not having much lightning activity in the stratiform region.

  12. Winter flooding of California rice fields reduces immature populations of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2017-07-01

    In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November to March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon. Under winter flooded conditions there was a 50% reduction in populations of weevil immatures compared with the untreated control (no straw or winter flood). These same conditions corresponded to a 20% increase in the amount of silicon found in plant tissues in 2014 and a 39 to 90% decrease in methane production in the soil from 2013 to 2014, respectively. Evidence from previous field research and these controlled studies supports winter flooding as an appropriate tactic for controlling L. oryzophilus populations in the spring. However, the mechanism that would explain why winter flooding adversely affects L. oryzophilus immatures remains unclear. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  14. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  15. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring-a...

  16. Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P. A.; Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Stemmann, L.; Somot, S.; Diaz, F.

    2014-05-01

    A realistic modeling approach is designed to address the role of winter mixing on the interannual variability of plankton dynamics in the north-western (NW) Mediterranean basin. For the first time, a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (Eco3m-S) covering a 30-year period (1976-2005) is validated on available in situ and satellite data for the NW Mediterranean. In this region, cold, dry winds in winter often lead to deep convection and strong upwelling of nutrients into the euphotic layer. High nutrient contents at the end of winter then support the development of a strong spring bloom of phytoplankton. Model results indicate that annual primary production is not affected by winter mixing due to seasonal balance (minimum in winter and maximum in spring). However, the total annual water column-integrated phytoplankton biomass appears to be favored by winter mixing because zooplankton grazing activity is low in winter and early spring. This reduced grazing is explained here by the rarefaction of prey due to both light limitation and the effect of mixing-induced dilution on prey/predator interactions. A negative impact of winter mixing on winter zooplankton biomass is generally simulated except for mesozooplankton. This difference is assumed to stem from the lower parameterized mortality, top trophic position and detritivorous diet of mesozooplankton in the model. Moreover, model suggests that the variability of annual mesozooplankton biomass is principally modulated by the effects of winter mixing on winter biomass. Thus, interannual variability of winter nutrient contents in the euphotic layer, resulting from winter mixing, would control spring primary production and thus annual mesozooplankton biomass. Our results show a bottom-up control of mesozooplankton communities, as observed at a coastal location of the Ligurian Sea.

  17. Winter to Spring Transition in Europe 48-45 degrees N: From Temperature Control by Advection to Control by Insolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Hu, H.; Jusem, J. C.; Starr, D.

    1999-01-01

    As established in previous studies, and analyzed further herein for the years 1988-1998, warm advection from the North Atlantic is the predominant control of the surface-air temperature in northern-latitude Europe in late winter. This thesis is supported by the substantial correlation Cti between the speed of the southwesterly surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic, as quantified by a specific Index Ina, and the 2-meter level temperature Ts over central Europe (48-54 deg N; 5-25 deg E), for January, February and early March. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation Cti drops drastically (quite often it is negative). The change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature. As (a) the sun rises higher in the sky, (b) the snows melt (the surface absorptivity can increase by a factor of 3.0), (c) the ocean-surface winds weaken, and (d) the temperature difference between land and ocean (which we analyze) becomes small, absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control of the continental temperature. We define the onset of spring by this transition, which evaluated for the period of our study occurs at pentad 16 (Julian Date 76, that is, March 16). The control by insolation means that the surface is cooler under cloudy conditions than under clear skies. This control produces a much smaller interannual variability of the surface temperature and of the lapse rate than prevailing in winter, when the control is by advection. Regional climatic data would be of greatest value for agriculture and forestry if compiled for well-defined seasons. For continental northern latitudes, analysis presented here of factors controlling the surface temperature appears an appropriate tool for this task.

  18. Soil Properties and Earthworm Population Dynamics Influenced by Organic Manure in Winter and Spring Seasons at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan Babu Ojha; Shree Chand Shah; Keshab Raj Pande; Durga Datta Dhakal

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Mg FYM ha-1) replicated four times at the horticultural farm, IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal in winter (Oct-Jan) and spring (Feb-May) seasons to quantify optimum dose of organic manure (FYM) to maintain earthworm population and enhance soil properties. In each treatment 100 earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were inoculated within one square meter of each plot. Porosity in the first season...

  19. Relation Between Frost-Resistance of Winter Grains, Their Respiration Rate and Water – Soluble Carbohydrates Content in Autumn - Spring Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomortsev A.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-soluble carbohydrates and respiration rate in the crown tissue of winter wheat, rye and triticale in autumn – winterspring were studied. In the period and of winter significant differences were revealed between winter crops in the rate of respiration and content of carbohydrates. Respiration of wheat in mid-March increased over February to 33%, and the content of carbohydrates during this period decreased by 10%. Despite the increase in environment temperature by mid-March of winter rye and triticale showed not increase, but rather decrease in the rate of respiration. A higher level of plant resistance of winter rye and triticale to low temperatures, as compared to winter wheat is associated with carbohydrate status and higher stability of respiration process in winter rye and triticale in response to temperature rise in end of winter.

  20. Genome-wide evaluation of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alheit Katharina V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genotyping with high-density markers nowadays enable genome-wide genomic analyses in crops. A detailed characterisation of the population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD is essential for the application of genomic approaches and consequently for knowledge-based breeding. In this study we used the triticale-specific DArT array to analyze population structure, genetic diversity, and LD in a worldwide set of 161 winter and spring triticale lines. Results The principal coordinate analysis revealed that the first principal coordinate divides the triticale population into two clusters according to their growth habit. The density distributions of the first ten principal coordinates revealed that several show a distribution indicative of population structure. In addition, we observed relatedness within growth habits which was higher among the spring types than among the winter types. The genome-wide analysis of polymorphic information content (PIC showed that the PIC is variable among and along chromosomes and that especially the R genome of spring types possesses a reduced genetic diversity. We also found that several chromosomes showed regions of high genetic distance between the two growth habits, indicative of divergent selection. Regarding linkage disequilibrium, the A and B genomes showed a similar LD of 0.24 for closely linked markers and a decay within approximately 12 cM. LD in the R genome was lower with 0.19 and decayed within a shorter map distance of approximately 5 cM. The extent of LD was generally higher for the spring types compared to the winter types. In addition, we observed strong variability of LD along the chromosomes. Conclusions Our results confirm winter and spring growth habit are the major contributors to population structure in triticale, and a family structure exists in both growth types. The specific patterns of genetic diversity observed within these types, such as the

  1. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (tillage systems.

  2. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  3. Water-quality assessment in the Trinity River Basin, Texas; nutrient concentrations in streams winter and spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Allison A.

    1995-01-01

    A consistent, basin-wide set of data for streams in the Trinity River Basin is a necessary baseline to compare current conditions with historical data and to provide a reference for future studies. In addition, the basin-wide surveys begin the process of addressing the cause-effect relations for water quality in the basin. Effects of land use, geology, vegetation, soils, and reservoirs on water quality were considered in selection of sites. Seasonal differences were addressed by conducting two surveys, the first during the winter low-flow period and the second during the late spring high-flow period.

  4. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of U.S. Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1995 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios for public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1995 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  5. Winter and spring mixing depths affect the trophic status and composition of phytoplankton in the northern meromictic basin of Lake Lugano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco SIMONA

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The trophic state of Lake Lugano is still too high to be acceptable, despite extensive recovery measures undertaken in recent decades which have resulted in a reduction of the external phosphorus load to the deepest of the lake's basins (northern basin; Zmax=286 m to fairly acceptable values. Since meromixis was established in the middle of last century, the deep hypolimnion of the northern basin (the layer between ca 100 m and the bottom has contained high quantities of nutrients (especially phosphorus which are a major potential source of internal load. When there are particularly strong winter mixing events, a portion of this phosphorus reserve is redistributed along the upper water column (0-100 m. The impact of meteo-climatic conditions on the plankton biocenosis were analysed using data collected in the northern basin (Gandria station during the three-year period 1998-2000. The phytoplankton composition, which is typical of eutrophicated waters, shows marked interannual variations, also depending on the degree of mixing of the waters at the start of the vegetative period. Though there is no steady pattern of typical dominant species / master species in the lake, there is a seasonal succession characterised by a marked development of diatoms in spring, and a predominance of chlorophyceans and cyanobacteria in summer and autumn. Under present conditions, the mechanisms of internal replenishment of nutrients towards the euphotic layer, due to the phenomena of late winter and spring mixing, constitute a significant source of nutrients for the spring and summer growth of phytoplankton. On the other hand, pronounced mixing phenomena, like those occurring in the two-year period 1999-2000, can reduce the hypolimnetic nutrient reserves and cause a decrease in the trophic potential of the basin, contrasting with an increase in algal biomass in the euphotic zone.

  6. A seasonal-scale climatological analysis correlating spring tornadic activity with antecedent fall-winter drought in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Mote, Thomas L; Niyogi, Dev

    2009-01-01

    Using rain gauge and satellite-based rainfall climatologies and the NOAA Storm Prediction Center tornado database (1952-2007), this study found a statistically significant tendency for fall-winter drought conditions to be correlated with below-normal tornado days the following spring in north Georgia (i.e. 93% of the years) and other regions of the Southeast. Non-drought years had nearly twice as many tornado days in the study area as drought years and were also five to six times more likely to have multiple tornado days. Individual tornadic events are largely a function of the convective-mesoscale thermodynamic and dynamic environments, thus the study does not attempt to overstate predictability. Yet, the results may provide seasonal guidance in an analogous manner to the well known Sahelian rainfall and Cape Verde hurricane activity relationships.

  7. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels

  8. Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This report for Calendar Year 1994 has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The chemical plant, raffinate pits, and quarry are located on Missouri State Route 94, southwest of US Route 40/61. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site, estimates of effluent releases, and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Additionally, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1994 to support environmental protection programs are discussed. Dose estimates presented in this report are based on hypothetical exposure scenarios of public use of areas near the site. In addition, release estimates have been calculated on the basis of 1994 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and air monitoring data. Effluent discharges from the site under routine NPDES and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) monitoring were below permitted levels.

  9. Simulated winter browsing may lead to induced susceptibility of willows to beavers in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F.; De Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Browsing may lead to an induced resistance or susceptibility of the plant to the herbivore. We tested the effect of winter browsing by Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber L., 1758) on food quality of holme willows (Salix dasyclados Wimm.) in and after the following growth season. Shrubs were pruned in

  10. Water-quality assessment in the Trinity River Basin, Texas; pesticide occurrence in streams, winter and spring 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Allison A.

    1995-01-01

    A consistent, basin-wide set of data for streams in the Trinity River Basin is necessary to provide a baseline for current conditions, to compare with historical data, and to provide a reference for future studies by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. In addition, the basin-wide surveys begin the process of addressing the cause-effect relation for water quality in the basin. Effects of land use, geology, vegetation, soils, and reservoirs on water quality were considered by site selection. Seasonal differences were addressed by conducting two surveys, the first during the winter low-flow period and the second during the late spring high-flow period.

  11. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993. Weldon Springs Site Remedial Action Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year.

  12. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  13. Bio-optical properties of Arctic drift ice and surface waters north of Svalbard from winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Piotr; Meler, Justyna; Kauko, Hanna M.; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Zabłocka, Monika; Peeken, Ilka; Dybwad, Christine; Castellani, Giulia; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-06-01

    We have quantified absorption by CDOM, aCDOM(λ), particulate matter, ap(λ), algal pigments, aph(λ), and detrital material, aNAP(λ), coincident with chlorophyll a in sea ice and surface waters in winter and spring 2015 in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The aCDOM(λ) was low in contrast to other regions of the Arctic Ocean, while ap(λ) has the largest contribution to absorption variability in sea ice and surface waters. ap(443) was 1.4-2.8 times and 1.3-1.8 times higher than aCDOM(443) in surface water and sea ice, respectively. aph(λ) contributed 90% and 81% to ap(λ), in open leads and under-ice waters column, and much less (53%-74%) in sea ice, respectively. Both aCDOM(λ) and ap(λ) followed closely the vertical distribution of chlorophyll a in sea ice and the water column. We observed a tenfold increase of the chlorophyll a concentration and nearly twofold increase in absorption at 443 nm in sea ice from winter to spring. The aCDOM(λ) dominated the absorption budget in the UV both in sea ice and surface waters. In the visible range, absorption was dominated by aph(λ), which contributed more than 50% and aCDOM(λ), which contributed 43% to total absorption in water column. Detrital absorption contributed significantly (33%) only in surface ice layer. Algae dynamics explained more than 90% variability in ap(λ) and aph(λ) in water column, but less than 70% in the sea ice. This study presents detailed absorption budget that is relevant for modeling of radiative transfer and primary production.

  14. Measured winter and spring-time indoor temperatures in UK homes over the period 1969–2010: A review and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadodaria, K.; Loveday, D.L.; Haines, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a review and synthesis of average winter and spring-time indoor temperatures in UK homes measured over the period 1969–2010. Analysis of measured temperatures in a sample of solid wall dwellings in the UK, conducted as part of the CALEBRE research project, is included. The review suggests that, for periods when occupation was likely, there has been little or no increase in winter and spring-time average living room temperatures over the last 40 years, with average recorded living room temperatures having been historically lower than the WHO-recommended value of 21 °C. Correspondingly, for periods of likely occupation, average bedroom temperatures appear to have increased. Compared with non-domestic buildings, there have been fewer investigations of domestic thermal comfort, either in the UK or elsewhere, and hence the paper also calls for further detailed investigations of domestic indoor temperatures during occupied hours together with thermal comfort evaluations in order to better understand domestic thermal environments. Based on suggestions from the limited range of studies available to date, living room temperatures may need to be maintained within the range 20–22 °C for thermal satisfaction, though this requires confirmation through further research. The study also emphasises that improving the energy efficiency of homes should be the primary means to effect any increases in indoor temperatures that are deemed essential. Considerations for future policy are discussed. - Highlights: • We review indoor temperatures measured in UK homes during 1960-2010. • We present analysis of temperature recorded by our study in 20 UK homes. • Little or no increase observed in living room temperatures for the last 40 years. • Occupied bedroom temperatures appear to have increased. • Living room temperatures have been historically lower than the WHO guidelines

  15. The North Atlantic spring-bloom system - where the changing climate meets the winter dark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein eSundby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic with its spring-bloom ecosystem has its particular responses to climate change, many of them different from the other parts of the world’s oceans. The system is strongly influenced by anthropogenic climate change as well as to strong decadal to multidecadal natural climate variability. In particular, the northernmost part of the system and the Arctic is exposed to higher increase in temperature than any other ocean region. The most pronounced examples of poleward migration of marine species are found in the North Atlantic, and comprise the recent warming phase after the 1970s. The latitudinal asymmetric position of the Arctic Front and its nature of change result in a considerably larger migration distance and migration speed of species in the Northeast Atlantic part of the system. However, we here hypothesize that there is a limit to the future extent of poleward migration of species constrained by the latitudinal region adjacent the Polar Circle. We define this region the critical latitudes. This is because the seasonal light cycle at high latitudes sets particular demands on the life cycle of planktivore species. Presently, boreal planktivore species at high latitudes deposit lipids during the short spring bloom period and overwinter when phytoplankton production is insufficient for feeding. Unless invading temperate species from farther south are able to adapt by developing a similar life cycle future poleward migration of such species will be unlikely.

  16. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part I. Fractionation of wheat germs extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations are reported on the role of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the process of winter wheat vernalization. Fractionation of germ extracts by the precipitation method revealed the dynamics of phosphorylated glycolysis metabolites during germination. The variability curves for spring wheat germinated at 1.5° and 22° and for winter wheat at 1.5° had a similar course, only that for winter wheat germinated at 22° showed differences. It is concluded that glycolysis is essential in the process of vernalization.

  17. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part I. Fractionation of wheat germs extracts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    Results of investigations are reported on the role of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the process of winter wheat vernalization. Fractionation of germ extracts by the precipitation method revealed the dynamics of phosphorylated glycolysis metabolites during germination. The variability curves for spring wheat germinated at 1.5° and 22° and for winter wheat at 1.5° had a similar course, only that for winter wheat germinated at 22° showed differences. It is concluded that glycolysis is ess...

  18. Direct observations of atmosphere - sea ice - ocean interactions during Arctic winter and spring storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. M.; Itkin, P.; Granskog, M. A.; Assmy, P.; Cohen, L.; Duarte, P.; Doble, M. J.; Fransson, A.; Fer, I.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Frey, M. M.; Gerland, S.; Haapala, J. J.; Hudson, S. R.; Liston, G. E.; Merkouriadi, I.; Meyer, A.; Muilwijk, M.; Peterson, A.; Provost, C.; Randelhoff, A.; Rösel, A.; Spreen, G.; Steen, H.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sundfjord, A.

    2017-12-01

    To study the thinner and younger sea ice that now dominates the Arctic the Norwegian Young Sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) was launched in the ice-covered region north of Svalbard, from January to June 2015. During this time, eight local and remote storms affected the region and rare direct observations of the atmosphere, snow, ice and ocean were conducted. Six of these winter storms passed directly over the expedition and resulted in air temperatures rising from below -30oC to near 0oC, followed by abrupt cooling. Substantial snowfall prior to the campaign had already formed a snow pack of approximately 50 cm, to which the February storms contributed an additional 6 cm. The deep snow layer effectively isolated the ice cover and prevented bottom ice growth resulting in low brine fluxes. Peak wind speeds during winter storms exceeded 20 m/s, causing strong snow re-distribution, release of sea salt aerosol and sea ice deformation. The heavy snow load caused widespread negative freeboard; during sea ice deformation events, level ice floes were flooded by sea water, and at least 6-10 cm snow-ice layer was formed. Elevated deformation rates during the most powerful winter storms damaged the ice cover permanently such that the response to wind forcing increased by 60 %. As a result of a remote storm in April deformation processes opened about 4 % of the total area into leads with open water, while a similar amount of ice was deformed into pressure ridges. The strong winds also enhanced ocean mixing and increased ocean heat fluxes three-fold in the pycnocline from 4 to 12 W/m2. Ocean heat fluxes were extremely large (over 300 W/m2) during storms in regions where the warm Atlantic inflow is located close to surface over shallow topography. This resulted in very large (5-25 cm/day) bottom ice melt and in cases flooding due to heavy snow load. Storm events increased the carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and ocean but also affected the pCO2 in surface waters

  19. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  20. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1993 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations from environmental monitoring program. In 1993, the maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the chemical plant site perimeter was 0.03 mrem (0.0003 mSv). The maximum committed dose to a hypothetical individual at the boundary of the Weldon Spring Quarry was 1.9 mrem (0.019 mSv). These scenarios assume an individual walking along the perimeter of the site-once a day at the chemical plant/raffinate pits and twice a day at the quarry-250 days per year. This hypothetical individual also consumes fish, sediment, and water from lakes and other bodies of water in the area. The collective dose, based on an effected population of 112,000 was 0.12 person-rem (0.0012 person-Sv). This calculation is based on recreational use of the August A. Busch Memorial Conservation Area and the Missouri Department of Conservation recreational trail (the Katy Trail) near the quarry. These estimates are below the U.S. Department of Energy requirement of 100 mrem (I mSv) annual committed effective dose equivalent for all exposure pathways. Results from air monitoring for the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) program indicated that the estimated dose was 0.38 mrem, which is below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard of 10 mrem per year

  1. Estimation of N2 fixation in winter and spring sown chickpea and in lentil grown under rainfed conditions using 15 N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Asfari, F.

    1996-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions to asses N 2 fixation in one cultivar of lentil and in two cultivars of chickpea (Gab 1 for winter and spring sowing, and Baladi for spring sowing). Moreover, the effect of P fertilizer on dry matter production, percentages and amounts of different N sources was studied using 15 N isotope dilution method. Wheat was used as a reference crop. The rate of N 2 fixation affected by several factors such as plant species, cultivar, date of sowing, P-fertilizer and the growing season. The highest amount of N 2 fixation obtained in winter sown chickpea was 126 Kg N ha -1 . Whereas, that of spring sowing for the same cultivar was 30 Kg N ha -1 . For Baladi cultivar, the highest amount of N-fixed was 55 Kg N ha -1 . While it was 104 Kg N ha -1 in lentil. Generally, N 2 -fixation affected positively by P-application. In the first growing season, N 2 -fixation increased from 33 to %58 by P application in spring sown chickpea (Baladi), and from 20 to %35 in spring sown chickpea (Gab 1). Whereas, no significant differences were observed upon P application in winter sown chickpea and in lentil. In the second growing season, P-fertilizer increased the percentage of N 2 fixation from 54 to %64 in winter sown chickpea, and from 45 to %64 in spring sown chickpea (Gab 1), and from 49 to %60 in spring sown chickpea (Baladi). While, in lentil it was from 66 to %72. The rate of N 2 fixation in winter sown chickpea was clearly higher than that of spring sowings. Moreover, this last one absorbed more N from the soil. Our results indicate the importance of winter sown chickpea in terms of N 2 fixation, seed yield and the reduction of soil N-uptake, besides a positive P-fertilizer response, especially when suitable rain fall occurs during the season. Moreover, the importance of these results from agronomical point of view was discussed. (author). 24 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  2. United States streamflow probabilities based on forecasted La Nina, winter-spring 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Redmond, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although for the last 5 months the TahitiDarwin Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) has hovered close to normal, the “equatorial” SOI has remained in the La Niña category and predictions are calling for La Niña conditions this winter. In view of these predictions of continuing La Niña and as a direct extension of previous studies of the relations between El NiñoSouthern Oscil-lation (ENSO) conditions and streamflow in the United States (e.g., Redmond and Koch, 1991; Cayan and Webb, 1992; Redmond and Cayan, 1994; Dettinger et al., 1998; Garen, 1998; Cayan et al., 1999; Dettinger et al., in press), the probabilities that United States streamflows from December 1999 through July 2000 will be in upper and lower thirds (terciles) of the historical records are estimated here. The processes that link ENSO to North American streamflow are discussed in detail in these diagnostics studies. Our justification for generating this forecast is threefold: (1) Cayan et al. (1999) recently have shown that ENSO influences on streamflow variations and extremes are proportionately larger than the corresponding precipitation teleconnections. (2) Redmond and Cayan (1994) and Dettinger et al. (in press) also have shown that the low-frequency evolution of ENSO conditions support long-lead correlations between ENSO and streamflow in many rivers of the conterminous United States. (3) In many rivers, significant (weeks-to-months) delays between precipitation and the release to streams of snowmelt or ground-water discharge can support even longer term forecasts of streamflow than is possible for precipitation. The relatively slow, orderly evolution of El Niño-Southern Oscillation episodes, the accentuated dependence of streamflow upon ENSO, and the long lags between precipitation and flow encourage us to provide the following analysis as a simple prediction of this year’s river flows.

  3. Plankton community structure and role of Oithona similis on the western coast of Greenland during the winter-spring transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Terol, Sara; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Saiz, Enric

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Oithona similis is one of the most abundant copepods in the oceans, and has a potentially important role in pelagic food webs. However, there is a lack of knowledge on aspects of Oithona's biology and function in plankton communities. In the present study, we aimed to assess...... investigated. We found that ciliates were the preferred prey for O.similis, which confirms its importance as a link from the microbial food web to higher trophic levels. We observed high egg production rates and efficiencies of O.similis in winter, confirming that it is active and successfully reproductive...... in food-limiting winter conditions. Our results stress that O. similis is a key component in Arctic and subarctic waters throughout the year, linking the microbial part of the food web to higher trophic levels...

  4. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  5. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  6. Vernalization and photoperiod-related changes in the DNA methylation state in winter and spring rapeseed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guzy-Wrobelska, J.; Filek, M.; Kaliciak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan; Barciszewska, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2013), s. 817-827 ISSN 0137-5881 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Brassica napus * DNA methylation * MSAP Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.524, year: 2013

  7. Xanthophyceaen assemblages during winter - spring flood: autecology and ecophysiology of Tribonema fonticolum and T. monochloron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, K.; Elster, Josef; Adamec, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 600, č. 1 (2008), s. 155-168 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1442; GA MŠk ME 576 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRT-2000-01645(COBRA) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Tribonema, growth conditions, temperature * temperature, inorganic carbon * desiccation, freezing Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.449, year: 2008

  8. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  9. Interannual and low-frequency variability of Upper Indus Basin winter/spring precipitation in observations and CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2017-12-01

    An assessment is made of the ability of general circulation models in the CMIP5 ensemble to reproduce observed modes of low-frequency winter/spring precipitation variability in the region of the Upper Indus basin (UIB) in south-central Asia. This season accounts for about two thirds of annual precipitation totals in the UIB and is characterized by "western disturbances" propagating along the eastward extension of the Mediterranean storm track. Observational data are utilized for for spatiotemporal characterization of the precipitation seasonal cycle, to compute seasonalized spectra and finally, to examine teleconnections, in terms of large-scale patterns in sea-surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric circulation. Annual and lowpassed variations are found to be associated primarily with SST modes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific. A more obscure link to North Atlantic SST, possibly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation, is also noted. An ensemble of 31 CMIP5 models is then similarly assessed, using unforced preindustrial multi-century control runs. Of these models, eight are found to reproduce well the two leading modes of the observed seasonal cycle. This model subset is then assessed in the spectral domain and with respect to teleconnection patterns, where a range of behaviors is noted. Two model families each account for three members of this subset. The degree of within-family similarity in behavior is shown to reflect underlying model differences. The results provide estimates of unforced regional hydroclimate variability over the UIB on interannual and decadal scales and the corresponding far-field influences, and are of potential relevance for the estimation of uncertainties in future water availability.

  10. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  11. What a difference a year makes: Patterns in CO2 and N2O accumulation during winter and surface and subsurface emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, D.; Janes, D.; Haverstock, J.

    2016-12-01

    In temperate climates soil microbial processes during the winter period may be slowed, but they do not stop. This results in accumulation of CO2 and N2O in the soil profile and often results in significant bursts of microbial activity during thawing events. Winters in Nova Scotia are no longer characterized by a single "spring thaw" event and it is more common to experience numerous thaw events throughout the winter period. We examined the accumulation of CO2 and N2O in the soil atmosphere, surface emissions and dissolved N2O being lost in drainage water from agricultural fields under conventional and no tillage management over a 6-year period. The diversity of patterns in soil gas accumulation in relation to freeze/thaw events and the timing and magnitude of surface and sub-surface emissions will be presented and related to climatic and management events.

  12. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p < 0.01) and lower root mean square error (22 days) and bias (16 days) were observed in GUD from the improved algorithm relative to GUD from the MCD12Q2 phenology product. In spatial terms, GUD increased from the southwest (less than day of year (DOY) 60) to the northeast (more than DOY 90) of the NCP, which corresponded to spatial reductions in temperature and precipitation. GUD advanced in most (78%) of the winter wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p < 0.05). GUD occurred later at high altitudes and in coastal areas than in inland areas. At the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Although GUD is mainly controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  13. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source

  14. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  15. Measurements of 161 Double Stars With a High-Speed CCD: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 161 CCD cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the speckle measurements of the 427 other pairs.

  16. Measurements of 427 Double Stars With Speckle Interferometry: The Winter/Spring 2017 Observing Program at Brilliant Sky Observatory, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the winter and spring of 2017, an aggressive observing program of measuring close double stars with speckle interferometry and CCD imaging was undertaken at Brilliant Sky Observatory, my observing site in Cave Creek, Arizona. A total of 596 stars were observed, 8 of which were rejected for various reasons, leaving 588 pairs. Of these, 427 were observed and measured with speckle interferometry, while the remaining 161 were measured with a CCD. This paper reports the results of the observations of the 427 speckle cases. A separate paper in this issue will report the CCD measurements of the 161 other pairs.

  17. Unusually low ozone, HCl, and HNO3 column measurements at Eureka, Canada during winter/spring 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Mittermeier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of dynamically variable meteorological conditions, springtime Arctic ozone levels exhibit significant interannual variability in the lower stratosphere. In winter 2011, the polar vortex was strong and cold for an unusually long time. Our research site, located at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada (80.05° N, 86.42° W, was mostly inside the vortex from October 2010 until late March 2011. The Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared spectrometer installed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory at Eureka acquired measurements from 23 February to 6 April during the 2011 Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Validation Campaign. These measurements showed unusually low ozone, HCl, and HNO3 total columns compared to the previous 14 yr. To remove dynamical effects, we normalized these total columns by the HF total column. The normalized values of the ozone, HCl, and HNO3 total columns were smaller than those from previous years, and confirmed the occurrence of chlorine activation and chemical ozone depletion. To quantify the chemical ozone loss, a three-dimensional chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, and the passive subtraction method were used. The chemical ozone depletion was calculated as the mean percentage difference between the measured ozone and the SLIMCAT passive ozone, and was found to be 35%.

  18. Evaluation of the Doraiswamy-Thompson winter wheat crop calendar model incorporating a modified spring restart sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator model demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology model at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified model (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson model predictions.

  19. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  20. Environment sensing in spring-dispersed seeds of a winter annual Arabidopsis influences the regulation of dormancy to align germination potential with seasonal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footitt, Steven; Clay, Heather A; Dent, Katherine; Finch-Savage, William E

    2014-05-01

    Seed dormancy cycling plays a crucial role in the lifecycle timing of many plants. Little is known of how the seeds respond to the soil seed bank environment following dispersal in spring into the short-term seed bank before seedling emergence in autumn. Seeds of the winter annual Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi were buried in field soils in spring and recovered monthly until autumn and their molecular eco-physiological responses were recorded. DOG1 expression is initially low and then increases as dormancy increases. MFT expression is negatively correlated with germination potential. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) signalling responds rapidly following burial and adjusts to the seasonal change in soil temperature. Collectively these changes align germination potential with the optimum climate space for seedling emergence. Seeds naturally dispersed to the soil in spring enter a shallow dormancy cycle dominated by spatial sensing that adjusts germination potential to the maximum when soil environment is most favourable for germination and seedling emergence upon soil disturbance. This behaviour differs subtly from that of seeds overwintered in the soil seed bank to spread the period of potential germination in the seed population (existing seed bank and newly dispersed). As soil temperature declines in autumn, deep dormancy is re-imposed as seeds become part of the persistent seed bank. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Environment sensing in spring-dispersed seeds of a winter annual Arabidopsis influences the regulation of dormancy to align germination potential with seasonal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footitt, Steven; Clay, Heather A; Dent, Katherine; Finch-Savage, William E

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy cycling plays a crucial role in the lifecycle timing of many plants. Little is known of how the seeds respond to the soil seed bank environment following dispersal in spring into the short-term seed bank before seedling emergence in autumn.Seeds of the winter annual Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi were buried in field soils in spring and recovered monthly until autumn and their molecular eco-physiological responses were recorded.DOG1 expression is initially low and then increases as dormancy increases. MFT expression is negatively correlated with germination potential. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) signalling responds rapidly following burial and adjusts to the seasonal change in soil temperature. Collectively these changes align germination potential with the optimum climate space for seedling emergence.Seeds naturally dispersed to the soil in spring enter a shallow dormancy cycle dominated by spatial sensing that adjusts germination potential to the maximum when soil environment is most favourable for germination and seedling emergence upon soil disturbance. This behaviour differs subtly from that of seeds overwintered in the soil seed bank to spread the period of potential germination in the seed population (existing seed bank and newly dispersed). As soil temperature declines in autumn, deep dormancy is re-imposed as seeds become part of the persistent seed bank. PMID:24444091

  2. Spring migratory pathways and migration chronology of Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) wintering at the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Molly M.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Baldwin, Robert F.; Stanton, John D.; Epstein, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the migratory pathways, migration chronology, and breeding ground affiliation of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) that winter in and adjacent to the Santee National Wildlife Refuge in Summerton, South Carolina, United States. Satellite transmitters were fitted to eight Canada Geese at Santee National Wildlife Refuge during the winter of 2009–2010. Canada Geese departed Santee National Wildlife Refuge between 5 and 7 March 2010. Six Canada Geese followed a route that included stopovers in northeastern North Carolina and western New York, with three of those birds completing spring migration to breeding grounds associated with the Atlantic Population (AP). The mean distance between stopover sites along this route was 417 km, the mean total migration distance was 2838 km, and the Canada Geese arrived on AP breeding grounds on the eastern shore of Hudson Bay between 20 and 24 May 2010. Two Canada Geese followed a different route from that described above, with stopovers in northeastern Ohio, prior to arriving on the breeding grounds on 9 June 2010. Mean distance between stopover sites was 402 and 365 km for these two birds, and total migration distance was 4020 and 3650 km. These data represent the first efforts to track migratory Canada Geese from the southernmost extent of their current wintering range in the Atlantic Flyway. We did not track any Canada Geese to breeding grounds associated with the Southern James Bay Population. Caution should be used in the interpretation of this finding, however, because of the small sample size. We demonstrated that migratory Canada Geese wintering in South Carolina use at least two migratory pathways and that an affiliation with the Atlantic Population breeding ground exists.

  3. An investigation of the role of winter and spring precipitation as drivers of streamflow in the Missouri River Headwaters using tree-ring reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, S. E.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Martin, J. T.; Pederson, G. T.

    2017-12-01

    The Missouri River supplies water to over 3 million basin residents and is a driving force for the nation's agricultural and energy sectors. However, with changing climate and declining snowpack in western North America, seasonal water yields are becoming less predictable, revealing a gap in our understanding of regional hydroclimate and drivers of streamflow within the basin. By analyzing the relationship between seasonal precipitation and streamflow in the Missouri River Headwaters sub-basin, this study seeks to expand our knowledge based on the instrumental record alone. Here we present the first annually-resolved tree-ring reconstruction of spring precipitation for the Missouri River Headwaters. This reconstruction along with existing tree-ring reconstructions of April 1 snow-water equivalence (SWE) (Pederson et al. 2011) and natural streamflow (Martin, J.T. & Pederson, G.T., personal communication, June 2017) are used to test the feasibility of detecting a variable influence of winter and spring precipitation on streamflow over past centuries, and relative to the modern period. Initial analyses indicate that April 1 SWE is a significant control on streamflow, however, the April 1 SWE record does not fully account for anomalies observed in the streamflow record. This study therefore seeks to determine whether spring precipitation can account for some of this asynchronous variability observed between the April 1 SWE and streamflow records. Aside from improved understanding of the relationship between hydroclimate and streamflow in the headwaters of the Missouri River, our findings offer insights relating to changing contributions from snowmelt and spring precipitation, and long-term hydrologic variability and trends relevant to water resource management and planning efforts.

  4. Excess winter cardiovascular morbidity in Ivanovo Region in 2009-2013 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-infectious diseases are characterized by irregular morbidity and mortality throughout a year. Aim. To study excess cardiovascular morbidity during winter in Ivanovo Region in 2009-2013 years. Material and methods. Excess winter morbidity index (EWMI was calculated using special formula. The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs was determined according to the data from the medical information-analytic center of Ivanovo Region. The index was calculated for CVDs in general, for arterial hypertension (HT and for acute forms of CVDs (acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results. The mean EWMI for CVDs for 5 years of the follow-up made up to 77.2% and was higher in women than in men (80% vs 69.5%, respectively. People of working age had lower excess winter morbidity than the population older than working age (53.1% and 88%, respectively. EWMI for CVDs had significant variability and ranged from 29.0% (2013 year to 81.1% (2010 year in men and from 25.2% to 82.9% in women in the same years. In general, the 5-year mean EWMI for HT was 72.7%; it was higher in men than in women in most of the analyzed years of follow-up. We had revealed the heterogeneity of the EWMI for HT during the analyzed period in each analyzed group (the minimal values were found in 2011 after the heat wave in 2010. EWMI for myocardial infarction demonstrated excess winter morbidity, men and women had in general similar indices (31.0% and 28.4%, respectively, but it was higher in people of working age as compared with the older ones. This index had a wide range of values. In case of stroke we had revealed no excess winter morbidity; this index was equal throughout a year. Conclusion. The influence on excess winter morbidity can result in the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to the decreased effect of risk factors; it would also optimize a load on healthcare system, the season irregularity of which must be taken into account when planning a

  5. Excess winter cardiovascular morbidity in Ivanovo Region in 2009-2013 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic non-infectious diseases are characterized by irregular morbidity and mortality throughout a year. Aim. To study excess cardiovascular morbidity during winter in Ivanovo Region in 2009-2013 years. Material and methods. Excess winter morbidity index (EWMI was calculated using special formula. The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs was determined according to the data from the medical information-analytic center of Ivanovo Region. The index was calculated for CVDs in general, for arterial hypertension (HT and for acute forms of CVDs (acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Results. The mean EWMI for CVDs for 5 years of the follow-up made up to 77.2% and was higher in women than in men (80% vs 69.5%, respectively. People of working age had lower excess winter morbidity than the population older than working age (53.1% and 88%, respectively. EWMI for CVDs had significant variability and ranged from 29.0% (2013 year to 81.1% (2010 year in men and from 25.2% to 82.9% in women in the same years. In general, the 5-year mean EWMI for HT was 72.7%; it was higher in men than in women in most of the analyzed years of follow-up. We had revealed the heterogeneity of the EWMI for HT during the analyzed period in each analyzed group (the minimal values were found in 2011 after the heat wave in 2010. EWMI for myocardial infarction demonstrated excess winter morbidity, men and women had in general similar indices (31.0% and 28.4%, respectively, but it was higher in people of working age as compared with the older ones. This index had a wide range of values. In case of stroke we had revealed no excess winter morbidity; this index was equal throughout a year. Conclusion. The influence on excess winter morbidity can result in the reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to the decreased effect of risk factors; it would also optimize a load on healthcare system, the season irregularity of which must be taken into account when planning a

  6. Weldon Spring, Missouri: Annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Radiological monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured uranium, Radium-226, and Thorium-230 concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment; radon gas concentrations in air; all long-lived natural series isotopes in air particulates; and external gamma radiation exposure rates. Potential radiation doses to the public were calculated based on assumed exposure periods and the above measurements. Radon concentrations, external gamma exposure rates, and radionuclide concentrations in groundwater and surface water at the site were generally equivalent to previous years' levels. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSRP and WSCP area was 1 mrem, or 1 percent of the DOE radiation protection standard of 100 mrem. The maximum calculated annual radiation dose to a hypothetically exposed individual at the WSQ was 14 mrem, or about 14 percent of the standard. Thus the WSS currently complies with DOE Off-site Dose Standards. Chemical contamination monitoring at the WSS during 1987 measured nitroaromatics, total organic carbon and the inorganic anions chloride, nitrate, fluoride and sulfate in surface water, groundwater and sediment. 22 refs., 26 figs., 21 tabs.

  7. Improved production of doubled haploids of winter and spring triticale hybrids via combination of colchicine treatments on anthers and regenerated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Aurelia; Pudelska, Hanna; Woźna, Jolanta; Pniewski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Double haploids (DH), obtained during androgenesis in vitro or by genome diploidisation in regenerated haploids, are one type of basic materials used in triticale breeding programmes. The aim of this study was to improve DH production by a combination of colchicine treatment methods on a sample of five winter and five spring triticale hybrids. Colchicine was applied in vitro either in the C17 medium to induce embryo-like structures (ELS) or in the 190-2 medium for green plant (GP) development. Regenerants which remained haploid were immersed in a colchicine solution either when placed on the medium prior to transferring to soil or when growing in pots, followed by the application or absence of cooling. Colchicine treatment during anther culture affected neither ELS nor GP development, but significantly increased the number of DH plants in comparison to spontaneous chromosome doubling. The highest efficiency was recorded when colchicine was applied in the induction medium (55%) versus the regeneration medium (44.5%) or no colchicine treatment (30%). The effectiveness of chromosome duplication in haploid plants ranged from 32 to 64.5% and it was the highest for the treatment on the medium followed by cooling. Individual hybrids differed regarding their capability of regeneration and chromosome doubling, which were consistent only to a low or moderate extent. However, taken together, winter and spring hybrids did not differ significantly. Combined colchicine application resulted in a high yield of DH production, 82.6% for all triticale hybrids, and can provide a considerable number of fertile DH lines for triticale breeding programmes.

  8. 76 FR 31629 - Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Helical Spring Lock Washers From China and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on helical spring lock washers from China and...

  9. Summary of winter honey bee colony losses in Slovakia between the years 2009 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Chlebo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Between the seasons 2009/2010 and 2014/2015 was evaluated 1305 questionnaires in total, received from Slovak beekeepers. Standard questionnaires of COST working group COLOSS were used with sets of questions related to overwintering of bee colonies and possible reasons of its losses. In season 2009/2010 winter losses in Slovakia reached 7.10 %, subsequently in 2010/2011 - 5.96 %, 2011/2012 - 9.70 %, 2012/2013 - 9.50 %, 2013/2014 - 8.84 %, 2014/2015 - 10.00 %. Expected causes of winter mortality (starvation, poor queen´s quality, parasitism, robbery were evaluated in the study to detect the presence of depopulation syndrome of bee colonies - CCD (colony collapse disorder reported from some North American and European areas. As acceptable level of winter losses is generally considered level 10 %, which was not exceeded in any season, thereby Slovakia ranks among countries with the lowest winter mortality of bee colonies worldwide. Possible reason of this situation is most probably multiple Varroa treatment throughout the year, but other reasons are discussed as well in the study.

  10. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire Mediterranean Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing depth induced different supply in nitrate

  11. Clearfield®-Clentiga® and Clearfield® Kombi-Pack: Two new herbicides for targeted weed control in winter- and spring oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönhammer, Alfons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Clearfield® Production System in winter oilseed rape in Germany is based on the herbicide Clearfield®-Vantiga® , a combination product consisting of the active ingredients metazachlor, quinmerac and imazamox, sold as Clearfield-Vantiga D together with the adjuvant Dash® E.C.. Clearfield-Vantiga D was introduced in autumn 2012 and has since proved superior performance on more than 10 000 ha of heavily weedy fields due to the very broad spectrum of activity, reliable foliar and soil activity and excellent crop safety in Clearfield oilseed rape hybrids. Although the authorized application period is very long (BBCH 10-18, it is mostly used relatively early, as soon as the majority of the important weeds is emerged. Metazachlor which is active mainly by cotyledon, hypocotyl and root uptake, is favoured by early applications. Clearfield-Clentiga is a suspension concentrate (SC, consisting of 250 g/l quinmerac and 12.5 g/l imazamox . The application rate is 1.0 l/ha + 1.0 l/ha of the adjuvant Dash E.C.. Approval is sought for use in winter oilseed rape in autumn (BBCH 10-18 and spring (BBCH 30-50 and in spring oilseed rape (BBCH 10-18. Results are presented for the autumn application in winter oilseed rape. A prerequisite for the application of both Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D is the use of imazamox tolerant oilseed rape (Clearfield varieties. The amounts of active ingredient per hectare of quinmerac and imazamox are identical in Clearfield-Clentiga and Clearfield-Vantiga D, as well as the amount of adjuvant Dash E.C.. Clearfield-Clentiga, as a consequence of the absence of metazachlor, compared to Clearfield-Vantiga D has a slightly more limited spectrum of activity and a less pronounced soil activity, but provides greater flexibility in the choice of the application dates and of combinations with soil and foliar herbicides. Very effective, even at high weed pressure and in difficult soil conditions, are sequential

  12. Changing response of the North Atlantic/European winter climate to the 11 year solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hedi; Chen, Haishan; Gray, Lesley; Zhou, Liming; Li, Xing; Wang, Ruili; Zhu, Siguang

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have presented conflicting results regarding the 11 year solar cycle (SC) influences on winter climate over the North Atlantic/European region. Analyses of only the most recent decades suggest a synchronized North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)-like response pattern to the SC. Analyses of long-term climate data sets dating back to the late 19th century, however, suggest a mean sea level pressure (mslp) response that lags the SC by 2-4 years in the southern node of the NAO (i.e. Azores region). To understand the conflicting nature and cause of these time dependencies in the SC surface response, the present study employs a lead/lag multi-linear regression technique with a sliding window of 44 years over the period 1751-2016. Results confirm previous analyses, in which the average response for the whole time period features a statistically significant 2-4 year lagged mslp response centered over the Azores region. Overall, the lagged nature of Azores mslp response is generally consistent in time. Stronger and statistically significant SC signals tend to appear in the periods when the SC forcing amplitudes are relatively larger. Individual month analysis indicates the consistent lagged response in December-January-February average arises primarily from early winter months (i.e. December and January), which has been associated with ocean feedback processes that involve reinforcement by anomalies from the previous winter. Additional analysis suggests that the synchronous NAO-like response in recent decades arises primarily from late winter (February), possibly reflecting a result of strong internal noise.

  13. Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site Annual Report for Calendar Year 2015 June 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Ken [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management (LM); Deyo, Yvonne [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    1.1 Purpose and Scope. This report summarizes the activities, compliance status, annual inspection, and environmental monitoring results from calendar year 2015 for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepares this annual report as part of the site’s long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) activities, in accordance with the requirements of the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS&M Plan) (DOE 2008a) and the Federal Facility Agreement for the Weldon Spring Site (DOE 2006). The Weldon Spring site is a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site. 1.2 Site Description. The Weldon Spring site is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 30 miles west of St. Louis, Missouri (Figure 1). The site comprises two geographically distinct, DOE-owned properties: the former Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and Raffinate Pit sites (Chemical Plant) and the former Weldon Spring Quarry (Quarry). The former Chemical Plant is located about 2 miles southwest of the junction of Missouri State Route 94 and Interstate 64. The Quarry is about 4 miles southwest of the former Chemical Plant. Both sites are accessible from Missouri State Route 94. During the early 1940s, the Department of the Army acquired 17,232 acres of private land in St. Charles County for the construction of the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works facility. The former Ordnance Works site has since been divided into several contiguous areas under different ownership, as depicted in Figure 2. Current land use of the former Ordnance Works site includes the former Chemical Plant and Quarry, the U.S. Army Reserve Weldon Spring Training Area, the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) Division of State Parks (MDNR-Parks), Francis Howell High School, a St. Charles County highway maintenance (formerly Missouri Department of Transportation [Mo

  14. Executive summary for the Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This report is the sixth in a series of annual reports produced by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) since 1986. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of the Weldon Spring site (WSS) on the surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters; air quality; vegetation and wildlife; and, through these multiple pathways, the potential for exposure to receptor human populations. Information is also presented on the environmental monitoring quality assurance program, waste management activities, audits and reviews, and special environmental studies. Data are included for both the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. Based on the consistent exercise of quality assurance in both standard operating procedures and quality control sample collection, the WSSRAP asserts that the data presented in the WSS Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1991 accurately reflect the environmental conditions monitored at the WSS. This report presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions on environmental monitoring at the WSS and surrounding vicinity properties for the entire 1991 monitoring year. During 1991 the WSSRAP also published quarterly data reports, wherein all routine monitoring data were tabulated and presented quarterly to allow the public to review the data in a timely fashion prior to issuance of the annual report

  15. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest reduced winter injury to red spruce in a high-injury year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Hawley; Paul G. Schaberg; Christopher Eagar; Catherine H. Borer

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have verified that acid-deposition-induced calcium (Ca) leaching reduces the foliar cold tolerance of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) current-year foliage, increasing the risk of winter injury and crown deterioration. However, to date no studies have shown that ambient losses in soil Ca have resulted in increased winter injury...

  16. Dark winter how the sun is causing a 30-year cold spell

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, John L

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has been a perplexing problem for years. In Dark Winter, author John L. Casey, a former White House national space policy advisor, NASA headquarters consultant, and space shuttle engineer tells the truth about ominous changes taking place in the climate and the Sun. Casey's research into the Sun's activity, which began almost a decade ago, resulted in discovery of a solar cycle that is now reversing from its global warming phase to that of dangerous global cooling for the next thirty years or more. This new cold climate will dramatically impact the world's citizens. In Dark Wint

  17. Survival of hatching-year female canvasbacks wintering on Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Bunck, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Low annual survival of hatching-year (HY) females is a critical management concern for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), and may contribute substantially to reduced reproductive potential and the male-biased sex ratio of the species. To evaluate the contribution of mortality on a traditional wintering area to low annual survival, we estimated survival rates of HY female canvasbacks during 3 winters (1987-89) on Chesapeake Bay. We implanted radio transmitters in 204 HY and 44 after-hatching-year (AHY; 1989 only) female canvasbacks and tracked them from mid-December to early March. Ten-week survival rates did not differ (P > 0.05) among years for HY females; estimates ranged from 0.833 to 0.930 and averaged 0.887. Of 17 mortalities recorded for HY females during the 3-year study, 14 of 15 dated deaths occurred during the duck hunting season (first 3 weeks of the study), even though the hunting season on canvasbacks was closed. As a result, survival rates were lower during hunting versus posthunting periods (P 5 0.05 for 2 of 3 yr). Illegal hunting was the single largest source of mortality for HY females. Shot ducks accounted for a loss of 4% and suspected crippling losses (ducks scavenged by shoreline predators) may have increased hunting-associated losses to as high as 7%. In 1989, no deaths were observed for AHY females, and their survival was higher (P = 0.02) than HY females. High winter survival for HY females indicates that substantial mortality occurs at some other time of the annual cycle.

  18. A case study on the cyclone activity around Europe from winter to spring of 2000 (From the view of comparison with that in East Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, Yusuke; Otani, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Kengo; Kato, Kuranoshin

    2017-04-01

    The extratropical cyclone is one of the basic systems that characterize the weather and climate in mid-latitude area, where the mean meridional temperature gradient is large. However, this activity is deeply influenced by the seasonal transition and regional differences of the mean atmospheric fields. Diversity of cyclone's characteristics such as baroclinic instability wave, polar lows and slow-moving cold vortexes is also seen within the mid-latitude area. For example, the seasonal transition of the large-scale fields is rather widely different in European region from that in East Asia where the influence Asian monsoon is very great. It is also noted that the cyclones developed in the other region might effect greatly the weather in Europe. On the other hand, detailed knowledge of the daily cyclone activity would help to understand deeply the differences of regional climatology among various areas including seasonal transition and geographical characteristics. After such interest, Takigawa and Kato(EGU 2015) made a preliminary study on the cyclone activity in Europe . We used the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis data for 2000 and pointed out that not only the daily systems but also the intraseasonal-scale systems were also dominant in winter and summer. Thus the present study will examining the case for 2000 with special attention to the features from winter to spring. In winter, submonthly-scale intraseasonal variation of the Icelandic Low was change. In the stage when Icelandic Low with such intraseasonal-scale approached northwestern Europe, several lows passed eastward around with a few days interval the southern edge of Icelandic low with relatively strong baraclinicity. It is remarked that their center pressure was rather low (below 980hPa). After April, when the seasonal mean Icelandic low had disappeared, different types of the intra-seasonal-scale cyclones and anticyclones were dominantly observed. In the lower SLP stage of the intraseasonal variation in Europe

  19. Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring

  20. Weldon spring site environmental report for calendar year 1996. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-23

    This Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996 describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring.

  1. Effect of light on the gene expression and hormonal status of winter and spring wheat plants during cold hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majlath, I.; Szalai, G.; Soós, V.; Sebestyén, E.; Balázs, E.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Dobrev, Petre; Tari, I.; Tandori, J.; Janda, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 2 (2012), s. 296-314 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB040713; GA MŠk MEB040924 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION * ABSCISIC-ACID CONTENT * CDNA MICROARRAY DATA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2012

  2. Complex phytohormone responses during the cold acclimation of two wheat cultivars differing in cold tolerance, winter Samanta and spring Sandra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosová, K.; Prášil, I.T.; Vítámvás, P.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Turečková, Veronika; Rolčík, Jakub; Pešek, Bedřich; Trávníčková, Alena; Gaudinová, Alena; Galiba, G.; Janda, T.; Vlasáková, E.; Prášilová, P.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, č. 6 (2012), s. 567-576 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058; GA MŠk MEB040713; GA MŠk MEB040924 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P637 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cold stress * Dehydrin * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.699, year: 2012

  3. Relationships between the evaporative stress index and winter wheat and spring barley yieldanomalies in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, M.; Hain, C.; Jurečka, František; Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Dulaney, W.; Otkin, J.; Johnson, D.; Gao, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, 2-3 (2016), s. 215-230 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1310123 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : evapotranspiration * drought * agriculture * remote sensing * crop yields * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  4. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Agneta Ingrid; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot Kristoffer; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-01-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged be...

  5. The future of spring bud burst: looking at the possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen Parks; Connie Harrington; Brad St. Clair;  Peter.  Gould

    2010-01-01

    The timing of spring budburst in woody plants impacts not only the subsequent seasonal growth for individual trees, but also their associated biological community. As winter and spring temperatures have warmed under the changing climate, in many species budburst has been happening earlier in the year. Understanding the long-term effects of this shift and adapting...

  6. Contributions of Two-Year Institutions to Four-Year Completions. Snapshot™ Report, Spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Student Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 academic year, 46 percent of students who completed a degree at a four-year institution were enrolled at a two-year institution at some point in the previous 10 years. This is a one percentage point increase over the comparable figure for degrees awarded in 2010-11. The prior two-year enrollment may have been brief (as little as a…

  7. Frequency of respiratory viruses among patients admitted to 26 Intensive Care Units in seven consecutive winter-spring seasons (2009-2016) in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralla, Antonio; Mariani, Bianca; Rovida, Francesca; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-07-01

    The role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still debated. The advent of molecular assays has improved the identification of viruses in patients with CAP and according to published studies, viruses account for 11-55% of adult CAP cases. In the present study, the frequency of respiratory viruses was evaluated in respiratory samples collected from 414 patients with CAP admitted to 26 ICUs in the Lombardy Region (10 million inhabitants) during seven winter-spring seasons (2009-2016). In 226 (54.6%) patients one or more respiratory viruses were identified, while 188 (45.4%) patients were negative. A single virus infection was observed in 214/226 (94.7%) patients; while, in 12/226 (5.3%) at least two respiratory viruses were detected. Influenza A was the most common virus in 140/226 patients (61.9%) followed by rhinoviruses (33/226, 14.6%), respiratory syncytial virus (13/226, 5.8%), influenza B virus (9/226, 4.0%), human coronaviruses (9/226, 4.0%), cytomegalovirus (9/226, 4.0%) and human metapneumovirus (1/226, 0.4%). Viral infections are present in a consistent proportion of patients admitted to the ICU for CAP. Influenza A and rhinovirus accounted for three-quarters of all CAP in ICU patients. The use of lower respiratory instead of upper respiratory samples might be useful in the diagnosis of viral CAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stock assessment for the western winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii using environmentally dependent surplus production models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The western winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is targeted by Chinese squidjigging fisheries in the northwest Pacific from August to November. Because this squid has a short lifespan and is an ecological opportunist, the dynamics of its stock is greatly influenced by the environmental conditions, which need to be considered in its assessment and management. In this study, an environmentally dependent surplus production (EDSP model was developed to evaluate the stock dynamics of O. bartramii. Temporal variability of favourable spawning habitat with sea surface temperature (SST of 21-25°C (Ps was assumed to influence carrying capacity (K, while temporal variability in favourable feeding habitat areas with different SST ranges in different months (Pf was assumed to influence intrinsic growth rate (r. The parameters K and r in the EDSP model were thus assumed to be linked to temporal variability in the proportion of Ps and Pf, respectively. According to Deviance Information Criterion values, the estimated EDSP model with Ps was considered to be better than the conventional surplus production model or other EDSP models. For this model, the maximum sustainable yield (MSY varied from 210000 to 262500 t and biomass at MSY level varied from 360000 to 450000 t. The fishing mortality rates of O. bartramii from 2003 to 2013 were much lower than the fishing mortality at target level and MSY level (Ftar and FMSY and stock biomass was higher than BMSY, suggesting that this squid was not in the status of overfishing and stock was not overfished. The management reference points in the EDSP model for O. bartramii were more conservative than those in the conventional model. This study suggests that the environmental conditions on the spawning grounds should be considered in squid stock assessment and management in the northwest Pacific Ocean.

  9. Spring green-up date derived from GIMMS3g and SPOT-VGT NDVI of winter wheat cropland in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjia; Wu, Chaoyang; Liu, Yansui; Wang, Xiaoyue; Fang, Bin; Yuan, Wenping; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-08-01

    Satellite temporal resolution affects the fitting accuracy of vegetation growth curves. However, there are few studies that evaluate the impact of different satellite data (including temporal resolution and time series change) on spring green-up date (GUD) extraction. In this study, four GUD algorithms and two different temporal resolution satellite data (GIMMS3g during 1982-2013 and SPOT-VGT during 1999-2013) were used to investigate winter wheat GUD in the North China Plain. Four GUD algorithms included logistic-NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), logistic-cumNDVI (cumulative NDVI), polynomial-NDVI and polynomial-cumNDVI algorithms. All algorithms and data were first regrouped into eight controlled cases. At site scale, we evaluated the performance of each case using correlation coefficient (r), bias and root mean square error (RMSE). We further compared spatial patterns and inter-annual trends of GUD inferred from different algorithms, and then analyzed the difference between GIMMS3g-based GUD and SPOT-VGT-based GUD. Our results showed that all satellite-based GUD were correlated with observations with r ranging from 0.32 to 0.57 (p < 0.01). SPOT-VGT-based GUD generally had better correlations with observed GUD than those of GIMMS3g. Spatially, SPOT-VGT-based GUD performed more reasonable spatial distributions. Inter-annual regional averaged satellite-based GUD presented overall advanced trends during 1982-2013 (0.3-2.0 days/decade) while delayed trends were observed during 1999-2013 (1.7-7.4 days/decade for GIMMS3g and 3.8-7.4 days/decade for SPOT-VGT). However, their significance levels were highly dependent on the data and algorithms used. Our findings suggest cautions on previous results of inter-annual variability of phenology from a single data/method.

  10. Synoptic climatological analyses on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability (Comparing with that in East Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Hamaki, Tatsuya; Haga, Yuichi; Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Haruko

    2016-04-01

    There are many stages with rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling". The seasonal cycle has been an important background for generation of the many kinds of arts also in Europe around the western edge of the Eurasian Continent. Especially around Germany, there are so many music or literature works in which the "May" is treated as the special season. However, more detailed examination and its comparison with that in East Asia about the seasonal evolution from winter to spring including before May would be interesting. Deeper knowledge on the seasonal cycle would contribute greatly to the cultural understanding as mentioned above, as well as for considering the detailed response of the regional climate to the global-scale impacts such as the global warming. As such, the present study examined, based mainly on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1971-2010, the synoptic climatological features on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability, by comparing with those in East Asia (detailed analyses were made mainly for 2000/01 - 2010/11 winters). Around the region from Germany to Turkey, the surface air temperature (TS) showed rather larger day-to-day variation (including the interannual or intraseasonal variation) throughout a year than in the Japan Islands area in East Asia. Especially from December to March (the minimum period of the climatological TS in the European side), the day-to-day variation was extremely great around Germany and its northern region (to the north of around 45N/10E). Thus, the extremely low temperature events sometimes appeared around Germany till the end of March, although the seasonal mean TS was not so considerably low. The day-to-day variation of sea level pressure (SLP) was also very large where such large amplitude of TS

  11. A new prediction model for grain yield in Northeast China based on spring North Atlantic Oscillation and late-winter Bering Sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengzi; Wang, Huijun; Huo, Zhiguo

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimations of grain output in the agriculturally important region of Northeast China are of great strategic significance for guaranteeing food security. New prediction models for maize and rice yields are built in this paper based on the spring North Atlantic Oscillation index and the Bering Sea ice cover index. The year-to-year increment is first forecasted and then the original yield value is obtained by adding the historical yield of the previous year. The multivariate linear prediction model of maize shows good predictive ability, with a low normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of 13.9%, and the simulated yield accounts for 81% of the total variance of the observation. To improve the performance of the multivariate linear model, a combined forecasting model of rice is built by considering the weight of the predictors. The NRMSE of the model is 12.9% and the predicted rice yield explains 71% of the total variance. The corresponding cross-validation test and independent samples test further demonstrate the efficiency of the models. It is inferred that the statistical models established here by applying year-to-year increment approach could make rational prediction for the maize and rice yield in Northeast China before harvest. The present study may shed new light on yield prediction in advance by use of antecedent large-scale climate signals adequately.

  12. Spring Changeover of the Middle Atmosphere Circulation Compared with Rocket Wind Data up to 80 Km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entzian, G.; Tarasenko, D. A.; Lauter, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The middle atmosphere circulation is governed by two seasonal basic states in winter and summer, twice a year separated by relatively shortlived reversal periods. These seasonal basic states of circulation and the spring changeover period between them are investigated.

  13. On the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe and the "seasonal feeling" relating to "Fasnacht" in comparison with those in East Asia (Toward an interdisciplinary activity on climate and cultural understanding education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko; Hamaki, Tatsuya

    2016-04-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of the EGU2016 abstract (Kato et al., submitted to CL5.06/AS4.9), there are many stages with rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling". The seasonal cycle has been an important background for generation of the arts. On the other hand, around Germany located near the western edge of the Eurasian Continent, there are so many music or literature works in which the "May" is treated as the special season (comparison of the climate and songs on "spring" (or "May") between Japan and Germany was tried in a book by Kato, H. and K. Kato, although written in Japanese). The Japanese researchers on German Literature suggested that there are basically two seasons "winter" and "summer" around Germany, with the transitional stages of spring and autumn. The concepts of the battle between winter and summer, and driving winter away, and so on, around Germany seem to show rather different seasonal feelings from that around the Japan Islands (Oshio 1982; Miyashita 1982; Takeda 1980). A traditional event there called "Fasnacht" for driving winter away is held in March or slightly earlier stage (Takeda 1980; Ueda and Ebato 1988). Kato et al. (EGU2016, submitted to CL5.06/AS4.9) will report the synoptic climatological features on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe based on the daily data, by comparing with that in East Asia. In this presentation, we will discuss on the climatological background for the "seasonal feeling" leading to such as the battle between winter and summer, driving winter away, including "Fasnacht", also by referring to some songs (children's songs, etc.). At the same time, the analysis results on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe in comparison with those in East Asia by Kato et al. (EGU2016) will be also referred to. On the other hand, although it is around the end of March when the "wintertime pressure pattern" on the daily surface weather maps in

  14. Warming and nitrogen fertilization effects on winter wheat yields in northern China varied between four years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Liting; Hu, Chunsheng; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined wi...... evapotranspiration and thus severity of the drought leading to larger yield reduction in fertilized plots. Yield increased under warming when water was not a limited factor in a year with unusual cold and wet winter.......Global warming is expected to affect wheat productivity significantly, but with large regional differences depending on current climatic conditions. We conducted a study that aimed to investigate how wheat growth and development as well as yield and yield components respond to warming combined...... per m2. This suggests that the wheat yield loss may be related to reduction of spike number, which was affected by decreased soil water content under warming. Warming tended to give larger yield reductions at higher nitrogen fertilizer rates, and this may be related to larger water consumption...

  15. A 20-year study of wintering common crane fluctuations using time series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Luis M.; Alonso López, Juan C.; Alonso López, Javier A.

    1992-01-01

    The numbers of common cranes (Grus grus) staging and wintering at Gallocanta lake, northeastern Spain, have increased throughout the period 1970-90. Consequently, we modelled the use of this area by cranes using Box-Jenkins Time Series Analysis to evaluate the influence of local food availability, duck hunting, and habitat and food conditions at other more traditional crane wintering areas in southwestern Spain on Gallocanta crane numbers. Food availability was not correlated with crane numbe...

  16. Effects of sea-ice and biogeochemical processes and storms on under-ice water fCO2 during the winter-spring transition in the high Arctic Ocean: Implications for sea-air CO2 fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Olsen, Are; Assmy, Philipp; Peterson, Algot K.; Spreen, Gunnar; Ward, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We performed measurements of carbon dioxide fugacity (fCO2) in the surface water under Arctic sea ice from January to June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition. Over this period, the ship drifted with four different ice floes and covered the deep Nansen Basin, the slopes north of Svalbard, and the Yermak Plateau. This unique winter-to-spring data set includes the first winter-time under-ice water fCO2 observations in this region. The observed under-ice fCO2 ranged between 315 µatm in winter and 153 µatm in spring, hence was undersaturated relative to the atmospheric fCO2. Although the sea ice partly prevented direct CO2 exchange between ocean and atmosphere, frequently occurring leads and breakup of the ice sheet promoted sea-air CO2 fluxes. The CO2 sink varied between 0.3 and 86 mmol C m-2 d-1, depending strongly on the open-water fractions (OW) and storm events. The maximum sea-air CO2 fluxes occurred during storm events in February and June. In winter, the main drivers of the change in under-ice water fCO2 were dissolution of CaCO3 (ikaite) and vertical mixing. In June, in addition to these processes, primary production and sea-air CO2 fluxes were important. The cumulative loss due to CaCO3 dissolution of 0.7 mol C m-2 in the upper 10 m played a major role in sustaining the undersaturation of fCO2 during the entire study. The relative effects of the total fCO2 change due to CaCO3 dissolution was 38%, primary production 26%, vertical mixing 16%, sea-air CO2 fluxes 16%, and temperature and salinity insignificant.

  17. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Skagseth

    Full Text Available Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  18. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed

  19. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  20. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  1. The State of Jordanian Women’s Organizations—Five Years Beyond the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ferguson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the failure of women’s organizations to effect the improvement of the status of Jordanian women during the Arab Spring. Through an examination of the regime’s political liberalization strategy, leadership failures within women’s organizations, and international donor influence on programmatic focus, the underlying explanation for this failure is found to be rooted in the historical depoliticization of women in Jordan. This is tested in the context of the Arab Spring through an analysis of the results of popular protests, proposed electoral law reforms, and efforts to amend the Jordanian constitution. The paper draws in part on a large collection of interviews and a focus group conducted in Jordan during the spring/summer of 2012, as well as analysis of primary documents from the government and a variety of women’s organizations in Jordan.

  2. The Arab Spring is a Latin American Winter: TeleSUR’s “Ideological Approach” and the Breakaway from the Al-Jazeera Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Di Ricco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Spring represents a breaking point in the cooperation between the pan-Latin American satellite television TeleSUR and Al-Jazeera. Even if in February TeleSUR firmly condemned the closure by Egyptian authorities of the Al-Jazeera Cairo offices, NATO military intervention in Libya and the beginning of protests in Syria provoked an important change in TeleSUR coverage of the Arab Spring. This shift coincided with a departure from the Al-Jazeera network, sanctioning the possible end of a collaboration that always had strong political connotations. TeleSUR joined the cause of the protesters in the coverage of the Egyptian and Tunisian uprisings, meanwhile it took what we can refer to as an “ideological approach” in the coverage of the uprisings after the international intervention in Libya, implicitly embracing the official media version of the Arab regimes. This stance sparked controversy especially within grassroots Latin American movements, igniting a strong debate mainly visible on the web. At an international level, the undeclared departure from the Al-Jazeera network reflects the future split between leftist Latin American governments, who embrace and fund the multi-state TV network TeleSUR, and the forces that will come out from the Arab Spring. Finally, the Arab Spring represented a missing opportunity for TeleSUR to play an important role in global media, and not only for a national or regional audience. Indeed, TeleSUR gave more importance to the political interests of the channel's founders, than in pursuing a balanced information out of ideological interests or geopolitical strategies..

  3. Evaluation of Multiple Spring Phenological Indicators of Yearly GPP and NEP at Three Canadian Forest Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenological shifts in events such as flowering and bud break are important indicators of ecosystem processes, and are therefore of particular significance for carbon (C cycle research. Using long-term flux data from three contrasting plant functional type (evergreen and deciduous boreal forest sites, we evaluated and compared the responses of annual C fluxes to multiple spring phenological indicators, including the C-uptake period onset (CUP onset, spring temperature (average value from March to May, and satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI (average value from March to May. We found that the CUP onset was negatively correlated with annual gross primary production (GPP for all three sites, but that its predictive strength for annual net ecosystem production (NEP differed substantially among plant functional types. Spring temperature demonstrated particularly good potential for predicting both annual GPP and NEP for the evergreen sites, but not for the deciduous site. Spring EVI was demonstrated to have potential for predicting annual NEP for all sites. However, both plant functional types confounded the correlation of annual NEP with annual GPP. Although none of these phenological indicators provided consistent insight into annual C fluxes, using various currently available datasets our results remain potentially useful for the assessment of forest C cycling with future climate change. Previous analyses using only a single phenological metric should be considered with caution.

  4. Typology of environmental conditions at the onset of winter phytoplankton blooms in a shallow macrotidal coastal ecosystem, Arcachon Bay (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Gle, C; Del Amo, Y; Bec, B; Sautour, B; Froidefond, J; Gohin, Francis; Maurer, Daniele; Plus, Martin; Laborde, P; Chardy, P

    2007-01-01

    Phytoplankton dynamics were assessed in the macrotidal ecosystem of Arcachon Bay through high-frequency surveys over a 5-year period in order to characterize typology of environmental conditions at the onset of the productive period. Temporal variations of hydrological and biological parameters were examined in external and internal waters of the lagoon, during the winter-spring periods from 1999 to 2003. An additional survey was performed during winter-spring 2005 in order to study the verti...

  5. Advances and Environmental Conditions of Spring Migration Phenology of American White Pelicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D Tommy; Wang, Guiming; Yang, Zhiqiang; Fischer, Justin W

    2017-01-16

    Spring migration phenology of birds has advanced under warming climate. Migration timing of short-distance migrants is believed to be responsive to environmental changes primarily under exogenous control. However, understanding the ecological causes of the advancement in avian spring migration phenology is still a challenge due to the lack of long-term precise location data. We used 11 years of Global Positioning System relocation data to determine four different migration dates of the annual migration cycle of the American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), a short-distance migrant. We also tested the hypothesis that increases in winter temperature and precipitation on the wintering grounds would advance pelican spring migration. Pelican spring departures and arrivals advanced steadily from 2002 to 2011. Spring departure timing exhibited high repeatability at the upper end of migration timing repeatability reported in literature. However, individual spring departure and arrival dates were not related to winter daily temperature, total winter precipitation, and detrended vegetation green-up dates indexed by the normalized difference vegetation index. Despite high repeatability, the observed between-year variation of spring departure dates was still sufficient for the advancement of spring departure timing.

  6. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The Year Without a Ski Season: An Analysis of the Winter of 2015 for Three Ski Resorts in Western Canada Using Historical and Simulation Model Forecasted Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwirny, M. J.; Goode, J. D.; Pedersen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The winter of 2015 will go down as "the year without a ski season" for many ski resorts located close to the west coast of Canada and the USA. During this winter season, a large area of the eastern North Pacific Ocean had extremely high sea surface temperatures. These high sea surface temperatures influenced weather patterns on the west coast of North America producing very mild temperatures inland. Further, in alpine environments precipitation that normally arrives in the form of snow instead fell as rain. This research examines the climate characteristics of the winter of 2015 in greater detail for three ski resorts in British Columbia, Canada: Mount Washington, Cypress Mountain and Hemlock Valley. For these resorts, historical (1901 to 2013) and IPCC AR5 climate model forecasted climate data (RCP8.5 for 2025, 2055, and 2085) was generated for the variable winter degree days climate database ClimateBC. A value for winter degree days climate data at nearby meteorological stations for comparative analysis. For all three resorts, the winter of 2015 proved to be warmer than any individual year in the period 1901 to 2013. Interpolations involving the multi-model ensemble forecast means suggest that the climate associated with winter of 2015 will become the average normal for these resorts in only 35 to 45 years under the RCP8.5 emission scenario.

  8. Examining Lake Michigan Spring Euphotic Depth (Zeu) Anomalies: Utilizing 10 Years of MODIS-Aqua Data at 4 Kilometer Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    Examination of ten years of euphotic depth anomalies in Lake Michigan during the months of March-June indicates the following: The well-known and frequently observed occurrence of a turbidity feature in the southern part of Lake Michigan during the spring season has become less common during the period 2003-2012. Overall, the clarity of Lake Michigan water in the southern end of the lake appears to have increased spring season over the period 2003-2012. Euphotic depth can be used as a primary indicator of changes in Lake Michigan lacustrine optics, and for other large lakes. Unique events, such as the heavy rains in June 2008, can have a distinct signature in the euphotic depth anomaly distribution in Lake Michigan.

  9. Winter excess in hospital admissions, in-patient mortality and length of acute hospital stay in stroke: a hospital database study over six seasonal years in Norfolk, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo K; Vowler, Sarah L; Woodhouse, Peter R; Redmayne, Oliver; Fulcher, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have examined the incidence and mortality of stroke in relation to season. However, the evidence is conflicting partly due to variation in the populations (community vs. hospital-based), and in climatic conditions between studies. Moreover, they may not have been able to take into account the age, sex and stroke type of the study population. We hypothesized that the age, sex and type of stroke are major determinants of the presence or absence of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. We analyzed a hospital-based stroke register from Norfolk, UK to examine our prior hypothesis. Using Curwen's method, we performed stratified sex-specific analyses by (1) seasonal year and (2) quartiles of patients' age and stroke subtype and calculated the winter excess for the number of admissions, in-patient deaths and length of acute hospital stay. There were 5,481 patients (men=45%). Their ages ranged from 17 to 105 years (median=78 years). There appeared to be winter excess in hospital admissions, deaths and length of acute hospital stay overall accounting for 3/100,000 extra admissions (winter excess index of 3.4% in men and 7.6% in women) and 1/100,000 deaths (winter excess index of 4.7 and 8.6% in women) due to stroke in winter compared to non-winter periods. Older patients with non-haemorrhagic stroke mainly contribute to this excess. If our findings are replicated throughout England and Wales, it is estimated that there are 1,700 excess admissions, 600 excess in-patient deaths and 24,500 extra acute hospital bed days each winter, related to stroke within the current population of approximately 60 million. Further research should be focused on the determinants of winter excess in morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. This may subsequently reduce the morbidity and mortality by providing effective preventive strategies in future. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Sleep characteristics, chronotype and winter depression in 10-20-year-olds in northern European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisenkov, Mikhail F; Petrova, Natalia B; Timonin, Vladimir D; Fradkova, Lyudmila I; Kolomeichuk, Sergey N; Kosova, Anna L; Kasyanova, Olga N

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the relationships between geographical coordinates and the prevalence of winter depression (SADW ), and to compare the sleep characteristics and chronotype of youths with and without SADW . We conducted a cross-sectional study of self-reported sleep characteristics, chronotype and winter depression in northern European Russia. Two questionnaires, the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), were administered to a total of 3435 adolescents aged 10-20 years (1517 males and 1918 females). The prevalence of SADW in the study population was 8.4% and sub-SADW 11.8%. Four variables predicted the likelihood of SADW in youths: sex [higher in females: odds ratio (OR): 1.87, P sleeping and waking, longer sleep latencies, more severe sleep inertia, shorter total sleep times and lower sleep efficiencies were observed in both males and females with SADW . The influence of SADW on sleep characteristics was more pronounced on school days. Significant phase delays of the sleep-wake rhythm and severe social jetlag (the difference between the mid-point of sleep phase at weekends and on workdays) were observed in females with SADW , but not in males. There are significant differences in sleep characteristics and chronotype between people with SADW and no-SAD. We demonstrate that both latitude of residence and location within the time zone are significant predictors of SADW in young inhabitants of the North. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. [Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution status and the correlation of particulate matters and meteorological factors during winter and spring in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Yun-Qi; Wang, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Bing-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fogs and hazes broke out many times in winter and spring of 2012-2013 in Beijing, inducing severe pollution of respirable particulate matters (PM10). As a fine particle component in PM10, PM2.5 would cause more severe air pollution if the proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 is high. Based on this, 30 monitoring stations recording the concentration of PM2.5 and PM1.0 all over Beijing were selected, and the contamination characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed, which further served to determine the characteristics of temporal and spatial pollution variations of PM2.5 and PM10. The distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration in winter and spring in Beijing were derived by the Original Kriging interpolation method, and it was depicted from the figure that the concentration of particulate matters gradually increased from the northern mountain area to the southern part of Beijing; in the central urban area, the particulate concentration of the western region was generally higher than that of the eastern region, with certain differences between urban and rural area within some local areas. Monthly variation curve of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration showed single peak-valley pattern: the maximum was in January and the minimum was in April; daily variation indicated a good correlation between PM2.5 and PM10, both of which were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions; diurnal variation curve showed a double peak-valley type. Meteorological factors such as daily average temperature (degrees C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (wind scale), precipitation (mm) were chosen and their individual relationships with concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated using Spearman rank correlation analyses. It was demonstrated that the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, respectively, and strongly negatively correlated with wind speed; wind speed and relative humidity were two key factors

  12. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangying; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xinkai; Guo, Wenshan; Ding, Jinfeng; Li, Chunyan

    2018-01-01

    Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  13. Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Xu

    Full Text Available Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November and the over-wintering stage (December-February. Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.

  14. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  15. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  16. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, 3-4 (2014), s. 702-721 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248; GA MZe QJ1310123; GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : agricultural drouhgt * variability * temperature * indexes * Europe * cover * crops * model Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2014

  17. Effect of the winter wheat cheyenne 5A substituted chromosome on dynamics of abscisic acid and cytokinins in freezing-sensitive Chinese spring genetic background

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalapos, S.; Novák, A.; Dobrev, Petre; Vítámvás, P.; Marincs, F.; Galiba, G.; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, NOV 29 (2017), č. článku 2033. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-06613S; GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Cold treatment * Cytokinin * Freezing tolerance * Gene expression * Phytohormones * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  18. Evolutionary Effects on Morphology and Agronomic Performance of Three Winter Wheat Composite Cross Populations Maintained for Six Years under Organic and Conventional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brumlop

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. composite cross populations (CCPs that had been maintained in repeated parallel populations under organic and conventional conditions from the F5 to the F10 were compared in a two-year replicated field trial under organic conditions. The populations were compared to each other, to a mixture of the parental varieties used to establish the CCPs, and to three winter wheat varieties currently popular in organic farming. Foot and foliar diseases, straw length, ear length, yield parameters, and baking quality parameters were assessed. The overall performance of the CCPs differed clearly from each other due to differences in their parental genetics and not because of their conventional or organic history. The CCPs with high yielding background (YCCPs also yielded higher than the CCPs with a high baking quality background (QCCPs; in the absence of extreme winter stress. The QCCPs performed equally well in comparison to the reference varieties, which were also of high baking quality. Compared to the parental mixture the CCPs proved to be highly resilient, recovering much better from winter kill in winter 2011/12. Nevertheless, they were out yielded by the references in that year. No such differences were seen in 2013, indicating that the CCPs are comparable with modern cultivars in yielding ability under organic conditions. We conclude that—especially when focusing on traits that are not directly influenced by natural selection (e.g. quality traits—the choice of parents to establish a CCP is crucial. In the case of the QCCPs the establishment of a reliable high-quality population worked very well and quality traits were successfully maintained over time. However, in the YCCPs lack of winter hardiness in the YCCP parents also became clearly visible under relevant winter conditions.

  19. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  20. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yu

    Full Text Available We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA and sea surface salinity (SSS. Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch, 2008 (average catch and 2009 (low catch indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially

  1. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  2. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  3. Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

  4. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G. A.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D. R.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Mitra, S.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 165-184 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * comet * deposition * ice core * impact * mass extinction * paleoclimate * paleoenvironment * platinum * trigger mechanism * wildfire * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  5. Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact approximate to 12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolbach, W. S.; Ballard, J. P.; Mayewski, P. A.; Parnell, A. C.; Cahill, N.; Adedeji, V.; Bunch, T. E.; Dominguez-Vazquez, G.; Erlandson, J. M.; Firestone, R. B.; French, T. A.; Howard, G.; Israde-Alcántara, I.; Johnson, J. R.; Kimbel, D.; Kinzie, Ch. R.; Kurbatov, A.; Kletetschka, Günther; LeCompte, M. A.; Mahaney, W. C.; Mellot, A. L.; Mitra, S.; Maiorana-Boutilier, A.; Moore, Ch. R.; Napier, W. M.; Parlier, J.; Tankersley, K. B.; Thomas, B. C.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 2 (2018), s. 185-205 ISSN 0022-1376 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biomass burning * climate feedback * climate variation * ice core * lacustrine deposit * marine sediment * paleoclimate * quantitative analysis * terrestrial deposit * winter * Younger Dryas Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 1.952, year: 2016

  6. Spring Bird Migration Phenology in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Yosef

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the mean date of first captures and median arrival dates of spring migration for 34 species of birds at Eilat, Israel, revealed that the earlier a species migrates through Eilat, the greater is the inter-annual variation in the total time of its passage. Birds arrive during spring migration in Eilat in four structured and independent waves. The annual fluctuation in the initial arrival dates (initial capture dates and median dates (median date of all captures, not including recaptures, did not depend on the length of the migratory route. This implies that migrants crossing the Sahara desert depart from their winter quarters on different Julian days in different years. We suggest that negative correlations between the median date of the spring migration of early and late migrants depends upon the easterly (Hamsin wind period. Moreover, we believe that the phenology of all birds during spring migration in Eilat is possibly also determined by external factors such as weather conditions on the African continent or global climatic processes in the Northern hemisphere. Orphean Warblers (Sylvia hortensis show a strong positive correlation (rs=-0.502 of initial capture date with calendar years, whereas other species such as Barred Warbler (S. nisoria; rs = -0.391 and Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata; rs = -0.398 display an insignificant trend. The Dead Sea Sparrow (Passer moabiticus and Red-Backed Shrike (Lanius collurio are positively correlated regarding initial arrival date and medians of spring migration.

  7. Injuries in women's international ice hockey: an 8-year study of the World Championship tournaments and Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Tokola, Kari; Parkkari, Jari

    2016-11-01

    We report the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in women's international ice hockey championships. All injuries in the International Ice Hockey Federation World Women's Championship, World Women's under-18 Championship and Olympic Winter Games tournaments were analysed over an 8-year period using a strict injury definition, standardised reporting and team physician diagnosis. 168 injuries were recorded in 637 games over an 8-year period resulting in an injury rate (IR) of 6.4 per 1000 player-games and 22.0/1000 player-game hours. The IRs were 2.7/1000 player-games for the lower body, 1.4 for the upper body, 1.3 for the head and face and 0.9 for the spine and trunk. Contusion was the most common injury followed by a sprain. The most commonly injured site was the knee (48.6% of lower body injuries; IR 1.3/1000 player-games). The Medial collateral ligament sprain occurred in 37.1% and ACL rupture in 11.4% of knee injuries. A concussion (74.3%; IR 1.0/1000 player-games) was the most common head injury. The risk of injury to female ice hockey players at World Championship and Olympic tournaments was about half of that observed in the men's Championships. Full facial protection decreases the risk of lacerations and should be continued in all future female tournaments. More effective prevention strategies for knee, ankle and shoulder injuries are needed in women's ice hockey. Improved concussion education is necessary to promote more consistent diagnosis and return to play protocols. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. FEMP Focus - Winter/Spring 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-04-04

    Features information about technical assistance, distibuted energy, energy efficiennt products, alternative financing, solar air conditioning, solar heating and lighting, wastewater digester, T5 fluorescent technology, and more for federal agencies.

  9. A test for the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two different hatcheries (Study site: Warm Springs Hatchery; Stocks: Warm Springs Hatchery and Carson Hatchery; Year class: 1993): Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Lisa A.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was undertaken to determine the relative strength of maternal and stock effects in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in a common environment, as a companion study to our investigation of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon. Pure-strain and reciprocal crosses were made between two hatchery stocks (Carson and Warm Springs National Fish Hatcheries). The offspring were reared together in one of the hatcheries to the smolt stage, and then were transferred to a seawater rearing facility (USGS-Marrowstone Field Station). Differences in survival, growth and disease prevalence were assessed. Fish with Carson parentage grew to greater size at the hatchery and in seawater than the pure-strain Warm Springs fish, but showed higher mortality at introduction to seawater. The analyses of maternal and stock effects were inconclusive, but the theoretical responses to different combinations of maternal and stock effects may be useful in interpreting stock comparison studies.

  10. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  11. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  12. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 1, Winter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    years in France at the Paris Institute of Political Science. He also holds mas- ter’s degrees in public administration (finance) from Harvard and in...Mari- time Strategy. Spring 2007:17–26 Barnett, Roger W. Strategic Culture and Its Relationship to Naval Strategy. Winter 2007: 24–34 Bollinger ...It Take to Make a Thousand-Ship Navy? Autumn 2007:135–37 History—Naval and Maritime Bollinger , Marty. Did a Soviet Merchant Ship Encounter the Pearl

  13. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  14. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Smallidge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  15. Diurnal and spatial (vertical dynamics of nutrients (N, P, Si in four sampling days (summer, fall, winter, and spring in a tropical shallow reservoir and their relationships with the phytoplankton community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramírez

    Full Text Available The vertical and diurnal variation of nitrogen and phosphorus forms, as well as that of soluble reactive silica (SRS, were studied in four sampling days at Garças reservoir, a shallow tropical one located in the city of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil. Except for N-NH4, all other inorganic forms of nitrogen (N-NO2, N-NO3, and total N demonstrated decreased concentrations toward the bottom of reservoir. Similarly, all showed significant diurnal differences on every sampling day, with increased values during the night due to absence of photosynthetic assimilation during that period. In the sampling days, these forms decreased on the spring sampling day due to the bloom of Microcystis registered during this period of the year. All three forms of phosphorus (SRP, particulate P, and total P showed significant vertical variation, except on the fall sampling day. On the summer sampling day there was an increase of both total P and particulate P, the latter because it constitutes more than 70% of the total P during all sampling days. Hourly phosphorus variation was significant during all sampling days, except for the summer one. The SRS vertical variation was significant during all sampling days, except for that in the spring. It was also different hourly on sampling days.

  16. Functional Stability and Community Dynamics during Spring and Autumn Seasons Over 3 Years in Camargue Microbial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Berlanga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial mats are complex biofilms in which the major element cycles are represented at a millimeter scale. In this study, community variability within microbial mats from the Camargue wetlands (Rhone Delta, southern France were analyzed over 3 years during two different seasons (spring and autumn and at different layers of the mat (0–2, 2–4, and 4–6 mm. To assess bacterial diversity in the mats, amplicons of the V1–V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. The community’s functionality was characterized using two approaches: (i inferred functionality through 16S rRNA amplicons genes according to PICRUSt, and (ii a shotgun metagenomic analysis. Based on the reads distinguished, microbial communities were dominated by Bacteria (∼94%, followed by Archaea (∼4% and Eukarya (∼1%. The major phyla of Bacteria were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which together represented 70–80% of the total population detected. The phylum Euryarchaeota represented ∼80% of the Archaea identified. These results showed that the total bacterial diversity from the Camargue microbial mats was not significantly affected by seasonal changes at the studied location; however, there were differences among layers, especially between the 0–2 mm layer and the other two layers. PICRUSt and shotgun metagenomic analyses revealed similar general biological processes in all samples analyzed, by season and depth, indicating that different layers were functionally stable, although some taxa changed during the spring and autumn seasons over the 3 years. Several gene families and pathways were tracked with the oxic-anoxic gradient of the layers. Genes directly involved in photosynthesis (KO, KEGG Orthology were significantly more abundant in the top layer (0–2 mm than in the lower layers (2–4 and 4–6 mm. In the anoxic layers, the presence of ferredoxins likely reflected the variation of redox

  17. Quantifying the ocean, freshwater and human effects on year-to-year variability of one-sea-winter Atlantic salmon angled in multiple Norwegian rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; Jensen, Arne J; L'Abée-Lund, Jan Henning; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Storvik, Geir O; Vøllestad, Leif Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Many Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, populations are decreasing throughout the species' distributional range probably due to several factors acting in concert. A number of studies have documented the influence of freshwater and ocean conditions, climate variability and human impacts resulting from impoundment and aquaculture. However, most previous research has focused on analyzing single or only a few populations, and quantified isolated effects rather than handling multiple factors in conjunction. By using a multi-river mixed-effects model we estimated the effects of oceanic and river conditions, as well as human impacts, on year-to-year and between-river variability across 60 time series of recreational catch of one-sea-winter salmon (grilse) from Norwegian rivers over 29 years (1979-2007). Warm coastal temperatures at the time of smolt entrance into the sea and increased water discharge during upstream migration of mature fish were associated with higher rod catches of grilse. When hydropower stations were present in the course of the river systems the strength of the relationship with runoff was reduced. Catches of grilse in the river increased significantly following the reduction of the harvesting of this life-stage at sea. However, an average decreasing temporal trend was still detected and appeared to be stronger in the presence of salmon farms on the migration route of smolts in coastal/fjord areas. These results suggest that both ocean and freshwater conditions in conjunction with various human impacts contribute to shape interannual fluctuations and between-river variability of wild Atlantic salmon in Norwegian rivers. Current global change altering coastal temperature and water flow patterns might have implications for future grilse catches, moreover, positioning of aquaculture facilities as well as the implementation of hydropower schemes or other encroachments should be made with care when implementing management actions and searching for solutions to

  18. SPRING 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  19. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  20. Framework Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  1. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  2. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ben-Ami; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February) and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August). By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differ...

  3. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August. By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differences in dust transport between the seasons. We show a bi-modal distribution of the average dust plumes height in both seasons (it is less clear in the winter. The higher plume top height is 5.1±0.4 km, near the African coast line in the summer and 3.7±0.4 km in the winter. The lower plume merges with the marine boundary layer, in both seasons. Our study suggests that a significant part of the dust is transported near and within the marine boundary layer and interacts with low stratiform clouds.

  4. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  5. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  6. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  7. Responses of Winter Wheat Yields to Warming-Mediated Vernalization Variations Across Temperate Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid climate warming, with much higher warming rates in winter and spring, could affect the vernalization fulfillment, a critical process for induction of crop reproductive growth and consequent grain filling in temperate winter crops. However, regional observational evidence of the effects of historical warming-mediated vernalization variations on temperate winter crop yields is lacking. Here, we statistically quantified the interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to vernalization degree days (VDD during 1975–2009 and its spatial relationship with multi-year mean VDD over temperate Europe (TE, using EUROSTAT crop yield statistics, observed and simulated crop phenology data and gridded daily climate data. Our results revealed a pervasively positive interannual sensitivity of winter wheat yields to variations in VDD (γVDD over TE, with a mean γVDD of 2.8 ± 1.5 kg ha−1 VDD−1. We revealed a significant (p < 0.05 negative exponential relationship between γVDD and multi-year mean VDD for winter wheat across TE, with higher γVDD in winter wheat planting areas with lower multi-year mean VDD. Our findings shed light on potential vulnerability of winter wheat yields to warming-mediated vernalization variations over TE, particularly considering a likely future warmer climate.

  8. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Stelzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect?To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer.B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  9. North Pacific Westerly Jet Influence of the Winter Hawaii Rainfall in the last 21,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Elison Timm, O.

    2017-12-01

    Hawaii rainfall has a strong seasonality which has more rainfall during the winter than summer. Part of the winter rainfall is from extratropical weather disturbances. Kona lows (KL) are important contributors to the annual rainfall budget of the Hawaiian Islands. KL activity is found to have a strong relationship with the North Pacific climate variability. The goal of the research is to test the hypothesis that changes in the strength and position of the upper level zonal wind jet is a key driver for regional rainfall changes. The main objectives are (1) to identify the relationship between North Pacific westerly jet strength and KL activity in present day climate, (2) to test the stability of this relationship under past climatic conditions, and (3) to explore the teleconnection between Hawaii and North America. For the present-day analysis of the westerly jet, the zonal wind at 250hPa is used from ERA-interim data from 1979-2014. The potential vorticity is used as a measure of extratropical synoptic activity. The Hawaii Rainfall Index is from the Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii (seasonal means, 1920-2012). For the paleoclimatic study, the transient TraCE-21ka simulation is used for the zonal wind - Hawaii rainfall analysis. The results of present-day analysis show that when the jet extends farther into the eastern Pacific sector the Kona Low activity is reduced, less winter rainfall is observed over Hawaii and more rainfall over the California region. The jet position-rainfall relationship was investigated within the TrACE-21 simulation. For the TraCE-21ka dataset, there is an increasing rainfall trend from 21kBP to 14kBP; this period coincides with a gradual decrease in the strength of the westerly wind jet. The results show that the westerly jet strength has a strong influence of the Kona Low activity and the rainfall over Hawaii both in the present and the past.

  10. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  11. Spring predictability explains different leaf-out strategies in the woody floras of North America, Europe and East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohner, Constantin M; Benito, Blas M; Fridley, Jason D; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Renner, Susanne S

    2017-04-01

    Intuitively, interannual spring temperature variability (STV) should influence the leaf-out strategies of temperate zone woody species, with high winter chilling requirements in species from regions where spring warming varies greatly among years. We tested this hypothesis using experiments in 215 species and leaf-out monitoring in 1585 species from East Asia (EA), Europe (EU) and North America (NA). The results reveal that species from regions with high STV indeed have higher winter chilling requirements, and, when grown under the same conditions, leaf out later than related species from regions with lower STV. Since 1900, STV has been consistently higher in NA than in EU and EA, and under experimentally short winter conditions NA species required 84% more spring warming for bud break, EU ones 49% and EA ones only 1%. These previously unknown continental-scale differences in phenological strategies underscore the need for considering regional climate histories in global change models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  12. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  13. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  14. Carbon dioxide gas exchange of cembran pine (Pinus cembra) at the alpine timberline during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, G

    1997-07-01

    Winter CO(2) gas exchange of the last three flushes of cembran pine (Pinus cembra L.) was studied under ambient conditions at the alpine timberline, an ecotone with strong seasonal changes in climate. During the coldest months of the year, December to March, gas exchange was almost completely suppressed and even the highest irradiances and temperatures did not cause a significant increase in net photosynthesis compared to spring and fall. In general, daily CO(2) balance was negative between December and March except during extended warm periods in late winter. However, because twig respiration was also reduced to a minimum during the December-March period, daily carbon losses were minimal. Total measured carbon loss during the winter months was small, equalling the photosynthetic production of one to two warm days in spring or summer when average air temperature was above 6 degrees C.

  15. Spring and Its Global Echo: Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotayev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the Arab Spring acted as a trigger for a global wave of socio-political destabilization, which signifi cantly exceeded the scale of the Arab Spring itself and affected absolutely all world-system zones. Only in 2011 the growth of the global number of largescale anti-government demonstrations, riots and political strikes was to a high degree (although not entirely due to their growth in the Arab world. In the ensuing years, the Arab countries rather made a negative contribution to a very noticeable further increase in the global number of large-scale anti-government demonstrations, riots and general strikes (the global intensity of all these three important types of socio-political destabilization continued to grow despite the decline in the Arab world. Thus, for all these three important indicators of sociopolitical destabilization, the scale of the global echo of the Arab Spring has overshadowed the scale of the Arab Spring itself. Only as regards the fourth considered indicator (major terrorist attacks / guerrilla warfare the scale of the global echo for the entire period considered did not overshadow the scale of the Arab Spring (and, incidentally, «Winter» - and in 2014-2015 Arab countries continued to make a disproportionate contribution to the historically record global values of this sad indicator – global number of major terrorist attacks/ guerilla warfare. To conclude, triggered by the Arab Spring, the global wave of socio-political destabilization led after 2010 to a very signifi cant growth of socio-political instability in absolutely all World System zones. However, this global destabilization wave manifested itself in different World System zones in different ways and not completely synchronously.

  16. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  17. Respiratory viruses involved in influenza-like illness in a Greek pediatric population during the winter period of the years 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogka, Vasiliki; Kossivakis, Athanasios; Kalliaropoulos, Antonios; Moutousi, Afroditi; Sgouras, Dionyssios; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Chrousos, George P; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki P; Mentis, Andreas F

    2011-10-01

    Viruses are the major cause of pediatric respiratory tract infection and yet many suspected cases of illness remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to determine the distribution of several respiratory viruses in children diagnosed as having influenza-like illness, over the winter period of 2005-2008. Molecular assays including conventional and real time PCR protocols, were employed to screen respiratory specimens, collected by clinicians of the Influenza sentinel system and of outpatient pediatric clinics, for identification of several respiratory viruses. Of 1,272 specimens tested, 814 (64%) were positive for at least one virus and included 387 influenza viruses, 160 rhinoviruses, 155 respiratory syncytial viruses, 95 adenoviruses, 81 bocaviruses, 47 parainfluenza viruses, 44 metapneumoviruses, and 30 coronaviruses. Simultaneous presence of two or three viruses was observed in 173 of the above positive cases, 21% of which included influenza virus and rhinovirus. The majority of positive cases occurred during January and February. Influenza virus predominated in children older than 1 year old, with type B being the dominant type for the first season and subtypes A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 the following two winter seasons, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus prevailed in children younger than 2 years old, with subtypes A and B alternating from year to year. This is the most comprehensive study of the epidemiology of respiratory viruses in Greece, indicating influenza, rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus as major contributors to influenza-like illness in children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  19. The joys of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M

    2013-01-01

    This study used Vivaldi's Four Seasons, an extraordinary example of program music, to explore the consequence of music exposure on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen participants performed a three-stimulus visual odd-ball task while ERPs were recorded. Participants were required to differentiate between a rare target stimulus (to elicit a memory updating component; P3b), a rare novel stimulus (to elicit a novelty attention component; P3a), and a frequent nontarget stimulus. During task performance participants listened to the four concertos: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter in comparison to a silent control condition. Additionally, the three movements of each concerto have a fast, slow, fast structure that enabled examination of the impact of tempo. The data revealed that "Spring," particularly the well-recognized, vibrant, emotive, and uplifting first movement, had the ability to enhance mental alertness and brain measures of attention and memory.

  20. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance

  1. Bridging the osteoarthritis treatment gap with the KineSpring Knee Implant System: early evidence in 100 patients with 1-year minimum follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London NJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicholas J London,1 Jon Smith,2 Larry E Miller,3,4 Jon E Block4 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harrogate District Foundation Trust, Harrogate, UK; 2The Mid Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Yorkshire, UK; 3Miller Scientific Consulting, Arden, NC, USA; 4The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Almost 4 million Americans are within the knee osteoarthritis (OA treatment gap, the period from unsuccessful exhaustion of conservative treatment to major surgical intervention. New treatment alternatives for symptomatic knee OA are greatly needed. The purpose of this report was to assess outcomes of a joint-unloading implant (KineSpring® Knee Implant System in patients with symptomatic medial knee OA. A total of 100 patients enrolled in three clinical trials were treated with the KineSpring System and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All devices were successfully implanted and activated, with no operative complications. Knee pain severity improved 60% (P < 0.001 at 1 year, with 76% of patients reporting a minimum 30% improvement in pain severity. All Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC subscores significantly improved at 1 year, with a 56% improvement in pain, 57% improvement in function, and a 39% improvement in stiffness (all P < 0.001. The percentage of patients experiencing a minimum 20% improvement in WOMAC subscores was 74% for pain, 83% for function, and 67% for stiffness. During follow-up, six (6% patients required additional surgery, including four total knee arthroplasties and two high tibial osteotomies. The KineSpring System effectively bridges the treatment gap between failed conservative care and surgical joint-modifying procedures. Keywords: implant, KineSpring, knee, medial, osteoarthritis, unloading

  2. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  3. Reproduction and early-age survival of manatees at Blue Spring, Upper St. Johns River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Hartley, W.C.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, B.B.; Percival, H. Franklin

    1995-01-01

    We summarize reproduction of adults and survival of calves and subadult Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) that were identified in winter at Blue Spring on the upper St. Johns River in Florida. Some records span more than 20 years, but most are from 15-year continuous annual observations during winter 1978-79 through winter 1992-93. Fifty-seven, first-year calves were identified; 55 litter sizes were one, and one consisted oftwins (1.79% of all births). Sex ratios of first-year calves did notsignificantly differfrom 1:1. Based on 21 of35 sighted females (15 individuals) that appeared pregnant and returned with calves during the subsequent winter, we estimated an early (neonatal to about 6 months) calf survival of 0.600. Based on estimations with a minimum-number-known-alive method, calf survival from the first to the second winter was at least 0.822, and subadult survival was 0.903 to the third, 0.958 to the fourth, 1.00 to the fifth, and 1.00 to the sixth winters. Seven females were observed from year of birth to their first winter with a nursing calf; the mean age at parturition to the first calf that survived to the next winter was 5.4 + 0.98 (SD) years. The estimated ages at first conception ranged from 3 to 6 years. The proportion of adult pregnant females was 0.410/year. Weaning was not observed in winter. Intervals between births averaged 2.60 + 0.81 years. The pooled proportion of adult females nursing first-winter calves was 0.303; the proportion of adult females nursing calves of any age was 0.407. These values do not significantly differ from those ofmanatees from the Crystal River or Atlantic Coast study areas. Anecdotal accounts are provided that suggested the existence of a pseudo estrus, an 11 to 13-month gestation, suppression of parturition in winter, and giving birth in quiet backwaters and canals. A female from Blue Spring produced at least seven calves during the 22 years since first observed and died giving birth at an estimated

  4. Changes of Winter Oilseed Rape Plant Survival During Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balodis Oskars

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. significance among field crops is unchangeable in Latvia in the last decade. Plant density of winter oilseed rape during growth period is influenced by plant development in autumn and plant wintering. The aim of four year (2008 – 2011 research in the LLU Research and Study farm “Vecauce” was to investigate the influence of agronomical factors (sowing date, sowing rate, fungicide (metkonazole application and meteorological factors on two type (line, hybrid winter oilseed rape varieties plant density changes from sowing till harvesting. Plant density in autumn, spring and during harvesting was influenced also by meteorological parameters such as air temperature and precipitation. On four year average, field germination was observed from 66% to 95%. Sowing date significantly (p0.05 influenced by fungicide as growth regulator application in autumn in any trial year. Influence of sowing date and sowing rate on the total plant density at harvest time was significant in all trial years (p<0.05 for both varieties. At higher sowing rate the plant loss during growing period was higher than at lower rates.

  5. A 19-year record of chemical and isotopic composition of water from springs of the Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1995-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busenberg, Eurybiades; Plummer, L. Niel; Coplen, Tyler B.; Doughten, Michael W.; Widman, Peggy K.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Wayland, Julian E.; Nelms, David L.

    2014-01-01

    During October 1995 through March 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service, Luray, Virginia Station collected and analyzed samples of selected springs, air and unsaturated-zone gases in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. The 19-year record of measurements of chemical and isotopic composition of water discharging from 34 springs located along the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, is reported. These data include field measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, concentrations of dissolved oxygen (O2), and pH. Laboratory measurements included major-, minor-, and trace-element chemistry; concentrations of dissolved gases (nitrogen, [N2] argon [Ar], oxygen, and carbon dioxide [CO2]); concentrations of dissolved trace atmospheric gases, including trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), and trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6); and hydrogen stable isotopic composition (δ2H) and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of water. The data include an up to 14-year time series record of monthly sampling at five springs collected between 1995 and 2013. The measurements included temperature, specific conductance, pH, and discharge recorded at 30-minute intervals. Atmospheric mixing ratios of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, trifluorobromomethane (CF3Br), SF6, and trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) in air from the Big Meadows Air Monitoring Station, Shenandoah National Park, were measured at approximately weekly intervals from September 1995 through March 2014.

  6. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betulanana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help...... to explain the recently observed greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming....

  7. Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerke, J.W.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Callaghan, T.V.; Phoenix, G.K.

    2017-01-01

    Winter is a period of dormancy for plants of cold environments. However, winter climate is changing, leading to an increasing frequency of stochastic warm periods (winter warming events) and concomitant reductions in snow cover. These conditions can break dormancy for some plants and expose them to

  8. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    The nitrate (N) present in soil at the end of autumn is prone to leach during winter and spring in temperate climates if not taken up by plants. In Denmark catch crops are used as a regulatory tool to reduce N leaching and therefore a shift from winter cereals to spring cereals with catch crops has...... occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW......) at depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made...

  9. Repeatability of individual migration routes, wintering sites, and timing in a long-distance migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Rien E; Bauer, Silke; Schaub, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Migratory birds are often faithful to wintering (nonbreeding) sites, and also migration timing is usually remarkably consistent, that is, highly repeatable. Spatiotemporal repeatability can be of advantage for multiple reasons, including familiarity with local resources and predators as well as avoiding the costs of finding a new place, for example, nesting grounds. However, when the environment is variable in space and time, variable site selection and timing might be more rewarding. To date, studies on spatial and temporal repeatability in short-lived long-distance migrants are scarce, most notably of first-time and subsequent migrations. Here, we investigated repeatability in autumn migration directions, wintering sites, and annual migration timing in Hoopoes ( Upupa epops ), a long-distance migrant, using repeated tracks of adult and first-time migrants. Even though autumn migration directions were mostly the same, individual wintering sites often changed from year to year with distances between wintering sites exceeding 1,000 km. The timing of migration was repeatable within an individual during autumn, but not during spring migration. We suggest that Hoopoes respond to variable environmental conditions such as north-south shifts in rainfall during winter and differing onset of the food availability during spring migration.

  10. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  11. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  12. Relationship between body size and habitat complexity preference in age-0 and -1 year winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappal, A L; Rountree, R A; MacDonald, D G

    2012-07-01

    The interaction between body size, habitat complexity and interstice width on habitat preference of age-0 and -1 year Pseudopleuronectes americanus was examined using continuous remote video observation. The habitat choices of juvenile P. americanus were recorded over a 6 h period in tanks with four treatments: bare sand, sand with low complexity cobble, sand with intermediate complexity cobble and sand with high complexity cobble. Both age-0 and -1 year fish preferred cobble to bare sand. Within cobble treatments, age-0 year fish preferred intermediate complexity cobble, with a 1.59 ratio of interstitial space to body width. The largest age-1 year fish (123-130 mm standard length, L(S) ) preferred low complexity cobble. While a significant preference was not detected, medium age-1 year fish (83-88 mm L(S) ) tended to select low complexity cobble, whereas small age-1 year fish (73-82 mm L(S) ) tended to select low and intermediate cobble, with an interstitial space to body width ratio of 1.05. For medium and large age-1 year fish, there was an increased selection of low complexity cobble, corresponding to larger interstitial space to body size ratios. This study indicates that juvenile P. americanus prefer complex habitat to unstructured habitat and that this preference is mediated by a relationship between fish body size and the size of structure interstices. These results contribute to the growing body of knowledge of complex habitat selection and drivers of habitat choice in flatfishes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  14. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  15. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barbaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  16. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  17. Relating C-band Microwave and Optical Satellite Observations as A Function of Snow Thickness on First-Year Sea Ice during the Winter to Summer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Yackel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice and its snow cover have a direct impact on both the Arctic and global climate system through their ability to moderate heat exchange across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface. Snow cover plays a key role in the OSA interface radiation and energy exchange, as it controls the growth and decay of first-year sea ice (FYI). However, meteoric accumulation and redistribution of snow on FYI is highly stochastic over space and time, which makes it poorly understood. Previous studies have estimated local-scale snow thickness distributions using in-situ technique and modelling but it is spatially limited and challenging due to logistic difficulties. Moreover, snow albedo is also critical for determining the surface energy balance of the OSA during the critical summer ablation season. Even then, due to persistent and widespread cloud cover in the Arctic at various spatio-temporal scales, it is difficult and unreliable to remotely measure albedo of snow cover on FYI in the optical spectrum. Previous studies demonstrate that only large-scale sea ice albedo was successfully estimated using optical-satellite sensors. However, space-borne microwave sensors, with their capability of all-weather and 24-hour imaging, can provide enhanced information about snow cover on FYI. Daily spaceborne C-band scatterometer data (ASCAT) and MODIS data are used to investigate the the seasonal co-evolution of the microwave backscatter coefficient and optical albedo as a function of snow thickness on smooth FYI. The research focuses on snow-covered FYI near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut (Fig.1) during the winter to advanced-melt period (April-June, 2014). The ACSAT time series (Fig.2) show distinct increase in scattering at melt onset indicating the first occurrence of melt water in the snow cover. The corresponding albedo exhibits no decrease at this stage. We show how the standard deviation of ASCAT backscatter on FYI during winter can be used as a proxy for surface roughness

  18. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  19. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  20. Validation of a homogeneous 41-year (1961-2001) winter precipitation hindcasted dataset over the Iberian Peninsula: assessment of the regional improvement of global reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotillo, M.G. [Area de Medio Fisico, Puertos del Estado, Madrid (Spain); Martin, M.L. [Universidad de Valladolid, Dpto. Matematica Aplicada, Escuela Universitaria de Informatica, Campus de Segovia, Segovia (Spain); Valero, F. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dpto. Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Luna, M.Y. [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    A 44-year (1958-2001) homogeneous, Mediterranean, high-resolution atmospheric database was generated through dynamical downscaling within the HIPOCAS (Hindcast of Dynamic Processes of the Ocean and Coastal Areas of Europe) Project framework. This work attempts to provide a validation of the monthly winter HIPOCAS precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands and to evaluate the potential improvement of these new hindcasted data versus global reanalysis datasets. The validation was performed through the comparative analysis with a precipitation database derived from 4,617 in situ stations located over Iberia and the Balearics. The statistical comparative analysis between the observed and the HIPOCAS fields highlights their very good agreement not only in terms of spatial and time distribution, but also in terms of total amount of precipitation. A principal component analysis is carried out, showing that the patterns derived from the HIPOCAS data largely capture the main characteristics of the observed field. Moreover, it is worth to note that the HIPOCAS patterns reproduce accurately the observed regional characteristics linked to the main orographic features of the study domain. The existence of high correlations between the hindcasted and observed principal component time series gives a measure of the model performance ability. An additional comparative study of the HIPOCAS winter precipitation with global reanalysis data (NCEP and ERA) is performed. This study reveals the important regional improvement in the characterization of the observed precipitation introduced by the HIPOCAS hindcast relative to the above global reanalyses. Such improvement is effective not only in terms of total amount values, but also in the spatial distribution, the observed field being much more realistically reproduced by HIPOCAS than by the global reanalysis data. (orig.)

  1. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  2. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  3. Ring-widths of the above tree-line shrub Rhododendron reveal the change of minimum winter temperature over the past 211 years in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yingfeng; Xu, Jianchu; Yang, Jinchao; Li, Zongshan; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Liang, Eryuan; Zhang, Shibao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Xuefei

    2017-06-01

    Changes in minimum winter temperature (MWT) and their potential effects on plant growth and development have been gaining increased scientific attention. To better understand these changes across long temporal scales, the present study used dendroclimatological techniques to assess variations in MWT in Southwestern China. Using data from Rhododendron species distributed in areas above the tree-line, a regional composite chronology was generated for a 341-year period. Based on the significant negative correlation between MWT values and ring-width, the most reliable parts of this chronological data were then used to reconstruct MWT values for the past 211 years. This reconstructed MWT series showed decadal to multi-decadal fluctuations. Three distinct cold periods prevailed during 1823-1858, 1882-1891 and 1922-1965, while four warm intervals occurred in 1800-1822, 1858-1881, 1892-1921 and 1966-2011. Our reconstructed MWT reveals a warming trend over the most recent eight decades, which is in agreement with instrumental observations. However, the MWT values and rate of warming over the past seven decades did not exceed those found in the reconstructed temperature data for the past 211 years. Spatial correlations reveal that the MWT in Southwest China is strongly associated with regional temperatures in the Eastern and Central Himalaya, Northern China, and the Indian Peninsula. Larger scale climate oscillations of the Western Pacific and Northern Indian Ocean as well as the North Atlantic Oscillation probably influenced the region's temperature in the past.

  4. The consequent influence of crop rotation and six-year-long spring barley monoculture on yields and weed infestation of white mustard and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in the years 2007- 2008, after 6-year-long experiments in the cultivation of spring barley in a crop rotation system and in monoculture. The other experimental factor was the spring barley protection method. Intensive protection involved comprehensive treatment of barley (in-crop harrowing, seed dressing, application of herbicides, fungicides, a retardant and an insecticide. Extensive protection consisted only in in-crop harrowing, without the application of crop protection agents, except for seed dressing. The above mentioned factors formed the background for the study on the cultivation of white mustard and oats, as phytosanitary species, in successive years. In the test plants, no mineral fertilization and crop protection were applied. Such agricultural method enabled an objective assessment of the consequent effect of monoculture, crop rotation and crop treatments. A hypothesis was made that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants in the stand after 6-year-long barley monoculture would allow obtaining the level of yields and weed infestation similar to those of the crop rotation treatments. It was also assumed that the cultivation of white mustard and oats would eliminate differences in plant productivity caused by the negative influence of extensive protection. It was proved that the cultivation of the phytosanitary plants eliminated the negative influence of monoculture on the level of their yields and weed infestation. However, the test plants did not compensate negative consequences of extensive protection. In spite of this, white mustard and oats effectively competed with weeds, and the number and weight of weeds in a crop canopy did not cause a dramatic decline in yields. In the test plant canopy, the following short-lived weeds were predominant: Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli. The absence of herbicide application resulted in the compensation of perennial species

  5. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  6. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  7. A global analysis of the comparability of winter chill models for fruit and nut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Brown, Patrick H

    2011-05-01

    Many fruit and nut trees must fulfill a chilling requirement to break their winter dormancy and resume normal growth in spring. Several models exist for quantifying winter chill, and growers and researchers often tacitly assume that the choice of model is not important and estimates of species chilling requirements are valid across growing regions. To test this assumption, Safe Winter Chill (the amount of winter chill that is exceeded in 90% of years) was calculated for 5,078 weather stations around the world, using the Dynamic Model [in Chill Portions (CP)], the Chilling Hours (CH) Model and the Utah Model [Utah Chill Units (UCU)]. Distributions of the ratios between different winter chill metrics were mapped on a global scale. These ratios should be constant if the models were strictly proportional. Ratios between winter chill metrics varied substantially, with the CH/CP ratio ranging between 0 and 34, the UCU/CP ratio between -155 and +20 and the UCU/CH ratio between -10 and +5. The models are thus not proportional, and chilling requirements determined in a given location may not be valid elsewhere. The Utah Model produced negative winter chill totals in many Subtropical regions, where it does not seem to be useful. Mean annual temperature and daily temperature range influenced all winter chill ratios, but explained only between 12 and 27% of the variation. Data on chilling requirements should always be amended with information on the location and experimental conditions of the study in which they were determined, ideally including site-specific conversion factors between winter chill models. This would greatly facilitate the transfer of such information across growing regions, and help prepare growers for the impact of climate change.

  8. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... factors were included in the experiment in a factorial design: (1) catch crop (with and without), and (2) manure (with and without). The four-course crop rotation was spring barley undersown with grass/clover - grass/clover - winter wheat or wheat rye - pulse crop. All cuttings of the grass-clover were...... not significantly affect yield. The use of catch crops interacts with other management factors, including row spacing and weed control, and this may have contributed to the negligible effects of catch crops. There was considerable variation in the amount of N (100-600 kg N ha-1 year-1) accumulated in the mulched...

  9. Winter cholecalciferol supplementation at 55°N has little effect on markers of innate immune defense in healthy children aged 4-8 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauger, Hanne; Ritz, Christian; Mortensen, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: We explored the effect of winter cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on innate immune markers in healthy Danish children (55°N). METHODS: In the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, ODIN Junior, 119 healthy, white, 4-8 year-olds were randomized to 0 (placebo), 10 or 20 µg....../day of vitamin D3for 20 weeks (October-March). Cheek mucosal swabs, blood samples, and questionnaires on acute respiratory infections the previous month were collected at baseline and endpoint. Innate immune markers were measured as secondary outcomes including in vivo oral mucosal gene expression......(OH)D]. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D was 56.7 ± 12.3 nmol/L at baseline and 31.1 ± 7.5, 61.8 ± 10.6, and 75.8 ± 11.5 nmol/L at endpoint after placebo, 10 and 20 µg/day of vitamin D3(P 

  10. Intensive Training Academy During Winter Breaks (Winternships) at a Two-Year Hispanic Serving Institution to Prepare STEM Students for Summer Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. C.; Sim, A. M.; Usher, T. D.

    2014-12-01

    College of the Desert, in partnership with California State University San Bernardino, both Hispanic serving institutions, with the support of a 3-year grant through the NASA Curriculum Improvements Partnership Award for the Integration of Research (CIPAIR) has provided training for community college students, especially those from underrepresented groups, to better prepare them for summer internships opportunities at four-year schools and national laboratories. The Winternships provided an enhanced alternative learning environment for students pursuing degrees in the STEM fields through faculty and peer mentoring in guided undergraduate research activities. All activities associated with undergraduate research were covered including literature searches, hands-on laboratory and field research, collection and analysis of data, culminating in oral and written presentations at College of the Desert and regional student conferences. In addition, students received assistance in searching for summer internships in their area of interest, completing applications, and guidance on follow-up communication with the programs to which they applied. During the funding period, 44 students participated in the Winternship activity in which all submitted a minimum of 3 applications for summer internship opportunities. Results presented will include student success at receiving summer internships, examples of projects completed during the summer and winter activities, and impact on student success. Adaption of this program to other community colleges and into a sophomore level research experience course will be described. This activity has now been funded through the NSF Centers of Research Excellence in Science and Technology (CREST) Program for an additional five years in a partnership with California State University at San Bernardino.

  11. AGRONOMIC VALUE OF SPRING FIELD PEA BREEDING LINES AND VARIETIES FOR GREEN FORAGE PRODUCTION (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Krizmanić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spring field pea is one of the most important coarse legumes. In most pea breeding programs, the selection process is focused on the development of high-yielding and top-quality varieties for grain and/or green forage production. Production of protein rich grain is mainly associated with spring varieties, while production of green mass rich in protein, minerals and vitamins is characteristic for winter varieties. Due to problems with planting in autumn (late harvest of previous crop, heavy rains during soil preparation and planting, business plan modifications, abundance of cattle etc., farmers often prefer spring pea varieties that can produce large green mass over shorter period of time, as well as ensure planting of the next crop in the same field. Objectives of this research were: agronomic value assessment of (spring and potentially winter varieties and new breeding lines of spring field pea over a two-year period (2012-2013, as well as the selection of lines with the most potential for further breeding process and/or registration of new spring field varieties for green forage production. The highest mean yields of green mass and dry matter, as well as favourable values of other assessed traits were obtained by breeding lines MBK-7, MBK-41, MBK-51, and varieties Dora and Poneka. These varieties represent valuable germplasm for further breeding process, while selected lines have high potential for the development of new varieties.

  12. Comparison of spring-time phytoplankton community composition in two cold years from the western Gulf of Alaska into the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Beth A.; Goes, Joaquim I.; McKee, Kali T.; do Rosario Gomes, Helga; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-11-01

    The Bering Sea is a highly productive ecosystem providing the main oceanographic connection between the North Pacific and Arctic oceans. The atmospheric connection with the Arctic Ocean leads to seasonal sea ice formation in the Bering Sea, the areal extent and timing of retreat of which have important implications for primary productivity and phytoplankton community composition in this region. Hydrographic data from cruises and satellite sea ice and sea surface temperature data in spring 2011 and 2012 suggest classification of these years as relatively warmer and colder years, respectively. Locations in the western Gulf of Alaska (Pavlof Bay), at the north end of an eastern pass through the Aleutian Islands (Unimak Pass), and on the continental shelf of the Bering Sea (M2) were visited in both years. Stratification was apparent on the shelf in 2012, while the water column was comparatively well-mixed at other locations in both years. Phytoplankton biomass was highest in 2011 overall and specifically on the shelf in both years, while minimal biomass was measured within the well-mixed Unimak Pass in 2012. Surface phytoplankton size distributions included substantial contributions of picoplankton (Unimak Pass) of the colonial prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis sp. at all sites in 2011, resulting in reduced community diversity, compared to more widespread abundance of large diatoms of the genera Thalassiosira, Thalassiothrix, and Chaetoceros in 2012. The current study shows that within-regime differences in phytoplankton community composition between years can be almost as great as that between locations with vastly different oceanographic settings. High between- and multi-year variability may combine with a potential overall decline in sea ice in the Bering Sea to produce significant changes in the productive base of the food web with potential cascading effects on higher, economically and ecologically important trophic levels.

  13. Winter habitat preferences for Florida manatees and vulnerability to cold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Laist

    Full Text Available To survive cold winter periods most, if not all, Florida manatees rely on warm-water refuges in the southern two-thirds of the Florida peninsula. Most refuges are either warm-water discharges from power plant and natural springs, or passive thermal basins that temporarily trap relatively warm water for a week or more. Strong fidelity to one or more refuges has created four relatively discrete Florida manatee subpopulations. Using statewide winter counts of manatees from 1999 to 2011, we provide the first attempt to quantify the proportion of animals using the three principal refuge types (power plants, springs, and passive thermal basins statewide and for each subpopulation. Statewide across all years, 48.5% of all manatees were counted at power plant outfalls, 17.5% at natural springs, and 34.9 % at passive thermal basins or sites with no known warm-water features. Atlantic Coast and Southwest Florida subpopulations comprised 82.2% of all manatees counted (45.6% and 36.6%, respectively with each subpopulation relying principally on power plants (66.6% and 47.4%, respectively. The upper St. Johns River and Northwest Florida subpopulations comprised 17.8% of all manatees counted with almost all animals relying entirely on springs (99.2% and 88.6% of those subpopulations, respectively. A record high count of 5,076 manatees in January 2010 revealed minimum sizes for the four subpopulations of: 230 manatees in the upper St. Johns River; 2,548 on the Atlantic Coast; 645 in Northwest Florida; and 1,774 in Southwest Florida. Based on a comparison of carcass recovery locations for 713 manatees killed by cold stress between 1999 and 2011 and the distribution of known refuges, it appears that springs offer manatees the best protection against cold stress. Long-term survival of Florida manatees will require improved efforts to enhance and protect manatee access to and use of warm-water springs as power plant outfalls are shut down.

  14. Global warming leads to more uniform spring phenology across elevations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitasse, Yann; Signarbieux, Constant; Fu, Yongshuo H

    2018-01-30

    One hundred years ago, Andrew D. Hopkins estimated the progressive delay in tree leaf-out with increasing latitude, longitude, and elevation, referred to as "Hopkins' bioclimatic law." What if global warming is altering this well-known law? Here, based on ∼20,000 observations of the leaf-out date of four common temperate tree species located in 128 sites at various elevations in the European Alps, we found that the elevation-induced phenological shift (EPS) has significantly declined from 34 d⋅1,000 m -1 conforming to Hopkins' bioclimatic law in 1960, to 22 d⋅1,000 m -1 in 2016, i.e., -35%. The stronger phenological advance at higher elevations, responsible for the reduction in EPS, is most likely to be connected to stronger warming during late spring as well as to warmer winter temperatures. Indeed, under similar spring temperatures, we found that the EPS was substantially reduced in years when the previous winter was warmer. Our results provide empirical evidence for a declining EPS over the last six decades. Future climate warming may further reduce the EPS with consequences for the structure and function of mountain forest ecosystems, in particular through changes in plant-animal interactions, but the actual impact of such ongoing change is today largely unknown.

  15. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel T. Smallidge; Terrell T. Baker; Dawn VanLeeuwen; William R. Gould; Bruce C. Thompson

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activ...

  16. Injuries in men's international ice hockey: a 7-year study of the International Ice Hockey Federation Adult World Championship Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Markku; Stuart, Michael J; Aubry, Mark; Kannus, Pekka; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Information on ice hockey injuries at the international level is very limited. The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence, type, mechanism and severity of ice hockey injuries in men's international ice hockey tournaments. All the injuries in men's International Ice Hockey Federation World Championship tournaments over a 7-year period were analysed using a strict definition of injury, standardised reporting strategies and an injury diagnosis made by a team physician. 528 injuries were recorded in games resulting in an injury rate of 14.2 per 1000 player-games (52.1/1000 player-game hours). Additionally, 27 injuries occurred during practice. For WC A-pool Tournaments and Olympic Winter Games (OWG) the injury rate was 16.3/1000 player-games (59.6/1000 player-game hours). Body checking, and stick and puck contact caused 60.7% of the injuries. The most common types of injuries were lacerations, sprains, contusions and fractures. A laceration was the most common facial injury and was typically caused by a stick. The knee was the most frequently injured part of the lower body and the shoulder was the most common site of an upper body injury. Arenas with flexible boards and glass reduced the risk of injury by 29% (IRR 0.71, (95% CI 0.56 to 0.91)). The incidence of injury during international ice hockey competition is relatively high. Arena characteristics, such as flexible boards and glass, appeared to reduce the risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Functional analysis of normalized difference vegetation index curves reveals overwinter mule deer survival is driven by both spring and autumn phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Mark A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Dray, Stéphane; Taylor, Kyle A; Smith, W K; Zager, Pete; Bonenfant, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Large herbivore populations respond strongly to remotely sensed measures of primary productivity. Whereas most studies in seasonal environments have focused on the effects of spring plant phenology on juvenile survival, recent studies demonstrated that autumn nutrition also plays a crucial role. We tested for both direct and indirect (through body mass) effects of spring and autumn phenology on winter survival of 2315 mule deer fawns across a wide range of environmental conditions in Idaho, USA. We first performed a functional analysis that identified spring and autumn as the key periods for structuring the among-population and among-year variation of primary production (approximated from 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) along the growing season. A path analysis showed that early winter precipitation and direct and indirect effects of spring and autumn NDVI functional components accounted for 45% of observed variation in overwinter survival. The effect size of autumn phenology on body mass was about twice that of spring phenology, while direct effects of phenology on survival were similar between spring and autumn. We demonstrate that the effects of plant phenology vary across ecosystems, and that in semi-arid systems, autumn may be more important than spring for overwinter survival.

  18. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  19. Winter cover crop seeding rate and variety effects during eight years of organic vegetables: III. Cover crop residue quality and nitrogen mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops (CC) can improve nutrient-use efficiency in tillage-intensive systems. Shoot residue quality and soil mineral N following incorporation of rye (Secale cereale L.), legume-rye, and mustard CC was determined in December to February or March during the first 8 yr of the Salinas Orga...

  20. A 10-Year Evaluation of Prescribed Winter Burns in Uneven-Aged Stands of Pinus taeda L. and P. echinata Mill.: Woody Understorey Vegetation Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Cain

    1993-01-01

    Abstract.The effects of burning cycles and pine basal area levels were assessed on natural pine regeneration and hardwood development in uneven-aged stands of loblolly andshortleafpines (Pinw taeda L. and P. echinata Mill.). The treatments included an unburned control and prescribed winter burrs at 3-, 6-, and 9-yr intervals. Basal area treatments were 9, 14, 18, and...

  1. CDOM Optical Properties and Connectivity in the Western Gulf of Alaska, the Unimak Pass and the Southeastern Bering Sea in the Spring During a Cold Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Goes, J. I.; Mouw, C. B.

    2016-02-01

    Flow through the Aleutian Passes connects the North Pacific to the Bering Sea with the Unimak Pass forming an important conduit for the flow of Gulf of Alaska water to the southeastern Bering shelf. While the biophysical properties have been studied for this region, little is known about the dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its optically active chromophoric component (CDOM) which play key roles in ocean color and several biogeochemical and photochemical processes. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and CDOM absorption and fluorescence properties were measured at locations in the western Gulf of Alaska, Unimak Pass and the southeastern Bering Sea in spring 2012, a relatively cold year as indicated by hydrographic field and satellite sea surface temperature data. DOC concentrations were on average higher in the western Gulf of Alaska (112.21 ± 20.05 µM) and Unimak Pass (106.14 ± 16.10 µM), than the southeastern Bering Sea shelf (73.28 ± 11.71 µM) suggesting Gulf of Alaska shelf water to be an important source of DOM to the eastern Bering Sea. Overall, CDOM absorption was relatively low while parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of DOM fluorescence identified two humic-like (terrestrial and marine) and one protein-like (tryptophan-like) component in the DOM pool. Relationships between the DOM optical properties and the physical regime will be further examined in this study.

  2. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2005-04-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer chinook (hereafter, chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares these survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  3. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  4. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  5. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  6. Sustainability of winter tourism in a changing climate over Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Marazi, Asif

    2014-04-01

    Mountain areas are sensitive to climate change. Implications of climate change can be seen in less snow, receding glaciers, increasing temperatures, and decreasing precipitation. Climate change is also a severe threat to snow-related winter sports such as skiing, snowboarding, and cross-country skiing. The change in climate will put further pressure on the sensitive environment of high mountains. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to know the impact of climate change on the snow precipitation, water resources, and winter tourism in the two famous tourist resorts of the Kashmir Valley. Our findings show that winters are getting prolonged with little snow falls on account of climate change. The average minimum and maximum temperatures are showing statistically significant increasing trends for winter months. The precipitation is showing decreasing trends in both the regions. A considerable area in these regions remains under the snow and glacier cover throughout the year especially during the winter and spring seasons. However, time series analysis of LandSat MODIS images using Normalized Difference Snow Index shows a decreasing trend in snow cover in both the regions from past few years. Similarly, the stream discharge, comprising predominantly of snow- and glacier-melt, is showing a statistically significant declining trend despite the melting of these glaciers. The predicted futuristic trends of temperature from Predicting Regional Climates for Impact Studies regional climate model are showing an increase which may enhance snow-melting in the near future posing a serious threat to the sustainability of winter tourism in the region. Hence, it becomes essential to monitor the changes in temperature and snow cover depletion in these basins in order to evaluate their effect on the winter tourism and water resources in the region.

  7. The 13th Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott D

    2017-04-06

    The Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry Foundation (MBCF) hosted its 13 th biannual Winter Conference on Medicinal and Bioorganic Chemistry (WCMBC) this past January 22 nd -26 th in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (USA). The gathering this year kept true to the tradition of this conference series, with an impressive lineup of presenters from both academia and industry. With about 125 delegates, the conference took all the advantages of a mid-sized gathering: a sufficiently wide spectrum of scientists in attendance, yet an intimate atmosphere conducive to solid networking and frank, open discussions. This conference report summarizes the presentations that were given this year. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  9. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  10. Effects of spring frosts in selected apple and pear orchards in the Lublin region in the years 2000, 2005 and 2007. Part I. Experiment at EF Felin. Part II. Selected production orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Lipa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the effect of spring frosts on the survival of flower buds of several apple and pear cultivars, as well as on the damage caused by spring frosts to apple fruit are presented in the present paper. Observations were conducted in experimental and commercial orchards in the Lublin area in the years 2000, 2005 and 2007. The lowest temperature in spring in the consecutive years occurred on the following dates: 2000 - 3rd and 4th May, 2005 - 1st April and 22nd May, and 2007 - 2nd and 4th May. The most serious damages of buds were found in apple trees of Red Boskoop, Rubin and Jonagold cvs. grown in the experimental orchard in Felin (Lublin (this was an average value for the years 2000 and 2007, whereas the buds of the late flowering cultivars of Golden Delicious Smoothee, Royal Gala and Ligol survived with significantly lesser damages. These observations generally confirmed those made in commercial orchards in 2005 and 2007, in which buds of cv. Elise also showed high resistance to spring frosts. Pear trees of cv. Concorde showed low damage to flower buds in 2007 and produced a reasonably good crop. Fruits of cv. Jonagold and its mutations Wilmuta, Jonica, Decosta and Rubinstar proved to be very sensitive to spring frosts, as well as fruits of cv. Lired. The positive influence of the Polish rootstock P60 on flower bud survival was observed in the year 2000. However, this was not confirmed in 2007, thus further observations are necessary to check these effects.

  11. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  12. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L. germplasm for cold tolerance in the field during winter in Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a cool-season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L. can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but experiences yield loss when freezing stress occurs at the reproductive stage. Cold-tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for stable yield and expansion of the winter pea planting area. Under natural low-temperature conditions during winter in Qingdao, Shandong, China, we evaluated the cold tolerance of 3672 pea germplasm accessions in the field and categorized them as displaying high resistance (214, moderate resistance (835, or susceptibility (2623. The highly and moderately resistant genotypes were validated in the following year. We found that genotypes from the winter production region showed higher cold tolerance than genotypes from the spring production region. The accessions identified as having high levels of cold tolerance are recommended as potential genetic resources in cold-tolerance breeding of pea.

  13. Challenging a 15-year-old claim: The North Atlantic Oscillation index as a predictor of spring migration phenology of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haest, Birgen; Hüppop, Ommo; Bairlein, Franz

    2018-04-01

    Many migrant bird species that breed in the Northern Hemisphere show advancement in spring arrival dates. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index is one of the climatic variables that have been most often investigated and shown to be correlated with these changes in spring arrival. Although the NAO is often claimed to be a good predictor or even to have a marked effect on interannual changes in spring migration phenology of Northern Hemisphere breeding birds, the results on relations between spring migration phenology and NAO show a large variety, ranging from no, over weak, to a strong association. Several factors, such as geographic location, migration phase, and the NAO index time window, have been suggested to partly explain these observed differences in association. A combination of a literature meta-analysis, and a meta-analysis and sliding time window analysis of a dataset of 23 short- and long-distance migrants from the constant-effort trapping garden at Helgoland, Germany, however, paints a completely different picture. We found a statistically significant overall effect size of the NAO on spring migration phenology (coefficient = -0.14, SE = 0.054), but this on average only explains 0%-6% of the variance in spring migration phenology across all species. As such, the value and biological meaning of the NAO as a general predictor or explanatory variable for climate change effects on migration phenology of birds, seems highly questionable. We found little to no definite support for previously suggested factors, such as geographic location, migration phenology phase, or the NAO time window, to explain the heterogeneity in correlation differences. We, however, did find compelling evidence that the lack of accounting for trends in both time series has led to strongly inflated (spurious) correlations in many studies (coefficient = -0.13, SE = 0.019). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y

  15. Suitability of Starch Syrups for Winter Feeding of Honeybee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkiw Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different starch syrups available on the Polish market for winter feeding of bees were evaluated for two consecutive beekeeping seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Sugar syrup and inverted sucrose syrup were used as the control. Winter feeding was conducted at two times: earlier and later in the season. After supplementation of winter feeding was stopped, we measured colony strength (number of combs covered by bees and brood area. After overwintering (spring 2013 and 2014, we estimated the influence of these foods on: bee mortality during overwintering (number of dead bees in winter debris, food consumption, colony strength and brood area in spring (two measurements in three-week intervals, development dynamics and honey yield from spring flow. An analysis of the results for the parameters assessed before overwintering, after its end and during spring development did not show significant differences between bee colonies fed with different types of food. No relevant difficulties concerning food crystallisation were encountered. The analysed syrups turned out to be as suitable for winter feeding of bees as sugar and inverted sucrose syrups.

  16. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    201007395

    2013-06-02

    Jun 2, 2013 ... to a special brand product or high niche product (Dooley et al., 2006). An insight ... the samples was analysed to determine the approximate level of all the elements, and this information was used to ... each element, and after rejection of possible outliers, the mean of the remaining values was calculated for.

  17. Spring migration of the Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus : results of a co-operative Wader Study Group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dick, William J.A.; Piersma, Theunis; Prokosch, Peter

    1987-01-01

    In spring 1979 the Wader Study Group organised a co-operative project to study the spring migration of Siberian Knots Calidris c. canutus from their west and south African wintering grounds to the breeding grounds in central Siberia. S. African wintering birds migrate via the western seaboards of

  18. Detection of phonological transitions of spring maize in Northeast China during the last 20 years using daily NOAA/AVHRR NDVI temporal series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Xue, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) provides a rough measure of vegetation amount and growing condition of crops when vegetation activity is low to moderate. Based on the Leaf Collar Method, two key phenological phases, i.e., third leaf collar (TLC) and the maturity, are selected for NDVI modeling. The records on crop phenology were available from 1992 to 2013 at 103 stations in the Northeast China. However, there are large amount of missing data. Therefore, a statistic model is desirable to fill the gaps then, analyze the characteristics of the TLC and the maturity stage with the full data set. The Savitzky-Golay filter was used for noise reduction and temporal NDVI smoothing. The slope analysis was used for detection of TLC and maturity date of spring maize in the spring and in the fall, respectively. When NDVI slope values reach the turning point in certain period, the corresponding date is selected as TLC or maturity. Through comparison between observation and estimation, we find that 5-day slope method is robust to detect the changes of maize phenology. This study shows that the average estimation is 2 days earlier than observation. We then use this method to generate the TLC and mature dates for all the stations. The analyses of this full data set shows that the average TLC of spring maize in Northeast China emerges on Jun.2. The average maturity of spring maize appears on Sep. 18. The shortest growing season of 104 days appears in Jilin Province, while the longest growing season appears in Heilongjiang province of 116 days. When the latitude decreases, the annual average temperature and precipitation amount increases. Accordingly, TLC becomes earlier from Heilongjiang, Jilin to Liaoning Province. There is a significantly negative correlation between TLC that is around June and temperature of April and May. One-month time lags of climate factor, therefore, should be added to detection of phonological transitions of spring maize.

  19. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  20. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  1. Effects of Wintering Environment and Parasite-Pathogen Interactions on Honey Bee Colony Loss in North Temperate Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh D Desai

    Full Text Available Extreme winter losses of honey bee colonies are a major threat to beekeeping but the combinations of factors underlying colony loss remain debatable. We monitored colonies in two environments (colonies wintered indoors or outdoors and characterized the effects of two parasitic mites, seven viruses, and Nosema on honey bee colony mortality and population loss over winter. Samples were collected from two locations within hives in fall, mid-winter and spring of 2009/2010. Although fall parasite and pathogen loads were similar in outdoor and indoor-wintered colonies, the outdoor-wintered colonies had greater relative reductions in bee population score over winter. Seasonal patterns in deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema level also differed with the wintering environment. DWV and Nosema levels decreased over winter for indoor-wintered colonies but BQCV did not. Both BQCV and Nosema concentration increased over winter in outdoor-wintered colonies. The mean abundance of Varroa decreased and concentration of Sacbrood virus (SBV, Kashmir bee virus (KBV, and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV increased over winter but seasonal patterns were not affected by wintering method. For most viruses, either entrance or brood area samples were reasonable predictors of colony virus load but there were significant season*sample location interactions for Nosema and BQCV, indicating that care must be taken when selecting samples from a single location. For Nosema spp., the fall entrance samples were better predictors of future infestation levels than were fall brood area samples. For indoor-wintered colonies, Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV concentration was negatively correlated with spring population size. For outdoor-wintered hives, spring Varroa abundance and DWV concentration were positively correlated with bee loss and negatively correlated with spring population size. Multivariate analyses for fall collected samples indicated

  2. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  3. Oil Crop Potential for Biodiesel Production: Summary of Three Years of Spring Mustard Research -- Methodologies, Results, and Recommendations; 2000-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarizes a project whose goal was to support R&D to develop an oil-seed crop that has the potential to reduce the feedstock cost of biodiesel to between 7 and 8 cents per pound of oil and expand supplies of biodiesel as demand for biodiesel grows. The key to this goal is that the non-oil fraction of the oil crop (the seed meal) must have a high value outside of the animal feed markets and produce oil that is not suitable for human consumption. To that end, a spring breeding program was developed to increase diversity of glucosinolate and the concentration of glucosinolates in the meal and to optimize the oil composition for biodiesel fuels. This report presents the research on the spring planted hybrids.

  4. Unexpected winter phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, L.; Ardyna, M.; Stec, K. F.; Claustre, H.; Prieur, L.; Poteau, A.; D'Alcala, M. Ribera; Iudicone, D.

    2017-11-01

    In mid- and high-latitude oceans, winter surface cooling and strong winds drive turbulent mixing that carries phytoplankton to depths of several hundred metres, well below the sunlit layer. This downward mixing, in combination with low solar radiation, drastically limits phytoplankton growth during the winter, especially that of the diatoms and other species that are involved in seeding the spring bloom. Here we present observational evidence for widespread winter phytoplankton blooms in a large part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from autonomous profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These blooms were triggered by intermittent restratification of the mixed layer when mixed-layer eddies led to a horizontal transport of lighter water over denser layers. Combining a bio-optical index with complementary chemotaxonomic and modelling approaches, we show that these restratification events increase phytoplankton residence time in the sunlight zone, resulting in greater light interception and the emergence of winter blooms. Restratification also caused a phytoplankton community shift from pico- and nanophytoplankton to phototrophic diatoms. We conclude that transient winter blooms can maintain active diatom populations throughout the winter months, directly seeding the spring bloom and potentially making a significant contribution to over-winter carbon export.

  5. The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiaoli; Li, Rui; Cubasch, Ulrich; Cao, Wenting

    2018-04-01

    The thermal comfort and its changes in the 31 provincial capital cities of mainland China in the past 30 years were comprehensively evaluated using the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indicators. The PET and UTCI values were highly correlated with each other and presented similar thermal comfort pattern, although their sensitivities might differ slightly. The results showed that these cities covered, respectively, 4-8 and 6-8 thermal comfort classes of the PET and UTCI scale. On the whole, the annual cumulative number of pleasant days was more than 160 days/year. In terms of seasonal variations in thermal comfort conditions, the 31 provincial capital cities in mainland China can be classified into 5 types, which are, respectively, characterized by pleasant summer and severe cold winter (type-I); pleasant spring, autumn, winter, and severe hot summer (type-II); pleasant spring and autumn, slightly pleasant summer, and cold winter (type-III); pleasant spring and autumn, hot stress summer, and slightly cold winter (type-IV); and pleasant spring, summer, autumn, and cool winter (type-V). Type-II cities are rare winter resorts, while type-I cities are natural summer resorts. Type-V cities are the year round pleasant resorts. In the past three decades, the cities in mainland China had experienced increasing pleasant duration in late winter and early spring and intensifying heat stress in summer. The reduction in annual cumulative number of cold stress days in higher latitude/altitude cities outweighed the increase in duration of heat stress in subtropical cities. These may provide some references for urban planning and administration in mainland China.

  6. Half a Century of Schladming Winter Schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Schladming Winter Schools have started as early as in 1962. Over the times the yearly Schools have closely followed the actual developments in nuclear, particle, or more generally, in theoretical physics. Several new achievements have first been dealt with in length in the lectures at the Schladming Winter School. It has seen very prominent lecturers, among them a series of Nobel laureates (some of them reporting on their works even before they got their Nobel prizes). I will try to highlight the role of the Schladming Winter Schools in pro- mulgating new developments of theoretical physics in depth at the lectures given over the past 50 years. (author)

  7. European deciduous trees exhibit similar safety margins against damage by spring freeze events along elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Armando; Hoch, Günter; Vitasse, Yann; Körner, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Minimum temperature is assumed to be an important driver of tree species range limits. We investigated during which period of the year trees are most vulnerable to freezing damage and whether the pressure of freezing events increases with increasing elevation. We assessed the course of freezing resistance of buds and leaves from winter to summer at the upper elevational limits of eight deciduous tree species in the Swiss Alps. By reconstructing the spring phenology of these species over the last eight decades using a thermal time model, we linked freezing resistance with long-term minimum temperature data along elevational gradients. Counter-intuitively, the pressure of freeze events does not increase with elevation, but deciduous temperate tree species exhibit a constant safety margin (5-8.5 K) against damage by spring freeze events along elevational gradients, as a result of the later flushing at higher elevation. Absolute minimum temperatures in winter and summer are unlikely to critically injure trees. Our study shows that freezing temperatures in spring are the main selective pressure controlling the timing of flushing, leading to a shorter growing season at higher elevation and potentially driving species distribution limits. Such mechanistic knowledge is important to improve predictions of tree species range limits. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Progress in breeding of Novi Sad spring wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad began working on spring wheat breeding in 1979 in order to develop cultivars that could be grown in conditions and years unfavorable for winter wheat cultivation. At the start of the program, a collection of spring wheat cultivars from all over the world was assembled for hybridization purposes, with cultivars from Mexico being the most numerous group. Parental pairs were first chosen based on the concept of cultivar, then trait, and, finally and most recently, the concept of gene. After the selection of parental pairs, the hybridization process began and a total 1,700 combinations have been made since. The material was bred using pedigree selection. A large number of lines were developed by positive selection and the best among them were tested in variety trials of the State Variety Commission. Based on the results of those trials, 31 spring wheat cultivars from the Novi Sad program have been released so far. Among them, the cultivars Jarka, Nevesinjka (a facultative variety, Venera, and, more recently Nataša have proven particularly successful in commercial production. Some of these varieties have also been released in foreign countries or are presently being tested for registration abroad. In order to assess the progress of spring wheat breeding at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, a trial with all the cultivars released by the Institute thus far was set up. Statistical analysis after the trial has confirmed that significant progress towards better wheat cultivars has been made since the program was founded.

  9. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  11. Occurrence and diet of killer whales in northern Norway: seasonal patterns relative to the distribution and abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring

    OpenAIRE

    Similä, Tiu; Holst, Jens Christian; Christensen, Ivar

    1996-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the seasonal occurrence of photoidentified killer whale pods in relation to the distribution of Norwegian spring-spawning herring and whether or not pod-specific differences in the occurrence or diet of killer whales could be demonstrated. In a 4-year study, the killer whales occurred in different areas during the summer and the fall–winter, and these areas coincided with the distribution areas of herring. Killer whales were encountered most freq...

  12. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  13. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  14. Chemical composition and crude protein fractions of Coastcross grass under grazing on winter, spring and summer in Southern Brazil=Composição química e fracionamento da proteína bruta da gramínea Coastcross no inverno, primavera e verão no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study work was to assess crude protein fractions in structural components (leaves, stem and dead material of Coastcross grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers under grazing, on winter, spring and summer seasons, in the Northwestern of Paraná, South of Brazil. Were determined CP, NDF, ADF contents and protein fractions, A, B1, B2, B3 and C. The analysis of CP showed great differences among months, but there was no difference among seasons. NDF and ADF in the stem were lower (p 0.05 protein fractions A, B1, B2, B3 and C of leaves. However, it was observed that the highest proportions of CP were B3 and A fractions. For the stem, the most important crude protein fraction is A, and it was observed that B1 fraction was lowest (p O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as frações da proteína bruta dos componentes estruturais (lâmina verde, colmo e material morto, da gramínea Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, nas estações do inverno, primavera e verão, no Noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Foram determinados os teores de PB, FDN, FDA e a frações proteicas A, B1, B2, B3 e C. A análise de PB mostrou grande variabilidade entre os meses, porém, não houve diferença entre as estações. Os teores de FDN e FDA no colmo foram menores (p 0,05. Porém, foi observado que as frações mais representativas foram a B3 e a A em sua ordem. No colmo, a fração da proteina bruta de maior importância é a A e foi observado que a fração B1 foi menor (p < 0,05 na primavera. Considerando as frações da proteina bruta da gramínea Coastcross, nas condições deste estudo, pode-se concluir que essa apresenta valor proteico adequado para produção de bovinos de corte em pastagem.

  15. Springs as hydrologic refugia in a changing climate? A remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2018-01-01

    Spring‐fed wetlands are ecologically important habitats in arid and semi‐arid regions. Springs have been suggested as possible hydrologic refugia from droughts and climate change; however, springs that depend on recent precipitation or snowmelt for recharge may be vulnerable to warming and drought intensification. Springs that are expected to maintain their ecohydrologic function in a warmer, drier climate may be priorities for conservation and restoration. Identifying such springs is difficult because many springs lack hydrologic records of adequate temporal extent and resolution to assess their resilience to water cycle changes. This study demonstrates proof‐of‐concept for the assessment of certain spring types (i.e., helocrene, hypocrene, and hillslope springs) in terms of hydrologic and ecological resilience to climatic water stress using freely available remote‐sensing and climate data. We used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 1985 through 2011 to delineate surface‐moisture zones (SMZs) associated with 39 clusters of 172 springs in a montane sage‐steppe landscape in southeastern Oregon, USA. We developed and synthesized seven NDVI‐based indicators of SMZ resilience to interannual changes in water availability: (1) mean and (2) standard deviation of July NDVI; (3) mean difference in July NDVI and (4) difference in coefficient of variation for July NDVI between each SMZ and its surrounding watershed; (5) response of SMZ July NDVI to 90‐day antecedent precipitation; (6) response of SMZ July NDVI to the previous winter's snowpack; and (7) range of NDVI values from an exceptionally wet year followed by three dry years. Because all resilience indicators were highly inter‐correlated, we derived an overall metric of SMZ resilience using principal components analysis that accounted for 66% of total variance. This overall resilience score was positively correlated with SMZ elevation, slope, mean annual precipitation, and with

  16. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  17. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  18. The formation and evolution of Titan’s winter polar vortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teanby, Nicholas; Bezard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; Nixon, Conor; Irwin, Patrick; de Kok, R.J.; Calcutt, Simon; Flasar, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Saturn’s largest moon Titan has a substantial nitrogen-methane atmosphere, with strong seasonal effects, including formation of winter polar vortices. Following Titan’s 2009 northern spring equinox, peak solar heating moved to the northern hemisphere, initiating south-polar subsidence and winter

  19. Simulation of over-winter soil water and soil temperature with SHAW and RZ-SHAW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correct simulation of over-winter condition is important for the growth of winter crops and for initial growth of spring crops. RZ-SHAW (RZWQM-SHAW) is a newly developed model by coupling the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) and the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model. The objective of thi...

  20. Environmental Control on Fish and Macrocrustacean Spring Community-Structure, on an Intertidal Sandy Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazza, Achwak; Selleslagh, Jonathan; Breton, Elsa; Rabhi, Khalef; Cornille, Vincent; Bacha, Mahmoud; Lecuyer, Eric; Amara, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The inter-annual variability of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community on an intertidal sandy beach near the Canche estuary (North of France) was studied from 2000 to 2013 based on weekly spring sampling over an 11-year period. Twenty-eight species representing 21 families were collected during the course of the study. The community was dominated by a few abundant species accounting for > 99% of the total species densities. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year indicating the importance of this ecosystem for juvenile fishes and macrocrustaceans. Although standard qualitative community ecology metrics (species composition, richness, diversity, evenness and similarity) indicated notable stability over the study period, community structure showed a clear change since 2009. Densities of P. platessa, P. microps and A. tobianus decreased significantly since 2009, whereas over the period 2010-2013, the contribution of S. sprattus to total species density increased 4-fold. Co-inertia and generalised linear model analyses identified winter NAO index, water temperature, salinity and suspended particular matter as the major environmental factors explaining these changes. Although the recurrent and dense spring blooms of the Prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa is one of the main potential threats in shallow waters of the eastern English Channel, no negative impact of its temporal change was detected on the fish and macrocrustacean spring community structure. PMID:25617852

  1. Environmental control on fish and macrocrustacean spring community-structure, on an intertidal sandy beach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achwak Benazza

    Full Text Available The inter-annual variability of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community on an intertidal sandy beach near the Canche estuary (North of France was studied from 2000 to 2013 based on weekly spring sampling over an 11-year period. Twenty-eight species representing 21 families were collected during the course of the study. The community was dominated by a few abundant species accounting for > 99% of the total species densities. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year indicating the importance of this ecosystem for juvenile fishes and macrocrustaceans. Although standard qualitative community ecology metrics (species composition, richness, diversity, evenness and similarity indicated notable stability over the study period, community structure showed a clear change since 2009. Densities of P. platessa, P. microps and A. tobianus decreased significantly since 2009, whereas over the period 2010-2013, the contribution of S. sprattus to total species density increased 4-fold. Co-inertia and generalised linear model analyses identified winter NAO index, water temperature, salinity and suspended particular matter as the major environmental factors explaining these changes. Although the recurrent and dense spring blooms of the Prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa is one of the main potential threats in shallow waters of the eastern English Channel, no negative impact of its temporal change was detected on the fish and macrocrustacean spring community structure.

  2. Environmental control on fish and macrocrustacean spring community-structure, on an intertidal sandy beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazza, Achwak; Selleslagh, Jonathan; Breton, Elsa; Rabhi, Khalef; Cornille, Vincent; Bacha, Mahmoud; Lecuyer, Eric; Amara, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    The inter-annual variability of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community on an intertidal sandy beach near the Canche estuary (North of France) was studied from 2000 to 2013 based on weekly spring sampling over an 11-year period. Twenty-eight species representing 21 families were collected during the course of the study. The community was dominated by a few abundant species accounting for > 99% of the total species densities. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year indicating the importance of this ecosystem for juvenile fishes and macrocrustaceans. Although standard qualitative community ecology metrics (species composition, richness, diversity, evenness and similarity) indicated notable stability over the study period, community structure showed a clear change since 2009. Densities of P. platessa, P. microps and A. tobianus decreased significantly since 2009, whereas over the period 2010-2013, the contribution of S. sprattus to total species density increased 4-fold. Co-inertia and generalised linear model analyses identified winter NAO index, water temperature, salinity and suspended particular matter as the major environmental factors explaining these changes. Although the recurrent and dense spring blooms of the Prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa is one of the main potential threats in shallow waters of the eastern English Channel, no negative impact of its temporal change was detected on the fish and macrocrustacean spring community structure.

  3. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  4. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  5. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  6. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  7. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  8. Variability in winter climate and winter extremes reduces population growth of an alpine butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We examined the long-term, 15-year pattern of population change in a network of 21 Rocky Mountain populations of Parnassius smintheus butterflies in response to climatic variation. We found that winter values of the broadscale climate variable, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, were a strong predictor of annual population growth, much more so than were endogenous biotic factors related to population density. The relationship between PDO and population growth was nonlinear. Populations declined in years with extreme winter PDO values, when there were either extremely warm or extremely cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific relative to that in the western Pacific. Results suggest that more variable winters, and more frequent extremely cold or warm winters, will result in more frequent decline of these populations, a pattern exacerbated by the trend for increasingly variable winters seen over the past century.

  9. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  10. Spring plant phenology and false springs in the conterminous US during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, Andrew J.; Vavrus, Stephen J.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2015-01-01

    The onset of spring plant growth has shifted earlier in the year over the past several decades due to rising global temperatures. Earlier spring onset may cause phenological mismatches between the availability of plant resources and dependent animals, and potentially lead to more false springs, when subsequent freezing temperatures damage new plant growth. We used the extended spring indices to project changes in spring onset, defined by leaf out and by first bloom, and predicted false springs until 2100 in the conterminous United States (US) using statistically-downscaled climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 ensemble. Averaged over our study region, the median shift in spring onset was 23 days earlier in the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario with particularly large shifts in the Western US and the Great Plains. Spatial variation in phenology was due to the influence of short-term temperature changes around the time of spring onset versus season long accumulation of warm temperatures. False spring risk increased in the Great Plains and portions of the Midwest, but remained constant or decreased elsewhere. We conclude that global climate change may have complex and spatially variable effects on spring onset and false springs, making local predictions of change difficult.

  11. The spring migration of adult North American Ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Washburn, Brian E.; Elliott, John E.; Henny, Charles J.; Kennedy, Robert S.; MacLeod, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Most North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) are migratory, breeding in northern latitudes and migrating long distances to and from their wintering grounds in the tropics. Although fall migration patterns of North American Ospreys have been described and studied, very little has been published about the spring migration of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to: (1) determine the characteristics (timing, duration, migratory routes) of spring migrations of Ospreys; (2) determine if differences in spring migration patterns existed between sexes and among three breeding populations (east coast, midwestern, and western); and (3) compare consecutive fall and spring migrations of individual Ospreys. The median dates for departure from the wintering grounds and arrival on the breeding grounds did not differ significantly between adult male and female Ospreys. Compared to their fall migrations, all male and all east coast Ospreys spent fewer days on migration, fewer days in stopover periods along the migration route, traveled shorter distances overall, and traveled farther (on average) each day during spring. In contrast, fall and spring migration characteristics of all female and western Ospreys were similar. Our findings suggest that, although sex and breeding location might influence the spring migration strategy used by individual Ospreys, both males and females minimize the time spent on migration to ensure a timely arrival on the breeding grounds to establish or defend a nesting territory.

  12. Framework Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  13. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  14. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  15. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  16. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  17. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000–06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Risser, Dennis W.; Regan, R. Steve; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Markstrom, Steven

    2015-08-17

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with ClearWater Conservancy and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection to develop a hydrologic model to simulate a water budget and identify areas of greater than average recharge for the Spring Creek Basin in central Pennsylvania. The model was developed to help policy makers, natural resource managers, and the public better understand and manage the water resources in the region. The Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model (GSFLOW), which is an integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-NWT), was used to simulate surface water and groundwater in the Spring Creek Basin for water years 2000–06. Because the groundwater and surface-water divides for the Spring Creek Basin do not coincide, the study area includes the Nittany Creek Basin and headwaters of the Spruce Creek Basin. The hydrologic model was developed by the use of a stepwise process: (1) develop and calibrate a PRMS model and steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model; (2) re-calibrate the steady-state MODFLOW-NWT model using potential recharge estimates simulated from the PRMS model, and (3) integrate the PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models into GSFLOW. The individually calibrated PRMS and MODFLOW-NWT models were used as a starting point for the calibration of the fully coupled GSFLOW model. The GSFLOW model calibration was done by comparing observations and corresponding simulated values of streamflow from 11 streamgages and groundwater levels from 16 wells. The cumulative water budget and individual water budgets for water years 2000–06 were simulated by using GSFLOW. The largest source and sink terms are represented by precipitation and evapotranspiration, respectively. For the period simulated, a net surplus in the water budget was computed where inflows exceeded outflows by about 1.7 billion cubic feet (0.47 inches per year over the basin area

  19. Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum L. and Broadleaf Weed Control in Winter Wheat with Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibiting Herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Geier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted for three seasons in northwest Kansas, USA to evaluate acetolactate synthase (ALS-inhibiting herbicides for downy brome (Bromus tectorum L. and winter annual broadleaf weed control in winter wheat. Herbicides included pyroxsulam at 18.4 g ai ha−1, propoxycarbazone-Na at 44 g ai ha−1, premixed propoxycarbazone-Na & mesosulfuron-methyl at 27 g ai ha−1, and sulfosulfuron at 35 g ai ha−1. The herbicides were applied postemergence in fall and spring seasons. Averaged over time of application, no herbicide controlled downy brome more than 78% in any year. When downy brome densities were high, control was less than 60%. Pyroxsulam controlled downy brome greater than or similar to other herbicides tested. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L., blue mustard [Chorispora tenella (Pallas DC.], and henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L. control did not differ among herbicide treatments. All herbicides tested controlled flixweed and blue mustard at least 87% and 94%, respectively. However, none of the herbicides controlled henbit more than 73%. Fall herbicide applications improved weed control compared to early spring applications; improvement ranged from 3% to 31% depending on the weed species. Henbit control was greatly decreased by delaying herbicide applications until spring compared to fall applications (49% vs. 80% control. Herbicide injury was observed in only two instances. The injury was ≤13% with no difference between herbicides and the injury did not impact final plant height or grain yield.

  20. Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.

  1. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  2. Increasing Winter Precipitation over Arid Central Asia under Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation has been considered to be a critical water source for both human livelihoods and ecosystems in Central Asia. Using observational data and gridded datasets, we studied the regional and seasonal differences of precipitation climate characteristics and variations in precipitation over Central Asia. Using observational data obtained from the China Meteorological Administration, Global Historical Climatology Network (V3.02, we divided Central Asia into four subregions (North, Center, Southwest, and Southeast based on the differences in seasonal cycles of precipitation. ‘Single peaks’ were detected as types of seasonal cycles over the North and the Southeast, while ‘two peaks’ was the type that occurred in the Southwest. For the Center, the zone of transition between the North and the Southwest, each monthly precipitation value was higher than the Southwest’s and less than the North’s. GPCC (R2 of 0.89, RMSE of 64.5 mm/year was proven to be the most suitable dataset of the four datasets (CRU, GPCC, MERRA, and TRMM to describe precipitation in Central Asia, based on validation against observational data, and used to detect the spatial and temporal trend of precipitation in Central Asia and four subregions during 1960–2013. No significant trends were observed for annual precipitation in Central Asia, while precipitation in winter displayed a significant increase (0.11 mm/year. Additionally, significantly increasing trends (0.16, 0.27, 0.13, and 0.13 mm/year were detected in spring, summer, autumn, and winter over the Southeast during 1960–2013.

  3. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  4. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  5. 77 FR 7000 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Gulf of Maine Winter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Fishery; Gulf of Maine Winter Flounder Catch Limit Revisions AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... criteria for Gulf of Maine (GOM) winter flounder and associated increases in GOM winter flounder catch... year (FY) 2011 GOM winter flounder catch levels, including Overfishing Levels (OFLs), Acceptable...

  6. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  7. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  8. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in Central and Northern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  9. 75 FR 21749 - Spring 2010 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Chs. II, III, IV, and VI Spring 2010 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... (Department), in the spring and fall of each year, publishes in the Federal Register an agenda of regulations... and views by interested members of the public. The Department's spring 2010 regulatory agenda includes...

  10. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  11. Migratory monarchs wintering in California experience low infection risk compared to monarchs breeding year-round on non-native milkweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Dara A; Villablanca, Francis X; Maerz, John C; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance migration can lower infection risk for animal populations by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys, spatially separating susceptible age classes, or allowing migrants to periodically escape from contaminated habitats. Many seasonal migrations are changing due to human activities including climate change and habitat alteration. Moreover, for some migratory populations, sedentary behaviors are becoming more common as migrants abandon or shorten their journeys in response to supplemental feeding or warming temperatures. Exploring the consequences of reduced movement for host-parasite interactions is needed to predict future responses of animal pathogens to anthropogenic change. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE) provide a model system for examining how long-distance migration affects infectious disease processes in a rapidly changing world. Annual monarch migration from eastern North America to Mexico is known to reduce protozoan infection prevalence, and more recent work suggests that monarchs that forego migration to breed year-round on non-native milkweeds in the southeastern and south central Unites States face extremely high risk of infection. Here, we examined the prevalence of OE infection from 2013 to 2016 in western North America, and compared monarchs exhibiting migratory behavior (overwintering annually along the California coast) with those that exhibit year-round breeding. Data from field collections and a joint citizen science program of Monarch Health and Monarch Alert showed that infection frequency was over nine times higher for monarchs sampled in gardens with year-round milkweed as compared to migratory monarchs sampled at overwintering sites. Results here underscore the importance of animal migrations for lowering infection risk and motivate future studies of pathogen transmission in migratory species affected by environmental change. © The

  12. Seasonal sucrose metabolism in individual first-order lateral roots of nine-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings have distinctive temporal and spatial patterns of sucrose metabolism and growth with stems and roots as the major sucrose sinks, respectively, from spring to mid-fall and from mid-fall to early winter. Both nursery-grown and outplanted seedlings up to the age of 3 years followed this pattern. However, there have been no reports on the seasonal...

  13. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  14. Declining effect of warm temperature on spring phenology of tree species at low elevation in the Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asse, Daphné; Randin, Christophe; Chuine, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Mountain regions are particularly exposed to climate change and temperature. In the Alps increased twice faster than in the northern hemisphere during the 20th century. As an immediate response, spring phenological phases of plant species such as budburst and flowering, have tended to occur earlier. In 2004, the CREA (Centre de Recherches sur les Ecosystèmes d'Altitude, Chamonix, France) initiated the citizen science program Phenoclim, which aims at assessing the long-term effects of climate changes on plant phenology over the entire French Alps. Sixty sites with phenological observations were equipped with temperature stations across a large elevational gradient. Here we used phenological records for five tree species (birch, ash, hazel, spruce and larch) combined with measurements or projections of temperature. We first tested the effects of geographic and topo-climatic factors on the timing of spring phenological phases. We then tested the hypothesis that a lack of chilling temperature during winter delayed dormancy release and subsequently spring phenological phases. Our data are currently being used to calibrate process-based phenological models to test to which extent soil temperature and photoperiod affect the timing of spring phenological phases. We found that growing degree-days was the best predictor of the timing of spring phenological phases, with a significant contribution of chilling. Our results also suggest that spring phenological phases were consistently delayed at low elevation by a lack of chilling in fall during warm years for the three deciduous species. Key words: Spring phenology, elevation gradients, citizen science, empirical and process-based modeling

  15. Repeated Summer Drought and Re-watering during the First Growing Year of Oak (Quercus petraea) Delay Autumn Senescence and Bud Burst in the Following Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Mijnsbrugge, Kristine; Turcsán, Arion; Maes, Jorne; Duchêne, Nils; Meeus, Steven; Steppe, Kathy; Steenackers, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    Climate change predicts harsher summer droughts for mid-latitudes in Europe. To enhance our understanding of the putative impacts on forest regeneration, we studied the response of oak seedlings (Quercus petraea) to water deficit. Potted seedlings originating from three locally sourced provenances were subjected to two successive drought periods during the first growing season each followed by a plentiful re-watering. Here, we describe survival and phenological responses after the second drought treatment, applying general linear mixed modeling. From the 441 drought treated seedlings 189 subsisted with higher chances of survival among smaller plants and among single plants per pot compared to doubles. Remarkably, survival was independent of the provenance, although relatively more plants had died off in two provenances compared to the third one with mean plant height being higher in one provenance and standard deviation of plant height being higher in the other. Timing of leaf senescence was clearly delayed after the severe drought treatment followed by re-watering, with two seedlings per pot showing a lesser retardation compared to single plants. This delay can be interpreted as a compensation time in which plants recover before entering the subsequent developmental process of leaf senescence, although it renders seedlings more vulnerable to early autumn frosts because of the delayed hardening of the shoots. Onset of bud flush in the subsequent spring still showed a significant but small delay in the drought treated group, independent of the number of seedlings per pot, and can be considered as an after effect of the delayed senescence. In both phenological models significant differences among the three provenances were detected independent from the treatment. The only provenance that is believed to be local of origin, displayed the earliest leaf senescence and the latest flushing, suggesting an adaptation to the local maritime climate. This provenance also

  16. Repeated summer drought and re-watering during the first growing year of oak (Quercus petraea delay autumn senescence and bud burst in the following spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change predicts harsher summer droughts for mid-latitudes in Europe. To enhance our understanding of the putative impacts on forest regeneration, we studied the response of oak seedlings (Quercus petraea to water deficit. Potted seedlings originating from three locally sourced provenances were subjected to two successive drought periods during the first growing season each followed by a plentiful re-watering. Here we describe survival and phenological responses after the second drought treatment, applying general linear mixed modelling. From the 441 drought treated seedlings 189 subsisted with higher chances of survival among smaller plants and among single plants per pot compared to doubles. Remarkably, survival was independent of the provenance, although relatively more plants had died off in two provenances compared to the third one with mean plant height being higher in one provenance and standard deviation of plant height being higher in the other. Timing of leaf senescence was clearly delayed after the severe drought treatment followed by re-watering, with two seedlings per pot showing a lesser retardation compared to single plants. This delay can be interpreted as a compensation time in which plants recover before entering the subsequent developmental process of leaf senescence, although it renders seedlings more vulnerable to early autumn frosts because of the delayed hardening of the shoots. Onset of bud flush in the subsequent spring still showed a significant but small delay in the drought treated group, independent of the number of seedlings per pot, and can be considered as an after effect of the delayed senescence. In both phenological models significant differences among the three provenances were detected independent from the treatment. The only provenance that is believed to be local of origin, displayed the earliest leaf senescence and the latest flushing, suggesting an adaptation to the local maritime climate. This

  17. Carry over effects of nutrient addition on the recovery of an invasive seaweed from the winter die-back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyà, Marc; Maggi, Elena; Mori, Giovanna; Nuccio, Caterina; Gribben, Paul E; Bulleri, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    Nutrient enrichment of coastal waters can enhance the invasibility and regrowth of non-native species. The invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea has two distinct phases: a well-studied fast-growing summer phase, and a winter latent phase. To investigate the effects of nutrient enrichment on the regrowth of the seaweed after the winter resting-phase, a manipulative experiment was carried out in intertidal rockpools in the North-western Mediterranean. Nutrients were supplied under different temporal regimes: press (constant release from January to May), winter pulse (January to March) and spring pulse (March to May). Independently from the temporal characteristics of their addition, nutrients accelerated the re-growth of C. cylindracea after the winter die-back, resulting in increased percentage covers at the peak of the growing season. Nutrient addition did not influence the number and length of fronds and the biomass. Native components of the algal community did not respond to nutrient additions. Our results show that nutrient supply can favour the spread of C. cylindracea even when occurring at a time of the year at which the seaweed is not actively growing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and

  19. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  20. Global change and the distributional dynamics of migratory bird populations wintering in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Blancher, Peter J; Rodewald, Amanda D; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Verburg, Peter H; Kelling, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the susceptibility of highly mobile taxa such as migratory birds to global change requires information on geographic patterns of occurrence across the annual cycle. Neotropical migrants that breed in North America and winter in Central America occur in high concentrations on their non-breeding grounds where they spend the majority of the year and where habitat loss has been associated with population declines. Here, we use eBird data to model weekly patterns of abundance and occurrence for 21 forest passerine species that winter in Central America. We estimate species' distributional dynamics across the annual cycle, which we use to determine how species are currently associated with public protected areas and projected changes in climate and land-use. The effects of global change on the non-breeding grounds is characterized by decreasing precipitation, especially during the summer, and the conversion of forest to cropland, grassland, or peri-urban. The effects of global change on the breeding grounds are characterized by increasing winter precipitation, higher temperatures, and the conversion of forest to peri-urban. During spring and autumn migration, species are projected to encounter higher temperatures, forests that have been converted to peri-urban, and increased precipitation during spring migration. Based on current distributional dynamics, susceptibility to global change is characterized by the loss of forested habitats on the non-breeding grounds, warming temperatures during migration and on the breeding grounds, and declining summer rainfall on the non-breeding grounds. Public protected areas with low and medium protection status are more prevalent on the non-breeding grounds, suggesting that management opportunities currently exist to mitigate near-term non-breeding habitat losses. These efforts would affect more individuals of more species during a longer period of the annual cycle, which may create additional opportunities for species to

  1. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  2. Early spring, severe frost events, and drought induce rapid carbon loss in high elevation meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Arnold

    Full Text Available By the end of the 20th century, the onset of spring in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California has been occurring on average three weeks earlier than historic records. Superimposed on this trend is an increase in the presence of highly anomalous "extreme" years, where spring arrives either significantly late or early. The timing of the onset of continuous snowpack coupled to the date at which the snowmelt season is initiated play an important role in the development and sustainability of mountain ecosystems. In this study, we assess the impact of extreme winter precipitation variation on aboveground net primary productivity and soil respiration over three years (2011 to 2013. We found that the duration of snow cover, particularly the timing of the onset of a continuous snowpack and presence of early spring frost events contributed to a dramatic change in ecosystem processes. We found an average 100% increase in soil respiration in 2012 and 2103, compared to 2011, and an average 39% decline in aboveground net primary productivity observed over the same time period. The overall growing season length increased by 57 days in 2012 and 61 days in 2013. These results demonstrate the dependency of these keystone ecosystems on a stable climate and indicate that even small changes in climate can potentially alter their resiliency.

  3. Pollination biology of the urban populations of an ancient forest, spring ephemeral plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej A. Ziemiański

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation, caused by, among all, agriculture and urbanization, is one of the most important drivers of plant biodiversity decline worldwide. One of the signs of deteriorating zoogamous plant reproduction is pollen limitation, often associated with a decline in pollinator diversity and abundance. Various authors predict that the most vulnerable taxa are outbreeding plant species characterized by specialist pollination systems. We have, therefore, focused on self-incompatible Corydalis solida, an ancient forest, spring ephemeral plant, growing in three remnant urban populations in the city of Warsaw (Poland. Over two years, we checked for pollen limitation and recorded insect diversity and abundance for C. solida flowers. Our study populations composed of self-incompatible individuals were mainly visited by generalist pollinators, and produced more seeds when supplementally pollinated. Pollen limitation, however, was greater during 1 year with an early spring onset, when we observed a decline in floral visitors diversity and activity. This was probably an effect of phenological mismatch between plants and their pollinators, in this case, mostly social bees, i.e., over-wintered bumblebee queens and Apis mellifera. We conclude that for outbreeding zoogamous spring ephemerals, such as C. solida serviced by generalist pollinators, changing climatic conditions may override the effects of habitat fragmentation and influence their reproductive success.

  4. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  5. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  6. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  7. The influence of local spring temperature variance on temperature sensitivity of spring phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Ottlé, Catherine; Peng, Shushi; Janssens, Ivan A; Lin, Xin; Poulter, Benjamin; Yue, Chao; Ciais, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The impact of climate warming on the advancement of plant spring phenology has been heavily investigated over the last decade and there exists great variability among plants in their phenological sensitivity to temperature. However, few studies have explicitly linked phenological sensitivity to local climate variance. Here, we set out to test the hypothesis that the strength of phenological sensitivity declines with increased local spring temperature variance, by synthesizing results across ground observations. We assemble ground-based long-term (20-50 years) spring phenology database (PEP725 database) and the corresponding climate dataset. We find a prevalent decline in the strength of phenological sensitivity with increasing local spring temperature variance at the species level from ground observations. It suggests that plants might be less likely to track climatic warming at locations with larger local spring temperature variance. This might be related to the possibility that the frost risk could be higher in a larger local spring temperature variance and plants adapt to avoid this risk by relying more on other cues (e.g., high chill requirements, photoperiod) for spring phenology, thus suppressing phenological responses to spring warming. This study illuminates that local spring temperature variance is an understudied source in the study of phenological sensitivity and highlight the necessity of incorporating this factor to improve the predictability of plant responses to anthropogenic climate change in future studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  9. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  10. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  11. Evaluation and Economic Value of Winter Weather Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Derrick William

    2014-01-01

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of ...

  12. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  13. Temperature impacts on the water year 2014 drought in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; Safeeq, Mohammad; AghaKouchak, Amir; Guan, Kaiyu; Funk, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    California is experiencing one of the worst droughts on record. Here we use a hydrological model and risk assessment framework to understand the influence of temperature on the water year (WY) 2014 drought in California and examine the probability that this drought would have been less severe if temperatures resembled the historical climatology. Our results indicate that temperature played an important role in exacerbating the WY 2014 drought severity. We found that if WY 2014 temperatures resembled the 1916–2012 climatology, there would have been at least an 86% chance that winter snow water equivalent and spring-summer soil moisture and runoff deficits would have been less severe than the observed conditions. We also report that the temperature forecast skill in California for the important seasons of winter and spring is negligible, beyond a lead-time of one month, which we postulate might hinder skillful drought prediction in California.

  14. EcoTILLING in Beta vulgaris reveals polymorphisms in the FLC-like gene BvFL1 that are associated with annuality and winter hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichmann, Sebastian L M; Kirchhoff, Martin; Müller, Andreas E; Scheidig, Axel J; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2013-03-25

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) is an important crop for sugar and biomass production in temperate climate regions. Currently sugar beets are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Autumn-sown sugar beets that are grown for a full year have been regarded as a cropping system to increase the productivity of sugar beet cultivation. However, for the development of these "winter beets" sufficient winter hardiness and a system for bolting control is needed. Both require a thorough understanding of the underlying genetics and its natural variation. We screened a diversity panel of 268 B. vulgaris accessions for three flowering time genes via EcoTILLING. This panel had been tested in the field for bolting behaviour and winter hardiness. EcoTILLING identified 20 silent SNPs and one non-synonymous SNP within the genes BTC1, BvFL1 and BvFT1, resulting in 55 haplotypes. Further, we detected associations of nucleotide polymorphisms in BvFL1 with bolting before winter as well as winter hardiness. These data provide the first genetic indication for the function of the FLC homolog BvFL1 in beet. Further, it demonstrates for the first time that EcoTILLING is a powerful method for exploring genetic diversity and allele mining in B. vulgaris.

  15. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  16. Length of winter coat in horses depending on husbandry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Krzysztof; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Janczarek, Iwona; Jabłecki, Zygmunt; Kolstrung, Ryszard

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the length of coat on selected body areas in horses and ponies kept under different husbandry (stable) conditions during the winter-spring period. The study included 12 Małpolski geldings and 12 geldings of Felin ponies aged 10-15 years. Horses were kept in two stables (six horses and six ponies in each stable). The type of performance, husbandry conditions and feeding of the studied animals were comparable. As of December 1, samples of hair coat from the scapula, sternum, back and abdomen areas of both body sides were collected seven times. The lengths of 20 randomly selected hair fibers were measured. Daily measurements of air temperature in the stables were also taken. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using the following factors: the body part from where the coat was sampled, the subsequent examination and the stable as well as the interaction between these factors. The significance of differences between means was determined with a t-Tukey test. The relations between air temperature in the stable and hair length were calculated using Pearson's correlation. It was found that air temperature in the stable impacts the length of winter coat in horses and ponies. The effect of this factor is more pronounced in ponies; as in the stables with lower temperatures it produces a longer hair coat which is more evenly distributed over the body in comparison with horses. Keeping horses and ponies in stables with a low air temperature accelerates coat shedding by approximately 25 days. Coat shedding begins from the scapula area. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2002 Mark/Recapture Activities and Bootstrap Analysis, 2003-2004 Biennial Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Franzoni, Henry; Basham, Larry R. (Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Fish Passage Center, Portland, OR)

    2003-11-01

    The Comparative Survival Study (CSS) was initiated in 1996 as a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to estimate survival rates over different life stages for spring and summer Chinook (hereafter, Chinook) produced in major hatcheries in the Snake River basin and from selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. Much of the information evaluated in the CSS is derived from fish tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags. A comparison of survival rates of Chinook marked in two different regions (which differ in the number of dams Chinook have to migrate through) provides insight into the effects of the Snake/Columbia hydroelectric system (hydrosystem). The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) for Snake River Chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Additional comparisons can be made within in-river experiences as well as comparison between the different collector projects from which smolts are transported. CSS also compares survival rates for wild Snake River spring and summer Chinook. These comparisons generate information regarding the relative effects of the current management actions used to recover this listed species. Scientists and managers have recently emphasized the importance of delayed hydrosystem mortality to long-term management decisions. Delayed hydrosystem mortality may be related to the smolts experience in the Federal Columbia River Power System, and could occur for both smolts that migrate in-river and smolts that are transported. The CSS PIT tag information on in-river survival rates and smolt-to-adult survival rates (SARs) of transported and in-river fish are relevant to estimation of ''D'', which partially describes delayed hydrosystem mortality. The parameter D is the differential survival rate of transported fish relative to fish that migrate in-river, as measured from below Bonneville Dam to adults returning to Lower

  18. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  19. Microbial Source Tracking in Adjacent Karst Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohad, Shoshanit; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Rom, Meir; Guttman, Joseph; Berger, Diego; Kravitz, Valeria; Pilo, Shlomo; Huberman, Zohar; Kashi, Yechezkel; Rorman, Efrat

    2015-08-01

    Modern man-made environments, including urban, agricultural, and industrial environments, have complex ecological interactions among themselves and with the natural surroundings. Microbial source tracking (MST) offers advanced tools to resolve the host source of fecal contamination beyond indicator monitoring. This study was intended to assess karst spring susceptibilities to different fecal sources using MST quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting human, bovine, and swine markers. It involved a dual-time monitoring frame: (i) monthly throughout the calendar year and (ii) daily during a rainfall event. Data integration was taken from both monthly and daily MST profile monitoring and improved identification of spring susceptibility to host fecal contamination; three springs located in close geographic proximity revealed different MST profiles. The Giach spring showed moderate fluctuations of MST marker quantities amid wet and dry samplings, while the Zuf spring had the highest rise of the GenBac3 marker during the wet event, which was mirrored in other markers as well. The revelation of human fecal contamination during the dry season not connected to incidents of raining leachates suggests a continuous and direct exposure to septic systems. Pigpens were identified in the watersheds of Zuf, Shefa, and Giach springs and on the border of the Gaaton spring watershed. Their impact was correlated with partial detection of the Pig-2-Bac marker in Gaaton spring, which was lower than detection levels in all three of the other springs. Ruminant and swine markers were detected intermittently, and their contamination potential during the wet samplings was exposed. These results emphasized the importance of sampling design to utilize the MST approach to delineate subtleties of fecal contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  1. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  2. Fish research project -- Oregon: Investigations into the early life history of naturally produced spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin. Annual progress report, 1 September 1995--31 August 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonasson, B.C.; Carmichael, R.W.; Keefe, M.

    1997-09-01

    Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only sustainable stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde River basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. In addition to a decline in population abundance, a reduction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde River basin. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies exhibited by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. During the past year the focus was on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek. The study design included three objectives: (1) document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; (2) estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; and (3) determine summer and winter habitat utilization and preference of juvenile spring chinook salmon in the upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek

  3. Micrometeorological Measurements Reveal Large Nitrous Oxide Losses during Spring Thaw in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Flesch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils in Canada have been observed to emit a large pulse of nitrous oxide (N2O gas during the spring thaw, representing a large percentage of the annual emissions. We report on three years of spring thaw N2O flux measurements taken at three Alberta agricultural sites: a crop production site (Crop, cattle winter-feeding site (WF, and a cattle winter-grazing site (WG. Soil fluxes were calculated with a micrometeorological technique based on the vertical gradient in N2O concentration above each site measured with an open-path (line-averaging FTIR gas detector. The Crop and WG sites showed a clear N2O emission pulse lasting 10 to 25 days after thawing began. During this pulse there was a strong diurnal cycle in emissions that paralleled the cycle in near-surface soil temperature. The emission pulse was less pronounced at the WF site. The average spring thaw losses (over 25 to 31 days were 5.3 (Crop, 7.0 (WF, and 8.0 (WG kg N2O-N ha−1, representing 1 to 3.5% of the annual nitrogen input to the sites. These large losses are higher than found in most previous western Canadian studies, and generally higher than the annual losses estimated from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Canadian National Inventory Report calculations. The high N2O losses may be explained by high soil nitrate levels which promoted rapid denitrification during thawing. The application of a high resolution (temporal micrometeorological technique was critical to revealing these losses.

  4. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  5. Estructura de la avifauna durante el periodo invierno-primavera en el Estero Rancho Bueno, Baja California Sur, México Structure of the avifauna during the winter-spring season in Estero Rancho Bueno, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Amador

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mensualmente, de noviembre de 1993 a junio de 1994, se contaron las aves en un ambiente de manglar en Estero Rancho Bueno de la costa occidental de Baja California Sur. Sumaron en total 5965 aves de 56 especies de 10 órdenes y 21 familias. La estacionalidad estuvo definida por 31 residentes, 22 migratorias y tres indeterminadas. La mayoría de las especies se consideran costeras y/o estuarinas; sin embargo, hay algunas terrestres. Existen indicios de que por lo menos 2 especies se reproducen en el área, 4 presentan alguna categoría en la normatividad y 5 se utilizan comercialmente. La comunidad de aves es más diversa a principios de invierno y disminuye hacia finales de primavera, coincidiendo con la menor riqueza de especies y el aumento en la dominancia del pelícano café (Pelecanus occidentalis, gaviota occidental (Larus occidentalis y gaviota pico anillado (Larus delawarensis. El análisis para las áreas con manglar y sin manglar indicó que el número total de individuos (N, el número de individuos de la especie más abundante (Nmax y la riqueza de especies (S son mayores en el hábitat de áreas abiertas, mientras que la equidad (E siempre fue mayor en el hábitat de manglar.Periodic surveys were conducted from November 1993 to June 1994 in Estero Rancho Bueno, a mangrove lagoon environment on the west coast of Baja California Sur. We found 5,65 birds (56 species. The avifauna included 31 resident, 22 migratory, and 3 species of undeterminated migratory status. Most of the species were coastal and estuarine birds; however there were some terrestial and wide-ranging birds. There is evidence that at least 2 species breed in the area; 4 species are protected by Mexican law and 5 species have commercial value. Different indices show that the bird community diversity is lower by the end of spring and the dominance of the Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis, and the Ring-billed Gull (L. delawarensis

  6. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  7. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  8. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  9. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  10. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  11. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  12. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  13. Five Year Mean Surface Chlorophyll Estimates in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean surface chlorophyll estimates to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter...

  14. Five Year Mean Euphotic Depth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean euphotic depth estimates to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter includes the...

  15. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  16. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  17. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  18. Assessment of spring cranioplasty biomechanics in sagittal craniosynostosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Schievano, Silvia; Rodriguez Florez, Naiara; McNicholas, Roisin; Rodgers, Will; Ponniah, Allan; James, Greg; Hayward, Richard; Dunaway, David; Jeelani, N U Owase

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Scaphocephaly secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis has been treated in recent years with spring-assisted cranioplasty, an innovative approach that leverages the use of metallic spring distractors to reshape the patient skull. In this study, a population of patients who had undergone spring cranioplasty for the correction of scaphocephaly at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children was retrospectively analyzed to systematically assess spring biomechanical performance and kinematics in relation to spring model, patient age, and outcomes over time. METHODS Data from 60 patients (49 males, mean age at surgery 5.2 ± 0.9 months) who had received 2 springs for the treatment of isolated sagittal craniosynostosis were analyzed. The opening distance of the springs at the time of insertion and removal was retrieved from the surgical notes and, during the implantation period, from planar radiographs obtained at 1 day postoperatively and at the 3-week follow-up. The force exerted by the spring to the patient skull at each time point was derived after mechanical testing of each spring model-3 devices with the same geometry but different wire thicknesses. Changes in the cephalic index between preoperatively and the 3-week follow-up were recorded. RESULTS Stiffer springs were implanted in older patients (p springs were used (p spring models, however, the devices all plateaued. Indeed, regardless of patient age or spring model, after 10 days from insertion, all the devices were open. CONCLUSIONS Results in this study provide biomechanical insights into spring-assisted cranioplasty and could help to improve spring design and follow-up strategy in the future.

  19. Planar torsion spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  20. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  1. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  2. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  3. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  4. Tillering of Marandu palisadegrass maintained at fixed or variable heights throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis D. Pessoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Satisfactory tillering is the basic attribute to ensure stability and productivity of a grass population. We aimed to develop an understanding of tillering in Urochloa brizantha syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu (Marandu palisadegrass maintained at constant or variable heights during the various seasons of the year and to identify defoliation strategies that optimize tillering. In an experiment conducted in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 3 defoliation strategies were studied: sward kept at 30 cm during the whole year (constant height; kept at 15 cm in fall/winter, 30 cm in spring and 45 cm in summer (increasing height; and kept at 45 cm in fall/winter, 30 cm in spring and 15 cm in the summer (decreasing height. The experiment was completely randomized, with 4 replicates. The following variables were evaluated: tiller appearance (TAR, mortality (TMR and survival (TSR rates; the balance (BAL between TAR and TMR; tiller population stability (TPS; and number of tillers/m2 (NT. In winter and late spring, TAR and BAL were low, while in early spring, the sward with decreasing height showed high TAR, BAL and TPS. The NT was higher when managed with increasing height than with other height strategies. Lowering pasture height from 45 to 30 cm after the winter increased TAR in early spring. Grazing studies seem warranted to assess how these results can be reproduced under grazing and how pasture yield and quality plus animal performance compare with those under the fixed grazing height regimen. Keywords: Defoliation, grazing management, pasture height, tillers, Urochloa brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4101-111 Normal 0 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  6. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  7. Spring migration of waterfowl in the Northern Hemisphere: a management and conservation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Fox, Anthony D.; Elmberg, Johan; Straub, Jacob N.; Eichholz, Michael W.; Arzel, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Spring migration is a key part of the annual cycle for waterfowl populations in the northern hemisphere, due to its temporal proximity to the breeding season and because resources may be limited at one or more staging sites. Research based on field observations during spring lags behind other periods of the year, despite the potential for fitness consequences through diminished survival or cross-seasonal effects of conditions experienced during migration. Consequently, conservation strategies for waterfowl on spring migration are often only refined versions of practices used during autumn and winter. Here we discuss the current state of knowledge of habitat requirements for waterfowl at their spring migratory sites and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that lead to variability in those requirements. The provision of plant foods has become the main conservation strategy during spring because of the birds’ energy requirements at this time, not only to fuel migration but to facilitate early clutch formation on arrival at the breeding grounds. Although energy sources are important to migrants, there is little evidence on the extent to which the availability of carbohydrate-based food is limiting for many migratory waterfowl populations.  Such limitation is relatively unlikely among populations that exploit agricultural grain during migration (e.g. arctic-nesting geese), suggesting that conservation strategies for these populations may be misplaced. In general, however, we found few cases in which an ecological understanding of spring-migrating waterfowl was sufficient to indicate true resource limitation during migration, and still fewer cases where conservation efforts ameliorated these limitations. We propose a framework that aims to address knowledge gaps and apply empirical research results to conservation strategies based on documented limitations and associated fitness impacts on migrating waterfowl. Such a strategy would improve

  8. Ozone zonal asymmetry and planetary wave characterization during Antarctic spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ialongo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A large zonal asymmetry of ozone has been observed over Antarctica during winter-spring, when the ozone hole develops. It is caused by a planetary wave-driven displacement of the polar vortex. The total ozone data by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the ozone profiles by MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder and GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars were analysed to characterize the ozone zonal asymmetry and the wave activity during Antarctic spring. Both total ozone and profile data have shown a persistent zonal asymmetry over the last years, which is usually observed from September to mid-December. The largest amplitudes of planetary waves at 65° S (the perturbations can achieve up to 50% of zonal mean values is observed in October. The wave activity is dominated by the quasi-stationary wave 1 component, while the wave 2 is mainly an eastward travelling wave. Wave numbers 1 and 2 generally explain more than the 90% of the ozone longitudinal variations. Both GOMOS and MLS ozone profile data show that ozone zonal asymmetry covers the whole stratosphere and extends up to the altitudes of 60–65 km. The wave amplitudes in ozone mixing ratio decay with altitude, with maxima (up to 50% below 30 km.

    The characterization of the ozone zonal asymmetry has become important in the climate research. The inclusion of the polar zonal asymmetry in the climate models is essential for an accurate estimation of the future temperature trends. This information might also be important for retrieval algorithms that rely on ozone a priori information.

  9. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  10. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  11. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  12. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  13. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  14. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  15. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  16. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  17. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  18. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  19. The interacting effects of food, spring temperature, and global climate cycles on population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Andrea K; Cooch, Evan G; Sillett, T Scott; Rodenhouse, Nicholas L; Holmes, Richard T; Webster, Michael S

    2016-02-01

    Although long-distance migratory songbirds are widely believed to be at risk from warming temperature trends, species capable of attempting more than one brood in a breeding season could benefit from extended breeding seasons in warmer springs. To evaluate local and global factors affecting population dynamics of the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens), a double-brooded long-distance migrant, we used Pradel models to analyze 25 years of mark-recapture data collected in New Hampshire, USA. We assessed the effects of spring temperature (local weather) and the El Niño Southern Oscillation index (a global climate cycle), as well as predator abundance, insect biomass, and local conspecific density on population growth in the subsequent year. Local and global climatic conditions affected warbler populations in different ways. We found that warbler population growth was lower following El Niño years (which have been linked to poor survival in the wintering grounds and low fledging weights in the breeding grounds) than La Niña years. At a local scale, populations increased following years with warm springs and abundant late-season food, but were unaffected by spring temperature following years when food was scarce. These results indicate that the warming temperature trends might have a positive effect on recruitment and population growth of black-throated blue warblers if food abundance is sustained in breeding areas. In contrast, potential intensification of future El Niño events could negatively impact vital rates and populations of this species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  1. Increased hospitalizations for decompensated heart failure and acute myocardial infarction during mild winters: A seven-year experience in the public health system of the largest city in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Renato Kawahisa; Katz, Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Caixeta, Adriano; Franken, Marcelo; Pereira, Carolina; Coslovsky, Salo V; Pesaro, Antonio E

    2018-01-01

    In high-income temperate countries, the number of hospitalizations for heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) increases during the winter. This finding has not been fully investigated in low- and middle-income countries with tropical and subtropical climates. We investigated the seasonality of hospitalizations for HF and AMI in Sao Paulo (Brazil), the largest city in Latin America. This was a retrospective study using data for 76,474 hospitalizations for HF and 54,561 hospitalizations for AMI obtained from public hospitals, from January 2008 to April 2015. The average number of hospitalizations for HF and AMI per month during winter was compared to each of the other seasons. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to test the association between temperature and hospitalization rates. The highest average number of hospital admissions for HF and AMI per month occurred during winter, with an increase of up to 30% for HF and 16% for AMI when compared to summer, the season with lowest figures for both diseases (respectively, HF: 996 vs. 767 per month, p<0.001; and AMI: 678 vs. 586 per month, p<0.001). Monthly average temperatures were moderately lower during winter than other seasons and they were not associated with hospitalizations for HF and AMI. The winter season was associated with a greater number of hospitalizations for both HF and AMI. This increase was not associated with seasonal oscillations in temperature, which were modest. Our study suggests that the prevention of cardiovascular disease decompensation should be emphasized during winter even in low to middle-income countries with tropical and subtropical climates.

  2. The false spring of 2012, earliest in North American record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, T.R.; Henebry, G.M.; de Beurs, K. M.; Schwartz, M.D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Moore, David

    2013-01-01

    Phenology - the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate - is becoming an essential tool for documenting, communicating, and anticipating the consequences of climate variability and change. For example, March 2012 broke numerous records for warm temperatures and early flowering in the United States [Karl et al., 2012; Elwood et al., 2013]. Many regions experienced a “false spring,” a period of weather in late winter or early spring sufficiently mild and long to bring vegetation out of dormancy prematurely, rendering it vulnerable to late frost and drought.As global climate warms, increasingly warmer springs may combine with the random climatological occurrence of advective freezes, which result from cold air moving from one region to another, to dramatically increase the future risk of false springs, with profound ecological and economic consequences [e.g., Gu et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2011; Augspurger, 2013]. For example, in the false spring of 2012, an event embedded in long-term trends toward earlier spring [e.g., Schwartz et al., 2006], the frost damage to fruit trees totaled half a billion dollars in Michigan alone, prompting the federal government to declare the state a disaster area [Knudson, 2012].

  3. Trampoline-associated injuries are more common in children in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Michael S; Krishna, Sanjeev; Rahiri, Jamie-Lee; Hill, Andrew G

    2016-06-10

    Trampoline use is a popular pastime amongst children in New Zealand, and has many advantages for child development. However, recent reports claim that trampoline-associated injuries are still highly prevalent. In order to help prevent these injuries in the future, this study aims to provide more up-to-date epidemiological information in children, with emphasis on the time of year that injuries most commonly occur. A retrospective review was carried out utilising a prospective maintained trauma database. The database was searched electronically for injuries involving trampolines in children aged 0-15 years. Patient demographics and information regarding month of injury, injury type and management were extracted. There were 344 admissions to hospital for trampoline-related injuries between June 2000 and January 2015. Injuries were uncommon in winter, but rose in spring and summer. Fracture of the radius and/or ulna was the most common injury (34.0%), followed by humeral fracture (32.0%). The peak incidence of trampoline-related injuries occurred around the beginning of spring daylight savings time each year. This could therefore prove an opportune time to remind children and parents about trampoline safety at the same time as daylight savings reminders.

  4. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Bioinspired spring origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.

    2018-03-01

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  6. Bioinspired spring origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A; Arrieta, Andres F; Studart, André R

    2018-03-23

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional-printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. The Resource, Spring 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    High- Energy Compounds • HPCMP Users Advocacy Group • Cpusets on the Origin 3800 • User Disk Striping on the T3E • HPCMP Users Group Conference 2002...Spring 2002 Cpusets on the Origin 3800 By Dr. Jeff Hensley The Origin 3800 (O3K) series machine (Ruby) at the ERDC MSRC recently underwent a...configuration change designed to enhance the overall efficiency of the system. In February 2002, Ruby was configured to use cpusets , a method of logically

  8. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  9. Spring Indices (SI): National (and Global) Indicators of Climate Impacts on Ecosystems and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.; Ault, T. R.; McCabe, G. J.; Macalady, A. K.; Pederson, G. T.; Cook, B. P.; Henebry, G. M.; Moore, D. J.; Enquist, C.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators are vital in everyday life, such as tracking blood pressure to assess your health or monitoring the nation's economy using unemployment rates. Tracking the state of the environment in a uniform and integrated manner requires simple and broadly-applicable indicators of year-to-year variability and change. For example, indices such as the Start of Season (SOS) in remotely-sensed land surface phenology, Center of Mass (CM) in the hydrology of snowfed inland waters, and other biogeophysical metrics are being widely used as metrics of global change in seasonal timing. Here, we present a new, standardized spring index (SSI) that uses only daily minimum and maximum temperatures as input. This builds on an earlier version of the spring indices (SI) for lilac and honeysuckle phenology (first leaf and first flower) that required plant chilling to be satisfied over winter. The SSI tracks the transition from winter to spring by tallying phenologically relevant variables, (such as the number and intensity of warm days and total hours of sunlight) from January 1st onward, while ignoring the chilling requirement. This adjustment allows determination of first leaf and first bloom dates across the entire USA, including southernmost latitudes. Outputs from the new SSI is highly correlated with the earlier version, and both models process weather data into indices directly related to growth and development of many plants. Spatially averaged anomalies of SSI are well correlated with remotely sensed data and phenological observations from a wide variety of trees and shrubs in Europe, China, and North America. An advantage of SSI is that it only "sees" the atmosphere, meaning that it is free of local biological effects. Therefore, it can enhance the ability to identify important relationships between the large-scale climate modes of variability and the index itself, an advantage over other plant-based indices (such as SOS). If the state of these atmospheric modes can be

  10. Storing snow for the next winter: Two case studies on the application of snow farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Thomas; Wolfsperger, Fabian

    2016-04-01

    Snow farming is the conservation of snow during the warm half-year. This means that large piles of snow are formed in spring in order to be conserved over the summer season. Well-insulating materials such as chipped wood are added as surface cover to reduce melting. The aim of snow farming is to provide a "snow guaranty" for autumn or early winter - this means that a specific amount of snow will definitively be available, independent of the weather conditions. The conserved snow can then be used as basis for the preparation of winter sports grounds such as cross-country tracks or ski runs. This helps in the organization of early winter season sport events such as World Cup races or to provide appropriate training conditions for athletes. We present a study on two snow farming projects, one in Davos (Switzerland) and one in the Martell valley of South Tyrol. At both places snow farming has been used for several years. For the summer season 2015, we monitored both snow piles in order to assess the amount of snow conserved. High resolution terrestrial laser scanning was performed to measure snow volumes of the piles at the beginning and at the end of the summer period. Results showed that only 20% to 30 % of the snow mass was lost due to ablation. This mass loss was surprisingly low considering the extremely warm and dry summer. In order to identify the most relevant drivers of snow melt we also present simulations with the sophisticated snow cover models SNOWPACK and Alpine3D. The simulations are driven by meteorological input data recorded in the vicinity of the piles and enable a detailed analysis of the relevant processes controlling the energy balance. The models can be applied to optimize settings for snow farming and to examine the suitability of new locations, configurations or cover material for future snow farming projects.

  11. Geochemical Investigation of Source Water to Cave Springs, Great Basin National Park, White Pine County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Glancy, Patrick A.

    2009-01-01

    Cave Springs supply the water for the Lehman Caves Visitor Center at Great Basin National Park, which is about 60 miles east of Ely, Nevada, in White Pine County. The source of water to the springs was investigated to evaluate the potential depletion caused by ground-water pumping in areas east of the park and to consider means to protect the supply from contamination. Cave Springs are a collection of several small springs that discharge from alluvial and glacial deposits near the contact between quartzite and granite. Four of the largest springs are diverted into a water-collection system for the park. Water from Cave Springs had more dissolved strontium, calcium, and bicarbonate, and a heavier value of carbon-13 than water from Marmot Spring at the contact between quartzite and granite near Baker Creek campground indicating that limestone had dissolved into water at Cave Springs prior to discharging. The source of the limestone at Cave Springs was determined to be rounded gravels from a pit near Baker, Nevada, which was placed around the springs during the reconstruction of the water-collection system in 1996. Isotopic compositions of water at Cave Springs and Marmot Spring indicate that the source of water to these springs primarily is from winter precipitation. Mixing of water at Cave Springs between alluvial and glacial deposits along Lehman Creek and water from quartzite is unlikely because deuterium and oxygen-18 values from a spring discharging from the alluvial and glacial deposits near upper Lehman Creek campground were heavier than the deuterium and oxygen-18 values from Cave Springs. Additionally, the estimated mean age of water determined from chlorofluorocarbon concentrations indicates water discharging from the spring near upper Lehman Creek campground is younger than that discharging from either Cave Springs or Marmot Spring. The source of water at Cave Springs is from quartzite and water discharges from the springs on the upstream side of the

  12. Effects of rearing density and raceway conformation on growth, food conversion, and survival of juvenile spring chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.D.; Sheahan, J.E.; Lewis, M.A.; Palmisano, Aldo N.

    2000-01-01

    Four brood years of juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were reared in conventional and baffled raceways at various rearing densities and loads at Willamette Hatchery, Oregon. A period of rapid linear growth occurred from August to November, but there was little or no growth from November to March when the fish were released. Both fall and winter growth rates were inversely related to rearing density. Final weight and length were also inversely related to rearing density. No significant relationship between load and any growth variable was observed. Fish reared at lower densities in conventional raceways tended to develop bimodal length distributions in winter and early spring. Fish reared in conventional raceways showed significantly larger growth rates and final lengths and weights than those reared in baffled raceways. Food conversions and average delivery times for feed were significantly greater in baffled than in conventional raceways. No significant relationships were observed between either rearing density or load and condition factor, food conversion, or mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between the two raceway types. When fish were transported to seawater for further rearing, there were no significant relationships between mortality in seawater and rearing density or load, but fish reared in baffled raceways had significantly higher mortality than those reared in conventional raceways.

  13. Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervencl, A.; Fernandez, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering

  14. Spectral characteristics of spring arctic mesosphere dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The spring of 1997 has represented a stable period of operation for the joint University of Tromsø / University of Saskatchewan MF radar, being between refurbishment and upgrades. We examine the horizontal winds from the February to June inclusive and also include estimates of energy dissipation rates derived from signal fading times and presented as upper limits on the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ε. Here we address the periodicity in the dynamics of the upper mesosphere for time scales from hours to one month. Thus, we are able to examine the changes in the spectral signature of the mesospheric dynamics during the transition from winter to summer states.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; waves and tides.

  15. Five Year Mean Sea-surface Salinity in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean sea-surface salinity values to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter includes...

  16. Five Year Mean Sea-Surface Temperature in the Northern Gulf of Mexico for 2005 through 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These images were created by combining the mean sea-surface temperature values to produce seasonal representations for winter, spring, summer and fall. Winter...

  17. Upper lethal temperatures in three cold-tolerant insects are higher in winter than in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Henry M; Duman, John G

    2017-08-01

    Upper lethal temperatures (ULTs) of cold-adapted insect species in winter have not been previously examined. We anticipated that as the lower lethal temperatures (LLTs) decreased (by 20-30°C) with the onset of winter, the ULTs would also decrease accordingly. Consequently, given the recent increases in winter freeze-thaw cycles and warmer winters due to climate change, it became of interest to determine whether ambient temperatures during thaws were approaching ULTs during the cold seasons. However, beetle Dendroides canadensis (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae) larvae had higher 24 and 48 h ULT 50 (the temperature at which 50% mortality occurred) in winter than in summer. The 24 and 48 h ULT 50 for D. canadensis in winter were 40.9 and 38.7°C, respectively. For D. canadensis in summer, the 24 and 48 h ULT 50 were 36.7 and 36.4°C. During the transition periods of spring and autumn, the 24 h ULT 50 was 37.3 and 38.5°C, respectively. While D. canadensis in winter had a 24 h LT 50 range between LLT and ULT of 64°C, the summer range was only 41°C. Additionally, larvae of the beetle Cucujus clavipes clavipes (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) and the cranefly Tipula trivittata (Diptera: Tipulidae) also had higher ULTs in winter than in summer. This unexpected phenomenon of increased temperature survivorship at both lower and higher temperatures in the winter compared with that in the summer has not been previously documented. With the decreased high temperature tolerance as the season progresses from winter to summer, it was observed that environmental temperatures are closest to upper lethal temperatures in spring. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  19. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  20. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  1. Based on Artificial Neural Network to Realize K-Parameter Analysis of Vehicle Air Spring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, San-Shan; Hsu, Chia-Ning; Hwang, Chang-Chou; Chen, Wen-Jan

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, because of the air-spring control technique is more mature, that air- spring suspension systems already can be used to replace the classical vehicle suspension system. Depend on internal pressure variation of the air-spring, thestiffnessand the damping factor can be adjusted. Because of air-spring has highly nonlinear characteristic, therefore it isn’t easy to construct the classical controller to control the air-spring effectively. The paper based on Artificial Neural Network to propose a feasible control strategy. By using offline way for the neural network design and learning to the air-spring in different initial pressures and different loads, offline method through, predict air-spring stiffness parameter to establish a model. Finally, through adjusting air-spring internal pressure to change the K-parameter of the air-spring, realize the well dynamic control performance of air-spring suspension.

  2. A model for making field-based nitrogen recommendations for winter wheat in western oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on early spring soil and tissue analysis was developed and evaluated for predicting the need for additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on winter wheat. To develop the model, On-farm trials were' established over three years 1994-95 in grower's fields at three different locations across the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. Two field-scale validation trials were run in 1996-97. Rotations were soft white winter wheat following grass seed, sweet corn or a legume. Four treatments, including a check receiving no nitrogen, were used at each site At the site where wheat followed corn, the predicted optimum N rate was 168 kg N ha/sup -1/ however, the 112 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate was the optimum rate predicted by the developed model. The 84 kgN ha/sup -1/ and 140 kgN ha/sup -1/ rates were selected to bracket the recommended rate (+- 28 kg N ha/sup -1/). Wheat following grass seed had high soil supplied N which depressed the yield even at moderate fertilizer N rates. The model overall accurately assess field-specific optimum fertilizer N status. (author)

  3. Variability of yield traits and disease resistance in winter triticale genetic resources accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kociuba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A systematic gathering of winter triticale accessions was started in Poland in 1982 by the Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Seed Science at the Agricultural University in Lublin (at present its name is: Institute of Genetics, Breeding and Plant Biotechnology at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. First, breeding lines obtained in local breeding stations were gathered. Next, accessions were imported from the following world gene banks: Beltsville, Gatersleben, and VIR. Interesting hybrid materials obtained in research centers were also included in the collection. Now, the collection includes 2349 accessions (1329 of winter triticale and 1020 of spring triticale. The evaluation is conducted in a 4-year cycle of field experiments using the same methods. The gathered accessions represent a large range of variability of both morphological and commercial traits. The large differentiation of accessions especially concerns traits such as: plant height, number and weight of grains per spi- ke, protein content in grain, field resistance to powdery mildew, brown rust and leaf and spike diseases.

  4. Streamflow conditions in the Guadalupe River Basin, south-central Texas, water years 1987-2006 - An assessment of streamflow gains and losses and relative contribution of major springs to streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Slattery, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Edwards Aquifer Authority, assessed available streamflow data in the Guadalupe River Basin to determine streamflow gains and losses and the relative contribution of flow from major springs - Comal Springs, San Marcos Springs, and Hueco Springs - to streamflow in reaches of the Guadalupe River and its tributaries. The assessment is based primarily on long-term (1987-2006) and short-term (January 1999, August 1999, August 2000, and August 2006) streamflow conditions. For each analysis period, the ratio of flow from the major springs (measured at the spring source) to the sum of inflows (measured at the source of inflow to the river system) is computed for reaches of the Comal River and San Marcos River that include springflows from major springs, and for Guadalupe River reaches downstream from Canyon Dam. The ratio of springflow to the sum of inflows to the reach is an estimate of the contribution of flows from major springs to streamflow. For 1987-2006, the ratio of springflow from the major springs to the sum of inflows for the most upstream reach that includes inflow from all three major springs, Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales, is 27 percent. At the lowermost downstream reach, Guadalupe River - Bloomington to the San Antonio River, the percentage of the sum of inflows attributed to springflow is 18 percent. At that lowermost reach, the ratio of Canyon Lake releases to the sum of inflows was 20 percent. For the short-term periods August 2000 and August 2006 (periods of relatively low flow), springflow in the reach Guadalupe River - above Comal River to Gonzales accounted for 77 and 78 percent, respectively, of the sum of inflows in that reach. At the lowermost reach Guadalupe River - Bloomington to San Antonio River, springflow was 52 and 53 percent of the sum of inflows, respectively, during August 2000 and August 2006 (compared with 18 percent during 1987-2006); and during August 2000 and August

  5. A regional implementation of WOFOST for calculating yield gaps of winter wheat across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, H.; Wolf, J.; Supit, I.; Niemeyer, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is Europe’s dominant crop in terms of land use in the European Union (EU25). Most of this wheat area is sown in autumn, i.e., winter wheat in all EU25 countries, apart from southern Italy, southern Spain and most of Portugal, where spring wheat varieties are sown in late autumn. We evaluated

  6. How individual Montagu's Harriers cope with Moreau's Paradox during the Sahelian winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaich, Almut Ellinor; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Bouten, Willem; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Koks, Ben Johannes; Villers, Alexandre; Both, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    1. Hundreds of millions of Afro-Palaearctic migrants winter in the Sahel, a semi-arid belt south of the Sahara desert, where they experience deteriorating ecological conditions during their overwintering stay and have to prepare for spring migration when conditions are worst. This well-known

  7. Modeling the effects of winter environment on dormancy release of Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connie Harrington; Peter J. Gould; Brad St. Clair

    2010-01-01

    Most temperate woody plants have a winter chilling requirement to prevent budburst during midwinter periods of warm weather. The date of spring budburst is dependent on both chilling and forcing; modeling this date is an important part of predicting potential effects of global warming on trees. There is no clear evidence from the literature that the curves of chilling...

  8. Biology, spread, and biological control of winter moth in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Elkinton; George Boettner; Andrew Liebhold; Rodger. Gwiazdowski

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.; Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an inchworm caterpillar that hatches coincident with bud-break on its hosts and feeds on a wide range of deciduous trees. It is one of a group of geometrid species that feed in early spring and then pupate in the top layer of the soil or litter beginning in mid-May. As postulated...

  9. Soil temperature regulates phosphorus loss from lysimeters following fall and winter-applied manure application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applying manure in the fall and winter increases the potential that some portion of the nutrients will be lost prior to crop uptake in the spring. In order to minimize the risk of nutrient loss, recommendations are often based on soil temperature, since biological activity has been shown to decrease...

  10. Soil temperature regulates nitrogen loss from lysimeters following fall and winter manure application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many producers practice fall and winter manure spreading for economic and practical reasons. In order to minimize the risk of nitrogen loss between application and crop uptake in the spring, university extension publications and industry professionals often make recommendations based on soil tempera...

  11. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  12. Forage plants of an Arctic-nesting herbivore show larger warming response in breeding than wintering grounds, potentially disrupting migration phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameris, Thomas K; Jochems, Femke; van der Graaf, Alexandra J; Andersson, Mattias; Limpens, Juul; Nolet, Bart A

    2017-04-01

    During spring migration, herbivorous waterfowl breeding in the Arctic depend on peaks in the supply of nitrogen-rich forage plants, following a "green wave" of grass growth along their flyway to fuel migration and reproduction. The effects of climate warming on forage plant growth are expected to be larger at the Arctic breeding grounds than in temperate wintering grounds, potentially disrupting this green wave and causing waterfowl to mistime their arrival on the breeding grounds. We studied the potential effect of climate warming on timing of food peaks along the migratory flyway of the Russian population of barnacle geese using a warming experiment with open-top chambers. We measured the effect of 1.0-1.7°C experimental warming on forage plant biomass and nitrogen concentration at three sites along the migratory flyway (temperate wintering site, temperate spring stopover site, and Arctic breeding site) during 2 months for two consecutive years. We found that experimental warming increased biomass accumulation and sped up the decline in nitrogen concentration of forage plants at the Arctic breeding site but not at temperate wintering and stop-over sites. Increasing spring temperatures in the Arctic will thus shorten the food peak of nitrogen-rich forage at the breeding grounds. Our results further suggest an advance of the local food peak in the Arctic under 1-2°C climate warming, which will likely cause migrating geese to mistime their arrival at the breeding grounds, particularly considering the Arctic warms faster than the temperate regions. The combination of a shorter food peak and mistimed arrival is likely to decrease goose reproductive success under climate warming by reducing growth and survival of goslings after hatching.

  13. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

  14. Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of ... thick clothing. Think about getting your thermals! –Essential winter wears: hats, gloves or preferably mittens, winter coat, ...

  15. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are at increased risk for overexposure ... associated with sun exposure. "It's easy to associate winter with frostbite and windburn, but most people are ...

  16. Late winter biogeochemical conditions under sea ice in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the Arctic summer sea-ice extent in decline, questions are arising as to how changes in sea-ice dynamics might affect biogeochemical cycling and phenomena such as carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake and ocean acidification. Recent field research in these areas has concentrated on biogeochemical and CO2 measurements during spring, summer or autumn, but there are few data for the winter or winter–spring transition, particularly in the High Arctic. Here, we present carbon and nutrient data within and under sea ice measured during the Catlin Arctic Survey, over 40 days in March and April 2010, off Ellef Ringnes Island (78° 43.11′ N, 104° 47.44′ W in the Canadian High Arctic. Results show relatively low surface water (1–10 m nitrate (<1.3 µM and total inorganic carbon concentrations (mean±SD=2015±5.83 µmol kg−1, total alkalinity (mean±SD=2134±11.09 µmol kg−1 and under-ice pCO2sw (mean±SD=286±17 µatm. These surprisingly low wintertime carbon and nutrient conditions suggest that the outer Canadian Arctic Archipelago region is nitrate-limited on account of sluggish mixing among the multi-year ice regions of the High Arctic, which could temper the potential of widespread under-ice and open-water phytoplankton blooms later in the season.

  17. The full GHG balance of croplands under seven-year rotation scheme and conventional tillage practices in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Sakowska, Karolina; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Uzdzicka, Bogna; Strozecki, Marcin; Polmanska, Daria; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Augustin, Juergen; Necki, Jarek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gases fluxes were measured with chambers on the selected plots of the experimental arable station of Poznan University of Life Sciences in Brody (52o26'N, 16o18'E), Poland. This is a long term experiment, where the same crops are cultivated under the same fertilization treatment schemes (eleven combinations) since 1957. At the blocks of the full 7-year rotation, there are cultivated in permanent rotation: winter wheat ->winter rye -> potato ->spring barley -> triticale and alfalfa (till the second year). GHG fluxes have been measured on plots with the same fertilization level (Nmin-90kg, K2O-120 kg/ha, P2O5-60 kg/ha and Ca), which is very close to the average amount of mineral fertilization applied in western Poland. No catch crops were cultivated between the main crops. The soil was classified as Albic Luviosols according to FAO 2006 classification. CO2 fluxes have been measured monthly since March 2011, while N2O and CH4 fluxes since March 2012 (weekly) and measurements were continued till October 2013. CO2 fluxes were measured with dynamic chambers, while N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured with both static and dynamic chambers approaches (using LOSGATOS gas analyser). Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) have been modelled for the entire period based on the measured fluxes (different management treatments were included in the model), while N2O and CH4 fluxes were linearly interpolated between campaigns. Taking into account the accumulation periods between 15th of October and 14th of October of the next year the cumulated NEE was negative only in case of alfalfa, winter rye and winter wheat, reaching in average -3.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for alfalfa and winter rye fields and around -0.4 tCO2-C ha-1 for winter wheat in seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. While, cumulated NEE for spring crops (potato and spring barley) was positive for the same periods and reached in average 1.1 tCO2-C ha-1 and 2.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for spring barley and

  18. Dynamics and Variability of the Spring Dry Season in the United States Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascolini-Campbell, M.; Seager, R.; Cook, B.; Williams, P.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the spring dry season occurring in a region of the United States southwest, which receives both winter (DJF) and summer (JAS) monsoon precipitation. The region is characterized by a dual peak in soil moisture with accompanying two-season greening in the spring (MAM) and summer. We use NLDAS-2 and GLDAS-2 land surface model output, AmeriFlux observations, GIMMS satellite NDVI, SNOTEL snow water equivalence and CMIP5 model output to analyze historical trends from 1948 to present. In recent decades (1998-2016) we note a shift toward i) earlier and greater spring soil moisture draw down, ii) decreased snow depth, iii) earlier snow melt, and iv) earlier spring vegetation green up compared to a prior wet period (1979-1997). The more recent decades have also experienced a marked increase in mean spring temperatures. Using a simple soil moisture balance model, we find precipitation in the winter-spring is the main driver of the shift in the region. The increased temperature is apparently less important in driving the observed changes. An earlier dry period (1948 - 1979) is also characterized by lower spring soil moisture, associated with decreased spring precipitation. Decadal variability of the timing and magnitude of the spring dry season is influenced in part by tropical Pacific and Atlantic SSTs. This natural variability is apparently the dominant driver of seasonal shifts in the region, with a lesser role played by human-driven temperature increases. Future changes in the spring dry season will therefore be affected by both how tropical decadal variability evolves and expected drying to human-driven climate change. These changes will be important for ecological response, fire risk and spring low streamflows.

  19. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  20. Winter season mortality: will climate warming bring benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Le Tertre, Alain; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  1. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002–2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations.

  2. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  3. Catastrophic winter storms. An escalating problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changnon, S.A. [Changnon Climatologist, Mahomet, IL 61853 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Winter storms are a major weather problem in the USA and their losses have been rapidly increasing. A total of 202 catastrophic winter storms, each causing more than $1 million in damages, occurred during 1949-2003, and their losses totaled $35.2 billion (2003 dollars). Catastrophic winter storms occurred in most parts of the contiguous USA, but were concentrated in the eastern half of the nation where 88% of all storm losses occurred. They were most frequent in the Northeast climate district (95 storms), and were least frequent in the West district (14 catastrophic storms). The annual average number of storms is 3.7 with a 1-year high of 9 storms, and 1 year had no storms. Temporal distributions of storms and their losses exhibited considerable spatial variability across the nation. For example, when storms were very frequent in the Northeast, they were infrequent elsewhere, a result of spatial differences in storm-producing synoptic weather conditions over time. The time distribution of the nation's 202 storms during 1949-2003 had a sizable downward trend, whereas the nation's storm losses had a major upward trend for the 55-year period. This increase over time in losses, given the decrease in storm incidences, was a result of significant temporal increases in storm sizes and storm intensities. Increases in storm intensities were small in the northern sections of the nation, but doubled across the southern two-thirds of the nation, reflecting a climatic shift in conditions producing intense winter storms.

  4. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  5. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  6. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  7. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  8. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  9. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  10. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  11. Linking spring phenology with mechanistic models of host movement to predict disease transmission risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Jerod A.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Cole, Eric K.; Courtemanch, Alyson B.; Dewey, Sarah R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2018-01-01

    Disease models typically focus on temporal dynamics of infection, while often neglecting environmental processes that determine host movement. In many systems, however, temporal disease dynamics may be slow compared to the scale at which environmental conditions alter host space-use and accelerate disease transmission.Using a mechanistic movement modelling approach, we made space-use predictions of a mobile host (elk [Cervus Canadensis] carrying the bacterial disease brucellosis) under environmental conditions that change daily and annually (e.g., plant phenology, snow depth), and we used these predictions to infer how spring phenology influences the risk of brucellosis transmission from elk (through aborted foetuses) to livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.Using data from 288 female elk monitored with GPS collars, we fit step selection functions (SSFs) during the spring abortion season and then implemented a master equation approach to translate SSFs into predictions of daily elk distribution for five plausible winter weather scenarios (from a heavy snow, to an extreme winter drought year). We predicted abortion events by combining elk distributions with empirical estimates of daily abortion rates, spatially varying elk seroprevelance and elk population counts.Our results reveal strong spatial variation in disease transmission risk at daily and annual scales that is strongly governed by variation in host movement in response to spring phenology. For example, in comparison with an average snow year, years with early snowmelt are predicted to have 64% of the abortions occurring on feedgrounds shift to occurring on mainly public lands, and to a lesser extent on private lands.Synthesis and applications. Linking mechanistic models of host movement with disease dynamics leads to a novel bridge between movement and disease ecology. Our analysis framework offers new avenues for predicting disease spread, while providing managers tools to proactively mitigate

  12. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...... online weed detection using digital image analysis, computer-based decision making and global positioning systems (GPS)-controlled patch spraying. In a 4-year study, herbicide use with this map-based approach was reduced in winter cereals by 60% for herbicides against broad-leaved weeds and 90% for grass...

  13. Impact of Climate Change on Winter Chilling Trend for Deciduous Fruit Trees (Case Study: Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. sabziparvar

    2016-02-01

    . Therefore, in the context of global warming, the earlier flowering dates of many deciduous tree species is likely leads to increased risk of damage during the late spring frost. For future fruit farm management, decisions can be implemented with deliberation of the likely changes in the winter chilling requirement reported here. There might be some adaptation, at least to some degree, being essential for most production areas in Hamadan and other similar climate conditions within the next 40 years. Reduction in winter chilling, prevents breaking winter dormancy, which finally may lead to serious damage to deciduous fruits.

  14. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  15. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  16. Soil nitrogen dynamics in high-altitude ski runs during the winter season (Monterosaski - Vallée d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freppaz, M.; Icardi, M.; Filippa, G.; Zanini, E.

    2009-04-01

    In many Alpine catchments, the development of winter tourism determined a widespread change in land use, shifting from forested and cultivated lands to ski slopes. The construction of a ski slope implies a strong impact on the landscape, with potential consequences on the soil quality. In most cases, the construction procedures include the total or partial removal of the soil body, the reallocation of the fine hearth fraction, the subsequent seeding of plants and the use of organic fertilizers. This work aims to evaluate soil physical and chemical properties and nitrogen (N) dynamics in anthropogenic soils from ski slopes of different age. Study sites were located in Champoluc (AO)- NW Italy between 2400 and 2700 m ASL. Topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were sampled in 4 ski slopes hydroseeded with commercial mixtures 4, 6, 10 and 12 years earlier, and in 4 control plots at the same exposure and altitude as the ski slopes. Soil samples were characterized, N dynamics in winter was evaluated with the buried bag technique and snowpack was analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Total nitrogen (TN) content in topsoil ranged 0.75-1.06 g kg-1 and was not correlated with the ski slope age. In all but one site, the TN content was significantly lower in the ski slope than in the control plot. A positive net ammonification and nitrification throughout the winter were found in all but one ski runs. These results suggest a high variability in the evolution degree of these anthropogenic soils. The net overwinter N mineralization that we report demonstrates that these soils are biologically active during the winter season. Such activity results in a pool of labile inorganic nitrogen potentially available for plant demand at the spring snowmelt.

  17. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  18. Hydrogeological characterization of peculiar Apenninic springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, F.; Marcaccio, M.; Petronici, F.; Borgatti, L.

    2014-09-01

    In the northern Apennines of Italy, springs are quite widespread over the slopes. Due to the outcropping of low-permeability geologic units, they are generally characterized by low-yield capacities and high discharge variability during the hydrologic year. In addition, low-flow periods (discharge lower than 1 Ls-1) reflect rainfall and snowmelt distribution and generally occur in summer seasons. These features strongly condition the management for water-supply purposes, making it particularly complex. The "Mulino delle Vene" springs (420 m a.s.l., Reggio Emilia Province, Italy) are one of the largest in the Apennines for mean annual discharge and dynamic storage and are considered as the main water resource in the area. They flow out from several joints and fractures at the bottom of an arenite rock mass outcrop in the vicinity of the Tresinaro River. To date, these springs have not yet been exploited, as the knowledge about the hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer and their hydrological behaviour is not fully achieved. This study aims to describe the recharge processes and to define the hydrogeological boundaries of the aquifer. It is based on river and spring discharge monitoring and groundwater balance assessment carried out during the period 2012-2013. Results confirm the effectiveness of the approach, as it allowed the total aliquot of discharge of the springs to be assessed. Moreover, by comparing the observed discharge volume with the one calculated with the groundwater balance, the aquifer has been identified with the arenite slab (mean altitude of 580 m a.s.l.), extended about 5.5 km2 and located 1 km west of the monitored springs.

  19. Parameters of apple tree variety resistant to winter unfavorable conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Krasova, N.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled factors of the environment significantly reduce apple yielding power. Tree winter resistance is considered to be one of the basic indexes of adaptation. Certain resistant apple varieties have been revealed. The problem of manifestation of the mechanism of the resistance to winter unfavorable conditions is considered in this paper. A positive tendency has been revealed at the relationship between the contents of saccharose, proline, anthocyans, cyanidines and proteins in one-year ...

  20. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  1. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  2. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  3. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Wright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus, after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  4. Variability of Winter Air Temperature in Mid-Latitude Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Ardizzone, J.; Atlas, R.; Bungato, D.; Cierniewski, J.; Jusem, J. C.; Przybylak, R.; Schubert, S.; Starr, D.; Walczewski, J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report extreme winter/early-spring air temperature (hereinafter temperature) anomalies in mid-latitude Europe, and to discuss the underlying forcing to these interannual fluctuations. Warm advection from the North Atlantic in late winter controls the surface-air temperature, as indicated by the substantial correlation between the speed of the surface southwesterlies over the eastern North Atlantic (quantified by a specific Index Ina) and the 2-meter level air temperatures (hereinafter Ts) over Europe, 45-60 deg N, in winter. In mid-March and subsequently, the correlation drops drastically (quite often it is negative). This change in the relationship between Ts and Ina marks a transition in the control of the surface-air temperature: absorption of insolation replaces the warm advection as the dominant control. This forcing by maritime-air advection in winter was demonstrated in a previous publication, and is re-examined here in conjunction with extreme fluctuations of temperatures in Europe. We analyze here the interannual variability at its extreme by comparing warm-winter/early-spring of 1989/90 with the opposite scenario in 1995/96. For these two December-to-March periods the differences in the monthly mean temperature in Warsaw and Torun, Poland, range above 10 C. Short-term (shorter than a month) fluctuations of the temperature are likewise very strong. We conduct pentad-by-pentad analysis of the surface-maximum air temperature (hereinafter Tmax), in a selected location, examining the dependence on Ina. The increased cloudiness and higher amounts of total precipitable water, corollary effects to the warm low-level advection. in the 1989/90 winter, enhance the positive temperature anomalies. The analysis of the ocean surface winds is based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) dataset; ascent rates, and over land wind data are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); maps of 2-m temperature, cloud

  5. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  6. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  7. Establishing Winter Origins of Migrating Lesser Snow Geese Using Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens populations and large-scale habitat changes in North America have contributed to the concentration of migratory waterfowl on fewer wetlands, reducing resource availability, and enhancing risks of disease transmission. Predicting wintering locations of migratory individuals is critical to guide wildlife population management and habitat restoration. We used stable carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, and hydrogen (δ2H isotope ratios in muscle tissue of wintering Snow Geese to discriminate four major wintering areas, the Playa Lake Region, Texas Gulf Coast, Louisiana Gulf Coast, and Arkansas, and infer the wintering locations of individuals collected later during the 2007 and 2008 spring migrations in the Rainwater Basin (RWB of Nebraska. We predicted the wintering ground derivation of migrating Snow Geese using a likelihood-based approach. Our three-isotope analysis provided an efficient discrimination of the four wintering areas. The assignment model predicted that 53% [95% CI: 37-69] of our sample of Snow Geese from the RWB in 2007 had most likely originated in Louisiana, 38% [23-54] had wintered on Texas Gulf Coast, and 9% [0-20] in Arkansas; the assessment suggested that 89% [73-100] of our 2008 sample had most likely come from Texas Gulf Coast, 9% [0-27] from Louisiana Gulf Coast, and 2% [0-9] from Arkansas. Further segregation of wintering grounds and additional sampling of spring migrating Snow Geese would refine overall assignment and help explain interannual variations in migratory connectivity. The ability to distinguish origins of northbound geese can support the development of spatially-adaptive management strategies for the midcontinent Snow Goose population. Establishing migratory connectivity using isotope assignment techniques can be extended to other waterfowl species to determine critical habitat, evaluate population energy requirements, and inform waterfowl conservation and management

  8. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  9. Chilling outweighs photoperiod in preventing precocious spring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Julia; Sparks, Tim H; Estrella, Nicole; Höfler, Josef; Ankerst, Donna P; Menzel, Annette

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that increased spring temperatures cause earlier onset dates of leaf unfolding and flowering. However, a temperature increase in winter may be associated with delayed development when species' chilling requirements are not fulfilled. Furthermore, photosensitivity is supposed to interfere with temperature triggers. To date, neither the relative importance nor possible interactions of these three factors have been elucidated. In this study, we present a multispecies climate chamber experiment to test the effects of chilling and photoperiod on the spring phenology of 36 woody species. Several hypotheses regarding their variation with species traits (successional strategy, floristic status, climate of their native range) were tested. Long photoperiods advanced budburst for one-third of the studied species, but magnitudes of these effects were generally minor. In contrast to prior hypotheses, photosensitive responses were not restricted to climax or oceanic species. Increased chilling length advanced budburst for almost all species; its effect greatly exceeding that of photoperiod. Moreover, we suggest that photosensitivity and chilling effects have to be rigorously disentangled, as the response to photoperiod was restricted to individuals that had not been fully chilled. The results indicate that temperature requirements and successional strategy are linked, with climax species having higher chilling and forcing requirements than pioneer species. Temperature requirements of invasive species closely matched those of native species, suggesting that high phenological concordance is a prerequisite for successful establishment. Lack of chilling not only led to a considerable delay in budburst but also caused substantial changes in the chronological order of species' budburst. The results reveal that increased winter temperatures might impact forest ecosystems more than formerly assumed. Species with lower chilling requirements, such as pioneer or invasive

  10. Intensity of heat stress in winter wheat—phenology compensates for the adverse effect of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi; Siebert, Stefan; Ewert, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Higher temperatures during the growing season are likely to reduce crop yields with implications for crop production and food security. The negative impact of heat stress has also been predicted to increase even further for cereals such as wheat under climate change. Previous empirical modeling studies have focused on the magnitude and frequency of extreme events during the growth period but did not consider the effect of higher temperature on crop phenology. Based on an extensive set of climate and phenology observations for Germany and period 1951–2009, interpolated to 1 × 1 km resolution and provided as supplementary data to this article (available at stacks.iop.org/ERL/10/024012/mmedia), we demonstrate a strong relationship between the mean temperature in spring and the day of heading (DOH) of winter wheat. We show that the cooling effect due to the 14 days earlier DOH almost fully compensates for the adverse effect of global warming on frequency and magnitude of crop heat stress. Earlier heading caused by the warmer spring period can prevent exposure to extreme heat events around anthesis, which is the most sensitive growth stage to heat stress. Consequently, the intensity of heat stress around anthesis in winter crops cultivated in Germany may not increase under climate change even if the number and duration of extreme heat waves increase. However, this does not mean that global warning would not harm crop production because of other impacts, e.g. shortening of the grain filling period. Based on the trends for the last 34 years in Germany, heat stress (stress thermal time) around anthesis would be 59% higher in year 2009 if the effect of high temperatures on accelerating wheat phenology were ignored. We conclude that climate impact assessments need to consider both the effect of high temperature on grain set at anthesis but also on crop phenology. (letter)

  11. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  12. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring failure...

  13. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  14. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    on freshwater habitats throughout mainland China, straddling an area 830 km E−W and 1100 km N−S. Most wintered in discrete mountainous areas with extensive timber cover, large rivers and low human population density. Three birds tracked in more than one season returned to within 25−150 km of previous wintering...... and recaptured on nests along a 40-km stretch of the Kievka River. Mean positions for brood-rearing females during the summer were on average within 61.9 km of the nest site, suggesting reasonable device accuracy for subsequent location of winter quarters. Geolocation data showed that most birds wintered...... areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas...

  15. Mapping geomorphology, groundwater bodies and springs in Simadal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austbø, I. L.; Øvrevik Skoglund, R.; Soldal, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Simadal in Hardanger (Norway) is a narrow valley, famous for the waterfalls Rembedalsfossen and Skjykjedalsfossen which are regulated by Sima hydropower plant. Since the basin has been regulated between 1973-1979 the catchment area was reduced from 146km² to 35 km². There are currently plans for further expansion by also incorporating Skykjedalsvatnet, the last major remaining lake in the basin of Simaelva. In Simadal there are known to be large amounts of ground water, a greater understanding of how the groundwater interacts the river water is desirable in terms of water flow, residence time and water chemistry. Throughout the autumn of 2013 and winter of 2014 loggers were placed at various measuring points to log temperature and water levels. This included six loggers that measure temperature and pressure, as well as three loggers that measure only temperature. The goal with these loggers was to locate springs and monitor water level changes over a one-year period. In order to further investigate the water quality of the different measurement points, monthly water samples as well as pH-, and conductivity measurements were conducted. The water samples were analyzed for major ions as well as metal ions. The latter was based on earlier reported high copper levels. Flow measurements have been made in the upper and lower parts of Simadal during dry periods. The work has also included the accomplishment of Quaternary mapping; analysis of aerial photography; and using GPR. Our main concern has been to map the water resources in Simadal by registering groundwater and springs in sediments and rock faces. Furthermore, it has been desirable to draw lines to a larger regional knowledge based water management. It seems to be important to maintain a certain minimum of water of good quality, both for the ecology of the river in general, but perhaps especially considering the sustainable sea trout populations found in Simaelva today. Previous chemical, hydrogeological and fish

  16. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  17. Unusually cold and dry winters increase mortality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunrui; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in mortality have been recognised for decades, with a marked excess of deaths in winter, yet our understanding of the causes of this phenomenon is not yet complete. Research has shown that low and high temperatures are associated with increased mortality independently of season; however, the impact of unseasonal weather on mortality has been less studied. In this study, we aimed to determine if unseasonal patterns in weather were associated with unseasonal patterns in mortality. We obtained daily temperature, humidity and mortality data from 1988 to 2009 for five major Australian cities with a range of climates. We split the seasonal patterns in temperature, humidity and mortality into their stationary and non-stationary parts. A stationary seasonal pattern is consistent from year-to-year, and a non-stationary pattern varies from year-to-year. We used Poisson regression to investigate associations between unseasonal weather and an unusual number of deaths. We found that deaths rates in Australia were 20-30% higher in winter than summer. The seasonal pattern of mortality was non-stationary, with much larger peaks in some winters. Winters that were colder or drier than a typical winter had significantly increased death risks in most cities. Conversely summers that were warmer or more humid than average showed no increase in death risks. Better understanding the occurrence and cause of seasonal variations in mortality will help with disease prevention and save lives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... In this issue, read the research results from our Safe and Inclusive Cities program and don't forget that the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 call is now open. IDRC Bulletin logo IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017. Featured this month. View of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, March 30, 2016. Safe and ...

  19. Winter School on Coding Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Winter School on Coding Theory. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 111-111. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0111-0111. Resonance ...

  20. Nuclear Winter: The Continuing Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    prospect of human annihilation. Speculation about the environmental results of a ’long darkness’ were considered by Paul Ehrlich .10 The term nuclear winter...Washington D.C., 1983 The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, by Paul Ehrlich , et al. New York: Norton, 1984. (QH545 N83 C66 1983k Caldicott

  1. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  2. Long-term variability of the spring taryn-aufeises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variability of large taryn-aufeises was studied for several decades in different regions of the USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka, Kolyma, Southern Yakutia, Transbaikalia, and Eastern Sayan. Differences between volumes of individual ice massifs and the recorded maximal values change from 2–3 to 95–100%, and they do not depend on sizes of ice fields and their geographical locations. No statistically significant dependence of the aufeis volumes on the atmospheric precipitation amount and the air temperature was revealed in the most of the above areas. However, a general tendency for decreasing of the annual maxima of the ice reserves due to the climate warming was noticed. The long-term variations of the aufeises show existence of cycles of increase and decrease in their maximum sizes with their durations of 3, 7 and 11 years with the 25–30% amplitude of variations relative to the mean long-term values. In the Arctic areas, some of the giant aufeises do not melt completely during the summer and remain for a next winter. The volume of pereletoks (shortterm permafrost varies within the range of 5–25%, averaging 16% of the spring ice reserves. In the southern geocryological zone, a clearly pronounced dependence of activity of the aufeis processes on the snow thickness was found: when the snow depth increased from 70 to 100 cm, volumes of aufeises decreased by a factor of three, and the aufeises disappeared completely under the thickness larger 120 cm. It should be noted that the processes producing the aufeis-forming sources of subsurface water, and the factors of their layered-ice accumulation remain almost unexplored.

  3. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  4. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  5. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  6. The African migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäffer, Norbert; Walther, Bruno A.; Gutteridge, Kim

    2006-01-01

    , Mauritania, Morocco and Senegal). All present data suggest that the Aquatic Warbler migrates through north-west Africa in autumn and spring, with the wintering grounds limited to wetlands of western sub-Saharan Africa, with verified records only from Mauritania, Mali, Senegal and Ghana during the months......, Togo and Benin, or maybe even in so far unexplored wetlands in Central or East Africa. Because wetlands throughout Africa face imminent threats from agricultural and tourist development, more fieldwork is urgently needed to further pinpoint the migration and wintering grounds of the Aquatic Warbler....

  7. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Specifics of soil temperature under winter oilseed rape canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krčmářová, Jana; Středa, Tomáš; Pokorný, Radovan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the course of soil temperature under the winter oilseed rape canopy and to determine relationships between soil temperature, air temperature and partly soil moisture. In addition, the aim was to describe the dependence by means of regression equations usable for pests and pathogens prediction, crop development, and yields models. The measurement of soil and near the ground air temperatures was performed at the experimental field Žabiče (South Moravia, the Czech Republic). The course of temperature was determined under or in the winter oilseed rape canopy during spring growth season in the course of four years (2010 - 2012 and 2014). In all years, the standard varieties (Petrol, Sherpa) were grown, in 2014 the semi-dwarf variety PX104 was added. Automatic soil sensors were positioned at three depths (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 m) under soil surface, air temperature sensors in 0.05 m above soil surfaces. The course of soil temperature differs significantly between standard (Sherpa and Petrol) and semi-dwarf (PX104) varieties. Results of the cross correlation analysis showed, that the best interrelationships between air and soil temperature were achieved in 2 hours delay for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 4 hour delay for 0.10 m and 7 hour delay for 0.20 m for standard varieties. For semi-dwarf variety, this delay reached 6 hour for the soil temperature in 0.05 m, 7 hour delay for 0.10 m and 11 hour for 0.20 m. After the time correction, the determination coefficient (R2) reached values from 0.67 to 0.95 for 0.05 m, 0.50 to 0.84 for 0.10 m in variety Sherpa during all experimental years. For variety PX104 this coefficient reached values from 0.51 to 0.72 in 0.05 m depth and from 0.39 to 0.67 in 0.10 m depth in the year 2014. The determination coefficient in the 0.20 m depth was lower for both varieties; its values were from 0.15 to 0.65 in variety Sherpa. In variety PX104 the values of R2 from 0.23 to 0.57 were determined. When using

  9. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  11. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr

  12. Laurel Springs & DoDEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhung, Seung

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the client organization, Laurel Springs School, we developed an in-depth market analysis of comparable educational programs offered within the Department of Defense Education Activities (DoDEA...

  13. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  14. Winter storm-related injuries in Oklahoma, January 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercefield, Emily; Wendling, Tracy; Archer, Pam; Mallonee, Sue

    2011-02-01

    A January 2007 ice storm occurred in Oklahoma, causing power outages and hazardous travel conditions. The objective of this investigation was to describe the nature of winter storm-related injuries among Oklahoma residents, to determine populations at risk, and to inform prevention-planning personnel. Winter storm-related injuries were a temporarily reportable condition; all acute-care hospitals and the state medical examiner logged storm-related injuries and deaths during January 12-30, 2007. Medical records were retrospectively abstracted. Risk of injury was described by demographic group, injury type, and mechanism. Among 6,047 persons experiencing winter storm-related injuries, 74% were injured in falls, 13% in motor-vehicle collisions (MVCs), 8% while sledding, 1% by unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, 1% in cleanup activities, and 3% by other mechanisms. Median age of injured persons was 39years. Persons aged ≥ 40 years were 1.4 times more likely to experience falls as the cause of injury than those aged falls were twice as likely as other mechanisms to cause fractures among persons aged ≥ 40 years. Injured persons aged older persons were more likely to experience falls and fractures. Prevention messages for winter storm-related injuries should target winter-driving safety tips to younger adults and precautions regarding falls to older adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in approximately true color. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama, and that image will be released on the Web shortly

  16. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented in exaggerated color to enhance color differences among rocks, soils and sand. Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and mosaicking of those final pieces of the panorama

  17. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Color Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA01905 This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars

  18. 'McMurdo' Panorama from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This 360-degree view, called the 'McMurdo' panorama, comes from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. From April through October 2006, Spirit has stayed on a small hill known as 'Low Ridge.' There, the rover's solar panels are tilted toward the sun to maintain enough solar power for Spirit to keep making scientific observations throughout the winter on southern Mars. This view of the surroundings from Spirit's 'Winter Haven' is presented as a stereo anaglyph to show the scene three-dimensionally when viewed through red-blue glasses (with the red lens on the left). Oct. 26, 2006, marks Spirit's 1,000th sol of what was planned as a 90-sol mission. (A sol is a Martian day, which lasts 24 hours, 39 minutes, 35 seconds). The rover has lived through the most challenging part of its second Martian winter. Its solar power levels are rising again. Spring in the southern hemisphere of Mars will begin in early 2007. Before that, the rover team hopes to start driving Spirit again toward scientifically interesting places in the 'Inner Basin' and 'Columbia Hills' inside Gusev crater. The McMurdo panorama is providing team members with key pieces of scientific and topographic information for choosing where to continue Spirit's exploration adventure. The Pancam began shooting component images of this panorama during Spirit's sol 814 (April 18, 2006) and completed the part shown here on sol 932 (Aug. 17, 2006). The panorama was acquired using all 13 of the Pancam's color filters, using lossless compression for the red and blue stereo filters, and only modest levels of compression on the remaining filters. The overall panorama consists of 1,449 Pancam images and represents a raw data volume of nearly 500 megabytes. It is thus the largest, highest-fidelity view of Mars acquired from either rover. Additional photo coverage of the parts of the rover deck not shown here was completed on sol 980 (Oct. 5 , 2006). The team is completing the processing and

  19. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  20. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  1. Diversity and richness of benthic insects in three cold desert spring-streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, W.L.; Cushing, C.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The authors examined species diversity and richness in three cold desert spring-streams, and showed that species diversity was similar and species richness was lower than in similar-size streams from other and or semi-arid regions. Species diversity in the spring-streams increased with increasing stream size and substratum diversity, but declined as distance increased from the nearest large source. However, this latter relationship is difficult to quantify because the nearest large source was the Columbia River, or one of its reservoirs, that has environmental conditions very different from those found in the study streams. It is more likely that the main source of colonizers for the spring-streams studied were other nearby small springs that could provide sources or stepping stone habitats for colonizers. Species diversity declined after winter spates, and the low species diversity and richness values appear to be greatly influenced by these events.

  2. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  3. The influence of winter convection on primary production: A parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosse, Fabian; Lindemann, Christian; Pätch, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon. The carbon export during late winter/early spring significantly exceeded the export of the reference run. Furthermore, a non-hydrostatic convection model was used to evaluate the major assumption of the presented parameterisation which implies the matching of the mixed layer depth...

  4. Forecasting spring from afar? Timing of migration and predictability of phenology along different migration routes of an avian herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Bauer, Silke; de Boer, Rob; Griffin, Larry; Cabot, David; Exo, Klaus-Michael; van der Jeugd, Henk P; Nolet, Bart A

    2015-01-01

    Herbivorous birds are hypothesized to migrate in spring along a seasonal gradient of plant profitability towards their breeding grounds (green wave hypothesis). For Arctic breeding species in particular, following highly profitable food is important, so that they can replenish resources along the way and arrive in optimal body condition to start breeding early. We compared the timing of migratory movements of Arctic breeding geese on different flyways to examine whether flyways differed in the predictability of spring conditions at stopovers and whether this was reflected in the degree to which birds were following the green wave. Barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) were tracked with solar GPS/ARGOS PTTs from their wintering grounds to breeding sites in Greenland (N = 7), Svalbard (N = 21) and the Barents Sea (N = 12). The numerous stopover sites of all birds were combined into a set of 16 general stopover regions. The predictability of climatic conditions along the flyways was calculated as the correlation and slope between onsets of spring at consecutive stopovers. These values differed between sites, mainly because of the presence or absence of ecological barriers. Goose arrival at stopovers was more closely tied to the local onset of spring when predictability was higher and when geese attempted breeding that year. All birds arrived at early stopovers after the onset of spring and arrived at the breeding grounds before the onset of spring, thus overtaking the green wave. This is in accordance with patterns expected for capital breeders: first, they must come into condition; at intermediate stopovers, arrival with the food quality peak is important to stay in condition, and at the breeding grounds, early arrival is favoured so that hatching of young can coincide with the peak of food quality. Our results suggest that a chain of correlations between climatic conditions at subsequent stopovers enables geese to closely track the green wave. However, the birds

  5. Acute Gastroenteritis During Childhood in Bolu, Turkey: 3 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervan Bekdaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated 6563 children with the complaint of diarrhea. 29.1% were below 2 years of age, 37.4% were 2-5 years of age and 33.3% were over 5 years of age. 22.3% were admitted during spring, 33.5% were admitted during summer, 23.6% were admitted during autumn and 20.4% were admitted during winter. Rotavirus antigen was found in 16.1% cases. 7.6% of the patients were hospitalized. The direct medical cost for out-patient's clinic was $18.7 and for hospitalized patients was $74.3. The most common agent in the childhood gastroenteritis was rotavirus. Viral agents were identified frequently during winter and bacterial and parasitic agents were identified frequently during summer.

  6. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  7. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

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    De Simon, G.; Alberti, G.; Delle Vedove, G.; Peressotti, A.; Zaldei, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agroecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter/early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments - cooling (Co), warming (W), mix (M) - and control (C). An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh), soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates, which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in emergence in both W and M treatments and a delay in emergence for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co. In conclusion, from the results of our experiment we can assert that an increase in the frequency of both heat and cold waves is unlikely to have large effects on the overall annual carbon balance of irrigated croplands.

  9. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Simon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agroecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter/early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments – cooling (Co, warming (W, mix (M – and control (C. An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh, soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates, which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in emergence in both W and M treatments and a delay in emergence for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co. In conclusion, from the results of our experiment we can assert that an increase in the frequency of both heat and cold waves is unlikely to have large effects on the overall annual carbon balance of irrigated croplands.

  10. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

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    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

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    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  13. The impact exploration of agricultural drought on winter wheat yield in the North China Plain

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    Yang, Jianhua; Wu, Jianjun; Han, Xinyi; Zhou, Hongkui

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the most serious agro-climatic disasters in the North China Plain, which has a great influence on winter wheat yield. Global warming exacerbates the drought trend of this region, so it is important to study the effect of drought on winter wheat yield. In order to assess the drought-induced winter wheat yield losses, SPEI (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index), the w