Sample records for winter sports clinic

  1. Psychosocial impact of participation in the National Veterans Wheelchair Games and Winter Sports Clinic. (United States)

    Sporner, Michelle L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Dicianno, Brad E; Collins, Diane; Teodorski, Emily; Pasquina, Paul F; Cooper, Rory A


    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of individuals who participate in the National Veterans Wheelchair Games (NVWG) and the Winter Sports Clinic (WSC) for veterans with disabilities. In addition, it was of interest to determine how these events had impacted their lives. Participants were recruited at the 20th Winter Sports Clinic, held in Snowmass Colorado and the 26th National Veterans Wheelchair Games held in Anchorage, Alaska. Data of interest included demographic, sport participation information, community integration, self-esteem, and quality of life. A secondary data analysis was completed to determine how comparable individuals who attended the NVWG/WSC were to individuals who did not participate in these events. The 132 participants were a mean age of 47.4 + 13.4 and lived with a disability for an average of 13.4 + 12.1. Participants felt that the NVWG/WSC increased their knowledge of sports equipment (92%), learning sports (89%), mobility skills (84%), and acceptance of disability (84%). The majority of participants stated that the NVWG/WSC improved their life. Of those who participated at the NVWG/WSC, they tended to be more mobile, but have increased physical and cognitive limitations as measured by the CHART when compared to the non-attendees. Recommending veterans participate in events such as the NVWG and WSC can provide psychosocial benefits to veterans with disabilities.

  2. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G


    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  3. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo


    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  4. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010. (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike


    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  5. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflin, F.G.


    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments. (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas


    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  7. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas


    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Granada Winter Universiade 2015 (United States)

    Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María


    Objective To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. Methods The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. Results A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. Conclusion In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. PMID:28879023


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  10. Asthma prevalence in German Olympic athletes: A comparison of winter and summer sport disciplines. (United States)

    Selge, Charlotte; Thomas, Silke; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja; Wolfarth, Bernd


    Prevalence of asthma in elite athletes shows very wide ranges. It remains unclear to what extent this is influenced by the competition season (winter vs. summer) or the ventilation rate achieved during competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of asthma in German elite winter and summer athletes from a wide range of sport disciplines and to identify high risk groups. In total, 265 German elite winter athletes (response 77%) and 283 German elite summer athletes (response 64%) answered validated respiratory questionnaires. Using logistic regression, the asthma risks associated with competition season and ventilation rate during competition, respectively, were investigated. A subset of winter athletes was also examined for their FENO-levels and lung function. With respect to all asthma outcomes, no association was found with the competition season. Regarding the ventilation rate, athletes in high ventilation sports were at increased risk of asthma, as compared to athletes in low ventilation sports (doctors' diagnosed asthma: OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.19-4.53; use of asthma medication: OR 4.46, 95% CI 1.52-13.10; current wheeze or use of asthma medication: OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.34-5.76). Athletes with doctors' diagnosed asthma were at an approximate four-fold risk of elevated FENO-values. The clinically relevant finding of this study is that athletes' asthma seems to be more common in sports with high ventilation during competition, whereas the summer or winter season had no impact on the frequency of the disease. Among winter athletes, elevated FENO suggested suboptimal control of asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H


    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  12. [Tibial plateau fractures in winter sports. Current treatment options]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, V


    Tibial plateau fractures overall and especially in winter sports are rare. However, the incidence in recent years is increasing. In a retrospective study from 2009-2012, we found 52 injuries affiliated with winter sports. Noticeable was the high rate of severe injury patterns. In 20 of the 52 cases, there were complete articular or bicondylar fractures (38 %). In 25 cases (48 %), fragment dislocation corresponding to the Moore classification was observed. The operative algorithm was based on the initial soft tissue damage and the type of fracture. A two or more stage procedure with first line soft tissue management and temporary external fixation stabilization was performed 12 times. The final internal osteosynthesis was based on the morphology of the fracture, i.e., direct exposition and stabilization of relevant fracture patterns. In 24 cases (46 %), there was a need for two (or more) approaches. In the anterior aspect of the tibial head, customary implants were used; posterior pathologies were stabilized with low-dimension implants. Summarizing with regard to the literature, there is a more discriminating view of tibial plateau fractures, regarding all relevant fracture patterns. Thus, different options in operative access and choice of implants can be made.

  13. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete. (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D


    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  14. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism. (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André


    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  15. Paralympic sports medicine--current evidence in winter sport: considerations in the development of equipment standards for paralympic athletes. (United States)

    Burkett, Brendan


    To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained.

  16. NOT A LAZY HOLIDAY : Winter Vacationers’ Satisfaction with Pajulahti Sports Institute


    Levänen, Henna


    The commissioner of this thesis was Pajulahti Sports Institute which is located in Nastola and the working life instructor was Lasse Mikkelsson who is the managing director and principal in Pajulahti. The aim of this thesis was to find out how satisfied winter vacationers are with the services offered in Pajulahti Sports Institute. The purposes of the objectives that were supporting the main goal were to find out sport consumer behaviour, customer satisfaction and user profiles, purchasing de...

  17. Features static-and-dynamic performance in athletes of winter sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko K.V.


    Full Text Available Objective: analysis of static-dynamic performance of the musculoskeletal system of athletes of winter sports. Materials and Methods. The evaluation of static-dynamic characteristics of the musculoskeletal system. Results. The highest percentage of load-balancing the body while maintaining a static position was observed in the group of athletes of speed and power of the sport and made up, the lowest — in athletes clearing difficult sport. Significant shift in the distribution of body load were detected in athletes clearing difficult sport in the speed and power sport, none of the athletes of the deviations were found. Conclusion. The survey revealed the features of the coordination ability and load balancing body in athletes of different sports: cycling, hard-house and speed-power.

  18. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad. (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R


    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.





    Tourism has many potential benefits for rural areas, being an important source of jobs for nonmetro communities, especially for those that are economically underdeveloped. The traditional use of lands in mountain regions is combined nowadays with surfaces devoted to recreational activities because of increasing tourist demand for winter sports. Winter-based ski tourism is a major human use of many mountain regions, with large-scale ski resorts in Europe, Asia, North and South America, New Zea...

  20. Modern trends in the use of artificial relief in winter recreational and sports centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonina M.I.


    Full Text Available the article presents original design and technological recreational and sports facilities for winter sports with artificial relief. Based on the examples of existing facilities the author examined quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the complexes that determined the scope and relevance of the data of natural and technical systems. The material contains photographs of objects in different periods of their life cycle in the construction and operation. The basic trends of the innovative sports building on the example of Moscow have been identified and formulated.

  1. Vascular injury is associated with increased mortality in winter sports trauma. (United States)

    Eun, John C; Bronsert, Michael; Hansen, Kristine; Moulton, Steven L; Jazaeri, Omid; Nehler, Mark; Greenberg, Joshua I


    Trauma is the leading cause of injury and death for individuals aged 1-44 years. Up to 8% of the US population participates in winter sports, and although vascular injuries are uncommon in these activities, little is published in this area. We sought to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and outcomes of vascular injuries resulting from winter sports trauma. Patients with winter sports trauma and the subset with vascular injuries were identified by accessing the National Trauma Data Bank querying years 2007-2010. Patients with and without vascular injuries were then compared. Admission variables included transport time, emergency department hypotension (systolic blood pressure Injury Severity Score ≥ 25, fractures, solid organ injury, and vascular injury. Outcomes were analyzed and associations with vascular injuries were determined. A total of 2,298 patients were identified with winter sports-related trauma and 28 (1.2%) had associated vascular injuries. Overall, the top 3 injuries were head trauma (16.7%), thoracic vertebral fractures (5.5%), and lumbar vertebral fractures (5.1%). The most common associated vascular injures were to the popliteal artery (17.7%), splenic artery (14.7%), and brachial blood vessels (14.7%). In the entire cohort, 1 patient (0.04%) suffered an amputation and 15 patients (0.7%) died. There were no amputations in the vascular injury group. Mortality was 0.6% in patients without a vascular injury compared with 7.1% of those with a vascular injury (P = 0.01). Although vascular injury is an uncommon associated finding in winter sports trauma, it is associated with a significant increase in mortality. These findings highlight the need for rapid identification of traumatic vascular injuries, which predicts worse overall outcomes in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatially explicit modeling of conflict zones between wildlife and snow sports: prioritizing areas for winter refuges. (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël


    Outdoor winter recreation exerts an increasing pressure upon mountain ecosystems, with unpredictable, free-ranging activities (e.g., ski mountaineering, snowboarding, and snowshoeing) representing a major source of stress for wildlife. Mitigating anthropogenic disturbance requires the spatially explicit prediction of the interference between the activities of humans and wildlife. We applied spatial modeling to localize conflict zones between wintering Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), a declining species of Alpine timberline ecosystems, and two free-ranging winter sports (off-piste skiing [including snow-boarding] and snowshoeing). Track data (snow-sports and birds' traces) obtained from aerial photographs taken over a 585-km transect running along the timberline, implemented within a maximum entropy model, were used to predict the occurrence of snow sports and Black Grouse as a function of landscape characteristics. By modeling Black Grouse presence in the theoretical absence of free-ranging activities and ski infrastructure, we first estimated the amount of habitat reduction caused by these two factors. The models were then extrapolated to the altitudinal range occupied by Black Grouse, while the spatial extent and intensity of potential conflict were assessed by calculating the probability of human-wildlife co-occurrence. The two snow-sports showed different distribution patterns. Skiers' occurrence was mainly determined by ski-lift presence and a smooth terrain, while snowshoers' occurrence was linked to hiking or skiing routes and moderate slopes. Wintering Black Grouse avoided ski lifts and areas frequented by free-ranging snow sports. According to the models, Black Grouse have faced a substantial reduction of suitable wintering habitat along the timberline transect: 12% due to ski infrastructure and another 16% when adding free-ranging activities. Extrapolating the models over the whole study area results in an overall habitat loss due to ski infrastructure of

  3. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes]. (United States)

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A


    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and bobsledders (23.5%) was significantly (p antioxidant (mainly beta-carotene) was most often recorded among persons engaged in bullet shooting (67%). The simultaneous lack of all three antioxidants was found only in freestylers and bobsledders (about 5%). Decreased level of antioxidants in blood serum in 40% of athletes was combined with vitamin B2 deficiency. The data obtained suggest the necessity to optimize diet vitamin content of all athletes, taking into account the age and gender differences. Contrary to prevailing stereotypes the optimization must involve not only an increase in the consumption of vitamins (vitamins E, B group) and carotenoids, but

  4. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Lillehammer 2016 Youth Olympic Winter Games. (United States)

    Steffen, Kathrin; Moseid, Christine Holm; Engebretsen, Lars; Søberg, Pia K; Amundsen, Olav; Holm, Kristian; Moger, Thomas; Soligard, Torbjørn


    Injury and illness surveillance during high-level youth sports events is an important first step in health prevention and caretaking of the young elite athletes. To analyse injuries and illnesses that occurred during the 10 days 2nd Youth Olympic Winter Games (YOG), held in Lillehammer 2016. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses through the reporting of (1) all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) the polyclinic and medical venues by the Lillehammer Organising Committee (LYOCOG) medical staff. In total, 1083 athletes (48 double-starters), 46% (n=502) of them females, from 70 NOCs were registered in the study. NOCs and LYOCOG reported 108 injuries and 81 illnesses, equalling to 9.5 injuries and 7.2 illnesses per 100 athletes. The percentage of injured athletes was highest in the snowboard and ski slopestyle and cross disciplines, alpine skiing and skeleton, and lowest in the Nordic skiing disciplines. Approximately, two-thirds of the injuries (n=71, 65.7%) prevented the athlete from training or competition, while 10 injuries (9.3%) were registered with an estimated absence from sport for >7 days. The rate of illness was highest in curling and the Nordic skiing disciplines with most of them being respiratory tract infections (81.5%). Overall, 9% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 7% an illness, which is similar to the first YOG in Innsbruck 2012 and slightly lower compared with previous Winter Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Russia and the olympic movement : a study of Russian national identity as described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during the winter olympic games of 1988, 1992, 1994, and in the future winter olympic games of 2014


    Nikitin, Anna


    The topic of the thesis deals with Russia and the Olympic Movement, studying Russian national identity as it is described in the newspaper Sovetskij Sport during three past Winter Olympic Games (1988, 1992, 1994) and the upcoming Winter Olympic Games that take place in Sochi 2014 in the framework of international politics. The research task is to analyze, what kinds of discourses do the writings of Russian Olympic Committee’s leading sports journal Sovetskij Sport use in times of the above me...

  6. Winter sports athletes: long-term effects of cold air exposure. (United States)

    Sue-Chu, Malcolm


    Athletes such as skaters and skiers inhale large volumes of cold air during exercise and shift from nasal to mouth breathing. Endurance athletes, like cross-country skiers, perform at 80% or more of their maximal oxygen consumption and have minute ventilations in excess of 100 l/min. Cold air is always dry, and endurance exercise results in loss of water and heat from the lower respiratory tract. In addition, athletes can be exposed to indoor and outdoor pollutants during the competitive season and during all-year training. Hyperpnoea with cold dry air represents a significant environmental stress to the airways. Winter athletes have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine and hyperpnoea. The acute effects of exercise in cold air are neutrophil influx as demonstrated in lavage fluid and airway epithelial damage as demonstrated by bronchoscopy. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been observed in horses. Chronic endurance training damages the epithelium of the small airways in mice. Airway inflammation has been observed on bronchoscopy of cross-country skiers and in dogs after a 1100-mile endurance race in Alaska. Neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation with remodelling is present in bronchial biopsies from skiers. Repeated peripheral airway hyperpnoea with dry air causes inflammation and remodelling in dogs. As it is currently unknown if these airway changes are reversible upon cessation of exposure, preventive measures to diminish exposure of the lower airways to cold air should be instituted by all winter sports athletes.

  7. Sports injuries and illnesses in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Winter Games. (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Aubry, Mark; Grant, Marie-Elaine; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars


    Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the XXII Olympic Winter Games, held in Sochi in 2014. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the Sochi 2014 medical staff. NOC and Sochi 2014 medical staff reported 391 injuries and 249 illnesses among 2780 athletes from 88 NOCs, equalling incidences of 14 injuries and 8.9 illnesses per 100 athletes over an 18-day period of time. Altogether, 12% and 8% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The percentage of athletes injured was highest in aerial skiing, snowboard slopestyle, snowboard cross, slopestyle skiing, halfpipe skiing, moguls skiing, alpine skiing, and snowboard halfpipe. Thirty-nine per cent of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Women suffered 50% more illnesses than men. The rate of illness was highest in skeleton, short track, curling, cross-country skiing, figure skating, bobsleigh and aerial skiing. A total of 159 illnesses (64%) affected the respiratory system, and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=145, 58%). Overall, 12% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 8% an illness, which is similar to prior Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  8. Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival. (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Schnitzer, M; Kirschner, W; Spiegel, R; Platzgummer, H; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Pocecco, E


    The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. Among the 899 registered athletes (37% female) with a mean age of 17.1±0.8 years, a total of 38 injuries and 34 illnesses during the 5 competition days of the W-EYOF were reported, resulting in an incidence of 42.3 injuries and 37.8 illnesses per 1000 athletes, respectively. Injury frequency was highest in snowboard cross (11%), Nordic combined (9%), alpine skiing (6%), and ice hockey (6%), taking into account the respective number of registered athletes. In snowboard cross, females showed a significant higher injury frequency compared to males (22% vs 4%, p=0.033). The lower back (16%), the pelvis (13%), the knee (11%), and the face (11%) were the most common injury locations. About 58% of injuries occurred in competition and about 42% in training. In total, 42% of injuries resulted in an absence of training or competition. The prevalence of illness was highest in figure skating (10%) and Nordic combined (9%), and the respiratory system was affected most often (53%). Four per cent of the athletes suffered from an injury and 4% from illnesses during the 2015 W-EYOF, which is about twofold lower compared to the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Retrospective case evaluation of gender differences in sports injuries in a Japanese sports medicine clinic. (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo


    Although both gender- and sports-specific injuries exist among athletes, gender differences in the types of injuries caused by sports activities, except for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and anterior knee pain, are not well established. An observational study with a retrospective case-series design was conducted to investigate gender-specific differences in the types of injuries sustained while engaging in sports activities common to both males and females. We analyzed injuries sustained during sports activities including basketball, volleyball, tennis, skiing, track and field, and swimming, using data on age, sex, sports activities, activity levels, and sports injuries that had been computerized at our sports medicine (orthopedics) clinic. Inclusion criteria were sports activities that had a record of >100 injuries in total and athletes aged sports activity. We determined the absolute number of patients in each category and their percentage (proportion) of our cohort. The proportions of common injuries caused by sports activities were investigated, and gender-specific differences in the types of common injuries caused by sports activities were clarified. The Fisher exact test was used to determine the significance (P gender-specific differences in the types of sports injuries. According to our database, during the 14-year period between October 1992 and December 2006, a total of 2,989 athletes (1,624 males and 1,365 females) aged sports activities described consulted our sports medicine clinic. The most common sports injuries were ACL injury (14.3%) and knee pain (13.7%), followed by ankle sprain (9.4%), lumbar disc disease (7.0%), meniscus injury (5.1%), stress fracture (2.9%), low back pain (2.5%), patellar tendinitis (2.1%), injury of the medial collateral ligament of the knee (2.0%), lumbar spondylolysis (1.7%), and muscle strain (1.5%). Among these 11 types of sports injuries, a significantly higher proportion of females who engaged in basketball

  10. Sport Concussion Knowledge and Clinical Practices: A Survey of Doctors of Chiropractic With Sports Certification. (United States)

    Moreau, William J; Nabhan, Dustin C; Walden, Taylor


    The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge base and clinical practices regarding concussion by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. A 21-item survey was distributed to the 312 attendees of the 2014 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Sports Sciences Symposium. Results were measured by frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for all surveys completed by sports-certified chiropractors. Seventy-six surveys were returned by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. All (N = 76) 100% of respondents believe that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with training in concussion. The respondents actively assess and manage concussion in adults (96%), adolescents (95%), and children (75%). A majority (79%) of respondents believe that the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 represents a current standard of care for the sideline evaluation of the athlete who possibly has sustained a sport concussion. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that manual therapies may be appropriate in certain circumstances in adults (80%) and minors (80%). This cross section of certified sports chiropractors strongly believes that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with specific training in concussion. A high percentage of the sports-certified chiropractors who responded assess and manage sport concussion in their practice, and many of them endorse the use of the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 as a sideline assessment tool.

  11. The effect of winter sports participation on high school football players: strength, power, agility, and body composition. (United States)

    Wroble, R R; Moxley, D R


    In this study, football players (N = 57) in grades 9-11 from 3 high schools chose to participate in 1 of 2 groups. Group WC (N = 39) participated in off-season strength training only. Group SP (N = 18) participated in both a winter sport (either wrestling or basketball) and an identical strength training program. All participants were tested at the close of football season (Pre) and at the end of the winter sports season (Post), a period of 4 months. Body composition (weight [W] and body fat percentage [BF]), strength (calculated 1RM [1 repetition maximum] max for barbell bench press [BP] and squat [SQ]), power (vertical jump [VJ] and seated shot put [UP]), and agility (18.3-m agility run [AG]) were measured. Both groups WC and SP increased significantly in W and BF and improved significantly in BP and VJ (p training.

  12. SPORT AND EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY TESTING Volume one: Sport Testing Volume two: Exercise and Clinical Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Winter


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The objective of the book is to discuss the theoretical and practical aspects of physiological testing in exercise and sports which is essential to evaluate and monitor developing exercise performance for athletes and public health, and improving quality of life for patients.A board of leading sport and exercise physiologists and scientists are gathered to discuss physiological assessments that have proven validity and reliability, both in sport and health relevant issues. Incidentally, it updates the reader about the current subjects of physiological exertion testing in both research and clinical procedures. Both volumes individually cover the increasing number of available research and review publications, and theoretical explanations are supported by practical examples. A step-by-step and/or checklist method is used in appropriate sections which make the guides more user-friendly than most. PURPOSE The first volume is designed to help readers develop an understanding of the essential concepts of sport specific testing whereas the second volume aims at making the exercise and clinical specific testing comprehensible, dealing with both technical terms and the theories underlying the importance of these tests. AUDIENCE As Guidelines books of the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, it will be of interest to a wide range of students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines whether they work in the laboratory or in the field. FEATURES The first volume features immediate practical requirements particularly in sport testing. It is composed of five parts with detailed sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i general principles, ii methodological issues, iii general procedures, iv sport specific procedures, v special populations.The second volume is also presented in five parts, again with sub-sections in all of them, but considering the requirements in clinical and exercise

  13. How evidence based is the management of two common sports injuries in a sports injury clinic?


    Murray, I; Murray, S; MacKenzie, K; Coleman, S; Cullen, M


    Objectives: To examine the diagnosis and management of adults attending a sports injury clinic, to establish to what extent the management of the two most common injuries treated at this clinic is evidence based, and to explore factors that affect management.

  14. Symptoms, diagnoses, and sporting consequences among athletes referred to a Danish sports cardiology clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser-Nielsen, L V; Tischer, S G; Prescott, E B


    investigated the prevalence of cardiac symptoms and diagnoses among 201 athletes referred for cardiac evaluation at a Sports Cardiology Clinic in Denmark. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of athletes referred for suspected cardiac disease. The athletes were all well-trained recreational...... to elite athletes who participated in various sports with different training loads and a wide age span (13-66 years). All patients were referred by physicians, primarily their general practitioner (38%), and palpitations were the most common cardiac symptom (40%). Cardiac symptoms had a sensitivity of 86......% in detecting cardiac disease and a specificity of 13%. Cardiac disease was diagnosed in 44% of the patients, and atrial fibrillation was the most prevalent diagnosis (7.5%). Cardiac diseases with therapeutic- or sports-related consequences for the patients were diagnosed in 28% of the population, but only 1...

  15. Medical coverage of winter Nordic sports: an overview from the field. (United States)

    Gaul, Lawrence W


    Traveling with sports teams requires flexibility and a wide range of knowledge, as well as problem-solving abilities. Dominating the medical types of problems in the Nordic sports are the respiratory illnesses, especially asthma and upper respiratory infections (URI). Additionally, the team physician must have an awareness of antidoping issues. This overview highlights many of the issues encountered traveling domestically as well as internationally with high-level Nordic teams. Helpful links are included to facilitate the care of all levels of athletes. Additionally, a few side issues such as altitude illness and minor trauma are mentioned.

  16. Sportmen's experiences at a somatology clinic receiving a sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sportsmen are increasingly visiting somatology clinics for massages prior to an aerobic sports event. Massage is frequently utilised prior to an athletic activity, as a means of enhancing performance. Massage is known to have both calming and stimulating properties, thereby possessing the potential to benefit performance ...

  17. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.


    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  18. The Top 100 Cited Articles in Clinical Orthopedic Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Nayar, Suresh K; Dein, Eric J; Spiker, Andrea M; Bernard, Johnathan A; Zikria, Bashir A


    Orthopedic sports medicine continues to evolve, owing much of its clinical management and practice to rigorous academic research. In this review, we identify and describe the top 100 cited articles in clinical sports medicine and recognize the authors and institutions driving the research. We collected articles (excluding basic science, animal, and cadaveric studies) from the 25 highest-impact sports medicine journals and analyzed them by number of citations, journal, publication date, institution, country, topic, and author. Mean number of citations was 408 (range, 229-1629). The articles were published in 7 journals, most in the 1980s to 2000s, and represented 15 countries. Thirty topics were addressed, with a heavy emphasis on anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction, knee rating systems, rotator cuff reconstruction, and chondrocyte transplantation. The 3 most cited articles, by Insall and colleagues, Constant and Murley, and Tegner and Lysholm, addressed a knee, a shoulder, and another knee rating system, respectively. Several authors contributed multiple articles. The Hospital for Special Surgery and the University of Bern contributed the most articles (5 each). This study provides a comprehensive list of the past century's major academic contributions to sports medicine. Residents and fellows may use this list to guide their scholarly investigations.

  19. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents]. (United States)

    Felkai, Péter


    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  20. The Effect of Fertilizer Treatments at Three Compactness Levels on Qualitative Traits of Sport Lawn in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Javahery


    Full Text Available Lawn quality, which introduces by good color, density, uniformity and texture varies depending on the species, maintenance operation, and time of the year. In the current study, the effect of organic fertilizers containing Leaf Mold (LM, Rice Husk (RH, manure, Spent Mushroom Compost (SMC, a mixture of LM, RH and SMC (mixture 1, a mixture of LM, RH and manure (mixture 2, with the ratio of 1:1:1 and control (no fertilizer at three levels of soil compactness including roller weights of 36, 56, 76 kilograms on qualitative traits of sport lawn were investigated in winter season. Treatments were applied in a strip plot design with three replications, in research farm of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during fall 2008-2009. According to achieved results, manure and RH treatments in first and second compaction and manure treatment in third compaction level showed the highest amount of chlorophyll content. In visual assessment, the highest and lowest of lawn quality was observed in the manure and the control treatment respectively. In first and second compaction, the maximum height was observed in manure treatment. Control and LM treatments showed the minimum height. In third compaction, maximum and minimum heights were associated with manure and control treatment respectively.

  1. Sports injury and illness epidemiology: Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) surveillance during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall


    Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to


    Hawkins, Shawn W; Hawkins, Jeremy R


    Therapeutic modalities (TM) are used by sports physical therapists (SPT) but how they are used is unknown. To identify the current clinical use patterns for cryotherapy among SPT. Cross-sectional survey. All members (7283) of the Sports Physical Therapy Section of the APTA were recruited. A scenario-based survey using pre-participation management of an acute or sub-acute ankle sprain was developed. A Select Survey link was distributed via email to participants. Respondents selected a treatment approach based upon options provided. Follow-up questions were asked. The survey was available for two weeks with a follow-up email sent after one week. Question answers were the main outcome measures. Reliability: Cronbach's alpha=>0.9. The SPT response rate = 6.9% (503); responses came from 48 states. Survey results indicated great variability in respondents' approaches to the treatment of an acute and sub-acute ankle sprain. SPT applied cryotherapy with great variability and not always in accordance to the limited research on the TM. Continuing education, application of current research, and additional outcomes based research needs to remain a focus for clinicians. 3.

  3. Bulimia and anorexia nervosa in winter depression: lifetime rates in a clinical sample. (United States)

    Gruber, N P; Dilsaver, S C


    Symptoms of an eating disorder (hyperphagia, carbohydrate craving, and weight gain) are characteristic of wintertime depression. Recent findings suggest that the severity of bulimia nervosa peaks during fall and winter months, and that persons with this disorder respond to treatment with bright artificial light. However, the rates of eating disorders among patients presenting for the treatment of winter depression are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine these rates among 47 patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for major depression with a seasonal pattern. All were evaluated using standard clinical interviews and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Twelve (25.5%) patients met the DSM-III-R criteria for an eating disorder. Eleven patients had onset of mood disorder during childhood or adolescence. The eating disorder followed the onset of the mood disorder. Clinicians should inquire about current and past symptoms of eating disorders when evaluating patients with winter depression. PMID:8580121

  4. Sportmen’s experiences at a somatology clinic receiving a sport message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Jooste


    Full Text Available Sportsmen are increasingly visiting somatology clinics for massages prior to an aerobic sports event. Massage is frequently utilised prior to an athletic activity, as a means of enhancing performance. Massage is known to have both calming and stimulating properties, thereby possessing the potential to benefit performance in numerous different circumstances. In the context of sportsmen visiting somatology clinics, it is unclear how men experienced the benefits of a massage by a therapist in the somatology environment, prior to participating in an aerobic sports event. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was to explore and describe the experiences of men regarding sports massage in a somatology clinic prior to an aerobic sports event. Purposive sampling was used to select eight (8 men, aged between 25 and 50 years, who received two massages within two weeks prior to participating in an aerobic sports event. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, individual interviews and field notes until saturation of data was achieved. Trustworthiness was ensured by utilising the principles of Lincoln and Guba’s model. The men experienced the sports massage as relaxing and giving perceived holistic beneficial effects. They described their experience during the massage and during and after participation in an aerobic sports event. A sports massage brings about psychological, physical, and spiritual effects during and after participation in an aerobic sports event.

  5. Overuse of trauma in sports - clinical signs in the context with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurnig, C.; Gollob, E.


    New insights in the fields of pathology and diagnostic radiology of sports injuries show that the borders between overuse syndromes and trauma are blurred. Techniques of diagnostic imaging are increasingly important for an objective documentation of morphologic changes of the musculoskeletal system. Typical sports-related syndromes exist and their clinical diagnosis is not always easy because pain cannot be located exactly. (author)

  6. Spanish Consensus Statement: Clinical Management and Treatment of Tendinopathies in Sport. (United States)

    Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Angulo, Francisco; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Ayala, Juan; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Del Pilar Doñoro Cuevas, M; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; García Cota, Juan José; Garrido González, Jose Ignacio; de Vega, Carlos Gonzalez; Santander, Manuela González; Herrador Munilla, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Muñoz Benito, Juan José; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Pedret, Carles; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Grifell, Jordi Puigdellivoll; San Roque, Juan Pérez; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Rodas, Gil; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Perez, Lluis Til; Durán, Rosario Ureña; Del Valle Soto, Miguel; Villalón Alonso, José María; García, Pedro Guillen


    On October 15, 2016, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of the Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), the Spanish Society of Sports Medicine (SEMED), the Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), the Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB), F.C. Barcelona, and Clínica CEMTRO. The purpose was to consider the most appropriate clinical management and treatment of tendinopathies in sports, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature as well as on each expert's experience. Prior to the meeting, each expert received a questionnaire regarding clinical management and treatment of tendinopathies in sports. The present consensus document summarizes the answers to the questionnaire and the resulting discussion and consensus regarding current concepts on tendinopathies in sports.

  7. Sportmen's experiences at a somatology clinic receiving a sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 3, 2013 ... psychological, physical, and spiritual effects during and after participation in an aerobic sports event. Sportsmanne besoek ... in that certain emotional or psychological states produce changes in the chemical balance of .... phenomenon by reading through the transcripts. The researcher randomly selected ...

  8. Effect of sports modification on clinical outcome in children and adolescent athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis. (United States)

    El Rassi, Georges; Takemitsu, Masakazu; Glutting, Joseph; Shah, Suken A


    This cohort study aimed to report the compliance of young athletes with nonoperative treatment and to clarify the role of sports modification on clinical outcome of symptomatic spondylolysis. This study included patients with a chief complaint of low back pain participating in regular sports activity, having spondylolysis, and being treated and followed up between 1990 and 2002 in the authors' hospital. One hundred thirty-two athletes were included in this study: 78 males and 54 females. The mean age of the patients was 13 yrs (range, 7-18 yrs). Only 56 patients (42.4%) were compliant to nonoperative treatment. Eighty-six patients (65%) stopped all sports activities for at least 3 mos, and 46 patients (35%) stopped exercising for a variable period of less than 3 mos. The grading of clinical outcome after nonoperative treatment was as follows: excellent in 48 patients (36.4%), good in 74 patients (56.1), fair in 6 patients (4.5%), and poor in 4 patients (3%). The patients who stopped sports for at least 3 mos were 16.39 times more likely to have an excellent result than those who did not stop sports. Bony healing on radiographs did not correlate with clinical outcome. Timely cessation of sports activity for 3 mos is considered an effective method of nonoperative treatment for young athletes with symptomatic lumbar spondylolysis.

  9. [Myocardial infarction related to sport. Acute clinical and coronary angiographic characteristics in 16 cases]. (United States)

    Halna du Fretay, X; Akoudad, H; Nejjari, M; Benamer, H


    Determination of clinical and angiographic characteristics of myocardial infarctions related to sport. Retrospective study of acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation related to sport treated with interventional cardiology from 2006 to 2013. Sixteen patients were included. They are mostly men (15/16), aged 24-65 years (over 35 years old in 13 cases) with few cardiovascular risk factors, most frequently heredity or smoking. Myocardial infarctions usually occur during the practice of sports (13/16), with serious rhythmic complications in three of the cases. On angiography, most patients have single vessel disease (12/16). Myocardial infarction related to sports affects a male population aged over 35 years old with few cardiovascular risk factors, most often single vessel disease, making the preventative screening uneasy. Other studies investigating larger populations, assessing previous clinical events (symptoms, results of stress tests), evaluating the impact of competition and integrating sudden deaths would improve the screening and the treatment of sport-related myocardial infarctions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.


    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information

  11. Combining Clinical Information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, D.A. van


    In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable

  12. Cold-Weather Sports (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  13. 78 FR 55777 - Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event... (United States)


    ... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Titles: a. National Disabled Veterans Winter... Form 0928h. m. Surfing Personnel Application, VA Form 0928i. n. Venue Personnel Application, VA Form... Creative Arts Festival, National Veterans TEE Tournament, National Disabled Veterans Winter Sports Clinic...

  14. Levels of Evidence in the Clinical Sports Medicine Literature: Are We Getting Better Over Time? (United States)

    Grant, Heather M; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Freedman, Kevin B


    There has been an increased emphasis on improving the level of evidence used as the basis for clinical treatment decisions. Several journals now require a statement of the level of evidence as a basic gauge of the study's strength. To review the levels of evidence in published articles in the clinical sports medicine literature and to determine if there has been an improvement in the levels of evidence published over the past 15 years. Systematic review. All articles from the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), Arthroscopy, and sports medicine-related articles from The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American (JBJS-A) were analyzed. Articles were categorized by type and ranked for level of evidence according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Excluded were animal, cadaveric, and basic science articles; editorials; surveys; special topics; letters to the editor; and correspondence. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square. A total of 1580 articles over the 4 periods met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of level 1 and 2 studies increased from 6.8% to 12.6%, 22.9%, and 23.5%, respectively (P studies decreased from 78.9% to 72.4%, 63.9%, and 53.0% (P studies (4.1%, 5.1%, 28.2%, 27.8%; P studies all showed significant increases in level 1 and 2 studies over time (P studies published in the sports medicine literature over the past 15 years, particularly in JBJS-A and AJSM. The largest increase was seen in diagnostic studies, while therapeutic and prognostic studies demonstrated modest improvement. The emphasis on increasing levels of evidence to guide treatment decisions for sports medicine patients may be taking effect. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities. (United States)


    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  16. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  17. Feasibility of Muscle Synergy Outcomes in Clinics, Robotics, and Sports: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri


    Full Text Available In the last years, several studies have been focused on understanding how the central nervous system controls muscles to perform a specific motor task. Although it still remains an open question, muscle synergies have come to be an appealing theory to explain the modular organization of the central nervous system. Even though the neural encoding of muscle synergies remains controversial, a large number of papers demonstrated that muscle synergies are robust across different tested conditions, which are within a day, between days, within a single subject, and between subjects that have similar demographic characteristics. Thus, muscle synergy theory has been largely used in several research fields, such as clinics, robotics, and sports. The present systematical review aims at providing an overview on the applications of muscle synergy theory in clinics, robotics, and sports; in particular, the review is focused on the papers that provide tangible information for (i diagnosis or pathology assessment in clinics, (ii robot-control design in robotics, and (iii athletes’ performance assessment or training guidelines in sports.

  18. Prevalence of clinically elevated depressive symptoms in college athletes and differences by gender and sport. (United States)

    Wolanin, Andrew; Hong, Eugene; Marks, Donald; Panchoo, Kelly; Gross, Michael


    There are approximately 400,000 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and 5-7 million high school student athletes competing each year. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, the depression prevalence rate for young adults, which ranges from 10% to 85% across studies, is higher than that of other age groups. Given the relatively high prevalence of depression in individuals of collegiate age in the general population, the prevalence of depression among athletes in this age group warrants further study. This multiyear study examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms in college athletes, as well as demographic factors related to increased or decreased rates of depressive symptoms by gender and sport. To describe the prevalence of depression symptoms among NCAA division I student athletes at a single institution over 3 consecutive years. Participants (n=465) completed a battery of measures during their yearly spring sports medicine physical across 3 consecutive years. The battery included the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and a demographic questionnaire, administered during the course of routine sports medicine physical examinations. Differences in depressive symptoms prevalence and relative risk ratios were calculated by gender and sport. The prevalence rate for a clinically relevant level of depressive symptoms, as measured on the CES-D (CES-D ≥16), was 23.7%. A moderate to severe level of depressive symptoms was reported by 6.3%. There was a significant gender difference in prevalence of depressive symptoms, χ(2) (1)=7.459, p=0.006, with female athletes exhibiting 1.844 times the risk of male athletes for endorsing clinically relevant symptoms. The CES-D identified clinically relevant levels of depressive symptoms in nearly one-quarter of college student athletes in this large cross-sectional sample. Female college athletes reported significantly more depressive symptoms than males

  19. Sportmen’s experiences at a somatology clinic receiving a sport message

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Jooste


    Full Text Available Sportsmen are increasingly visiting somatology clinics for massages prior to an aerobic sports event. Massage is frequently utilised prior to an athletic activity, as a means of enhancing performance. Massage is known to have both calming and stimulating properties, thereby possessing the potential to benefit performance in numerous different circumstances. In the context of sportsmen visiting somatology clinics, it is unclear how men experienced the benefits of a massage by a therapist in the somatology environment, prior to participating in an aerobic sports event. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was to explore and describe the experiences of men regarding sports massage in a somatology clinic prior to an aerobic sports event. Purposive sampling was used to select eight (8 men, aged between 25 and 50 years, who received two massages within two weeks prior to participating in an aerobic sports event. The data were collected through in-depth, unstructured, individual interviews and field notes until saturation of data was achieved. Trustworthiness was ensured by utilising the principles of Lincoln and Guba’s model. The men experienced the sports massage as relaxing and giving perceived holistic beneficial effects. They described their experience during the massage and during and after participation in an aerobic sports event. A sports massage brings about psychological, physical, and spiritual effects during and after participation in an aerobic sports event. Sportsmanne besoek toenemend somatologieklinieke vir masserings voor ’n aërobiese sportsbyeenkoms as ’n manier om prestasie te bevorder. Massering is bekend vir beide die kalmerende en stimulerende eienskappe daarvan, en daarom beskik dit oor potensiële voordele vir prestasie in verskeie omstandighede. In die konteks van sportsmanne wat somatologieklinieke besoek, is dit steeds onduidelik hoe mans die voordele van ’n massering by

  20. Length of Recovery From Sports-Related Concussions in Pediatric Patients Treated at Concussion Clinics. (United States)

    Thomas, Donald J; Coxe, Kathryn; Li, Hongmei; Pommering, Thomas L; Young, Julie A; Smith, Gary A; Yang, Jingzhen


    We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. A retrospective, cohort design. Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury. Length of recovery by week. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to model the effect of patient and injury characteristics on length of recovery by week. Median length of recovery was 17 days. Only 16.3% (299/1840) of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than four weeks to recover. By 2 months postinjury, 6.7% of patients were still experiencing symptoms. Higher symptom scores at injury and initial visit were significantly associated with prolonged symptoms by week. Patients who presented to the clinic more than 2 weeks postinjury or who had 2 or more previous concussions showed increased risk for prolonged recovery. Females were at greater risk for prolonged recovery than males (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.89). Age was not significantly associated with recovery length. High symptom scores at injury and initial visit, time to initial clinical presentation, presence of 2 or more previous concussions, and female sex are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. Further research should aim to establish objective measures of recovery, accounting for treatment received during the recovery. The median length of recovery is 17 days among pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics. Only 16.3% of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than 4 weeks to recover.

  1. Sports-specialized intensive training and the risk of injury in young athletes: a clinical case-control study. (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R


    Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings. (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Vernillo, Gianluca; de Morree, Helma M; Bonomi, Alberto G; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Veicsteinas, Arsenio


    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the (VO(2max)) provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in several clinical populations, such as patients with coronary artery disease or heart failure. Likewise, VO(2max) assessment can be very important to evaluate fitness in asymptomatic adults. Although direct determination of [VO(2max) is the most accurate method, it requires a maximal level of exertion, which brings a higher risk of adverse events in individuals with an intermediate to high risk of cardiovascular problems. Estimation of VO(2max) during submaximal exercise testing can offer a precious alternative. Over the past decades, many protocols have been developed for this purpose. The present review gives an overview of these submaximal protocols and aims to facilitate appropriate test selection in sports, clinical, and home settings. Several factors must be considered when selecting a protocol: (i) The population being tested and its specific needs in terms of safety, supervision, and accuracy and repeatability of the VO(2max) estimation. (ii) The parameters upon which the prediction is based (e.g. heart rate, power output, rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), as well as the need for additional clinically relevant parameters (e.g. blood pressure, ECG). (iii) The appropriate test modality that should meet the above-mentioned requirements should also be in line with the functional mobility of the target population, and depends on the available equipment. In the sports setting, high repeatability is crucial to track training-induced seasonal changes. In the clinical setting, special attention must be paid to the test modality, because multiple physiological parameters often need to be measured during test execution. When estimating VO(2max), one has

  3. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young. (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya


    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  4. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment. (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P


    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  5. Human Amniotic Membrane-Derived Products in Sports Medicine: Basic Science, Early Results, and Potential Clinical Applications. (United States)

    Riboh, Jonathan C; Saltzman, Bryan M; Yanke, Adam B; Cole, Brian J


    Amniotic membrane (AM)-derived products have been successfully used in ophthalmology, plastic surgery, and wound care, but little is known about their potential applications in orthopaedic sports medicine. To provide an updated review of the basic science and preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of AM-derived products and to review their current applications in sports medicine. Systematic review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The search term amniotic membrane was used alone and in conjunction with stem cell, orthopaedic, tissue engineering, scaffold, and sports medicine. The search identified 6870 articles, 80 of which, after screening of the titles and abstracts, were considered relevant to this study. Fifty-five articles described the anatomy, basic science, and nonorthopaedic applications of AM-derived products. Twenty-five articles described preclinical and clinical trials of AM-derived products for orthopaedic sports medicine. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the anatomy, physiology, and clinical uses of AM-derived products is presented. Amniotic membranes have many promising applications in sports medicine. They are a source of pluripotent cells, highly organized collagen, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulators, and matrix proteins. These properties may make it beneficial when applied as tissue engineering scaffolds, improving tissue organization in healing, and treatment of the arthritic joint. The current body of evidence in sports medicine is heavily biased toward in vitro and animal studies, with little to no human clinical data. Nonetheless, 14 companies or distributors offer commercial AM products. The preparation and formulation of these products alter their biological and mechanical properties, and a thorough understanding of these

  6. What domains of clinical function should be assessed after sport-related concussion? A systematic review. (United States)

    Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Echemendia, Ruben J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Solomon, Gary S; Hayden, K Alix; Turner, Michael; Dvořák, Jiří; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A


    Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a clinical diagnosis made after a sport-related head trauma. Inconsistency exists regarding appropriate methods for assessing SRC, which focus largely on symptom-scores, neurocognitive functioning and postural stability. Systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane-DSR, Cochrane CRCT, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (accessed July 9, 2016). Original (prospective) studies reporting on postinjury assessment in a clinical setting and evaluation of diagnostic tools within 2 weeks after an SRC. Forty-six studies covering 3284 athletes were included out of 2170 articles. Only the prospective studies were considered for final analysis (n=33; 2416 athletes). Concussion diagnosis was typically made on the sideline by an (certified) athletic trainer (55.0%), mainly on the basis of results from a symptom-based questionnaire. Clinical domains affected included cognitive, vestibular and headache/migraine. Headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and dizziness were the symptoms most frequently reported. Neurocognitive testing was used in 30/33 studies (90.9%), whereas balance was assessed in 9/33 studies (27.3%). The overall quality of the studies was considered low. The absence of an objective, gold standard criterion makes the accurate diagnosis of SRC challenging. Current approaches tend to emphasise cognition, symptom assessment and postural stability with less of a focus on other domains of functioning. We propose that the clinical assessment of SRC should be symptom based and interdisciplinary. Whenever possible, the SRC assessment should incorporate neurological, vestibular, ocular motor, visual, neurocognitive, psychological and cervical aspects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. IGF-1 abuse in sport: clinical and medico-legal aspects. (United States)

    Molinelli, A; Bonsignore, A; Cicconi, M; Cioè, A; Traverso, A


    The frequent revisions of prohibited substances list established by WADA are aimed at keeping up with those drugs that, being increasingly used in medicine and in sports, play on one side a therapeutic role and, on the other, a doping role. Among the various hormone substances widely used in sports, the authors draw particular attention on IGF-1, a growth factor that is rapidly widespreading among athletes. Moreover, IGF-1 diffusion is not exclusively correlated with the doping phenomenon, being various the pathological conditions that may require the therapeutic use of this substance. As a consequence, during pathologies or medical treatments of various nature, the athletes should be informed of the IGF-1 administration because, if they are not duly apprised, they risk undergoing unjust sanctions from the competent authority. In fact, the athlete is given the possibility of communicating, before using, he is taking a medication of the WADA list for therapeutic reasons by applying for a TUE (Therapeutic Use Exemption). If this application is accepted on certified clinical grounds, the athlete will be allowed to use that substance even during sports competitions. However, the IGF-1 detection in the athlete's body shows, at the present state-of-art, two different problems: the first one has a technical character and concerns the differential diagnosis between the quantity of the physiologically produced substance and the quantity of the exogenously administrated substance; the second problem has an economic character and regards to the high cost of the analysis and, consecutively, the necessity of finding a well-equipped laboratory centre.

  8. Sport Specialization, Part I


    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  9. Sports Physicals (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  10. Competition and postural confrontation in life, sports, and psychoanalytic treatment--illustrated clinically and in relation to Vladimir Nabokov. (United States)

    Shengold, Leonard


    The importance of the emotions that can be evoked by (face-to-face and face-to-back) postural and visual contrapositions in life and in psychoanalysis-and specifically in relation to sports and games-is delineated and illustrated in clinical and literary material. The latter features aspects of the life and works of the writer Vladimir Nabokov.

  11. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  12. Clinical characteristics of the autumn-winter type scrub typhus cases in south of Shandong province, northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jing-Si


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1986, scrub typhus was only found endemic in southern China. Because human infections typically occur in the summer, it is called "summer type". During the autumn-winter period of 1986, a new type of scrub typhus was identified in Shandong and northern Jiangsu province of northern China. This newly recognized scrub typhus was subsequently reported in many areas of northern China and was then called "autumn-winter type". However, clinical characteristics of associated cases have not been reported. Methods From 1995 to 2006, all suspected scrub typhus cases in five township hospitals of Feixian county, Shandong province were enrolled. Indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA was used as confirmatory serodiagnosis test. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR connected with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and sequence analyses were used for genotyping of O. tsutsugamushi DNAs. Clinical symptoms and demography of confirmed cases were analyzed. Results A total of 480 scrub typhus cases were confirmed. The cases occurred every year exclusively between September and December with a peak occurrence in October. The case numbers were relatively higher in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2000 than in other years. 57.9% of cases were in the group aged 21–50. More cases occurred in male (56% than in female (44%. The predominant occupational group of the cases was farmers (85.0%. Farm work was reported the primary exposure to infection in 67.7% of cases. Fever, rash, and eschar were observed in 100.0%, 90.4%, and 88.5% of cases, respectively. Eschars formed frequently on or around umbilicus, abdomen areas, and front and back of waist (34.1% in both genders. Normal results were observed in 88.7% (WBC counts, 84.5% (PLT counts, and 89.7% (RBC counts of cases, respectively. Observations from the five hospitals were compared and no significant differences were found. Conclusion The autumn-winter type scrub typhus in northern China occurred

  13. Subchondral Bone and the Osteochondral Unit: Basic Science and Clinical Implications in Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Saltzman, Bryan M; Riboh, Jonathan C


    Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016. Clinical review. Level 4. Articles collected via the database search were assessed for the association of bone marrow lesions and osteoarthritis, cartilage regeneration, and ligamentous and meniscal injury; the clinical disorder known as painful bone marrow edema syndrome; and the subchondral bone as a target for medical and surgical intervention. A complex interplay exists between the articular cartilage of the knee and its underlying subchondral bone. The role of subchondral bone in the knee is intimately related to the outcomes from cartilage restoration procedures, ligamentous injury, meniscal pathology, and osteoarthritis. However, subchondral bone is often neglected when it should be viewed as a critical element of the osteochondral unit and a key player in joint health. Continued explorations into the intricacies of subchondral bone marrow abnormalities and implications for the advent of procedures such as subchondroplasty will inform further research efforts on how interventions aimed at the subchondral bone may provide durable options for knee joint preservation.

  14. [Sports purpura]. (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas


    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Common sports-related infections: a review on clinical pictures, management and time to return to sports. (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Alijani, Neda; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid


    There is a relationship between exercise and changes in immunity. So athletes are prone to different medical problems such as injuries and infections. Infection is an important medical problem which could be a reason for athletes' absence from training. The relationship between physical activity and immune system, characteristics of different types of infections in athletes with emphasis on special clinical presentations or complications, time to return to physical activity and training and strategies to prevent development and transmission of infections in athletes or physically active people are the main topics of this review.

  16. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application. (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil


    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology. The purpose of this article was to describe a classification system for muscle injuries with easy clinical application, adequate grouping of injuries with similar functional impairment, and potential prognostic value. This evidence-informed and expert consensus-based classification system for muscle injuries is based on a four-letter initialism system: MLG-R, respectively referring to the mechanism of injury (M), location of injury (L), grading of severity (G), and number of muscle re-injuries (R). The goal of the classification is to enhance communication between healthcare and sports-related professionals and facilitate rehabilitation and return-to-play decision making.

  17. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome type 3 with polymicrogyria: a clinical presentation of Baraitser-Winter syndrome. (United States)

    Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain


    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sports Supplements (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  19. Sports members' participation in assessment of incidence rate of injuries in five sports from records of hospital-based clinical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ

    This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate

  20. Sport Specialization, Part I (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  1. Key Topics in Sports Medicine



    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  2. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned from Clinical, Sports, and Combat Concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy C. Kelly


    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, a tremendous amount of information has been gained on the mechanisms and consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries. Using sports as a laboratory to study this phenomenon, a natural recovery curve emerged, along with standards for managing concussions and returning athletes back to play. Although advances have been made in this area, investigation into recovery and return to play continues. With the increase in combat-related traumatic brain injuries in the military setting, lessons learned from sports concussion research are being applied by the Department of Defense to the assessment of blast concussions and return to duty decision making. Concussion management and treatment for military personnel can be complicated by additional combat related stressors not present in the civilian environment. Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the interventions that has been successful in treating symptoms of postconcussion syndrome. While we are beginning to have an understanding of the impact of multiple concussions and subconcussive blows in the sports world, much is still unknown about the impact of multiple blast injuries.

  3. Sports medicine clinical trial research publications in academic medical journals between 1996 and 2005: an audit of the PubMed MEDLINE database. (United States)

    Nichols, A W


    To identify sports medicine-related clinical trial research articles in the PubMed MEDLINE database published between 1996 and 2005 and conduct a review and analysis of topics of research, experimental designs, journals of publication and the internationality of authorships. Sports medicine research is international in scope with improving study methodology and an evolution of topics. Structured review of articles identified in a search of a large electronic medical database. PubMed MEDLINE database. Sports medicine-related clinical research trials published between 1996 and 2005. Review and analysis of articles that meet inclusion criteria. Articles were examined for study topics, research methods, experimental subject characteristics, journal of publication, lead authors and journal countries of origin and language of publication. The search retrieved 414 articles, of which 379 (345 English language and 34 non-English language) met the inclusion criteria. The number of publications increased steadily during the study period. Randomised clinical trials were the most common study type and the "diagnosis, management and treatment of sports-related injuries and conditions" was the most popular study topic. The knee, ankle/foot and shoulder were the most frequent anatomical sites of study. Soccer players and runners were the favourite study subjects. The American Journal of Sports Medicine had the highest number of publications and shared the greatest international diversity of authorships with the British Journal of Sports Medicine. The USA, Australia, Germany and the UK produced a good number of the lead authorships. In all, 91% of articles and 88% of journals were published in English. Sports medicine-related research is internationally diverse, clinical trial publications are increasing and the sophistication of research design may be improving.

  4. Posterior shoulder instability in the athletic population: Variations in assessment, clinical outcomes, and return to sport. (United States)

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Bradley, James P


    Posterior instability of the shoulder is becoming an increasingly recognized shoulder injury in the athletic population. Diagnostic elements, such as etiology, directionality, and degree of instability are essential factors to assess in the unstable athletic shoulder. Concomitant injuries and associated pathologic lesions continue to be a significant challenge in the surgical management of posterior shoulder instability. Return to sport and previous level of play is ultimately the goal for every committed athlete and surgeon, thus subpopulations of athletes should be recognized as distinct entities requiring unique diagnostic, functional outcome measures, and surgical approaches.


    Crowell, Michael S; Dedekam, Erik A; Johnson, Michael R; Dembowski, Scott C; Westrick, Richard B; Goss, Donald L


    While advanced diagnostic imaging is a large contributor to the growth in health care costs, direct-access to physical therapy is associated with decreased rates of diagnostic imaging. No study has systematically evaluated with evidence-based criteria the appropriateness of advanced diagnostic imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when ordered by physical therapists. The primary purpose of this study was to describe the appropriateness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) exams ordered by physical therapists in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic. Retrospective observational study of practice. Greater than 80% of advanced diagnostic imaging orders would have an American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria rating of greater than 6, indicating an imaging order that is usually appropriate. A 2-year retrospective analysis identified 108 MRI/MRA examination orders from four physical therapists. A board-certified radiologist determined the appropriateness of each order based on ACR appropriateness criteria. The principal investigator and co-investigator radiologist assessed agreement between the clinical diagnosis and MRI/surgical findings. Knee (31%) and shoulder (25%) injuries were the most common. Overall, 55% of injuries were acute. The mean ACR rating was 7.7; scores from six to nine have been considered appropriate orders and higher ratings are better. The percentage of orders complying with ACR appropriateness criteria was 83.2%. Physical therapist's clinical diagnosis was confirmed by MRI/MRA findings in 64.8% of cases and was confirmed by surgical findings in 90% of cases. Physical therapists providing musculoskeletal primary care in a direct-access sports physical therapy clinic appropriately ordered advanced diagnostic imaging in over 80% of cases. Future research should prospectively compare physical therapist appropriateness and utilization to other groups of providers and

  6. Sports physical (United States)

    ... page: // Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  7. Winter Wonderlands (United States)

    Coy, Mary


    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  8. Arthroscopic Suture Anchor Fixation of Bony Bankart Lesions: Clinical Outcome, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results, and Return to Sports. (United States)

    Plath, Johannes E; Feucht, Matthias J; Bangoj, Robert; Martetschläger, Frank; Wörtler, Klaus; Seppel, Gernot; Aboalata, Mohamed; Tischer, Thomas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Vogt, Stephan


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome, return to sporting activity, and postoperative articular cartilage and bony morphology of shoulders that underwent arthroscopic suture anchor repair of bony Bankart lesions. The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were anterior glenoid rim fractures after traumatic shoulder instability that were treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Patients were surveyed by a questionnaire including sport-specific outcome, Rowe score, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index, and Oxford Instability Score. Three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging could be performed in 30 patients to assess osseous integration, glenoid reconstruction, and signs of osteoarthritis. From November 1999 to April 2010, 81 patients underwent an anterior bony Bankart repair in our department (50 arthroscopic suture anchor repairs, 5 arthroscopic screw fixations, and 26 open repairs). The 55 arthroscopic repairs comprised a consecutive cohort of patients treated by a single surgeon. Of the 50 patients in the suture anchor group, 45 (90%) were available for evaluation. At 82 ± 31 months postoperatively, the mean Rowe score was 85.9 ± 20.5 points, the mean Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index score was 89.4% ± 14.7%, and the mean Oxford Instability Score was 13.6 ± 5.4 points. Compared with the contralateral shoulder, all scores showed a significantly reduced outcome (P sporting activity after surgery. The number of sports disciplines (P < .001), duration (P = .005), level (P = .02), and risk category (P = .013) showed a significant reduction compared with the pretrauma condition. However, only 19% of patients reported that shoulder complaints were the reason for the reduction in activity. Nonunion occurred in 16.6%, with a higher frequency in patients with chronic lesions (P = .031). Anatomic reduction was achieved in 72%, the medial step-off in patients with nonanatomic reduction averaged 1.8 ± 0.9 mm, and the

  9. Immediate pain relief effect of low level laser therapy for sports injuries: Randomized, double-blind placebo clinical trial. (United States)

    Takenori, A; Ikuhiro, M; Shogo, U; Hiroe, K; Junji, S; Yasutaka, T; Hiroya, K; Miki, N


    To determine the immediate pain relief effect of low-level laser therapy on sports injuries in athletes and degree of pain relief by the therapy. Double-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Participants were 32 college athletes with motion pain at a defined site. Participants were randomized into two groups in which the tested or placebo laser therapy was administered to determine pain intensity from painful action before and after laser irradiation, using the Modified Numerical Rating Scale. The post-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score was subtracted from the pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score to determine pain intensity difference, and the rate of pain intensity difference to pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale was calculated as pain relief rate. Low-level laser therapy was effective in 75% of the laser group, whereas it was not effective in the placebo group, indicating a significant difference in favor of the laser group (p<0.001). Pain relief rate was significantly higher in the laser group than in the placebo group (36.94% vs. 8.20%, respectively, p<0.001), with the difference in pain relief rate being 28.74%. Low-level laser therapy provided an immediate pain relief effect, reducing pain by 28.74%. It was effective for pain relief in 75% of participants. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise-associated hyponatremia during winter sports. (United States)

    Stuempfle, Kristin J


    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is hyponatremia that occurs respiratory distress, seizures, coma, and death. Rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment with hypertonic saline is necessary to prevent severe complications or death. Prevention is based on educating athletes to avoid excessive drinking before, during, and after exercise.

  11. Sex and growth effect on pediatric hip injuries presenting to sports medicine clinic. (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Yen, Yi-Meng; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Lewis, Cara L; Sugimoto, Dai


    To compare sports-related hip injuries on the basis of sex and age in a cohort of young athletes. A 5% random probability sample of all new patients' charts over a 10-year time period was selected for investigation. The most common hip injury diagnoses, sport at time of injury, mechanism (acute/traumatic vs. overuse), and types (bony vs. soft tissue) were compared by sex and age (preadolescent vs. adolescent). Descriptive and χ-analyses were carried out. The interaction of sex and age with respect to hip injury over time was examined by two-way (sex, age) analysis of variance. A total of 2133 charts were reviewed; N=87 hip injuries. The main diagnoses for males included labral tear (23.1%), avulsion fracture (11.5%), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (11.5%), dislocation (7.7%), and tendonitis (7.7%). The main diagnoses for females were labral tear (59.0%), tendonitis (14.8%), snapping hip syndrome (6.6%), strain (4.9%), and bursitis (4.9%). The five most common sports/activities at the time of hip injury were dancing/ballet (23.0%), soccer (18.4%), gymnastics (9.2%), ice hockey (8.1%), and track and field (6.9%). Age by sex comparisons showed a greater proportion of the total hip injuries (38.5%) in males compared with females (8.2%) during preadolescence (5-12 years). However, in adolescence (13-17 years), the hip injury proportion was significantly higher in females (91.8%) compared with males (61.5%; PInjury mechanism and type differed by sex, with females sustaining more chronic/overuse (95.1%) and soft tissue type injuries (93.4%) compared with males (50.0 and 53.8%, respectively; Pinjury proportion as they progressed through puberty compared with males (analysis of variance sex-by-age interaction; Pinjury mechanism and type differed significantly between males and females during growth. Notably, the proportion of hip injuries in the young female athletes showed a significantly greater increase with advancing age compared with males. Hip injuries in children


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović


    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  13. Cognitive Change across Cognitive-Behavioral and Light Therapy Treatments for Seasonal Affective Disorder: What Accounts for Clinical Status the Next Winter? (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Rohan, Kelly J; Sitnikov, Lilya; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I; Lindsey, Kathryn Tierney; Vacek, Pamela M


    Efficacious treatments for seasonal affective disorder include light therapy and a seasonal affective disorder-tailored form of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Using data from a parent clinical trial, these secondary analyses examined the relationship between cognitive change over treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment and mood outcomes the next winter. Sixty-nine participants were randomly assigned to 6-weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, light therapy, or combination treatment. Cognitive constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination) were assessed at pre- and post-treatment. Dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, and rumination improved over acute treatment, regardless of modality; however, in participants randomized to solo cognitive-behavioral therapy, a greater degree of improvement in dysfunctional attitudes and automatic thoughts was uniquely associated with less severe depressive symptoms the next winter. Change in maladaptive thoughts during acute treatment appears mechanistic of solo cognitive-behavioral therapy's enduring effects the next winter, but is simply a consequence of diminished depression in light therapy and combination treatment.

  14. Clinical research of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" used to prevent and treat bronchial asthma in children. (United States)

    Wen, Bi-Ling; Liu, Bao-Yan; Jin, Peng; Wang, Xue-Feng; Xiang, Xi-Xiong; Liu, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Jing-Qing; Lu, Fang; He, Li-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zeng; Fang, Yi-Gong; Wang, Yu


    To preliminarily analyze key factors influencing curative effect through clinical observations of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" used to prevent and treat bronchial asthma in children. In an observational study and prospective cohort study, we observed children in remission of asthma at three class III grade A TCM hospitals in Liaoning, Hubei, and Chengdu. A total of 609 children conformed to diagnostic and inclusive standards for remission of bronchial asthma. Through follow-up visits, we observed their skin reactions and the time and chance of treatment with different therapies in the three hospitals; we also compared and analyzed different drugs, acupoints, and preparations. We found that the key Chinese drugs were Bai Jie Zi (Semen Sinapis Albae) and Yian Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis); the key acupoints were Feishu (BL 13), Gaohuang (BL 43), Dingchuan (EX-B1), Tiantu (CV 22), and Shanzhong (CV 17); and the best preparation was a mixture of drugs, ginger juice, and musk. Acupoint application was practiced on the hottest days of summer and the coldest days of winter for 0.5 to 2 h with the lowest rate of asthma relapse. The present data analysis shows that the curative effect of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" may be influenced by recipes of Chinese drugs, preparations, prescriptions of acupoints, chance, time, and skin reactions. A curative effect is the result of the comprehensive action of these factors.

  15. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014. (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish


    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  16. Sport Marketing


    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter


    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  17. Sports Specialization, Part II (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  18. What is a sports injury? (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart


    Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.

  19. Modern pain neuroscience in clinical practice: applied to post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain. (United States)

    Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly

    In the last decade, evidence regarding chronic pain has developed exponentially. Numerous studies show that many chronic pain populations show specific neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. These changes are reflected in clinical manifestations, like a generalized hypersensitivity of the somatosensory system. Besides a hypersensitivity of bottom-up nociceptive transmission, there is also evidence for top-down facilitation of pain due to malfunctioning of the endogenous descending nociceptive modulatory systems. These and other aspects of modern pain neuroscience are starting to be applied within daily clinical practice. However, currently the application of this knowledge is mostly limited to the general adult population with musculoskeletal problems, while evidence is getting stronger that also in other chronic pain populations these neuroplastic processes may contribute to the occurrence and persistence of the pain problem. Therefore, this masterclass article aims at giving an overview of the current modern pain neuroscience knowledge and its potential application in post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain problems. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E.; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil


    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is

  1. Sport and male sexuality. (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L


    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  2. Sports Safety (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  3. Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  4. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports. (United States)

    Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel


    Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.



    Alexandаr Marinkov


    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...



    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović


    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  7. Imaging of orthopedic sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.


    This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)

  8. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  9. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian


    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  10. Clinical outcomes assessment for the management of sport-related concussion. (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Register-Mihalik, Johna K


    PATIENT SCENARIO: An adolescent female youth soccer athlete, with a previous concussion history, suffered a second concussion 4 wk ago. Her postconcussive symptoms are affecting her school performance and social and family life. CLINICAL OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT: Concussion is typically evaluated via symptoms, cognition, and balance. There is no specific patient-oriented outcomes measure for concussion. Clinicians can choose from a variety of generic and specific outcomes instruments aimed at assessing general health-related quality of life or various concussion symptoms and comorbidities such as headache, migraine, fatigue, mood disturbances, depression, anxiety, and concussion-related symptoms. CLINICAL DECISION MAKING: The data obtained from patient self-report instruments may not actively help clinicians make return-to-play decisions; however, these scales may be useful in providing information that may help the athlete return to school, work, and social activities. The instruments may also serve to identify issues that may lead to problems down the road, including depression or anxiety, or serve to further explore the nature of an athlete's symptoms. Concussion results in numerous symptoms that have the potential to linger and has been associated with depression and anxiety. The use of outcomes scales to assess health-related quality of life and the effect of other symptoms that present with a concussion may allow clinicians to better evaluate the effects of concussion on physical, cognitive, emotional, social, school, and family issues, leading to better and more complete management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina


    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  12. [Clinical recommendations for sport practice in diabetic patients (RECORD Guide). Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN)]. (United States)

    Gargallo-Fernández, Manuel; Escalada San Martín, Javier; Gómez-Peralta, Fernando; Rozas Moreno, Pedro; Marco Martínez, Amparo; Botella-Serrano, Marta; Tejera Pérez, Cristina; López Fernández, Judith


    Sporting activity is becoming a common practice in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This situation requires both a preliminary medical assessment and a wide range of changes in treatment which have scarcely been addressed in medical literature. To prepare a clinical guideline on the medical approach to patients with diabetes who practice sport regularly. An expert panel from the Diabetes Mellitus Working Group of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN) reviewed the most relevant literature in each of the sections. Based both on this review and on data from the experience of a number of athletes with DM, a number of recommendations were agreed within each section. Finally, the Working Group and representatives of the SEEN jointly discussed all these recommendations. The guideline provides recommendations ranging from medical assessment before patients with DM start to practice sport to actions during and after physical activity. Recommendations are also given on aspects such as the impact of sport on blood glucose control, training schemes, or special risk situations. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A 12-week sports-based exercise programme for inactive Indigenous Australian men improved clinical risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Mendham, Amy E; Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank; Coutts, Aaron J


    This study assessed the effect of a 12-week sports-based exercise intervention on glucose regulation, anthropometry and inflammatory markers associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indigenous Australian men. Twenty-six inactive Indigenous Australian men (48.6±6.6 years) were randomized into exercise (n=16) or control (n=10)conditions. Training included ∼2-3 days/week for 12 weeks of sports and gym exercises in a group environment, whilst control participants maintained normal activity and dietary patterns. Pre- and post-intervention testing included: anthropometry, peak aerobic capacity, fasting blood chemistry of inflammatory cytokines, adiponectin, leptin, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and C-peptide. An oral glucose tolerance test measured glucose, insulin and C-peptide 30, 60, 90 and 120min post 75g glucose ingestion. The exercise condition decreased insulin area under the curve (25±22%), increased estimated insulin sensitivity (35±62%) and decreased insulin resistance (9±35%; p0.05). The exercise condition decreased in body mass index, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio (p0.05). Leptin decreased in the exercise group, with no changes for adiponectin (p>0.05) or inflammatory markers (p>0.05) in either condition. Aerobic fitness variables showed significant increases in peak oxygen consumption for the exercise condition compared to no change in control (p>0.05). Findings indicate positive clinical outcomes in metabolic, anthropometric and aerobic fitness variables. This study provides evidence for sport and group-based activities leading to improved clinical risk factors associated with T2DM development in clinically obese Indigenous Australian men. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical study to evaluate the Brinhaniya effect of Vidarikandadi Yog to enhance the sport performance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Manohar Ingle


    Full Text Available Background: Sport science studies applications of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sports performance. Objective: Present research work was carried out with the aim to enhance the sport performance of children. Materials and Methods: Randomized double blind placebo controlled study was conducted in children involved in sports to assess the efficacy of trial drug "Vidarikandadi Yog". Total of 72 healthy students were selected for the study after screening 412 students. Out of them, 60 students completed the study. The students were randomly divided into two groups. Group A (Vidarikandadi Yog comprising of 38 and Group B (placebo of 34 students. The trial drug "Vidarikandadi Yog" was given in the dose of 200 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 2 months with milk and follow up was conducted fortnightly. Results: The study revealed the statistically significant results for weight and chest circumference, whereas highly significant results were obtained for muscular strength and endurance assessment parameters (Push-up Test, Sit-up Test, and Hand Grip Strength Test. Change in Ruler Drop Test was not significant. Results were significant for cardio-respiratory parameters (Resting Heart Rate, Resting Respiratory Rate, and Harvard Step Test. Conclusion: Vidarikandadi Yog is a potential drug for enhancing the sport performance due to its Brinhaneeya effect.

  15. Imaging of Muscle Injuries in Sports Medicine: Sports Imaging Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L.; Regatte, Ravindar R.; Crema, Michel D.


    In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to

  16. Sport Management. (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others


    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  17. Sports Nutrition. (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  18. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker


    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  19. Leptospirosis, water sports, and chemoprophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haake, David A.; Dundoo, Manjula; Cader, Rumi; Kubak, Bernard M.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Sejvar, James J.; Ashford, David A.


    Recreational activities, such as water sports and adventure travel, are emerging as an important risk factor for leptospirosis, a potentially fatal zoonosis. We report the clinical course of 2 patients who acquired leptospirosis through participation in water sports. Physicians caring for patients

  20. [Sports injuries in children. Epidemiologic study]. (United States)

    Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J


    Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.

  1. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Maksimović


    Full Text Available Determining acceptable strategic goals requires analysis of the position of a sports organization within the sport world and wider business environment. A range of trends may affect development prospects and business activities of an organization. There are possibilities of population fluctuation (e.g. purchase power of winter sports practitioners, trends of economy, technological development, and legislation (e.g. prohibition of tobacco and alcohol advertisements, or activities of special interest groups (e.g. development of violence in sport. After clarifying its mission and goals, management of a sports organization reveals that some factors are important, while series of others are not

  3. Sports causing most injuries in Hong Kong.


    Chan, K M; Yuan, Y; Li, C K; Chien, P; Tsang, G


    A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different in...

  4. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst


    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  5. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T


    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  6. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena


    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  7. Winter Weather Emergencies (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  8. Winter maintenance performance measure. (United States)


    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  9. Winter weather demand considerations. (United States)


    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  10. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  11. [Liver and sport]. (United States)

    Watelet, J


    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of Paralympic sports injuries. (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn


    Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.


    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  14. Back pain and sports (United States)

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  15. Facial Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  16. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  17. Racket sports. (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen


    Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.

  18. Sport Progressions. (United States)

    Clumpner, Roy A.

    This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…

  19. Women and sport. (United States)

    O'Brien, M; Robertson, A


    Women have historically taken part in sports for many centuries. The first recorded female game competitions were the Herean Games in approximately 1,000 BC, named after the Goddess Hera. Held at Olympia in Greece, these games were for women alone and were thought to have originated as part of ancient fertility rights. Historically there is evidence of sporting activities involving women, but nothing of significance until after the 1948 summer Olympic Games, when 385 female athletes participated. Over the last six decades there has been a noted rise in the number of female athletes, reaching its maximum with the 2008 Beijing Olympics, where over 42% of the 11,028 athletes were women. Similarly in 2006, at the Turin Winter Olympics in Italy, 40% of the 2,500 athletes were females. In the 2012 Olympics, the Olympic Committee anticipates that approximately 44% of all athletes participating will be female. Despite there being a significant rise in the number of elite athletes in the UK, there appears to be an overall decrease in the amount and intensity of physical exercise undertaken by teenage girls. This is considered to be due to the fact that physical education is no longer an integral part of the school curriculum in the UK. There is, however, a small but significant group of elite athletes who start to train at a very early age (9-10 years old) especially in gymnastics, skating, swimming and athletics.

  20. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics


    Wladimir Andreff


    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  1. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes?


    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.


    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  2. Sport as art, dance as sport


    Jason Holt


    A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...

  3. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  4. Sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro

    The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....

  5. Efficacy and safety assessment of acute sports-related traumatic soft tissue injuries using a new ibuprofen medicated plaster: results from a randomized controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh; Giannetti, Bruno


    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a recently developed ibuprofen medicated plaster in the treatment of acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study (EudraCT Number: 2012-003257-2) patients (n = 132; ages 18 to 60 years) diagnosed with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion to the upper or lower limbs were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster (n = 64) or placebo plaster (n = 68). Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to 72 h (VAS 0-72 ). The ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with a reduction in pain on movement (POM) based on lower VAS AUC 0-72h (2399.4 mm*h) compared with placebo (4078.9 mm*h) (least squares mean difference: - 1679.5 mm*h; P ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with placebo at 12, 48, 24, and 120 h (P ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with greater reduction in tenderness/pain than placebo at each timepoint (P values ibuprofen plaster, and n = 6 [8.8%] for placebo). All drug-related AEs were administration site reactions and were mild in intensity. The results of this study indicate that ibuprofen medicated plaster results in rapid and clinically relevant reduction of pain in patients suffering from blunt musculoskeletal injuries or recurrent pain. The ibuprofen medicated plaster was well tolerated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani


    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  7. Sports-specific injuries. (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M


    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  8. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel


    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not

  9. A brief review and clinical application of heart rate variability biofeedback in sports, exercise, and rehabilitation medicine. (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gabriell E; Rauch, H G Laurie; Derman, Wayne E


    An important component of the effective management of chronic noncommunicable disease is the assessment and management of psychosocial stress. The measurement and modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) may be valuable in this regard. To describe the measurement and physiological control of HRV; to describe the impact of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and chronic respiratory disease, and the relationship between these diseases and changes in HRV; and to describe the influence of biofeedback and exercise on HRV and the use of HRV biofeedback in the management of chronic disease. The PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases were searched (up to August 2013). Additional articles were obtained from the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Articles were individually selected for further review based on the quality and focus of the study, and the population studied. Heart rate variability is reduced in stress and in many chronic diseases, and may even predict the development and prognosis of some diseases. Heart rate variability can be increased with both exercise and biofeedback. Although the research on the effect of exercise is conflicting, there is evidence that aerobic training may increase HRV and cardiac vagal tone both in healthy individuals and in patients with disease. Heart rate variability biofeedback is also an effective method of increasing HRV and cardiac vagal tone, and has been shown to decrease stress and reduce the morbidity and mortality of disease. The assessment and management of psychosocial stress is a challenging but important component of effective comprehensive lifestyle interventions for the management of noncommunicable disease. It is, therefore, important for the sports and exercise physician to have an understanding of the therapeutic use of HRV modulation, both in the reduction of stress and in the management of chronic disease.

  10. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M


    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site of injury was the knee. We believe that specialised Sports Injury Clinics, initially based at the University Hospitals should be established here, to give guidance and education concerning avoidance of injuries, and for the treatment and follow-up of those injured and enable them to return to sports early.

  11. Dealing with Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  12. Sports cream overdose (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  13. Sports and Concussions (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  14. Art and Sports (United States)

    Ingram, Anne G.


    An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)

  15. A clinical observational study on patient-reported outcomes, hip functional performance and return to sports activities in hip arthroscopy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M.P.W.; Cingel, R.E. van; Visser, E de; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.


    OBJECTIVES: To describe data of short- and midterm results of hip arthroscopy patients based on patient-reported hip function, hip functional performance and return to sports activities. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Sports medical center. PARTICIPANTS: 37 recreational athletes (21

  16. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  17. Deer Wintering Areas (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  18. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile. (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu


    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Öhlund, Inger; Lind, Torbjörn; Hernell, Olle; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia


    Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D; i.e., ≥50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden with fair ( n = 108) and dark ( n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpatrick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D 3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 μg/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 μg and 26 μg in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 μg, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 μg/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 μg/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair- and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 μg/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH)D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 μg/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 μg/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 μg/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 μg/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations ≥30 nmol/L during winter. This trial was registered at as NCT01741324. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ]. (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M


    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  1. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving


    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  2. Imaging of Muscle Injuries in Sports Medicine: Sports Imaging Series. (United States)

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L; Regatte, Ravindar R; Crema, Michel D


    In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to confirm and assess the extent of sports-related muscle injuries and may help to guide management, which directly affects the prognosis. This is especially important when the diagnosis or grade of injury is unclear, when recovery is taking longer than expected, and when interventional or surgical management may be necessary. Several imaging techniques are widely available, with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging currently the most frequently applied in sports medicine. This state of the art review will discuss the main imaging modalities for the assessment of sports-related muscle injuries, including advanced imaging techniques, with the focus on the clinical relevance of imaging features of muscle injuries. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. The neuropathology of sport. (United States)

    McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D


    The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional

  4. Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport – the 3rd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in. Zurich ... Which symptoms scale is appropriate for this age group? • Which tests are useful ..... a definite role in preventing dental and oro-facial injury. .... from clinical practice, academic and research in the field of sports ... injuries. British journal of sports medicine.

  5. Randomised clinical trial: Polyethylene glycol 3350 with sports drink vs. polyethylene glycol with electrolyte solution as purgatives for colonoscopy--the incidence of hyponatraemia. (United States)

    Matro, R; Daskalakis, C; Negoianu, D; Katz, L; Henry, C; Share, M; Kastenberg, D


    Polyethylene glycol 3350 plus sports drink (PEG-SD) is a hypo-osmotic purgative commonly used for colonoscopy, though little safety data are available. To evaluate the effect of PEG-SD on serum sodium (Na) and other electrolytes compared with PEG-electrolyte solution (PEG-ELS). We performed a single center, prospective, randomised, investigator-blind comparison of PEG-ELS to PEG-SD in out-patients undergoing colonoscopy. Laboratories were obtained at baseline and immediately before and after colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was development of hyponatraemia (Na PEG-SD, 184 PEG-ELS). The groups were well matched except for a higher fraction of women and Blacks in PEG-ELS. Seven patients (3.9%) in PEG-SD and four patients (2.2%) in PEG-ELS developed hyponatraemia (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 0.45-8.62, P = 0.376). Changes in electrolytes from baseline were small but significantly worse with PEG-SD for sodium, potassium and chloride (P = 0.001, 0.012, 0.001, respectively). Preparation completion, adverse events, and overall colon cleansing were similar between the groups, but PEG-ELS had more excellent preparations (52% vs. 30%; P = 0.001). Greater, but very modest, electrolyte changes occur with PEG-SD. Hyponatraemia is infrequent with both purgatives. A significant increase in hyponatraemia was not identified for PEG-SD vs. PEG-ELS, but the sample size may have been inadequate to identify a small, but clinically important difference. identifier NCT01299779. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes. (United States)

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  7. Building Character through Sports (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela


    Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…

  8. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst


    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  9. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.


    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  10. Report on Sport 2003


    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel


    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...

  11. 2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony


    evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4...... sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical...... practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport....

  12. Science and Sport bringing people together

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    ASCERI is the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes and aims to contribute to a united Europe through regular sports meetings, bringing together members of public Research Institutes at European level. The Association's members come from over 42 Research Institutes spanning 15 countries. The association was born from the German "Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe" (KfK) football team who had the idea to play against other teams from institutes also involved in nuclear research. Therefore, six teams from different German centres were invited to take part in a "Reaktoren Fußballturnier" in Karlsruhe on 2 July 1966. Ever since, The Winter-ATOMIADE has taken place every three years and alternating with the Summer-ATOMIADE and a Mini Atomiade in between with numerous sports and leisure activities including football, skiing, golf, athletics, tennis, volleyball to name a few. CERN has been a regular participant ...

  13. Characteristics and Their Clinical Relevance of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Types and Genotypes Circulating in Northern Italy in Five Consecutive Winter Seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the genetic diversity and patterns of the co-circulating genotypes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and their possible relationships with the severity of RSV infection, we studied all of the RSV-positive nasopharyngeal samples collected from children during five consecutive winters (2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The RSVs were detected using the respiratory virus panel fast assay and single-tube RT-PCR, their nucleotides were sequenced, and they were tested for positive selection. Of the 165 positive samples, 131 (79.4% carried RSV-A and 34 (20.6% RSV-B; both groups co-circulated in all of the study periods, with RSV-A predominating in all the seasons except for winter 2010-2011, which had a predominance of RSV-B. Phylogenetic analysis of the RSV-A sequences identified genotypes NA1 and ON1, the second replacing the first during the last two years of the study period. The RSV-B belonged to genotypes BA9 and BA10. BA9 was detected in all the years of the study whereas BA only desultorily. Comparison of the subjects infected by RSV-A and RSV-B types did not reveal any significant differences, but the children infected by genotype A/NA1 more frequently had lower respiratory tract infections (p<0.0001 and required hospitalisation (p = 0.007 more often than those infected by genotype A/ON1. These findings show that RSV has complex patterns of circulation characterised by the periodical replacement of the predominant genotypes, and indicate that the circulation and pathogenic role of the different RSV strains should be investigated as each may have a different impact on the host. A knowledge of the correlations between types, genotypes and disease severity may also be important in order to be able to include the more virulent strains in future vaccines.

  14. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are

  15. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig


    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  16. Titan's Emergence from Winter (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul


    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  17. Report of the Clinical and Functional Primary Outcomes in Men of the ACL-SPORTS Trial: Similar Outcomes in Men Receiving Secondary Prevention With and Without Perturbation Training 1 and 2 Years After ACL Reconstruction. (United States)

    Arundale, Amelia J H; Cummer, Kathleen; Capin, Jacob J; Zarzycki, Ryan; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn


    Athletes often are cleared to return to activities 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, knee function measures continue to improve up to 2 years after surgery. Interventions beyond standard care may facilitate successful return to preinjury activities and improve functional outcomes. Perturbation training has been used in nonoperative ACL injury and preoperative ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, but has not been examined in postoperative ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, specifically return to sport rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences at 1 and 2 years after ACL reconstruction between the male SAP (strengthening, agility, and secondary prevention) and SAP+PERT (SAP protocol with the addition of perturbation training) groups with respect to (1) quadriceps strength and single-legged hop limb symmetry; (2) patient-reported knee outcome scores; (3) the proportion who achieve self-reported normal knee function; and (4) the time from surgery to passing return to sport criteria. Forty men who had completed ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and met enrollment criteria (3-9 months after ACL reconstruction, > 80% quadriceps strength limb symmetry, no pain, full ROM, minimal effusion) were randomized into the SAP or SAP+PERT groups of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Specialised Post-Operative Return to Sports trial (ACL-SPORTS), a single-blind randomized clinical study of secondary prevention and return to sport. Quadriceps strength, single-legged hopping, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 subjective knee form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)-sports and recreation, and KOOS-quality-of-life subscales were collected 1 and 2 years after surgery by investigators blind to group. Athletes were categorized as having normal or abnormal knee function at each time point based on IKDC score, and the time until athletes passed strict return-to-sport

  18. Improving availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar-sweetened drink products at community sporting clubs: a randomised trial. (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Kingsland, Melanie; Rowland, Bosco C; Dodds, Pennie; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sidey, Maree; Wiggers, John


    Amateur sporting clubs represent an attractive setting for health promotion. This study assesses the impact of a multi-component intervention on the availability, promotion and purchase of fruit and vegetable and non sugar -sweetened drink products from community sporting club canteens. We also assessed the impact the intervention on sporting club revenue from the sale of food and beverages. A repeat cross-sectional, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken with amateur community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention was conducted over 2.5 winter sporting seasons and sought to improve the availability and promotion of fruit and vegetables and non sugar-sweetened drinks in sporting club canteens. Trial outcomes were assessed via telephone surveys of sporting club representatives and members. Eighty five sporting clubs and 1143 club members participated in the study. Relative to the control group, at follow-up, clubs allocated to the intervention were significantly more likely to have fruit and vegetable products available at the club canteen (OR = 5.13; 95% CI 1.70-15.38), were more likely to promote fruit and vegetable selection using reduced pricing and meal deals (OR = 34.48; 95% CI 4.18-250.00) and members of intervention clubs were more likely to report purchase of fruit and vegetable (OR = 2.58 95% CI; 1.08-6.18) and non sugar -sweetened drink (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.09-2.25) products. There was no significant difference between groups in the annual club revenue from food and non-alcoholic beverage sales. The findings demonstrate that the intervention can improve the nutrition environment of sporting clubs and the purchasing behaviour of members. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000224224 .

  19. Coaches' Perceptions of Team Cohesion in Paralympic Sports. (United States)

    Falcão, William R; Bloom, Gordon A; Loughead, Todd M


    The purpose of this study was to investigate Paralympic coaches' perceptions of team cohesion. Seven head coaches of summer and winter Canadian Paralympic sport teams participated in the study. Four participants coached individual sports and 3 coached team sports. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The results addressed the coaches' perceptions of cohesion in the Paralympic sport setting and strategies used to foster cohesion with their teams. Participants described using techniques and strategies for enhancing cohesion that were similar to those in nondisability sport, such as task-related activities, goal setting, and regularly communicating with their athletes. They also listed how cohesion was distinct to the Paralympic setting, such as the importance of interpersonal activities to build social cohesion. The implications of these results for coaching athletes with a disability are also presented.

  20. Evaluating judge performance in sport. (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A


    Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.

  2. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...

  3. Major international sport profiles. (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F


    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  4. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.


    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  5. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.


    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  6. Winter is losing its cool (United States)

    Feng, S.


    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  7. Prof. Dr. Dusko Bjelica's Articles Published in Sport Mont Journal: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vukovic


    Full Text Available Sport Mont Journal (SMJ is a print and electronic scientific journal aims to present easy access to the scientific knowledge for sport-conscious individuals using contemporary methods. SMJ is published three times a year by the Montenegrin sport academy (MSA, in february, june and october of each year. SMJ publishes original scientific papers, review papers, editorials, short reports, peer review - fair review, as well as invited papers and award papers in the fields of sports science and medicine, as well as it can function as an open discussion forum on significant issues of current interest. SMJ covers all aspects of sports science and medicine, all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport, exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance, sports biomechanics, sports nutrition, rehabilitation, physiotherapy, sports psychology, sports pedagogy, sports history, sports philosophy, sports sociology, sports management and all aspects of scientific support of the sports coaches from the natural, social and humanistic side. Professor Bjelica is the editor-in-chief of this reputable magazine. He has also published works on it from 2004 to 2017 and published 65 papers. They are from various fields from the sphere of sports sciences. Among them he mostly dealt with football, sports training, biomechanics, physical education of children, nutrition and many others. This professor has obtained a lot of awards because of his great and hard work.

  8. Sports and Concussion (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Sports and Concussion Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of ... ages—reducing blows to the head by playing sports safely and avoiding falls is vital to a ...

  9. Champions of American Sport. (United States)

    Westin, Sandra


    Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)

  10. Sports and Exercise Safety (United States)

    ... re important for sports such as football , hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing , and snowboarding — to ... in sports such as football, ice hockey , and softball and baseball when batting. Goggles are often worn ...

  11. [Supporting health through sports]. (United States)

    Truong, Laurent


    In spring 2013, the regional directorate for youth, sports and social cohesion and the regional healthcare agency in Franche-Comté presented and signed the first regional health, sports and well-being plan.

  12. ABC of Sports Medicine*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, sports physiotherapy, exercise psychology and medical coverage for major events. The stated ... practice will be aware of an increasing reluctance on the.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram


    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  14. Recognizing and managing concussion in school sport. (United States)

    Evans, Vicki


    Every country around the world enjoys some sort of sport. The Olympics sees countries from all over the globe participate in elite sport, in both winter and summer competitions. Australia is widely known for cricket and rugby; America is known for baseball and gridiron football (among others). These sports are played at an elite level as well as beginners from early ages as young as 4 years in the backyard. Yet, it is also these sports that can deliver a ball at the speed of 100 km/h (football), 105 km/h (baseball), 112 km/h (rugby), 150 km/h (cricket), and 211 km/h (soccer). This is the same force that a car collision can produce. That force eventually finds a target, and in some cases, unfortunately, it is a head. Damage to the brain is not only from the impact of the ball hitting its target but rather also the shearing forces of acceleration-deceleration injury that can cause extensive injuries. There has been much discussion of late regarding concussion in sport and the accumulative effects of head blows resulting in varying degrees of memory loss and dementia later in life. The media have been saturated with heightened awareness of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. This, however, is still being researched. It is true that each concussion compounds the one before, but rather than focus on the injury, managers/coaches and sporting codes should be focusing on the identification and proper management of a suspected concussion and the return-to-play protocols. This is especially important in our schools where growing brains need nurturing. Neuroscience nurses are at the forefront of educating school children, teachers, and coaches through partnering with local schools. This article will focus on concussion recognition and management in school sport.

  15. Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E


    Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Sport as art, dance as sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Holt


    Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.

  17. Drugs in sport


    Robinson, D


    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  18. Creatine Use in Sports. (United States)

    Butts, Jessica; Jacobs, Bret; Silvis, Matthew

    The use of creatine as a dietary supplement has become increasingly popular over the past several decades. Despite the popularity of creatine, questions remain with regard to dosing, effects on sports performance, and safety. PubMed was searched for articles published between 1980 and January 2017 using the terms creatine, creatine supplementation, sports performance, and dietary supplements. An additional Google search was performed to capture National Collegiate Athletic Association-specific creatine usage data and US dietary supplement and creatine sales. Clinical review. Level 4. Short-term use of creatine is considered safe and without significant adverse effects, although caution should be advised as the number of long-term studies is limited. Suggested dosing is variable, with many different regimens showing benefits. The safety of creatine supplementation has not been studied in children and adolescents. Currently, the scientific literature best supports creatine supplementation for increased performance in short-duration, maximal-intensity resistance training. While creatine appears to be safe and effective for particular settings, whether creatine supplementation leads to improved performance on the field of play remains unknown.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi


    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  20. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René


    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  1. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst


    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more

  2. Researching Sport Education Appreciatively (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter


    In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…

  3. Sport for Older Persons. (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  4. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management


    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.


    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  5. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  6. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine. (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B


    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics sports medicine literature relied on evidence levels 4 and 5 in 53% of studies over the 5-year study period. Overall, PRISMA and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY


    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  8. Socioeconomic Factors for Sports Specialization and Injury in Youth Athletes. (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru A; Holt, Daniel B; LaBella, Cynthia R; Dugas, Lara R


    The effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on rates of sports specialization and injury among youth athletes has not been described previously. Young athletes from lower socioeconomic status will have lower rates of sports specialization and subsequently lower risk of overuse injuries. Cohort study. Level 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with uninjured athletes presenting for sports physicals at primary care clinics between 2010 and 2013. Participants completed surveys on training patterns. Electronic medical records provided injury details as well as patient zip code, race, and health insurance type. SES was estimated from zip codes. The sample was divided into SES tertiles. Analysis of variance and multivariate regression were used for continuous variables, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore relationships between risk factors and injury. Of 1190 athletes surveyed, 1139 (96%) had satisfactory SES data. Compared with low-SES athletes, high-SES athletes reported more hours per week spent playing organized sports (11.2 ± 6.0 vs 10.0 ± 6.5; P = 0.02), trained more months per year in their main sport (9.7 ± 3.1 vs 7.6 ± 3.7; P sports (64.8% vs 40.0%; P sports to free play increased with SES. Accounting for age and weekly organized sports hours, the odds of reporting a serious overuse injury increased with SES (odds ratio, 1.5; P sports specialization, more hours per week playing organized sports, higher ratio of weekly hours in organized sports to free play, and greater participation in individual sports. As SES increases, young athletes report higher degrees of sports specialization, greater participation in individual sports, and more serious overuse injuries.

  9. The injury experience at the 2010 winter paralympic games. (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A


    The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.

  10. Sports Specialization, Part II: Alternative Solutions to Early Sport Specialization in Youth Athletes. (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J


    Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Clinical review. Level 4. Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. B. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Adventure and Extreme Sports. (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin


    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Marketing of sport tourism


    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets


    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  13. Winter Frost and Fog (United States)


    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter



    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović


    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  15. Metabolic markers in sports medicine. (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna


    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  16. Sports eyewear protective standards. (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J


    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Sport Specialization, Part I: Does Early Sports Specialization Increase Negative Outcomes and Reduce the Opportunity for Success in Young Athletes? (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J


    There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Nonsystematic review. Clinical review. Level 4. Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. C. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner


    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković


    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  20. Infectious Mononucleosis: Ensuring a Safe Return to Sport. (United States)

    MacKnight, John M.


    Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…

  1. All-star sports medicine film panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.; Braunstein, E.M.; DeSmet, A.A.; Helms, C.A.; Pavlov, H.; Sukaer, J.R.; Torg, J.S.


    All Star Sports Panel cases are selected to test the mettle of the panelists and familiarize the audience with injuries peculiar to participation in a variety of sports. Match wits with the experts on the field. Gear up for the big game by previewing the clinical histories and initial radiographic examinations. Diagnosis requires familiarity with stresses incurred in the performance of various athletic pursuits, knowledge of specific radiographic findings, and awareness of imaging techniques that best demonstrate underlying injury

  2. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.


    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  3. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.


    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  4. Spirit's Winter Work Site (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  5. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino


    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  6. Pediatric Issues in Sports Concussions (United States)

    Giza, Christopher C.


    Purpose of Review: Sports-related concussions are receiving increasing attention in both the lay press and medical literature. While most media attention has been on high-profile collegiate or professional athletes, the vast majority of individuals participating in contact and collision sports are adolescents and children. This review provides a practical approach toward youth sports-related concussion with a foundation in the recent guidelines, but including specific considerations when applying these management principles to children and adolescents. Recent Findings: Objective measurement of early signs and symptoms is challenging in younger patients, and many commonly used assessment tools await rigorous validation for younger patients. Excellent evidence-based guidelines exist for CT evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury presenting to the emergency department. Evidence suggests that recovery from sports-related concussion takes longer in high school athletes compared with collegiate or professionals; however, rigorous studies below high school age are still lacking. Summary: Proper care for concussion in youth requires a delicate balance of clinical skills, age-appropriate assessment, and individualized management to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:25470161

  7. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W


    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  8. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.


    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  9. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures. (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl


    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  10. Neurologic emergencies in sports. (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B


    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  11. Epidemiology of Pediatric Sports Injuries: Individual Sports



    The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...

  12. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (United States)


    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  13. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  14. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  15. The Current State of Head and Neck Injuries in Extreme Sports (United States)

    Sharma, Vinay K.; Rango, Juan; Connaughton, Alexander J.; Lombardo, Daniel J.; Sabesan, Vani J.


    Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. Purpose: To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data from 7 sports (2000-2011) that were included in the Winter and Summer X Games. Data from the NEISS database were collected for each individual sport per year and type of HNI. Cumulative data for overall incidence and injuries over the entire 11-year period were calculated. National estimates were determined using NEISS-weighted calculations. Incidence rates were calculated for extreme sports using data from Outdoor Foundation Participation Reports. Results: Over 4 million injuries were reported between 2000 and 2011, of which 11.3% were HNIs. Of all HNIs, 83% were head injuries and 17% neck injuries. The 4 sports with the highest total incidence of HNI were skateboarding (129,600), snowboarding (97,527), skiing (83,313), and motocross (78,236). Severe HNI (cervical or skull fracture) accounted for 2.5% of extreme sports HNIs. Of these, skateboarding had the highest percentage of severe HNIs. Conclusion: The number of serious injuries suffered in extreme sports has increased as participation in the sports continues to grow. A greater awareness of the dangers associated with these sports offers an opportunity for sports medicine and orthopaedic physicians to advocate for safer equipment, improved on-site medical care, and further research regarding extreme sports injuries. PMID:26535369


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.

  17. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  18. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy


    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić


    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.



    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI


    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  1. [Heart and sport]. (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Monney, Pierre


    Physical activity is beneficial for health and the cardiovascular risk profile. However, it can be dangerous in people with cardiac disease that might be asymptomatic. Individuals of all ages and all levels engage in sporting activities. The medical approach is different whether one evaluates a young competitive athlete, a sedentary adult who wants to start a recreational sport or a patient with heart disease who wishes to engage in sport. This article summarizes the various recommendations on the subject.

  2. Sport and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Mathelitsch


    Full Text Available The combination of sport and physics offers several attractive ingredients for teaching physics, at primary, secondary, as well as university level. These cover topics like interdisciplinary teaching, sports activities as physics experiments, video analysis or modeling. A variety of examples are presented that should act as stimulus, accompanied by a list of references that should support the implementation of sport topics into physics teaching.

  3. Content Analyses of Scientific Articles from Issues Published in Sport Mont Journal in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kovacevic


    Full Text Available Sport Mont is scientific journal which uses contemporary methods with aim to present scientific knowledge to sport-conscious individuals. It is easily accessible with its printed and electronic edition, published three times a year by the Montenegrin Sport Academy (MSA, in February, June and October. Sport Mont functions as an open discussion forum on significant issues of current interest in fields of Sports Science and Medicine. It publishes original scientific papers, review papers, editorials, short reports, peer review - fair review, as well as invited papers and award papers. Sport Mont Journal covers wide range and Sport Science and Medicine. It includes all clinical aspects of exercise, health, and sport; exercise physiology and biophysical investigation of sports performance; sport biomechanics; sports nutrition; rehabilitation, physiotherapy; sports psychology; sport pedagogy, sport history, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport management; and all aspects of scientific support of the sports coaches from the natural, social and humanistic side. This paper work it is about A Content Analysis of Published Articles in Sport Mont Journal in 2011. This paper work presents the table with titles of the scientific fields according to which the works were sorted and their exact number. In the subtitle, the results are all assigned to all the works that have been processed and, in the end, the subheading entitled discussion gives a brief overview of the results obtained. The aim of this paper work is to analyze the papers published in Sport Mont Journal in 2011. In such a way that all works will be selected according to the respective scientific fields to which they belong. This will allow easier search of the given source for all authors who, for some reason, serve the works published during this time period in Sport Mont.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nešić


    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.

  5. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail:; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)


    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  6. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin


    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  7. Sport and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula


    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....

  8. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo


    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  9. Significant use of diagnostic radiology for sport injuries and damages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C J; Kessler, M


    The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described.

  10. Significant use of diagnostic radiology for sport injuries and damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, C.J.; Kessler, M.


    The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described. (orig.)

  11. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for ... more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ...

  12. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...

  13. 2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern


    Ardern, Clare L.; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony; Witvrouw, Erik; Clarsen, Benjamin; Cools, Ann; Gojanovic, Boris; Griffin, Steffan; Khan, Karim M.; Moksnes, Havard; Mutch, Stephen A.; Phillips, Nicola; Reurink, Gustaaf; Sadler, Robin; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare


    Copyright © 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial—an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to spor...

  14. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport


    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David


    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identifica...

  15. Acute type a aortic dissection associated with a sporting activity. (United States)

    Itagaki, Ryo; Kimura, Naoyuki; Itoh, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideo


    To investigate the clinical characteristics of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) occurring during a sporting activity. The subjects of this study were 615 patients who underwent surgery for ATAAD between 1990 and 2015. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether the ATAAD was associated with a sporting activity (sports group: n = 25, mean age 62.3 years; non-sports group: n = 590, mean age 63.7 years). Specific activity was assessed in the sports group, and the characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. The sports group accounted for 5% of the patients with daytime onset ATAAD (25/479). The most common sport was golf (n = 8), followed by swimming (n = 4), cycling (n = 4), and weight lifting (n = 3). The average diameter of the ascending aorta on preoperative computed tomography was 4.8 cm. The dissection characteristics of the sports group included DeBakey type I (n = 23, 92%) and malperfusion (n = 9, 36%), which were similar to those of the non-sports group. The 30-day mortality rates were 16% (4/25) for the sports group and 8% (49/590) for the non-sports group (P = 0.33). The most common sport associated with ATAAD was golf, followed by swimming cycling, and weight lifting. The findings of this study reinforce that sports-related aortic dissection is not a unique clinical condition of young syndromic patients, but can occur in all age groups.

  16. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes


    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia


    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  18. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia


    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.


    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V


    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers.

  1. Christianity and sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojković Goran


    Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.

  2. Sport, Religion and Charisma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Verner


    Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...

  3. Natural leadership in sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalfsen, Gerco; van Hoecke, Jo; Westerbeek, Hans


    This research is part of a comprehensive PhD research project that focuses on the existence and development of leadership in sport management practices. The underpinning factors that are associated with successfully leading top teams in sport are often used as an example in regard to being


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Infrastructure of the country in which the sports event will be held ... You have to consider the type of sport and type of injury you will most likely be .... temperature (4 - 25°C). ... Fluorescein eye strips and eye anaesthetic ... drops/min set.

  5. Sports Dehydration Safety Tips (United States)

    Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...

  6. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor


    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  7. Listening to Sports Idioms. (United States)

    Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob

    In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…

  8. Sports Subsidies Soar. Commentary (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas


    Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…

  9. Eating Disorders and Sports. (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…



    Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes


    This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Franks


    Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine


    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  13. Policy, sport and integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr


    Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  14. [Acute and overuse injuries of the shoulder in sports]. (United States)

    Doyscher, R; Kraus, K; Finke, B; Scheibel, M


    During sports the shoulder complex is exposed to considerable load especially where throwing is important and various pathological changes can occur. In the last two decades the shoulder in athletes has become a special term in clinical sports medicine Selective literature review in PubMed and consideration of personal experience, research results as well as national and international recommendations In general acute lesions of the shoulder caused by sudden sport injuries, such as traumatic luxation, acromioclavicular (AC) joint disruption, traumatic tendon ruptures, labral lesions, cartilage defects and fractures have to be distinguished from chronic or long-standing pathologies due to recurrent microtrauma, such as overuse bursitis and tendinitis, as well as secondary forms of impingement along with rotator cuff tears and labral lesions. Besides common pathological changes that can be observed in almost all overhead-sports, there are also injuries that are more sport-specific due to the particular load profile in each sport. These injuries are especially common in racquet and throwing sports (e.g. golf, tennis, handball and volleyball) as well as in individual and artistic sports (e.g. swimming, gymnastics, dancing and rowing), contact and extreme sports (e.g. judo, mixed martial arts, bodybuilding, weightlifting, motocross and downhill mountain biking). Knowledge about sport-specific load profiles as well as about the variety of treatment options is crucial for successful treatment of these injuries.

  15. Sports hernias: experience in a sports medicine center. (United States)

    Santilli, O L; Nardelli, N; Santilli, H A; Tripoloni, D E


    Chronic pain of the inguino-crural region or "pubalgia" explains the 0.5-6.2% of the consultations by athletes. Recently, areas of weakness in the posterior wall called "sports hernias," have been identified in some of these patients, capable of producing long-standing pain. Several authors use different image methods (CT, MRI, ultrasound) to identify the lesion and various techniques of repair, by open or laparoscopic approaches, have been proposed but there is no evidence about the superiority of one over others due to the difficulty for randomizing these patients. In our experience, diagnosis was based on clinical and ultrasound findings followed by laparoscopic exploration to confirm and repair the injury. The present study aims to assess the performance of our diagnostic and therapeutic management in a series of athletes affected by "pubalgia". 1450 athletes coming from the orthopedic office of a sport medicine center were evaluated. In 590 of them (414 amateur and 176 professionals) sports hernias were diagnosed through physical examination and ultrasound. We performed laparoscopic "TAPP" repair and, thirty days after, an assessment was performed to determine the evolution of pain and the degree of physical activity as a sign of the functional outcome. We used the U Mann-Whitney test for continuous scale variables and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables with p pubalgia". "Sports hernias" are often associated with adductor muscle strains and other injuries of the groin allowing speculate that these respond to a common mechanism of production. We believe that, considering the difficulty to design randomized trials, only a high coincidence among the diagnostic and therapeutic instances can ensure a rational health care.

  16. Homophobia, Lesbians, and Women's Sports: An Exploratory Analysis. (United States)

    Griffin, Patricia S.

    In addressing the subject of lesbian athletes, this paper discusses some ways in which sport psychologists, researchers and clinicians may constructively approach the issues. These include: (1) understand one's own homophobia and how it affects clinical work as a sport psychologist by studying the growing body of literature on the topic; (2)…

  17. The role of massage in sports performance and rehabilitation: current evidence and future direction. (United States)

    Brummitt, Jason


    Massage is a popular treatment choice of athletes, coaches, and sports physical therapists. Despite its purported benefits and frequent use, evidence demonstrating its efficacy is scarce. To identify current literature relating to sports massage and its role in effecting an athlete's psychological readiness, in enhancing sports performance, in recovery from exercise and competition, and in the treatment of sports related musculoskeletal injuries. Electronic databases were used to identify papers relevant to this review. The following keywords were searched: massage, sports injuries, athletic injuries, physical therapy, rehabilitation, delayed onset muscle soreness, sports psychology, sports performance, sports massage, sports recovery, soft tissue mobilization, deep transverse friction massage, pre-event, and post exercise. RESEARCH STUDIES PERTAINING TO THE FOLLOWING GENERAL CATEGORIES WERE IDENTIFIED AND REVIEWED: pre-event (physiological and psychological variables), sports performance, recovery, and rehabilitation. Despite the fact clinical research has been performed, a poor appreciation exists for the appropriate clinical use of sports massage. Additional studies examining the physiological and psychological effects of sports massage are necessary in order to assist the sports physical therapist in developing and implementing clinically significant evidence based programs or treatments.

  18. Specialization patterns across various youth sports and relationship to injury risk. (United States)

    Pasulka, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Neeru; McCann, Ashley; Dugas, Lara R; LaBella, Cynthia


    Current trends among young athletes towards earlier specialization age and year-round training on multiple teams has raised concern for increased injury risk. Our previous analyses showed higher risk for injury in highly specialized young athletes. The goal of this research was to determine whether sports specialization and injury patterns vary by sports type. In this clinical case-control study, injured athletes (aged 7-18 years) were recruited from sports medicine clinics and compared to similarly aged uninjured athletes recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed a survey reporting age, gender, sport type, specialization patterns, and details regarding sports-related injuries in the previous 6 months. Clinical diagnoses were collected from patients' medical records. Injuries were classified as acute, overuse, or serious overuse. Of 1,190 athletes enrolled, 26% (313) were single-sport specialized (reported participation in one sport and trained >8 months/year). Sports with the highest proportion of single-sport specialized athletes were tennis (46.7%), gymnastics (30.1%), and dance (26.3%). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports started specializing at a younger age (11.2 ± 2.4 vs. 12.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.05) and reported higher training volumes (11.8 vs. 10.3 h/week, p = 0.04) than those in team sports. Sports with the youngest specialization age were gymnastics (8.9 ± 1.7), dance (10.8 ± 3.0), and soccer (10.9 ± 2.4). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports accounted for a higher proportion of overuse injuries (44.3% vs 32.2%, OR = 1.67, p = 0.037) and serious overuse injuries (23.4% vs 11.6%, OR = 2.38, p = 0.011), but a lower proportion of acute injuries (28.8% vs 13.8%, OR = 0.37, p = 0.001) compared to single-sport specialized athletes involved in team sports. Athletes in individual sports may be more likely to specialize in a single sport than team sport athletes. Single-sport

  19. A Volunteer program guidebook for sport managers organizing large scale ice hockey tournaments


    Frison, Logan


    The guidebook is a tool to assist the tournament coordinator when recruting, training, and leading the best possible team of ice hockey volunteers to work at International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) tournaments and within the Sport Function - Ice Hockey events at Olympic Winter Games. The select volunteers are termed the ‘Ice Hockey Volunteers’ and consist of the six crews that make up the ‘Sport Team’ which work closely with the National Teams (athletes and team staff) and Officials (re...

  20. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç


    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  1. Grassroot Sports: Conveyor Belt for Sports Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...

  2. Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria | Olajide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...

  3. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew


    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  4. [Sport and health]. (United States)

    Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan


    The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a

  5. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role (United States)

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol


    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  6. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment. (United States)

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A


    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN


    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  9. Genetics & sport: bioethical concerns. (United States)

    Miah, Andy


    This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.

  10. [Sport for pacemaker patients]. (United States)

    Israel, C W


    Sport activity is an important issue in many patients with a pacemaker either because they performed sport activities before pacemaker implantation to reduce the cardiovascular risk or to improve the course of an underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, heart failure) by sports. Compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) the risks from underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. ischemia, heart failure), arrhythmia, lead dysfunction or inappropriate therapy are less important or absent. Sport is contraindicated in dyspnea at rest, acute heart failure, new complex arrhythmia, acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, valvular disease with indications for intervention and surgery and comorbidities which prevent physical activity. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) should preferably perform types and levels of physical activity that are aerobic (with dynamic exercise) such as running, swimming, cycling instead of sport with high anaerobic demands and high muscular workload. In heart failure, studies demonstrated advantages of isometric sport that increases the amount of muscle, thereby preventing cardiac cachexia. Sport with a risk of blows to the chest or physical contact (e.g. boxing, rugby, martial arts) should be avoided. Implantation, programming and follow-up should respect specific precautions to allow optimal physical activity with a pacemaker including implantation of bipolar leads on the side contralateral to the dominant hand, individual programming of the upper sensor and tracking rate and regular exercise testing.

  11. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.


    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  12. 2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern. (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony; Witvrouw, Erik; Clarsen, Benjamin; Cools, Ann; Gojanovic, Boris; Griffin, Steffan; Khan, Karim M; Moksnes, Håvard; Mutch, Stephen A; Phillips, Nicola; Reurink, Gustaaf; Sadler, Robin; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thorborg, Kristian; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Wilk, Kevin E; Bizzini, Mario


    Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4 main sections were initially agreed upon, then participants elected to join 1 of the 4 groups-each group focused on 1 section of the consensus statement. Participants in each group discussed and summarised the key issues for their section before the 17-member group met again for discussion to reach consensus on the content of the 4 sections. Return to sport is not a decision taken in isolation at the end of the recovery and rehabilitation process. Instead, return to sport should be viewed as a continuum, paralleled with recovery and rehabilitation. Biopsychosocial models may help the clinician make sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  13. Motivation for risk sports


    Hlava, Daniel


    Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...

  14. Headache in sports. (United States)

    Seifert, Tad


    Sports- and exercise-related headaches are not unusual. Despite their frequent occurrence in this context, there are little epidemiologic data concerning sports-related headache. The recent attention of concussive injuries and associated post-traumatic headache has renewed interest in the study of those headaches occurring after head trauma; however, any primary headache type can also occur in the setting of contact and/or collision sports. The nonspecific nature of headaches provides unique challenges to clinicians encountering this complaint. It is, therefore, imperative that physicians treating athletes are able to distinguish the various headache types and presentations often seen in this population.

  15. Athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). (United States)

    Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D


    Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Pregnancy and sports]. (United States)

    Lochmüller, E M; Friese, K


    Today, mothers-to-be with an uncomplicated pregnancy are advised to practice sports on a regular basis. If they follow this advice, they put on less weight and recover more quickly from the stresses and strains of parturition, thanks to their higher level of general fitness. In addition, practicing sports helps to prevent postural damage, back pain, varices and thrombosis. The most suitable forms of sport are those of the aerobic type, such as jogging, swimming, cycling or aerobic calisthenics. However, exercises in the fitness studio and moderate strength training are also admissible provided that consideration is given to contraindications and warning signals.

  17. Aleatorism and Sporting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy


    Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane


    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  19. Spatial planning of sports infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Leskovec


    Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.

  20. The Acute Management of Sport Concussion in Pediatric Athletes. (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S


    During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury. © The Author(s) 2015.



    Gunathevan Elumalai; Mohd Salleh Aman; Cassendra Gilbert; Muhammad Mat Yusof; Ahmad Tajuddin Othman; Lim Khong Chiu; Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee; Hamdan Mohd Ali


    Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondent...

  2. Leisure Sport Participation in Cyprus


    Nicos Kartakoullis; Evan Webb; George Karlis; Stavros Pouloukas; Christina Loizou


    This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007) defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1) participation patterns in le...

  3. Facial Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...

  4. Rethinking enhancement in sport. (United States)

    Miah, Andy


    This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.

  5. Professional Sports Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Mićović


    Full Text Available With regard to the organization of professional clubs, two models can be applied. According to the first model, clubs have the freedom to choose the organizational form (association or commercial company in which sports activities will be carried out. Second model imposes the requirement for the clubs to be organized in the form of commercial company, in one of the corporation forms, provided that it can be also specialized sports form. To the establishment and operation of sports associations, as sui generis commercial companies, apply more specific rules concerning: the conditions for the establishment of clubs; conditions for participation in professional and management bodies; prohibiting multiple ownership of sports clubs, i.e., prohibition of membership; allocation of net profit; control over the work of clubs; state aid (subsidies for the clubs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI


    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  7. Doping in sport

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategies. Methods. This was a ... Soccer. Cricket. Swimming. Hockey. Athletics. Golf. Rugby. Netball. Tennis. Squash ... Q5: I currently use a legal substance or method, e.g. nutritional supplement to improve my sports performance. Strongly ...

  8. Eating for Sports (United States)

    ... but kids can play sports like gymnastics or football without going to extremes to lose or gain ... that you'd need to go to the emergency department for treatment. Drinking before, during, and after ...

  9. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... well. For example, they should wear helmets for baseball , softball, bicycle riding , and hockey . They also should wear ... padding. For racquet sports, field hockey, lacrosse, basketball , softball, and baseball, ask about any protective eyewear, like ...

  10. Mathematics and Sports

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particularly to the mathematics decision viz., that of how to optimally combine making, otherwise known as operations evaluations of several experts on nonquan-. --------~-------- ... a short account of how the ratings of sports- persons are arrived ...

  11. Youth Sports Safety Statistics (United States)

    ... supplements, steroids, changed eating, exercising, other muscle enhancing tactics, etc. was more than twice as high among boys who participated in sports vs. nonparticipants. 36  The occurrence of energy drink- ...

  12. Sport injuries in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Habelt


    Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.

  13. The asthmatic athlete: inhaled Beta-2 agonists, sport performance, and doping. (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald C; Fitch, Kenneth D


    The asthmatic athlete has a long history in competitive sport in terms of success in performance and issues related to doping. Well documented are detailed objective tests used to evaluate the athlete with symptoms of asthma or airway hyperresponsiveness and the medical management. Initiated at the 2002 Salt Lake City Games, the International Olympic Committee's Independent Asthma Panel required testing to justify the use of inhaled beta-2 agonists (IBAs) in Olympic athletes and has provided valuable guidelines to the practicing physician. This program was educational and documented the variability in prevalence of asthma and/or airway hyperresponsiveness and IBA use between different sports and different countries. It provided a standard of care for the athlete with respiratory symptoms and led to the discovery that asthmatic Olympic athletes outperformed their peers at both Summer and Winter Olympic Games from 2002 to 2010. Changes to the World Anti-Doping Agency's Prohibited List in 2010 permitted the use of 2 IBA produced by the same pharmaceutical company. All others remain prohibited. However, there is no pharmacological difference between the permitted and prohibited IBAs. As a result of these changes, asthmatic athletes are being managed differently based on a World Anti-Doping Agency directive that has no foundation in pharmacological science or in clinical practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensur Memić


    Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.

  15. Caffeine and sports performance. (United States)

    Burke, Louise M


    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”

  17. Sport Spaces for All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Anne Margrethe


    Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...

  18. Sports related to drowning. (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P


    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  19. Drugs in sport. (United States)

    McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A


    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.

  20. Sporting Activity Is Reduced 11 Years After First-Generation Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation in the Knee Joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdle, Benjamin; Herrmann, Simon; Porichis, Stella


    BACKGROUND: Little is known about long-term sporting activity after periosteal autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI-P) and its correlation to clinical, morphological, and ultrastructural cartilage characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PURPOSE: To evaluate long-term sporting...

  1. State of development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tikhonova


    Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI


    Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.

  3. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia


    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  4. Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma. (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy


    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively.

  5. Return to sport after ACL reconstruction: a survey between the Italian Society of Knee, Arthroscopy, Sport, Cartilage and Orthopaedic Technologies (SIGASCOT) members. (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Vascellari, Alberto; Combi, Alberto; Tomaello, Luca; Canata, Gian Luigi; Zaffagnini, Stefano


    A worldwide consensus for timing and criteria for return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is lacking. The aim of the study was to survey among the Italian Society of Knee, Arthroscopy, Sport, Cartilage and Orthopaedic Technologies (SIGASCOT) members in order to evaluate their approaches to the return to sport after ACL reconstruction regarding timing and criteria. A web survey among the SIGASCOT members was performed, including 14 questions regarding technical and graft preferences, timing for return to training and competitive activity for contact and non-contact sports and criteria to allow return to sport. Totally, 123 members completed the questionnaire. Return to training sports was allowed within 6 month by 87 % for non-contact sports and by 53 % for contact sports. Return to competitive activity was allowed within 6 months by 48 % for non-contact sports and by 13 % for contact sports. Full ROM (77 %), Lachman test (65 %) and Pivot-Shift test (65 %) were the most used criteria to allow return to sport. The 90 % used at least one clinical score. The SIGASCOT members showed various approaches in the return to sport after ACL reconstruction, with differences between return to training or competitive activity, and between contact and non-contact sports. Six months was generally considered adequate by most of the members for the most demanding activities. The most used criteria to allow return to sport were manual testing. A clear definition of sport activities and more objective criteria for the return to sport are needed. Level V, expert opinion.

  6. Sport-specific balance. (United States)

    Zemková, Erika


    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  7. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  8. ACL Return to Sport Guidelines and Criteria. (United States)

    Davies, George J; McCarty, Eric; Provencher, Matthew; Manske, Robert C


    Because of the epidemiological incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the high reinjury rates that occur when returning back to sports, the actual number of patients that return to the same premorbid level of competition, the high incidence of osteoarthritis at 5-10-year follow-ups, and the effects on the long-term health of the knee and the quality of life for the patient, individualizing the return to sports after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical. However, one of the challenging but unsolved dilemmas is what criteria and clinical decision making should be used to return an athlete back to sports following an ACL-R. This article describes an example of a functional testing algorithm (FTA) as one method for clinical decision making based on quantitative and qualitative testing and assessment utilized to make informed decisions to return an athlete to their sports safely and without compromised performance. The methods were a review of the best current evidence to support a FTA. In order to evaluate all the complicated domains of the clinical decision making for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R, numerous assessments need to be performed including the biopsychosocial concepts, impairment testing, strength and power testing, functional testing, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The optimum criteria to use for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R remain elusive. However, since this decision needs to be made on a regular basis with the safety and performance factors of the patient involved, this FTA provides one method of quantitatively and qualitatively making the decisions. Admittedly, there is no predictive validity of this system, but it does provide practical guidelines to facilitate the clinical decision making process for return to sports. The clinical decision to return an athlete back into competition has significant implications ranging from the safety of the athlete, to performance factors and actual

  9. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? (United States)

    ... assessment and management • Care of sports-related and general medical needs of athletes • Special populations (geriatric, disabled, women, youth, etc.) • Sports psychology issues • Substance use issues • Education and counseling on ...

  10. Sports in postmodern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron


    Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.

  11. Cannabis in Sport (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier


    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  12. Nutrition in team sports. (United States)

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M


    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. South African Journal of Sports Medicine - Vol 28, No 1 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. ... The medial tibial stress syndrome score: Item generation for a new patient reported outcome measure · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Winters, M Franklyn, MH Moen, A Weir, FJG Back, EWP Bakker, 11- ...

  14. Validity of Torque-Data Collection at Multiple Sites: A Framework for Collaboration on Clinical-Outcomes Research in Sports Medicine. (United States)

    Kuenze, Christopher; Eltouhky, Moataz; Thomas, Abbey; Sutherlin, Mark; Hart, Joseph


    Collecting torque data using a multimode dynamometer is common in sports-medicine research. The error in torque measurements across multiple sites and dynamometers has not been established. To assess the validity of 2 calibration protocols across 3 dynamometers and the error associated with torque measurement for each system. Observational study. 3 university laboratories at separate institutions. 2 Biodex System 3 dynamometers and 1 Biodex System 4 dynamometer. System calibration was completed using the manufacturer-recommended single-weight method and an experimental calibration method using a series of progressive weights. Both calibration methods were compared with a manually calculated theoretical torque across a range of applied weights. Relative error, absolute error, and percent error were calculated at each weight. Each outcome variable was compared between systems using 95% confidence intervals across low (0-65 Nm), moderate (66-110 Nm), and high (111-165 Nm) torque categorizations. Calibration coefficients were established for each system using both calibration protocols. However, within each system the calibration coefficients generated using the single-weight (System 4 = 2.42 [0.90], System 3a = 1.37 [1.11], System 3b = -0.96 [1.45]) and experimental calibration protocols (System 4 = 3.95 [1.08], System 3a = -0.79 [1.23], System 3b = 2.31 [1.66]) were similar and displayed acceptable mean relative error compared with calculated theoretical torque values. Overall, percent error was greatest for all 3 systems in low-torque conditions (System 4 = 11.66% [6.39], System 3a = 6.82% [11.98], System 3b = 4.35% [9.49]). The System 4 significantly overestimated torque across all 3 weight increments, and the System 3b overestimated torque over the moderate-torque increment. Conversion of raw voltage to torque values using the single-calibration-weight method is valid and comparable to a more complex multiweight calibration process; however, it is clear that

  15. Selected Periodicals in Sport and Physical Education. (United States)

    Crase, Darrell


    Thirty-one journals pertinent to the physical educator and to the professional in the areas of motor learning, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport psychology, and sport medicine are listed with a general note on the scope of each. (JMF)

  16. Rehabilitation and return to sport after hamstring strain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Erickson


    Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.

  17. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan


    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  18. In-office management of sport-related concussion. (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W


    The field of sport-related concussion has grown exponentially over the past decade, with more concussion-specific clinics being identified in major hospital systems as well as independent practitioner's offices. To date, there is no standardized in-office protocol for managing ongoing symptoms. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Sports Concussion Program, established in 2000, is one of the largest programs in the USA, pioneering the way in clinical management, research, and education of sport-related concussion. This report will outline the essential components of a successful concussion clinic, using the UPMC Sports Concussion Program as a case example of best practice. We will share several case studies illustrating the individualized and complex nature of this injury, as well as review important rehabilitation components. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sports activity after anatomic acromioclavicular joint stabilisation with flip-button technique. (United States)

    Porschke, Felix; Schnetzke, Marc; Aytac, Sara; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Gruetzner, Paul Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten


    Sports activity after surgical AC joint stabilisation has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to determine rate, level and time to return to sports after AC joint stabilisation and to identify the influence of overhead sports on post-operative sports activity. In this retrospective case series, a total of 68 patients with a high-grade AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type V) were stabilised using a single TightRope technique. Fifty-five patients (80.9 %) with median age of 42.0 (range, 18-65) years completed questionnaires regarding sports activity before and after surgery. Clinical outcome and complications were also evaluated. Forty-three patients participated in sports regularly before injury. Their sports activity was rated according to Allain, and non-overhead and overhead sports were differentiated. At median follow-up of 24 (18-45) months, 41 of 43 patients (95.3 %) had returned to sports. 63 % returned to the same sports activity as before injury. 16.3 % needed to adapt the type of sports to reduce demanding activities. 11.6 % reduced the frequency and 32.5 % the intensity of sports. The median time to return to sports was 9.5 (3-18) months. Overhead athletes (Allain Type III and IV) had to reduce their sports activity significantly more often (11.8 vs. 53.8 %; p = 0.011) and needed more time to return to sports (9.5 vs. 4.5 months; p = 0.009). After stabilisation of AC joint dislocation, the majority of patients returned to sports after a substantial period of time. Overhead athletes, in particular, required more time and had to considerably reduce their sports activity. The findings impact therapeutic decision-making after AC joint injury and help with the prognosis and assessment of rehabilitation progress. IV.

  20. Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley


    The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.

  1. Learning through a Winter's Tale (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie


    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  2. Sport specificity of mental disorders: the issue of sport psychiatry. (United States)

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; Markser, Valentin Z


    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among elite athletes is still under debate. More and more evidence has accumulated that high-performance athletes are not protected from mental disorders as previously thought. The authors discuss the issue of the sport specificity of selected mental diseases in elite athletes. Specific aspects of eating disorders, exercise addiction, chronic traumatic encephalopathy and mood disorders in the context of overtraining syndrome are examined. In particular, the interrelationship between life and work characteristics unique to elite athletes and the development of mental disorders are reviewed. Differences of clinical presentation and some therapeutic consequences are discussed. The authors suggest that the physical and mental strains endured by elite athletes might influence the onset and severity of their psychiatric disorder. Beside the existing research strategies dealing with the amount of exercise, its intensity and lack of recreation experienced by athletes, further research on psycho-social factors is needed to better understand the sport-specific aetiology of mental disorders in high-performance athletes.

  3. Sport and Society: An Introduction to Sociology of Sport. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…

  4. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...

  5. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education (United States)

    Griffin, Joy


    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  6. Commuting, Exercise and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas


    The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI


    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  8. [Badminton--unknown sport]. (United States)

    Zekan-Petrinović, Lidija


    For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.

  9. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch


    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...

  10. Achados clínico patológicos durante um surto de disenteria de inverno em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul Clinic pathological features during a winter dysentery outbreak in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Petinatti Pavarini


    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de disenteria de inverno que afetou 10 vacas leiteiras de uma propriedade localizada em Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. O quadro clínico caracterizou-se por uma diarréia inicialmente líquida esverdeada com estrias de sangue e muco, evoluindo, em alguns animais, para uma diarréia de coloração marrom escura à sanguinolenta, que persistiu, em média, cinco dias. Drástica diminuição na produção de leite e no consumo de alimentos, além de graus variados de depressão também foram observados. Apenas um dos 10 animais afetados morreu. Durante a necropsia, observaram-se mucosas pálidas, conteúdo sanguinolento com presença de grande quantidade de coágulos, principalmente no cólon espiral e petéquias na mucosa do cólon. Os principais achados histológicos foram encontradas no cólon espiral, onde havia criptas dilatadas, sem epitélio de revestimento ou revestidas por epitélio pavimentoso e/ou cuboidal, por vezes com núcleos grandes e nucléolos proeminentes. Algumas criptas eram preenchidas por debris necróticos e polimorfonucleares. Na imuno-histoquímica com anticorpo monoclonal para coronavírus bovino (8F2 em cortes do cólon espiral, havia marcações positivas no citoplasma de enterócitos das criptas, nos debris necróticos destas e em macrófagos na lâmina própria.The report describes a winter dysentery outbreak that affected 10 dairy cows from a ranch located in the county of Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul. The most significant clinical sign was profuse and watery diarrhea, which ranged from a greenish to a brownish coloration and from occasional blood streaks with mucus to a bloody diarrhea. Most cases persisted for 5 days and also included depression, drastic decrease in milk production and in food consumption. Only one of the affected animals died. The necropsy revealed pale mucosa and sanguineous content with high quantity of blood clots, particularly within the spiral colon, and petechiae on the

  11. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic sports medicine - a smart move? (United States)

    Wong, Seng Juong; Robertson, Greg A; Connor, Katie L; Brady, Richard R; Wood, Alexander M


    With the advent of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps), there is increasing opportunities for doctors, including orthopaedic sports surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of these medical apps remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content, along with a review of these apps. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for Orthopaedic Sports medicine themed apps, using the search terms; Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine, Knee Injury, Shoulder Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear, Medial Collateral Ligament Tear, Rotator Cuff Tear, Meniscal Tear, Tennis Elbow. All English language apps related to orthopaedic sports medicine were included. A total of 76 individual Orthopaedic Sports Medicine themed apps were identified. According to app store classifications, there were 45 (59 %) medical themed apps, 28 (37 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business app, 1 (1 %) reference app and 1 (1 %) sports app. Forty-nine (64 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.69 to £69.99. Only 51 % of sports medicine apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 39 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. We found the majority of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over their content and evidence-base. We recommend increased regulation of such apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...

  13. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.


    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  14. Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives. (United States)

    Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.


    A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

  15. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... around in your stomach! If you like the taste of sports drinks better than regular water, then ...

  16. Sports and Child Development (United States)


    The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474

  17. Nuclear medicine in sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anshu Rajnish


    Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph

  18. Australian Institute of Sport and Australian Medical Association position statement on concussion in sport. (United States)

    Elkington, Lisa J; Hughes, David C


    Sport-related concussion is a growing health concern in Australia. Public concern is focused on the incidence and potential long term consequences of concussion. Children may be more prone to concussion and take longer to recover. The Australian Institute of Sport and the Australian Medical Association have collaborated to present the most contemporary evidence-based information in a format appropriate for all stakeholders. This position statement aims to ensure that participant safety and welfare is paramount when dealing with concussion in sport.First aid principles apply in the management of the athlete with suspected concussion, including protection of the cervical spine. Tools exist for use by members of the community, allowing identification of key symptoms and signs that raise the suspicion of concussion. Medical professionals should use the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 3, in conjunction with clinical assessment for the diagnosis of concussion. Clinical assessment includes mechanism of injury, symptoms and signs, cognitive functioning, and neurological assessment including balance testing. In any situation where concussion is suspected, the athlete must be immediately removed from sport and not be allowed to return to activity until they have been assessed by a medical practitioner. "If in doubt, sit them out."A diagnosis of concussion requires immediate physical and cognitive rest, followed by a structured, graduated return to physical activity. Children require a longer period of recovery from concussion. Algorithms are provided for use by medical and non-medically trained stakeholders in the recognition and management of concussion.

  19. Project and Sports Events Management


    Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU


    This paper tries to capture the importance it holds the project management in socio-cultural sector which stands out when we refer to the sport. So when we talk about project management in sport, to consider a much larger vision, a new project management perspective, they involve a responsibility for the implementation of an event with global impact on very long term. Sports projects, as history shows us, played a significant role in developing societies. Also, all major sports industry proje...



    Srećko Novaković


    Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković


    Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović


    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  3. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales


    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  4. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen. (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A


    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  5. Sport Art: Spectacle or Sacrament. (United States)

    Studer, Ginny L., Ed.; And Others


    The chief objective of sport art is to capture that actual fleeting moment of excellent performance in a sporting event. In a series of articles, the significance of sport art is shown in its importance in recording historic contests and games, emphasizing social achievement and personal performance goals, and attempting to symbolize the depth of…

  6. The Sport-Stress Connection. (United States)

    Santomier, James


    This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…

  7. Computational Design for Sport Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turrin, M.; Yang, D.; D'Aquilio, A.; Šileryte, R.; Sun, Y


    The design of sport buildings has great impact on top-sport as well as on recreational sport-activities. It implies challenging tasks in meeting the performance-requirements. This includes the control of factors like daylight/lighting, air flow, thermal conditions, just to name a few. Such factors

  8. Ulnar nerve lesion at the wrist and sport: A report of 8 cases compared with 45 non-sport cases. (United States)

    Seror, P


    Reporting clinical and electrodiagnostic characteristics of sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist. Eight sport-related and 45 non-sport-related cases from 53 ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases over 14 years. Sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases were due to cycling (5 cases), kayaking (2 cases), and big-game fishing (1 case). No patient had sensory complaints in ulnar digits, and all had motor impairment. Conduction across the wrist with recording on the first dorsal interosseous muscle was impaired in all cases, with conduction block in 5. Two cyclists showed bilateral ulnar neuropathies at the wrist. All cases recovered within 2 to 6 months with sport discontinuation. Distal lesions of the deep motor branch were more frequent in sport- than non-sport-related cases. The 8 sport-related ulnar neuropathies at the wrist cases involved the deep motor branch. Conduction study to the first dorsal interosseous muscle across the wrist is the key to electrodiagnostics. Bilateral cases in cyclists does not require wrist imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS): a study protocol for a prospective longitudinal study. (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan


    of time. The results will eventually contribute to the development of evidence-based preventive measures specifically adapted to Paralympic sport in order to provide safe and healthy sport participation. Thereby, the project will be of relevance for Paralympic athletes at all levels and to the Paralympic Movement. The study is registered at (Identifier: NCT02788500; Registration date: 22 May 2016).

  10. Sport and Recreation Influence upon Mountain Area and Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ


    Full Text Available In contemporary tourism, sport and recreation are increasingly becoming the dominant motives for undertaking the journey, and as a result of modern living, active holidays are more frequent. Mountain areas have always been attractive to deal with the various sports activities. Winter sports were the initiators of the development of mountain resorts. Mountain resorts invest in construction of hotels, ski lifts, snowmaking equipment, for the sake of attracting a growing number of tourist clientele. On the other hand, sport and recreation also serve to promote summer mountain tourism. Tennis, golf, swimming, horseback riding are key tools to attract visitors in the summer months toward the resorts facilities. The main problems regarding the development of mountain tourism centers come in the form of the growing concern for the preservation of the environment, of the human and traffic congestion in the mountains and the intensive use of natural resources by tourists. This paper aims to highlight the positive and negative impacts of sport and recreation in the development of mountain tourism and to present possible solutions to reduce negative impacts. Methodology is based on document review of many bibliographic resources, which are related with skiing and mountain biking as examples of winter and summer sport activities on mountains.

  11. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games



    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  12. Sociology of Sport. (United States)

    Greendorfer, Susan L.


    The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković


    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  14. Simulation in Sport Finance (United States)

    Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan


    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…

  15. Cannabis and sport. (United States)

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J


    Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Radović


    Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment

  17. Computer vision for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...

  18. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  19. Nutrition in Children's Sports. (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  20. What Are Sports Injuries? (United States)

    ... Health Information Spanish Language Health Information Related Information La historia de Ana: Cómo ella y su familia aprendieron sobre las lesiones depor… Ana's Story Lesiones deportivas: Esenciales: hojas informativas de fácil lectura View/Download/Order Publications Sports Injuries, Easy-to- ...

  1. Sport und soziale Integration


    Turan, Günes


    Sport und soziale Integration : Chancen, Probleme und Perspektiven für Städte und Kommunen ; Tagungsband der gleichnamigen Tagung am 28. und 29. Juni 2011 in Augsburg / Helmut Altenberger ... (Hrsg.). - Hamburg : Feldhaus, Ed. Czwalina, 2012. - 104 S. - (Sportwissenschaft und Sportpraxis ; 161)

  2. Sport og etik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted

    Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...

  3. Sport-Related Concussions (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo


    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  4. AI Sport Forecast Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash


    Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.

  5. [Sport and physical activity]. (United States)

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P


    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  6. Sports-specific differences in postsurgical infections after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (United States)

    Krutsch, Werner; Zellner, Johannes; Zeman, Florian; Nerlich, Michael; Koch, Matthias; Pfeifer, Christian; Angele, Peter


    Post-operative infection after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare but severe complication, particularly for young and active patients. It is unclear whether the prevalence of knee infection is correlated with the type of sports or the level of performance. From 2008 to 2012, the internal single-centre ACL registry of the FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence Regensburg was retrospectively screened for sex, age, time between isolated primary ACL rupture and surgery, surgical technique, rate of infection after ACL reconstruction and the type of sports practised. In total, 4801 ACL reconstructions had been conducted over 5 years, 4579 in amateur and 221 in professional athletes. After application of the exclusion criteria, 1809 athletes with ACL reconstruction were analysed regarding postsurgical infection and the type of sports practised. Professionals and amateurs did not significantly differ with regard to infection rates (n.s.) but in the timing of ACL repair (p sports (n.s.). Staphylococcus aureus and epidermidis were the predominant detected bacteria. All patients were hospitalised and successfully treated with arthroscopic lavage and antibiotic medication. ACL infections showed sports-related differences. Athletes practising summer outdoor sports such as football had a significantly higher risk of infection after ACL reconstruction than winter sports athletes. No difference was found between professional and amateur athletes. Relevant prevention strategies for postsurgical ACL infections should consider influencing patient factors such as the type of sports activity and attendant circumstances. III.

  7. [Sex role and sports]. (United States)

    Darlison, E


    Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both

  8. Managing patients with neurologic disorders who participate in sports activities. (United States)

    Crutchfield, Kevin E


    Patients with neurologic conditions have been discouraged from participating in organized sports because of theoretical detrimental effects of these activities to their underlying conditions. The purpose of this article is to review known risks associated with three specific clinical conditions most commonly encountered in a sports neurology clinic (epilepsy, migraines, and multiple sclerosis and to add to the neurologist's toolkit suggested interventions regarding management of athletes with these disorders. Increased participation in sports and athletics has positive benefits for patients with neurologic conditions and can be safely integrated into the lives of these patients with proper supervision from their treating neurologists. Patients with neurologic conditions can and should be encouraged to participate in organized sports as a method of maintaining their overall fitness, improving their overall level of function, and reaping the physical and psychological benefits that athletic competition has to offer.

  9. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.


    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  10. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  11. Reproducibility and clinical utility of tendon palpation to detect patellar tendinopathy in young basketball players. Victorian Institute of Sport tendon study group. (United States)

    Cook, J L; Khan, K M; Kiss, Z S; Purdam, C R; Griffiths, L


    Palpation is an important clinical test for jumper's knee. To (a) test the reproducibility of palpation tenderness, (b) evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of palpation in subjects with clinical symptoms of jumper's knee, and (c) determine whether tenderness to palpation may serve as a useful screening test for patellar tendinopathy. The yardstick for diagnosis of patellar tendinopathy was ultrasonographic abnormality. In 326 junior symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes' tendons, palpation was performed by a single examiner before ultrasonographic examination by a certified ultrasound radiologist. In 58 tendons, palpation was performed twice to test reliability. Tenderness to palpation was scored on a scale from 0 to 3 where 0 represented no pain, and 1, 2, and 3 represented mild, moderate, and severe tenderness respectively. Patellar tendon palpation was a reliable examination for a single examiner (Pearson r = 0.82). In symptomatic tendons, the positive predictive value of palpation was 68%. As a screening examination in asymptomatic subjects, the positive predictive value of tendon palpation was 36-38%. Moderate and severe palpation tenderness were better predictors of ultrasonographic tendon pathology than absent or mild tenderness (ppatellar tendinopathy in a preparticipation examination. In symptomatic tendons, palpation is a moderately sensitive but not specific test. Mild tenderness in the patellar tendons in asymptomatic jumping athletes should be considered normal.

  12. The complex clinical issues involved in an athlete's decision to retire from collision sport due to multiple concussions: a case study of a professional athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eGardner


    Full Text Available The issue of retirement from athletic participation due to repetitive concussive injuries remains controversial. The complexity of providing recommendations to elite athletes is highlighted by the prospect that offering inappropriate advice may foreseeably lead to engagement in a medico-legal challenge. Currently no evidenced-based, scientifically validated guidelines for forming the basis of such a decision exist. The current paper discusses the complexities of this challenge in addition to presenting a case study of a professional athlete. A number of central issues to consider when discussing athlete retirement revolve around the player’s medical and concussion histories, the current clinical profile, the athlete’s long-term life goals and understanding of the potential long-terms risks. Ensuring that thorough investigations of all possible differential diagnosis, that may explain the presenting symptoms, are conducted is also essential. Discussion pertaining to recommendations for guiding the clinical approach to the retirement issue for athletes with a history of multiple concussions is presented.

  13. Direct catastrophic injury in sports. (United States)

    Boden, Barry P


    Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.

  14. Shoulder injuries in overhead sports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woertler, K.


    Overhead sport places great demands on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes and throwers can in the majority of cases be attributed to lesions resulting from chronic overuse of tendons and capsuloligamentous structures or to sequels of microinstability and secondary impingement. Due to its great impact on therapeutic decisions, imaging in athletes with unclear shoulder pain is a challenge. In this connection, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography represents the cross-sectional imaging modality of first choice, as it allows depiction and exclusion of pathologic alterations of all relevant joint structures with sufficient confidence. This article reviews the biomechanical and clinical aspects and MR arthrographic features of the most common shoulder pathologies in overhead athletes, including biceps tendinopathy, superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions, rotator cuff lesions, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic impingement syndromes. (orig.) [de

  15. [Shoulder injuries in overhead sports]. (United States)

    Wörtler, K


    Overhead sport places great demands on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes and throwers can in the majority of cases be attributed to lesions resulting from chronic overuse of tendons and capsuloligamentous structures or to sequels of microinstability and secondary impingement. Due to its great impact on therapeutic decisions, imaging in athletes with unclear shoulder pain is a challenge. In this connection, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography represents the cross-sectional imaging modality of first choice, as it allows depiction and exclusion of pathologic alterations of all relevant joint structures with sufficient confidence.This article reviews the biomechanical and clinical aspects and MR arthrographic features of the most common shoulder pathologies in overhead athletes, including biceps tendinopathy, superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions, rotator cuff lesions, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic impingement syndromes.

  16. Využití sportovního zpravodajství ČTK z olympijských her ve Vancouveru 2010 v deníku Sport


    Novotný, Ondřej


    The bachelor thesis "The usage of sport news service of Czech News Agency from the Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010 in the newspaper Sport" deals with a media coverage of extraordinary important sport event aiming to find out the extend of today's dependence of print newspapers on the service of the press agency. The research is based on the example of the Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, one of the most important sport events of 2010, and it surveys the production of sport section of Czech ...

  17. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies. (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang


    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  18. The 2019 Winter Universiade in Krasnoyarsk. The student campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Krylova


    Full Text Available The uniqueness of the 29th World Winter Universiade in Krasnoyarsk is that all the sports grounds will be located within the city. One of them is the territory of the Siberian Federal University, which will house the Athletic Village and the volunteers’ residence. The facilities that are being built on this territory will later frm a student environment. A common natural framework between the facilities and the city is created with the help of a continuous chain of parks and gardens. The student boulevard will link two grounds, while running through the birchwood along the paths already made by people. The project approach implies searching for a code of the Krasnoyarsk architecture. According to the reconstruction project, the age-old pines will be preserved, new pines will be planted, and the view to the mountains will be open.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Sports Coaches Regarding Sport Volume Recommendations and Sport Specialization. (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R


    Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.

  20. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja


    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  1. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to sports medicine. (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Cook, Jill L; Derman, Wayne; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Steffen, Kathrin


    The protection of an athlete's health and preventing injuries and illnesses in sport are top priorities for the IOC and its Medical Commission. The IOC therefore partners with selected research centres around the world and supports research in the field of sports medicine. This has enabled the IOC to develop an international network of expert scientists and clinicians in sports injury and disease prevention research. The IOC wants to promote injury and disease prevention and the improvement of physical health of the athlete by: (1) establishing long-term research programmes on injury and disease prevention (including studies on basic epidemiology, risk factors, injury mechanisms and intervention), (2) fostering collaborative relationships with individuals, institutions and organisations to improve athletes' health, (3) implementing and collaborating with applied, ongoing and novel research and development within the framework and long-term strategy of the IOC and (4) setting up knowledge translation mechanisms to share scientific research results with the field throughout the Olympic Movement and sports community and converting these results into concrete actions to protect the health of the athletes. In 2009, the IOC also identified four research centres that had an established track record in research, educational and clinical activities to achieve these ambitions: (1) the Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Australia; (2) the Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre (SIPRC), Canada; (3) the Clinical Sport and Exercise Medicine Research (CSEM), South Africa and (4) the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC), Norway. This paper highlights the work carried out by these four IOC Centres of Excellence over the past 6 years and their contribution to the world of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  2. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics. (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A


    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marketing management of sport and tourism - Introduction


    Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro


    Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš


    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  5. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching


    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  6. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    . Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović


    Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.

  8. Simulation in Sport Finance


    Joris, Drayer; Daniel, Rascher


    Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low-risk environment. The OAKLAND A’S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry where sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of an experience provided to fans. The simulator asks students to make decisions about prices for concessions, parking, and merchandise, player payroll expenses, funding for...

  9. Conference on sports

    CERN Multimedia



    Le Docteur Guenin, lui-même un grand sportif, qui exerce entre beaucoup d'autres activités la course à pieds et le ski de fond, est aussi sécrétaire médical du journal "Vie et Santé. Il nous parle de l'exercice du sport, gym aérobic, jogging etc. avec présention de quelques dias et d'un film du Dr.Kupper.

  10. Professional Team Sports Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....

  11. Aquatic sports and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Миколайович Зюзь


    Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles

  12. Differential diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system in sports medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehrer, S.


    The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [de

  13. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter (United States)

    Robock, A.


    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  14. Anticipation in sport. (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen


    Anticipation has become an increasingly important research area within sport psychology since its infancy in the late 1970s. Early work has increased our fundamental understanding of skilled anticipation in sports and how this skill is developed. With increasing theoretical and practical insights and concurrent technological advancements, researchers are now able to tackle more detailed questions with sophisticated methods. Despite this welcomed progress, some fundamental questions and challenges remain to be addressed, including the (relative) contributions of visual and motor experience to anticipation, intraindividual and interindividual variation in gaze behaviour, and the impact of non-kinematic (contextual or situational) information on performance and its interaction with advanced kinematic cues during the planning and execution of (re)actions in sport. The aim of this opinion paper is to shortly sketch the state of the art, and then to discuss recent work that has started to systematically address open challenges thereby inspiring promising future routes for research on anticipation and its application in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sports and disability. (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H


    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathevan Elumalai


    Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity

  17. Ethical Climate and Sports Personship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.

  18. Neuropathic pain mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries: a diagnostic model useful in sports medicine? (United States)

    van Wilgen, Cornelis P; Keizer, Doeke


    The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries. Sensory descriptors were assessed by means of a neuropathic pain questionnaire (DN4-interview) and by three methods of sensory testing. The test results were integrated in a scoring system. Patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a University Medical Centre and at primary care physical therapy practices. Fifteen athletes with a unilateral chronic sports injury were included. All subjects filled out the seven-items of the DN4-interview to assess sensory descriptors. Next, the presence of brush-evoked allodynia was assessed and pain thresholds with Von Frey monofilaments and a pressure algometer were measured in all patients to determine signs of sensitization. Based on the scoring system, in 4 out of 15 patients (27%) the presence of sensitization could be detected. In two other patients, signs of hypoalgesia were observed. The involvement of sensitization as an explanation for the pain in chronic sports injuries is credible in a considerable proportion of patients. With respect to treatment, the establishment of such neuropathic pain mechanisms is of clinical significance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Political Economy of Sport


    Stefan Szymanski


    The political constitutions of both the US and Europe provide no guidance on the role of organised sport in society. Without a proper set of rules politicians are finding sports issues increasingly hard to handle. In the US there is widespread concern at the commercial exploitation of major league sports, particularly through the relocation of franchises. In Europe there are anxieties about the increasing polarisation of wealth and the fear that traditions built up over a century will be lost...

  20. Virtual(ly) Athletes: Where eSports Fit within the Definition of "Sport" (United States)

    Jenny, Seth E.; Manning, R. Douglas; Keiper, Margaret C.; Olrich, Tracy W.


    Electronic sports, cybersports, gaming, competitive computer gaming, and virtual sports are all synonyms for the term eSports. Regardless of the term used, eSports is now becoming more accepted as a "sport" and gamers are being identified as "athletes" within society today. eSports has even infiltrated higher education in the…

  1. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Camomilla, Valentina; Bergamini, Elena; Fantozzi, Silvia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe


    Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers), technique analysis (163), activity classification (19), and physical demands assessment (61). Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59%) performing their sport in-field during training (62%) and competition (7%). Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%), water sports (16%), team sports (25%), and other outdoor activities (27%). Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  2. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Camomilla


    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017 were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers, technique analysis (163, activity classification (19, and physical demands assessment (61. Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59% performing their sport in-field during training (62% and competition (7%. Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%, water sports (16%, team sports (25%, and other outdoor activities (27%. Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  3. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio


    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Nicoleta CANDREA


    Full Text Available Sport event tourism is a huge and growing global industry with important economic implications for both the sport, the event and the impact of travel and tourism related benefits on host destinations. A primary function of a sport event is to provide the host community with an opportunity to secure high prominence in the tourism market place. However, international or regional prominence may be gained with significant social and environmental costs. Hosting sport events has been a focus of destination marketers as a strategy to enhance its destination image and differentiate its tourism products. Communities are attracted to hosting sport events to draw marketing benefits that will contribute to the success of the destination in the long run by creating awareness, improving their image with visitors and attracting tourism business to generate future inbound travel. As such, destination images can be influenced by the hosting of a sport event and the attributes associated with this event. The purpose of this paper is to outline the role of sport event tourism in the promotion of tourist destinations. A case study has been chosen in order to illustrate the interdependence between event and destination marketing: Braşov, hosting the winter edition of The European Youth Olympic Festival in 2013. The paper includes a series of recommendations for destination managers in order to maximise the benefits of this event and take this opportunity to promote Braşov on the international market.

  5. Future Trends: Nutritional Supplements in Sports and Exercise (United States)

    Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose

    The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.

  6. The placebo effect in sports performance: a brief review. (United States)

    Beedie, Christopher J; Foad, Abigail J


    The placebo effect, with its central role in clinical trials, is acknowledged as a factor in sports medicine, although until recently little has been known about the likely magnitude and extent of the effect in any specific research setting. Even less is known about the prevalence of the effect in competitive sport. The present paper reviews 12 intervention studies in sports performance. All examine placebo effects associated with the administration of an inert substance believed by subjects to be an ergogenic aid. Placebo effects of varying magnitudes are reported in studies addressing sports from weightlifting to endurance cycling. Findings suggest that psychological variables such as motivation, expectancy and conditioning, and the interaction of these variables with physiological variables, might be significant factors in driving both positive and negative outcomes. Programmatic research involving the triangulation of data, and investigation of contextual and personality factors in the mediation of placebo responses may help to advance knowledge in this area.

  7. The Legal Landscape of Concussion: Implications for Sports Medicine Providers. (United States)

    Albano, Andrew W; Senter, Carlin; Adler, Richard H; Herring, Stanley A; Asif, Irfan M


    Concussion legislation has been enacted in all 50 of the United States, aiming to prevent mild traumatic brain injuries and the potential long-term sequelae of these injuries in youth athletics. Sports medicine providers, in addressing this major public health concern, are tasked with adhering to the established standards of medical care while also considering the legal implications. The PubMed (2011-2016) database was searched using the following search terms: concussion, sports concussion, legislation, and concussion legislation. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Clinical review. Level 4. The Lystedt law and its progeny have increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of sports concussion, but adherence to state legislation can pose some challenges. The presence of concussion legislation places a responsibility on the sports medicine provider to have a firm understanding of the legality of concussion management in the state(s) in which they practice. © 2016 The Author(s).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mazurkiewicz


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.

  9. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to testosterone (such as dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA for short). These supplements can have similar side effects to anabolic steroids. Other sports supplements (like creatine, ...

  10. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten


    about violations of the media freedom or personal safety of sports journalists. Threats to media freedom include being banned from press conferences or events, the seizure of passports or denial of accreditation.The personal safety of sports journalists is compromised through verbal abuse, assaults......, attacks, personal and social media harrassment, detention, legal pressure, and killings. The key perpetrators identified in the sample were fans, athletes and coaches, owners and officials of sports clubs and national associations, international sports federations, and authorities in authoritarian regimes...

  11. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) ...

  12. Youth and Sport in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir Maros


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate to which measure sport is developed among young people in Montenegro and what should be done to improve and spread physical culture among young people and beyond school systems in order to infl uence their proper development and to create opportunities for choosing potential talents for certain sports disciplines, who would later grow into top athletes and members of national teams. In addition to the theoretical framework set out from referent literature on sports, we will analyze the indicators - the existing regulation and strategy, and analyze the structured interviews conducted among sports professionals, based on which we will form the theory and sublimate the conclusions of work, as recommendations for improving sports among young people. Disadvantages are inadequate realization of teaching in schools, lack of adequate infrastructure in schools, lack of athletic stadium in the capital of Montenegro and lack of sports schools beyond classes. Advantages are great sports potential in youth, youth interest in sport and generations of educated professors in physical culture. The recommendations are related to addressing the shortcomings that exist and the adoption of laws that will stimulate the development of sports among young people.

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & ... & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ...

  14. Energy solutions for sports facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artuso, Paola; Santiangeli, Adriano [CIRPS: Inter-University Research Centre for Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18, Rome (Italy)


    The sports facilities are characterized by special energy needs different from any other user and they are characterized by high heat and electricity loads. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to propose a tool to provide a preliminary estimation of the power and energy required by the sports centres. In addition, the possibility to make the building self-energy sufficient has been considered, thanks to the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES). The overall work has been performed following three steps: energy needs analysis; local RES availability analysis; energy balance of Sport Centres. Considering that each sport facility is characterized by different energy needs depending on the sport typology itself, the analysis started from the features established by the CONI (National Italian Olympic Committee) standardization. For calculations a program in LabVIEW has been developed to evaluate the energy requirements of the sports centre considering as inputs the sport halls, the playgrounds and the supporting rooms, the level of the sport activity (e.g. agonistic) and the climatic conditions of the area where the facilities are located. The locally available RES are evaluated in order to decide which one can be exploited to feed the Sport Centre. The proposed solution for the energy production refers to a combination of different and innovative technologies which involve, in particular, hydrogen technologies. The energy and costs analysis has been finally carried out for an application case in Dubai. (author)

  15. Women in Sport: Historical Perspectives. (United States)

    Gregg, Elizabeth A; Gregg, Vanessa H


    The history of women in sport in America was shaped by Victorian ideals and other belief systems prevalent during the nineteenth century. Medical experts of that era believed that intense exercise and competition could cause women to become masculine, threaten their ability to bear children, and create other reproductive health complications. Consequently, sport for women was reserved for upper-class women until the mid-twentieth century. Title IX of the Education Amendments had a significant and lasting impact on sport in America. Today, girls and women are enjoying sport at the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and professional levels comparable with their male counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bjeljac


    Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.

  17. Disabled people - rehabilitation with sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień


    Full Text Available Sport was used to complement  therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the  ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.

  18. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masciocchi, C.


    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & ... & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert ...

  20. Attitudes of Medical Students, Clinicians and Sports Scientists Towards Exercise Counselling


    Gnanendran, Abbyrhamy; Pyne, David B.; Fallon, Kieran E.; Fricker, Peter A.


    We compared the amount of exercise undertaken by medical students, clinicians, and sport scientists with the National Australian Physical Activity (NAPA) Guidelines. A second aim was to compare attitudes to exercise counselling as preventive medicine between university- and clinic-based professionals. The research setting was a university medical school and a sports science sports medicine centre. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 216 individuals (131 medical students, 43 clinicians an...

  1. An overview of concussion in sport. (United States)

    Khurana, Vini G; Kaye, Andrew H


    Concussion is a sudden-onset, transient alteration of consciousness due to a combination of functional and structural brain disturbances following a physical impact transmitted to the brain. It is a common, although likely underreported, condition encountered in a wide range of sports. In the Australian Football League, concussion is estimated to occur at a rate of approximately seven injuries per team per season. While many instances of concussion are clinically mild, there is emerging evidence that a player's full recovery from a concussive injury may be more delayed and the sequelae of repeated concussions more severe than previously thought. In this light, a more conservative and rigorous approach to managing players with concussive injuries may be warranted, with the guiding principle being the player's immediate and long-term welfare. The current paper reviews the sports concussion literature. The definition, epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, structural pathology, clinical features, assessment and investigation, treatment principles, and short-term and potential long-term complications of concussion are discussed. Special considerations in paediatric sports concussion, and the return-to-play implications of immediate, evolving and repetitive brain injury are also considered, as are the emerging concept and possible implications of subconcussive injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sport promotion in USA and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenov Gajina


    Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.

  3. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (United States)

    ... Upcoming Meetings Online Education Archived Meetings Faculty Resources Sports Medicine Fellowships Traveling Fellowship Submit an Abstract Submit ... Support AOSSM Research Publications Toggle American Journal of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal ...

  4. Returning to sports after a back injury (United States)

    ... Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  5. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann


    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  6. Caregiving Isn't a Solo Sport (United States)

    ... Sport Follow us Caregiving Isn't a Solo Sport Leeza Gibbons is a leading TV talk show ... go it alone. Caregiving is not a solo sport. Identify who’s on your team. Delegate, forgive, regroup, ...

  7. Physical education and school sport: The International Sport in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Summit on Physical Education, held in Berlin in November 1999, called attention to the serious decline in the state and status of physical education and school sport, all over the world. This report outlines the methods of the Sport in Education Project (SpinEd), an international research project, funded by the ...

  8. Using Sport Education to Teach the Lifetime Sport of Golf (United States)

    Scarboro, Shot; Pritchard, Tony


    Golf is a lifetime sport activity that can be taught in physical education classes. How one teaches golf in physical education could influence whether students will want to continue to participate outside of physical education. The sport education model (SEM) is an instructional model that promotes student learning in all three domains by ensuring…

  9. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters ...

  10. Sports medicine and drug control programs of the U.S. Olympic Committee. (United States)

    Clarke, K S


    The Amateur Sports Act of 1978 reconstituted the U.S. Olympic Committee ( USOC ), giving it new responsibilities and opportunities as a unifying force in amateur sports, including sports medicine. Sports medicine is the sum of attentions that promote and protect the health of the active person. Olympic sports medicine includes attention to the needs of both the elite athlete and the developing athlete. In some instances the attentions are the same; in others they are not. Those in Olympic sports medicine must thereby reduce the increasing array of general concepts and issues to the applicable specifics of the respective occasion, sport, and individual. The USOC Sports Medicine Program is guided by a 15-person volunteer Sports Medicine Council and implemented by a core Sports Medicine Division staff. Services are provided at the Olympic training centers in Colorado Springs and Lake Placid and extended through a budding network of colleagues in the field to clusters of athletes across the nations. Organizationally , the Division is composed of departments of biomechanics, sports physiology, clinical services, and educational services. Special projects are developed as warranted to provide focal attention to sports psychology, nutrition, chronobiology, vision enhancement, and drug control. The USOC Drug Control Program was born at the 1983 Pan American Games in Caracas after a long gestation period. Drug education in sports has been a frequent activity for the past 20 yr. sometimes focusing on illicit drugs (e.g., marijuana and cocaine) and sometimes on sports performance drugs (e.g., amphetamines and anabolic steroids).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Brain injury in sports. (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank


    Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of

  12. Quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants. (United States)

    Ledochowski, Larissa; Unterrainer, Christine; Ruedl, Gerhard; Schnitzer, Martin; Kopp, Martin


    To ensure the highest technical performance, speed, safety, excellent control and to improve competitive performance, a successful regulation of competitive anxiety is necessary. Therefore, it seems crucial to identify factors influencing competitive anxiety of adolescent athletes. Research suggests that people reporting high quality of life are more capable to cope with stressful and challenging situations than others. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of quality of life, the involvement of parents in sports career and coach's leadership behaviour on competitive anxiety in Winter Youth Olympic Games participants. During the first Winter Youth Olympic Games 2012 in Innsbruck/Austria, 662 (316 women) participants completed questionnaires and single items to assess quality of life, coach's leadership behaviour, parental involvement in sports career and competitive anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed positive influences of high quality of life and useful coach instruction on competitive anxiety. The relationship between quality of life, coach behaviour and competitive anxiety in young elite athletes competing at the first Winter Youth Olympic Games should be considered in long-term programmes for reducing competitive stress.

  13. Contemporary dimensions of sports sponsorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian DUMITRU


    Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.

  14. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping


    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  15. Predicting sports betting outcomes


    Flis, Borut


    We wish to build a model, which could predict the outcome of basketball games. The goal was to achieve an sufficient enough accuracy to make a profit in sports betting. One learning example is a game in the NBA regular season. Every example has multiple features, which describe the opposing teams. We tried many methods, which return the probability of the home team winning and the probability of the away team winning. These probabilities are used for risk analysis. We used the best model in h...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko


    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  17. [Sports and heat stroke]. (United States)

    Yuzawa, Itsuki; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru


    We described Characteristic of the heat stroke in the sports activity in Japan. It was common in teenage men, and 15 years old had a peak with a man, the woman. Most patients did not need specific treatment. Many happened from the end of July on the outdoors around 3:00 p.m. in mid-August. There are many in order of baseball, football, tennis, and a basketball. Running and cycling had high severity of illness. Probably, grasp of an environmental condition, suitable sportswear, suitable hydration, and condition management are the best things as preventive measures.

  18. Physics of Sports: Resonances (United States)

    Browning, David


    When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.

  19. Sport või sportlikkus? / Jukka Antila

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Antila, Jukka


    TM võrdleb 18tollised suverehve: Aptany Sport Macro RA301, Continental ContiSportContact 5, Delinte DH2, Dunlop SportMaxx RT2, Goodyear Eagle F1 Asymmetric 3, Hankook Ventus S1 Evo 2, Jinyu YU63, Maxxis Victra Sport Zero One, Michelin Pilot Sport 3, Nankang Sportnex AS-2+, Nokian Hakka Black, Pirelli Cinturato PZero, Toyo Proxes T1 Sport Plus

  20. Towards a definition of "sport administration"


    清水, 紀宏


    In this paper, the concept of "sport administration" was defined. Sport administration is a specialized field of sport sciences as well as a part of the field of business administration classified by each industry. In previous studies on sport administration, there has not been a common understanding of the concept of sport administration among researchers. Accordingly the nature and meanings of sport administration as a special field of business administration was examined in this paper by r...

  1. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zegang


    Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.



    Maja Štrbac


    There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of th...

  3. Sports participation 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes who had not returned to sport at 1 year: a prospective follow-up of physical function and psychological factors in 122 athletes. (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Whitehead, Timothy S; Webster, Kate E


    A return to their preinjury level of sport is frequently expected within 1 year after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, yet up to two-thirds of athletes may not have achieved this milestone. The subsequent sports participation outcomes of athletes who have not returned to their preinjury level sport by 1 year after surgery have not previously been investigated. To investigate return-to-sport rates at 2 years after surgery in athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A consecutive cohort of competitive- and recreational-level athletes was recruited prospectively before undergoing ACL reconstruction at a private orthopaedic clinic. Participants were followed up at 1 and 2 years after surgery with a sports activity questionnaire that collected information regarding returning to sport, sports participation, and psychological responses. An independent physical therapist evaluated physical function at 1 year using hop tests and the International Knee Documentation Committee knee examination form and subjective knee evaluation. A group of 122 competitive- and recreational-level athletes who had not returned to their preinjury level sport at 1 year after ACL reconstruction participated. Ninety-one percent of the athletes returned to some form of sport after surgery. At 2 years after surgery, 66% were playing sport, with 41% playing their preinjury level of sport and 25% playing a lower level of sport. Having a previous ACL reconstruction to either knee, poorer hop-test symmetry and subjective knee function, and more negative psychological responses were associated with not playing the preinjury level sport at 2 years. Most athletes who were not playing sport at 1 year had returned to some form of sport within 2 years after ACL reconstruction, which may suggest that athletes can take longer than the clinically expected time of 1 year to return to sport. However, only 2

  4. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis


    Chen Zegang


    At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, fo...

  5. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat a Variety of Foods Muscular Minerals and Vital Vitamins Protein ...

  6. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center ...

  7. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ...

  8. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten


    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  9. Young Women, Sports, and Science (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.


    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  10. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool


    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  11. Managing Excellence in Sports Performance. (United States)

    Lyle, John W. B.


    Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)

  12. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...

  13. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for ...

  14. Which "Character" Should Sport Develop? (United States)

    Rudd, Andy


    For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…

  15. The Greening of Girls' Sports (United States)

    Engle, Kathleen M.


    Examines the current nationwide drive to eliminate sexism in school sports. Discusses expenditures for boys' and girls' athletic programs, coaching salaries, facilities, and programs offered. A physician discusses the potentials for girls in competitive sports, and a girl who joined a high school all-male team is interviewed. (DN)

  16. Career Paths in Sport Management (United States)

    Schwab, Keri A.; Legg, Eric; Tanner, Preston; Timmerman, Danielle; Dustin, Daniel; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.


    Sport management alumni (N = 268) from five universities that offer undergraduate programs with an emphasis in sport management within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism were sampled via an electronic survey. The survey sought to learn where alumni were working, and how they felt about their career choice and undergraduate professional…

  17. SPORTS (version 1) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatoorgoon, V.; Thibeault, P.R.


    SPORTS is a transient one-dimensional thermalhydraulic code formulated from the non-linear time dependent conservation equations and designed to investigate two-phase flow stability. The SPORTS Users' Guide contains some features of the code, a brief description of the program environment and access, and a description of the input data complete with a sample problem

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak performance ... teen athletes need extra fuel, it's usually a bad idea to diet. Athletes in sports ... side effects mentioned above. If a coach, gym teacher, or ...

  19. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depends on the individual's age, size, level of physical activity, and environmental temperature. Experts recommend that athletes drink ... different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: ... Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...

  20. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in ...

  1. Teaching Combative Sports through Tactics (United States)

    Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.


    Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…

  2. Gene doping in sports. (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar


    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV

  3. Contact sport and osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Michael G


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.

  4. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ebru KOKU


    Full Text Available As participation in both amateur and professional sports increases, so does the importance of sports performance and the factors influencing it. Determinants of success in sports can be classified as training, genetic, epigenetic, dietary, motivational, equipment and other environmental factors. The effect of genetics on sports performance and skill has been examined for many years. Autosomal genes, mitochondrial DNA and various genes located in the Y chromosome have all been associated with sports performance. It is not possible to link physical performance to a single genetic polymorphism. Genes that have been most extensively studied in their relation to performance include ACE, ACTN3, ADRA2A, ADRB2, PPARA, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, HIF1A, NOS3, BDKRB2, VEGFR2 and VEGFA. For the time being, genetic screening tests may be useful in determining the weaknesses and strengths of a sportsperson, but not in predicting athletic success.

  6. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  7. [On health protection for members of Russian Federation national sports teams]. (United States)

    Uĭba, V V; Kotenko, K V


    The article covers main results of activities provided by Federal Medical and Biologic Agency on medical, sanitary and biologic support of Russian Federation national sport teams members. Through example of Bournazian FMBC of FMBA of Russian, Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, the authors represented results of scientific, educational and clinical work of specific establishment in this sphere.

  8. Sport injuries treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.

  9. Family – Sport – Upbringing [Rodzina – Sport – Wychowanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Issues brought up in the literature of sport in the context of the upbringing carried out in families are particularly valuable and needed in the chaos of the contemporary world. Sought here are the answers to such questions as: in which aspect of the functioning of the contemporary family is it possible to address the issue of sport?; can sport become a specific ally in the upbringing and the effective intercommunication of individual family members?; in what way can sport be carried out in the family so that it becomes a part of the education process? Based on conducted examinations material was gathered in the form of data concerning issues of sport treated as one of tools used in bringing up the family. They used quality testing methods here: phenomenological, which most generally comes down to the honest description of the examined phenomenon and with hermeneutic method, thanks to the application of which it is possible to get to obtain tangible results into the meaning of collected contents. Also a method of the diagnostic survey was applied. Research groups for the study were: coaches and instructors, athletes, PE teachers, students of PE and Sport, academic teachers of sports colleges. The persons are examined as to their methods and programmes. They are also parents, devoting themselves largely to the upbringing and the care of their children.

  10. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.


    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  11. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence


    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  12. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  13. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron


    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  14. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies


    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been


    Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie


    The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and

  16. Concussion Management Practice Patterns Among Sports Medicine Physicians. (United States)

    Stache, Stephen; Howell, David; Meehan, William P


    The primary purpose of this study was to examine concussion management practice patterns among sports medicine physicians in the United States. Cross-sectional study using a web-based survey. Members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM). We distributed a questionnaire to physician members of the AMSSM assessing the current practices for evaluating and managing concussions sustained during sports. Specifically, we asked respondents about their use of management guidelines, medications, balance assessments, neuropsychological tests, and return-to-play strategies. Of the 3591 members emailed, 425 (11.8%) respondents responded. Ninety-seven percent of respondents reported basing current management of sport-related concussion on a published set of criteria, with a majority (91.9%) following the guidelines provided by the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport. Seventy-six percent of respondents reported using medication beyond 48 hours postinjury. Acetaminophen was reported as the most commonly administered medication, although tricyclic antidepressants and amantadine were also commonly administered. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements were also reported as commonly administered. Most respondents reported using a form of neuropsychological testing (87.1%). A majority of respondents (88.6%) reported allowing athletes to return to competition after concussion only once the athlete becomes symptom free and completes a return-to-play protocol. Most sports medicine physicians seem to use recently developed guidelines for concussion management, regularly use medications and neuropsychological testing in management strategies, and follow established return-to-play guidelines. Sports medicine physicians seem to have clinical expertise in the management of sport-related concussion.

  17. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers. (United States)

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E


    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Eime


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended

  19. Incorporating kettlebells into a lower extremity sports rehabilitation program. (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P


    The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gained popularity for its ability to allow the user to perform functional power exercises. The unique exercises that can be performed with kettlebells may have utility in sports physical therapy practice. This clinical suggestion outlines the clinical rationale for the inclusion of kettlebell exercises when rehabilitating an athlete with a lower extremity injury.

  20. Return to sports participation after articular cartilage repair in the knee: scientific evidence. (United States)

    Mithoefer, Kai; Hambly, Karen; Della Villa, Stefano; Silvers, Holly; Mandelbaum, Bert R


    Articular cartilage injury in the athlete's knee presents a difficult clinical challenge. Despite the importance of returning injured athletes to sports, information is limited on whether full sports participation can be successfully achieved after articular cartilage repair in the knee. Systematic analysis of athletic participation after articular cartilage repair will demonstrate the efficacy of joint surface restoration in high-demand patients and help to optimize outcomes in athletes with articular cartilage injury of the knee. Systematic review. A comprehensive literature review of original studies was performed to provide information about athletic participation after articular cartilage repair. The athlete's ability to perform sports postoperatively was assessed by activity outcome scores, rate of return to sport, timing of the return, level of postoperative sports participation, and the continuation of athletic activity over time. Twenty studies describing 1363 patients were included in the review, with an average follow-up of 42 months. Return to sports was possible in 73% overall, with highest return rates after osteochondral autograft transplantation. Time to return to sports varied between 7 and 18 months, depending on the cartilage repair technique. Initial return to sports at the preinjury level was possible in 68% and did not significantly vary between surgical techniques. Continued sports participation at the preinjury level was possible in 65%, with the best durability after autologous chondrocyte transplantation. Several factors affected the ability to return to sport: athlete's age, preoperative duration of symptoms, level of play, lesion size, and repair tissue morphology. Articular cartilage repair in the athletic population allows for a high rate of return to sports, often at the preinjury level. Return to sports participation is influenced by several independent factors. The findings provide pertinent information that is helpful for the