WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter severety types

  1. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meesters Y; Gordijn MCM

    2016-01-01

    ...., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer...

  2. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type : current insights and treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first

  3. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke Cm

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed.

  4. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meesters Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ybe Meesters,1 Marijke CM Gordijn,2,3 1University Center for Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, 2Department of Chronobiology, GeLifes, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Chrono@Work B.V., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD, winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. Keywords: seasonal affective disorder, review, light treatment, medication, psychotherapy, prevention

  5. Two types of matter economy for the wintering of evergreen shrubs in regions of heavy snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoshio; Maekawa, Tomoyuki; Shibayama, Tomohiro; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki

    2003-08-01

    Plant adaptation to an environment subject to heavy snowfalls was investigated in four species of evergreen shrubs growing in a Fagus crenata forest in an area of Honshu on the Sea of Japan. These shrubs stored carbohydrates in some organs before the snowy season and were covered with snow for 4-5 months. Aucuba japonica var. borealis, Camellia rusticana, and Ilex crenata var. paludosa maintained a reserve of carbohydrates during the snowy season. In Daphniphyllum macropodum var. humile, the reserve of carbohydrates decreased during winter. The respiration rates in the first three species decreased from autumn to winter, whereas the decrease in D. macropodum was slight. It was found that the first three species could use reserve carbohydrates for the growth of new shoots after the thaw, whereas in the last species the growth of new shoots depends on high photosynthetic activity in late spring. Our findings suggest some types of matter economy in evergreen shrubs for wintering in an environment of heavy snow.

  6. On the effects of vertical air velocity on winter precipitation types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Thériault

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The various precipitation types formed within winter storms (such as snow, wet snow and freezing rain often lead to very hazardous weather conditions. These types of precipitation often occur during the passage of a warm front as a warm air mass ascends over a cold air mass. To address this issue further, we used a one-dimensional kinematic cloud model to simulate this gentle ascent (≤10 cm/s of warm air. The initial temperature profile has an above 0°C inversion, a lower subfreezing layer, and precipitation falls from above the temperature inversion. The cloud model is coupled to a double-moment microphysics scheme that simulates the production of various types of winter precipitation. The results are compared with those from a previous study carried out in still air. Based on the temporal evolution of surface precipitation, snow reaches the surface significantly faster than in still air whereas other precipitation types including freezing rain and ice pellets have a shorter duration. Overall, even weak background vertical ascent has an important impact on the precipitation reaching the surface, the time of the elimination of the melting layer, and also the evolution of the lower subfreezing layer.

  7. Winter circulation weather types and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royé, D.; Taboada, J. J.; Martí, A.; Lorenzo, M. N.

    2016-04-01

    The link between various pathologies and atmospheric conditions has been a constant topic of study over recent decades in many places across the world; knowing more about it enables us to pre-empt the worsening of certain diseases, thereby optimizing medical resources. This study looked specifically at the connections in winter between respiratory diseases and types of atmospheric weather conditions (Circulation Weather Types, CWT) in Galicia, a region in the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, the study used hospital admission data associated with these pathologies as well as an automatic classification of weather types. The main result obtained was that weather types giving rise to an increase in admissions due to these diseases are those associated with cold, dry weather, such as those in the east and south-east, or anticyclonic types. A second peak was associated with humid, hotter weather, generally linked to south-west weather types. In the future, this result may help to forecast the increase in respiratory pathologies in the region some days in advance.

  8. [Spatial analysis of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Bi, Z W; Kou, Z Q; Zheng, L; Zhao, Z T

    2016-05-01

    To discuss the spatial-temporal distribution and epidemic trends of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong province, and provide scientific evidence for further study for the prevention and control of the disease. The scrub typhus surveillance data during 2006-2014 were collected from Shandong Disease Reporting Information System. The data was analyzed by using software ArcGIS 9.3(ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA), GeoDa 0.9.5-i and SatScan 9.1.1. The Moran' s I, log-likelihood ratio(LLR), relative risk(RR)were calculated and the incidence choropleth maps, local indicators of spatial autocorrelation cluster maps and space scaning cluster maps were drawn. A total of 4 453 scrub typhus cases were reported during 2006-2014, and the annual incidence increased with year. Among the 17 prefectures(municipality)in Shandong, 13 were affected by scrub typhus. The global Moran's I index was 0.501 5(Panalysis showed that an eastward moving trend of high-risk clusters and two new high-risk clusters were found in Zaozhuang in 2014. The centers of the most likely clusters were in the south central mountainous areas during 2006-2010 and in 2012, eastern hilly areas in 2011, 2013 and 2014, and the size of the clusters expanded in 2008, 2011, 2013 and 2014. One spatial-temporal cluster was detected from October 1, 2014 to November 30, 2014, the center of the cluster was in Rizhao and the radius was 222.34 kilometers. A positive spatial correlation and spatial agglomerations were found in the distribution of autumn-winter type scrub typhus in Shandong. Since 2006, the epidemic area of the disease has expanded and the number of high-risk areas has increased. Moreover, the eastward moving and periodically expanding trends of high-risk clusters were detected.

  9. A checklist of the winter bird community in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing an inventory of the avifauna and to document the species composition of birds during winter in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Cachar District of Assam. Four habitat types, viz., tea plantation, ecotone zone, secondary growth forest and water bodies were selected within the tea estate and surveyed from mid-December 2010 (early winter to mid-April 2011 (late winter covering four months of survey. A total of 88 species were recorded during the survey period with the highest number of species in ecotone zone (n=63, followed by secondary forest (n=60, tea plantation (n=48 and water bodies (n=17. The species were further categorized into different feeding and habitat guilds to study the distribution of bird species in different habitat types according to various guilds.

  10. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... in northern Sweden. Both climate and vegetation type were strong interactive controls on ecosystem CO2 production rates during winter. Of all variables tested, soil temperature explained by far the largest amount of variation in respiration rates (41-75%). Our results indicate that vegetation type only....... At the end of winter, within several days of snowmelt, gross ecosystem photosynthesis rates were of a similar magnitude to ecosystem respiration, resulting in significant net carbon gain in some instances. Finally, climate and vegetation type were also strong interactive controls on total wintertime...

  11. Diverse regulatory factors associate with flowering time and yield responses in winter-type Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiessl, Sarah; Iniguez-Luy, Federico; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2015-09-29

    Flowering time, plant height and seed yield are strongly influenced by climatic and day-length adaptation in crop plants. To investigate these traits under highly diverse field conditions in the important oilseed crop Brassica napus, we performed a genome-wide association study using data from diverse agroecological environments spanning three continents. A total of 158 European winter-type B.napus inbred lines were genotyped with 21,623 unique, single-locus single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Brassica 60 K-SNP Illumina® Infinium consortium array. Phenotypic associations were calculated in the panel over the years 2010-2012 for flowering time, plant height and seed yield in 5 highly diverse locations in Germany, China and Chile, adding up to 11 diverse environments in total. We identified 101 genome regions associating with the onset of flowering, 69 with plant height, 36 with seed yield and 68 cross-trait regions with potential adaptive value. Within these regions, B.napus orthologs for a number of candidate adaptation genes were detected, including central circadian clock components like CIRCADIAN CLOCK- ASSOCIATED 1 (Bna.CCA1) and the important flowering-time regulators FLOWERING LOCUS T (Bna.FT) and FRUITFUL (Bna.FUL). Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of candidate regions suggested that selection of genes involved in post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of flowering time may play a potential role in adaptation of B. napus to highly divergent environments. The classical flowering time regulators Bna.FLC and Bna.CO were not found among the candidate regions, although both show functional variation. Allelic effects were additive for plant height and yield, but not for flowering time. The scarcity of positive minor alleles for yield in this breeding pool points to a lack of diversity for adaptation that could restrict yield gain in the face of environmental change. Our study provides a valuable framework to further improve the

  12. INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELDS AT BARANYA HIPOGLEY SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Stošić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the three years (2006/2007-2008/2009 stationary research of reduced soil tillage had been conducted for winter wheat and soybean, at marsh gley (hipogley hydromeliorated soil type of Baranya. The research has been conducted with eight soil tillage treatments and three nitrogen fertilization treatments set up in split-plot design in four repetitions. Soil tillage treatments consisted of four continued soil tillage systems for both crops: OR-conventional soil tillage, TR-multiple diskharrowing, RT-chiseling and diskharrowing, NT-no-tillage and four discontinued soil tillage systems: OsTp-OR for soybean TR for w. wheat in the forthcoming season: OpTs-OR for w.wheat TR for soybean in the forthcoming season, NpOs-NT for w. wheat OR for soybean in forthcoming season: NsOp-NT for soybean OR for w. wheat in forthcoming season. Nitrogen fertilization treatment had three levels of applied nitrogen: for w.wheat G-1=120, G-2=150, G-3=180 kg N ha -1 and for soybean G-1=35, G-2=70, G-3=110 kg N ha-1. Weather conditions had significant aberrations during 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 (extremely drought seasons, whereas 2007/2008 season was moderately humid. The high and stabile average winter wheat grain yields had been achieved, with statistical difference among years of the research, whereas yield decreased by applied soil tillage systems in the order as follows: RT (7.78 > NsOp (7.75 > OR (7.74 > OpTs (7.62 > TR (7.63 > OsTp (7.58 > NpOs (6.95 > NT (6.92 t ha-1, with NpOs and NT treatments recorded significantly lower yields in comparison with OR treatment. According to three year averages, normal and relatively stabile soybean grain yield has been achieved, with significant difference among years, whereas soil tillage systems showed the following decrease order: NpOs (2.62 > OR (2.58 > OsTp (2.56 > NsOp (2.49 > TR (2.46 = RT (2.46 > NT (2.42 > OpTs (2.35 t ha-1. In comparison with OR treatment, only OpTs had significantly lower soybean grain yield. The

  13. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  14. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  15. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome type 3 with polymicrogyria: a clinical presentation of Baraitser-Winter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Hatice Koçak; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Ünal, Sevim; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BRWS) is a rare condition affecting the development of the brain and the face. The most common characteristics are unusual facial appearance including hypertelorism and ptosis, ocular colobomas, hearing loss, impaired neuronal migration and intellectual disability. BRWS is caused by mutations in the ACTB and ACTG1 genes. Cerebro-fronto-facial syndrome (CFFS) is a clinically heterogeneous condition with distinct facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities. Three subtypes are identified. We report a female infant with striking facial features and brain anomalies (included polymicrogyria) that fit into the spectrum of the CFFS type 3 (CFFS3). She also had minor anomalies on her hands and feet, heart and kidney malformations, and recurrent infections. DNA investigations revealed c.586C>T mutation (p.Arg196Cys) in ACTB. This mutation places this patient in the spectrum of BRWS. The same mutation has been detected in a polymicrogyric patient reported previously in literature. We expand the malformation spectrum of BRWS/CFFS3, and present preliminary findings for phenotype-genotype correlation in this spectrum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of hive types (shield and sword) on wintering ability, survival rates and strength of honeybee colonies (A. mellifera L.) in spring season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeninar, Halil; Akyol, Etem; Sahinler, Nuray

    2010-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of shield and sword comb orientation hive types on wintering ability, survival rates (in winter) and population growth of honeybee colonies (A. mellifera anatoliaca) in spring season. In ancient Anatolia beekeeping; honeybee colonies were identified sword and shield (the colonies which build up the combs vertical and horizontal according to positions of the hive entrance) before the uses of top-opened hive with movable frames. Total twenty honeybee colonies, which have similar condition according to queen age, genotype, number of frames covered with adult worker bees, brood areas and food stocks, were used in this study. Average wintering ability of colonies in the shield and sword groups were found to be 98.57% and 69.76%; average survival rates were found to be 100% and 100% in shield and sword group colonies respectively. The average number of frames covered with adult worker bees at mid June in shield and sword group colonies were found to be 15.6 +/- 1.58, 12.00 +/- 1.25 number/colony and the average brood areas were found as 7863.5 +/- 402.9, 5997.0 +/- 373.3 cm(2)/colony respectively. Differences between the group means on wintering ability, sealed brood areas and colony strength were found significant (P 0.05). The colonies living in shield (horizontal) hives have showed better wintering ability and more colony population than colonies living in sword (vertical) hives.

  17. Successful Control of Winter Pyrexias Caused by Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 in Japanese Training Centers by Achieving High Vaccination Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Naomi; Ode, Hirotaka; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. To evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we investigated the number of horses with pyrexia due to EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) infection or both and examined the vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population and in the whole population before and after changes in the program. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) estimated numbers of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4 or both, among pyretic horses from 1999-2000 to 2008-2009 were 105 ± 47 at Ritto and 66 ± 44 at Miho. Although the estimated number of infected horses did not change greatly in the first period of the current program, it decreased from the second period, with means (±SD) of 21 ± 12 at Ritto and 14 ± 15 at Miho from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013. Vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population was 99.4% at Ritto and 99.8% at Miho in the first period, and similar values were maintained thereafter. Coverage in the whole population increased more gradually than that in the 3-year-old population. The results suggest that EHV-1 epizootics can be suppressed by maintaining high vaccination coverage, not only in the 3-year-old population but also in the whole population. PMID:24872513

  18. Effect of milk type and processing on iodine concentration of organic and conventional winter milk at retail: implications for nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payling, Laura M; Juniper, Darren T; Drake, Chris; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-01

    Milk is the largest source of iodine in UK diets and an earlier study showed that organic summer milk had significantly lower iodine concentration than conventional milk. There are no comparable studies with winter milk or the effect of milk fat class or heat processing method. Two retail studies with winter milk are reported. Study 1 showed no effect of fat class but organic milk was 32.2% lower in iodine than conventional milk (404 vs. 595 μg/L; Pmilk but organic milk contained 35.5% less iodine than conventional milk (474 vs. 306 μg/L; PUHT and branded organic milk also had lower iodine concentrations than conventional milk (331 μg/L; Pmilk by organic or UHT milk will increase the risk of sub-optimal iodine status especially for pregnant/lactating women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Stratospheric ozone depletion during the 1995–1996 Arctic winter: 3-D simulations on the potential role of different PSC types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hendricks

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of modelled ozone depletion in the winter Arctic stratosphere to different assumptions of prevalent PSC types and PSC formation mechanisms is investigated. Three-dimensional simulations of the winter 1995/96 are performed with the COlogne Model of the Middle Atmosphere (COMMA by applying different PSC microphysical schemes. Model runs are carried out considering either liquid or solid PSC particles or a combined microphysical scheme. These simulations are then compared to a model run which only takes into account binary sulfate aerosols. The results obtained with the three-dimensional model agree with trajectory-box simulations performed in previous studies. The simulations suggest that conditions appropriate for type Ia PSC existence (T < TNAT occur over longer periods and cover larger areas when compared to conditions of potential type Ib PSC existence. Significant differences in chlorine activation and ozone depletion occur between the simulations including only either liquid or solid PSC particles. The largest differences, occurring over large spatial scales and during prolonged time periods, are modelled first, when the stratospheric temperatures stay below TNAT , but above the threshold of effective liquid particle growth and second, in the case of the stratospheric temperatures remaining below this threshold, but not falling below the ice frost point. It can be generally concluded from the present study that differences in PSC microphysical schemes can cause significant fluctuations in ozone depletion modelled for the winter Arctic stratosphere.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere composition and chemistry

  20. α-Carotene and β-Carotene Content in Raw and Cooked Pulp of Three Mature Stage Winter Squash “Type Butternut”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Zaccari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash “type butternut” is harvested in physiological ripening for better commercial distribution, when sensory and/or nutritional quality is not optimum for consumption. The objective of this study was to quantify the content of α-carotene, β-carotene, color and dry matter in the pulp of raw and microwave-cooked winter squash “type butternut” (variety CosmoF1 in three states of commercial maturity. Immature, mature, and very mature fruit, defined at the time of the harvest by the percentage of orange peel and green stalk, were evaluated. The highest concentration of carotenes (α-carotene + β-carotene in mg.100 g−1 pulp wet basis was found in very mature fruits (31.96 mg, followed by mature fruits (24.65 mg, and immature fruits (18.82 mg. Microwave cooking caused the loss of β-carotene (28.6% wet basis and α-carotene (34.1%. Cooking promote a greater reduction of α-carotene in immature (40.3% and mature (34.5% fruits. The ratio of β-carotene and α-carotene content increased with commercial maturity from 0.93 for immature fruits to 1.0 for very mature fruit, with higher ratio in cooked pulp (1.04 vs. raw pulp (0.96.

  1. Effect of the type of farrowing room on the welfare and productive performance of lactating sows and of piglets during tropical winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Júnior, Gregório M; Ferreira, Aloízio S; Rodrigues, Valéria V; Figueiredo, Erika M; Formigoni, Andressa S; Zangeronimo, Márcio G; Santos, Wilams G; Alvarenga, Renata R

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior and performance of sows and piglets kept in different types of farrowing rooms: conventional farrowing room with jugglers and cages (CFR), CFR with a heated floor for the piglets alongside the sows (CFR+HF) and semi-outdoor farrowing room without a cage or heating floor but with access to a fenced field (SFR) during the tropical winter. Twenty-seven multiparous sows were allocated in three treatments and nine repetitions during 21 days. The relative humidity was higher at CFR and CFR+HF. The temperature of thigh and chest in contact with the floor and the neck were higher (Pheating floor increased (P0.09) the sows' and piglets' performances. SFR decreased the backfat thickness (P=0.03) and lactation efficiency, but did not affect milk production (P>0.12) or piglet performance (P>0.09). It is concluded that during tropical winter, conventional farrowing systems ensure better piglet performance compared to SFR but this last seems to improve the behavior of sows. The heating floor favors nursing and does not affect the welfare of sows. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Accuracy assessment of airphoto interpretation of vegetation types and disturance levels on winter seismic trails, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An accuracy assessment was conducted to evaluate the photo-interpretation of vegetation types and disturbance levels along seismic trails in the Arctic National...

  3. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  4. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D 3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D 3 . There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P D levels  0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D 3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  5. Winter Chickadees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvis, Gisele Winton

    2010-01-01

    Hiking between the farmer's field and the deciduous forest at Scanlon Creek Nature Centre near Bradford, Ontario, a grade 3 class and the author were studying different types of soils. As soil explorers they were hiking to different locations to see, touch and smell clay, silt and humus soils. The author always likes to bring a sense of discovery…

  6. The use of partial thickness method and zero wet bulb temperature for discriminating precipitation type during winter months at the Ebro basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisan, S.; Revuelto, J.

    2010-09-01

    environment favouring each precipitation type. This method is a simple technique for discriminating the different precipitation types. It also provides climatology of snowfall events for each airport, showing the differences due to their geographical location and how different synoptic conditions affect each place.. In the middle of Ebro basin, where Zaragoza airport is placed, the critical parameter to determine the precipitation type is the 1000 - 850 mb thickness. It is possible to find many episodes of snowfall with a very thin 1000-850 mb layer within a wide range of zero wet bulb temperature values. This shows the pool of cold air in the valley over which warm and moist air is advected from the Mediterranean Sea. Located close to the Cantabric sea, Pamplona is about 150 km north of Zaragoza. The snow episodes in this location are more related with cold air in all levels together with a narrow range of zero wet bulb temperature values. The results show that the Logroño area, 150 km northwest of Zaragoza, is influenced by both conditions. This method became operational during 2009-2010 winter season showing a high degree of accuracy in discriminating precipitation type.

  7. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  8. Concussion in Winter Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Concussion in Winter Sports Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get prepared ... to enjoy, practice, and compete in various winter sports. There’s no doubt that these sports are a ...

  9. Divergence in strategies for coping with winter embolism among co-occurring temperate tree species: the role of positive xylem pressure, wood type and tree stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun-Yang Niu; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guang-You. Hao

    2017-01-01

    1. In temperate ecosystems, freeze-thaw events are an important environmental stress that can induce severe xylem embolism (i.e. clogging of conduits by air bubbles) in overwintering organs of trees. However, no comparative studies of different adaptive strategies among sympatric tree species for coping with winter embolism have examined the potential role of the...

  10. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  11. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  12. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  13. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  14. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  15. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  16. Jasna: A new winter rapeseed cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović-Jeromela Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The program of winter rapeseed breeding at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops covers the development of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars and hybrids. Winter rapeseed cultivars are selected for high and stabile grain and oil yield, good oil quality, low erucic acid and glucosinolate content (type 00 and tolerance to stresses caused by abiotic and biotic factors. This paper reviews agronomic characteristics and grain and oil quality of a new cultivar of winter rapeseed Jasna. In the trials of the Serbian Commission for new cultivars registration, cultivar Jasna had higher grain yield then standard, in the three locations and two years. In average the yield was 4566 kg/ha. Oil content is at the level of the standard. The erucic acid content and glucosinolate content are lower then that in the standard and that are positive characteristics. .

  17. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  18. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  19. Winter in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Stephens

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available "A Winter In Bavaria" was written on location in Regensburg, Germany, and is the first-hand account of a cataclysm, already predicted by Nostradamus, which changed the direction of Bavarian culture forever. Anything vaguely resembling an allusion to any real person or institution is entirely coincidental, has no foundation in fact and is clearly the product of a mind estranged - except that Bavarian beer is, by and large, still to be highly recommended.

  20. Winter camp for pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Golc, Mateja

    2017-01-01

    This thesis details the importance of physical activity for a healthy development of pre-school children in all areas of their development. The focus is placed mainly on outdoor physical activity, in all seasons of the year and in all types of weather. Also highlighted is the importance of outdoor physical activity, stretching over several days, in the form of a winter camp for pre-school children. Pre-school teachers, who take over the organisation of a winter camp, face a challenging task, ...

  1. Risk management model of winter navigation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-07-15

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish-Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  3. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  4. Salmonid behaviour under winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Watz, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Winter conditions are believed to play an important role in the population dynamics of northern temperate stream fish, challenging the ability of fish to physiologically and behaviourally adapt. Climate change is predicted to increase both mean temperature and temperature fluctuations, especially during winter, leading to dynamic environmental conditions in terms of river ice production and flow. Therefore, knowledge about the winter ecology of stream fish is important for predicting and miti...

  5. Organizing and running winter triathlon competitions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vodlozerov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the system of organizing and running competitions according to the type of the triathlon-winter program in Ukraine for compliance with the rules of the International Triathlon Federation. Material & Methods: on the basis of the study of the specialized literature and the regulatory framework of a number of triathlon federations, a comparative analysis of the winter triathlon emulation at competition distances abroad and in Ukraine. Result: correspondence of two winters combined distances in Ukraine to the official formats of the international winter triathlon competitions in Europe and the world are found out. Conclusion: in basis for organizing and conducting competitions for a new variety of continuous triathlon in our country are the rules of the International Triathlon Federation, and the competitive distances in the form of the triathlon-winter program in Ukraine correspond to international standards.

  6. Increasing frequency and duration of Arctic winter warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert M.; Cohen, Lana; Petty, Alek A.; Boisvert, Linette N.; Rinke, Annette; Hudson, Stephen R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-07-01

    Near-surface air temperatures close to 0°C were observed in situ over sea ice in the central Arctic during the last three winter seasons. Here we use in situ winter (December-March) temperature observations, such as those from Soviet North Pole drifting stations and ocean buoys, to determine how common Arctic winter warming events are. Observations of winter warming events exist over most of the Arctic Basin. Temperatures exceeding -5°C were observed during >30% of winters from 1954 to 2010 by North Pole drifting stations or ocean buoys. Using the ERA-Interim record (1979-2016), we show that the North Pole (NP) region typically experiences 10 warming events (T2m > -10°C) per winter, compared with only five in the Pacific Central Arctic (PCA). There is a positive trend in the overall duration of winter warming events for both the NP region (4.25 days/decade) and PCA (1.16 days/decade), due to an increased number of events of longer duration.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryDuring the last three winter seasons, extreme warming events were observed over sea ice in the central Arctic Ocean. Each of these warming events were associated with temperatures close to or above 0°C, which lasted for between 1 and 3 days. Typically temperatures in the Arctic at this time of year are below -30°C. Here we study past temperature observations in the Arctic to investigate how common winter warming events are. We use time temperature observations from expeditions such as Fram (1893-1896) and manned Soviet North Pole drifting ice stations from 1937 to 1991. These historic temperature records show that winter warming events have been observed over most of the Arctic Ocean. Despite a thin network of observation sites, winter time temperatures above -5°C were directly observed approximately once every 3 years in the central Arctic Ocean between 1954 and 2010. Winter warming events are associated with storm systems originating in either the Atlantic or Pacific

  7. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  8. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  9. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  10. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  11. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  12. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  13. Shining Light on "Dark Winter"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tara O'Toole; Michael Mair; Thomas V. Inglesby

    2002-01-01

    ... Security, and the Oklahoma National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, held a senior-level exercise entitled "Dark Winter" that simulated a covert smallpox attack on the United States...

  14. Winter Storm Zones on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Barnes, J. R.; Bridger, A. F. C.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Preferred regions of weather activity in Mars' winter middle latitudes-so called 'storm zones' are found in a general circulation model of Mars' atmospheric circulation. During northern winter, these storm zones occur in middle latitudes in the major planitia (low-relief regions) of the western and eastern hemisphere. In contrast, the highlands of the eastern hemisphere are mostly quiescent. Compared to Earth's storm zones where diabatic heating associated with land-sea thermal contrasts is crucial, orography on Mars is fundamental to the regionalization of weather activity. Future spacecraft missions aimed at assessing Mars' climate and its variability need to include such regions in observation strategies.

  15. Eikenprocessierups doorstaat koude winter goed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.

    2010-01-01

    Eikenprocessierupsen zijn niet gedeerd door de langdurige koude van deze winter. Bij het opensnijden van eipakketjes blijken de rupsjes springlevend naar buiten te komen. Het is nog te vroeg om nu al iets te zeggen over de mogelijke overlast later dit jaar. Dat is afhankelijk van de

  16. Xanthophyll cycle pigment and antioxidant profiles of winter-red (anthocyanic) and winter-green (acyanic) angiosperm evergreen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nicole M; Burkey, Kent O; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Smith, William K

    2012-03-01

    Leaves of many angiosperm evergreen species change colour from green to red during winter, corresponding with the synthesis of anthocyanin pigments. The ecophysiological function of winter colour change (if any), and why it occurs in some species and not others, are not yet understood. It was hypothesized that anthocyanins play a compensatory photoprotective role in species with limited capacity for energy dissipation. Seasonal xanthophyll pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf nitrogen, and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) of five winter-red and five winter-green angiosperm evergreen species were compared. Our results showed no difference in seasonal xanthophyll pigment content (V+A+Z g(-1) leaf dry mass) or LMWA between winter-red and winter-green species, indicating red-leafed species are not deficient in their capacity for non-photochemical energy dissipation via these mechanisms. Winter-red and winter-green species also did not differ in percentage leaf nitrogen, corroborating previous studies showing no difference in seasonal photosynthesis under saturating irradiance. Consistent with a photoprotective function of anthocyanin, winter-red species had significantly lower xanthophyll content per unit chlorophyll and less sustained photoinhibition than winter-green species (i.e. higher pre-dawn F(v)/F(m) and a lower proportion of de-epoxidized xanthophylls retained overnight). Red-leafed species also maintained a higher maximum quantum yield efficiency of PSII at midday (F'(v)/F'(m)) during winter, and showed characteristics of shade acclimation (positive correlation between anthocyanin and chlorophyll content, and negative correlation with chlorophyll a/b). These results suggest that the capacity for photon energy dissipation (photochemical and non-photochemical) is not limited in red-leafed species, and that anthocyanins more likely function as an alternative photoprotective strategy to increased VAZ/Chl during winter.

  17. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  18. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  19. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  20. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  1. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of Winter...

  2. Suitability of Starch Syrups for Winter Feeding of Honeybee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkiw Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three different starch syrups available on the Polish market for winter feeding of bees were evaluated for two consecutive beekeeping seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Sugar syrup and inverted sucrose syrup were used as the control. Winter feeding was conducted at two times: earlier and later in the season. After supplementation of winter feeding was stopped, we measured colony strength (number of combs covered by bees and brood area. After overwintering (spring 2013 and 2014, we estimated the influence of these foods on: bee mortality during overwintering (number of dead bees in winter debris, food consumption, colony strength and brood area in spring (two measurements in three-week intervals, development dynamics and honey yield from spring flow. An analysis of the results for the parameters assessed before overwintering, after its end and during spring development did not show significant differences between bee colonies fed with different types of food. No relevant difficulties concerning food crystallisation were encountered. The analysed syrups turned out to be as suitable for winter feeding of bees as sugar and inverted sucrose syrups.

  3. Potential Seasonal Predictability for Winter Storms over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Simon; Befort, Daniel J.; Leckebusch, Gregor C.

    2017-04-01

    Reliable seasonal forecasts of strong extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms would have great social and economical benefits, as these events are the most costly natural hazards over Europe. In a previous study we have shown good agreement of spatial climatological distributions of extra-tropical cyclones and wind storms in state-of-the-art multi-member seasonal prediction systems with reanalysis. We also found significant seasonal prediction skill of extra-tropical cyclones and windstorms affecting numerous European countries. We continue this research by investigating the mechanisms and precursor conditions (primarily over the North Atlantic) on a seasonal time scale leading to enhanced extra-tropical cyclone activity and winter storm frequency over Europe. Our results regarding mechanisms show that an increased surface temperature gradient at the western edge of the North Atlantic can be related to enhanced winter storm frequency further downstream causing for example a greater number of storms over the British Isles, as observed in winter 2013-14.The so-called "Horseshoe Index", a SST tripole anomaly pattern over the North Atlantic in the summer months can also cause a higher number of winter storms over Europe in the subsequent winter. We will show results of AMIP-type sensitivity experiments using an AGCM (ECHAM5), supporting this hypothesis. Finally we will analyse whether existing seasonal forecast systems are able to capture these identified mechanisms and precursor conditions affecting the models' seasonal prediction skill.

  4. Mercury in wintering seabirds, an aggravating factor to winter wrecks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Jérôme; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Nguyen, Hanh Linh; Boué, Amélie; Spitz, Jérôme; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-09-15

    Every year, thousands of seabirds are cast ashore and are found dead along the coasts of North America and Western Europe. These massive mortality events called 'winter wrecks' have generally been attributed to harsh climatic conditions and prolonged storms which affect bird energy balance and impact their body condition. Nevertheless, additional stress factors, such as contaminant body burden, could potentially cumulate to energy constraints and actively contribute to winter wrecks. However, the role played by these additional factors in seabird massive winter mortality has received little attention to date. In February/March 2014, an unprecedented seabird wreck occurred along the Atlantic French coasts during which > 43,000 seabirds were found dead. By analyzing mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues collected on stranded birds, we tested the hypothesis that Hg played a significant role in this mortality. More specifically, we aimed to (1) describe Hg contamination in wintering seabirds found along the French coasts in 2014, and (2) determine if Hg concentrations measured in some vital organs such as kidney and brain reached toxicity thresholds that could have led to deleterious effects and to an enhanced mortality. We found some of the highest Hg levels ever reported in Atlantic puffins, common guillemots, razorbills and kittiwakes. Measured concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 3.6 μg · g(-1) of dry weight in brain, 1.3 to 7.2 μg · g(-1) in muscle, 2.5 to 13.5 μg · g(-1) in kidney, 2.9 to 18.6 μg · g(-1) in blood and from 3.1 to 19.5 μg · g(-1) in liver. Hg concentrations in liver and brain were generally below the estimated acute toxicity levels. However, kidney concentrations were not different than those measured in the liver, and above levels associated to renal sub-lethal effects, suggesting a potential Hg poisoning. We concluded that although Hg was not directly responsible for the high observed mortality, it has been a major aggravating

  5. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  6. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  7. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  8. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  9. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  10. Global distribution of winter lightning: a threat to wind turbines and aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; van der Velde, Oscar; March, Víctor; Rolfe Williams, Earle; Pineda, Nicolau; Romero, David; Solà, Glòria; Freijo, Modesto

    2016-06-01

    Lightning is one of the major threats to multi-megawatt wind turbines and a concern for modern aircraft due to the use of lightweight composite materials. Both wind turbines and aircraft can initiate lightning, and very favorable conditions for lightning initiation occur in winter thunderstorms. Moreover, winter thunderstorms are characterized by a relatively high production of very energetic lightning. This paper reviews the different types of lightning interactions and summarizes the well-known winter thunderstorm areas. Until now comprehensive maps of global distribution of winter lightning prevalence to be used for risk assessment have been unavailable. In this paper we present the global winter lightning activity for a period of 5 years. Using lightning location data and meteorological re-analysis data, six maps are created: annual winter lightning stroke density, seasonal variation of the winter lightning and the annual number of winter thunderstorm days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maps confirmed Japan to be one of the most active regions but other areas such as the Mediterranean and the USA are active as well. In the Southern Hemisphere, Uruguay and surrounding area, the southwestern Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea experience the highest activity. The maps provided here can be used in the development of a risk assessment.

  11. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-03-03

    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  12. Photosynthetic capacity of red spruce during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.G. Schaberg; J.B. Shane; P.F. Cali; J.R. Donnelly; G.R. Strimbeck

    1998-01-01

    We measured the photosynthetic capacity (Pmax) of plantation-grown red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) during two winter seasons (1993-94 and 1994-95) and monitored field photosynthesis of these trees during one winter (1993-94). We also measured Pmax for mature montane trees from January through May 1995....

  13. 43 CFR 423.37 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter activities. 423.37 Section 423.37 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE....37 Winter activities. (a) You must not tow persons on skis, sleds, or other sliding devices with a...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 1002.19... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing.... (c) Failure to abide by area designations or activity restrictions established under this section is...

  15. 36 CFR 2.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter activities. 2.19... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice... designations or activity restrictions established under this section is prohibited. ...

  16. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  17. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  18. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  19. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  20. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    stream_size 47414 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_J_Oceanogr_2010_Article_ID_819029_11pp.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_J_Oceanogr_2010_Article_ID_819029_11pp.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text.../plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  1. Does organic farming benefit farmland birds in winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A; Johnson, P J; Norton, L; Feber, R E; Fuller, R J

    2010-02-23

    The generally higher biodiversity on organic farms may be influenced by management features such as no synthetic pesticide and fertilizer inputs and/or by differences in uncropped habitat at the site and landscape scale. We analysed bird and habitat data collected on 48 paired organic and conventional farms over two winters to determine the extent to which broad-scale habitat differences between systems could explain overall differences in farmland bird abundance. Density was significantly higher on organic farms for six out of 16 species, and none on conventional. Total abundance of all species combined was higher on organic farms in both years. Analyses using an information-theoretic approach suggested that both habitat extent and farm type were important predictors only for starling and greenfinch. Organic farming as currently practised may not provide significant benefits to those bird species that are limited by winter food resources, in particular, several declining granivores.

  2. Investigation of Pedestrian Comfort with Wind Chill during Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungkeun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of methods are used to evaluate pedestrian comfort: pedestrian wind comfort and outdoor thermal comfort. To accurately ascertain the outdoor wind environment, wind speed is the only parameter considered. However, pedestrians may still feel discomfort when the perceived temperature is low, even though the wind comfort criterion has been satisfactorily fulfilled. The purpose of this study is, therefore, to investigate pedestrian comfort when the perceived temperature is low, especially in winter conditions. To achieve this, a pedestrian survey was conducted, and 588 respondents completed a questionnaire. The results show that pedestrians feel discomfort when the WCET (Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature is low, with almost 40 percent of respondents answering that they feel discomfort in these conditions. In conclusion, the threshold wind speed of the winter season could be determined to be lower than that of the existing comfort criteria by applying the WCET.

  3. Evaluation of the operation efficiency of solar panels in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, O. D.

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with the issue of increasing the comfort and safety of life in cities by applying an alternative energy source for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. Due to the peculiarity of the Russian Federation territory location, most cities are characterized by a long winter period, which makes it necessary to consider the features of using solar panels under these conditions. It has been established that the efficiency of solar panels depends on their type and location, the presence of snow cover on their surface, and the ambient air temperature. It has been revealed that flexible solar panels have some advantages that determine their ability to be used for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. In the paper, the optimum angle of inclination of rigid solar panels in the winter period of the year is determined.

  4. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  5. Esteemed Alumnus, Former POW Honors Winter Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) honored some 334 graduates from 17 countries earning 335 advanced degrees during its Winter Quarter Commencement Ceremony in King Auditorium, March 27. NPS President retired Vice Adm. Ronald A. Route presided over the ceremony.

  6. Winter swimming improves general well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi

    2004-05-01

    This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the four-month winter swimming period. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory and mood negative state points in the swimmers significantly decreased with the duration of the swimming period. After four months, the swimmers felt themselves to be more energetic, active and brisk than the controls. Vigour-activity scores were significantly greater (p winter swimming had relieved pains. Improvement of general well-being is thus a benefit induced by regular winter swimming.

  7. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  8. Winter swimming improves general well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Pirkko; Kokko, Leena; Ylijukuri, Virpi

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study deals with the effects of regular winter swimming on the mood of the swimmers. Methods. Profile of Mood State (POMS) and OIRE questionnaires were completed before (October) and after (January) the fourmonth winter swimming period. Results. In the beginning, there were no significant differences in the mood states and subjective feelings between the swimmers and the controls. The swimmers had more diseases (about 50%) diagnosed by a physician. Tension, fatigue, memory an...

  9. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  10. Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles Modify Winter Soil Respiration in a Desert Shrub-Land Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter soil respiration (Rs is becoming a significant component of annual carbon budgets with more warming in winter than summer. However, little is known about the controlling mechanisms of winter Rs in dryland. We made continuous measurements of Rs in four microsites (non-crust (BS, lichen (LC, moss (MC, and a mixture of moss and lichen (ML in a desert shrub-land ecosystem northern China, to investigate the causes of Rs dynamics in winter. The mean winter Rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 µmol CO2 m−2·s−1 across microsites, with the highest value in BS. Winter Q10 (known as the increase in respiration rate per 10 °C increase in temperature values (2.8–19 were much higher than those from the growing season (1.5. Rs and Q10 were greatly enhanced in freeze-thaw cycles compared to frozen days. Diurnal patterns of Rs between freeze-thaw and frozen days differed. Although the freeze-thaw period was relatively short, its cumulative Rs contributed significantly to winter Rs. The presence of biocrust might induce lower temperature, thus having fewer freeze-thaw cycles relative to bare soil, leading to the lower Rs for microsites with biocrusts. In conclusion, winter Rs in drylands was sensitive to soil temperature (Ts and Ts-induced freeze-thaw cycles. The temperature impact on Rs varied among soil cover types. Winter Rs in drylands may become more important as the climate is continuously getting warmer.

  11. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  12. Geochemistry and flooding as determining factors of plant species composition in Dutch winter-flooded riverine grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Victor; van Wirdum, Geert; Beltman, Boudewijn; Griffioen, Jasper; Grootjans, Ab P; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2008-08-25

    Dutch water policy aims for more frequent, controlled flooding of river valley floodplains to avoid unwanted flooding elsewhere; in anticipation of increased flooding risks resulting from climate changes. Controlled flooding usually takes place in winter in parts of the valleys which had not been subject to flooding in the last decades. It may thus affect existing nature with its conservation values. The goal of this study was to clarify the geochemical and hydrological factors determining plant species composition of winter-flooded river valley grasslands. A correlative study was carried out in 43 sites in 13 Dutch river valley floodplains, with measurements of flooding regime, vegetation composition, soil nutrients and soil pH status. With the use of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) the plant species composition was investigated in relation to the geochemical variables and the winter winter-flooding regime. We found that the distributions of target species and non-target species were clearly correlated with geochemical characteristics and flooding regime. Clustering of sites within the CCA plots has led us to distinguish between four types of winter flooding in our areas: floodplains with (a) accumulating rain water, (b) low groundwater levels flooded with river water, (c) discharging groundwater and (d) high groundwater levels flooded with river water. Our major conclusions are (1) the winter groundwater level of winter-flooded grasslands was important for evaluating the effects of winter flooding on the geochemistry and plant species composition, and (2) winter winter-flooding effects were largely determined by the nature of the flooding. A high frequency of flooding particularly favoured a small set of common plant species. In areas with groundwater seepage, winter flooding may provide geochemical conditions suitable for diverse vegetation types with rare species. Rainwater flooded sites appeared less suitable for most target species.

  13. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  14. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  15. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  16. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  17. Major River Floods and Severe Winter Storms Linked To Changes of The Atmospheric Circulation Across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, H. J.

    During the last two decades Western and Central Europe faced several severe winter storms and major river floodings. The recent winter storms "Anatol" (3.-4.12.1999) in Northern Europe, "Lothar" (26.12.1999) in France, Switzerland, and Southwest Ger- many and "Martin" (27.12.1999) in France, Spain and Switzerland caused economic losses of 17.7 billion US- including 10.4 billion US- insured losses and more than 160 fatalities. From 25.01.-01.03.1990 a series of 8 winter storms caused economic losses of 14.8 billion US- and 230 fatalities. The major river floods of Dec. 1993 and Jan. 1995 in Germany, Belgium, France, and Netherlands caused economic losses of more than 4.7 billion US-. It will be demonstrated that all these winter storms and most of the major river floods in Southwest and Western Germany were produced by a few types of zonal circulations across Europe. The frequency and persistence of these zonal atmospheric circulation types have increased dramatically for the winter months (Dec.- Feb.) during the recent three decades. For their time series from 1881- 2001, nonparametric tests show that nonstationarity of the winter frequencies started in 1973. As a consequence of this, the winter precipitation has increased highly signif- icant in most parts of Southwest Germany. It will be demonstrated that the increasing trends in the time series of annual peak discharges of four river basins of Southwest Germany are closely linked to the frequency changes of the zonal circulations. During the observation period (1926-2001)nearly all extreme floods including the floods of Feb. 1990, Dec. 1993, Jan. 1995, Feb. 1997, and Oct. 1998 for all four basins have been caused by heavy, long lasting rainfall during zonal circulations, especially the type "West cyclonic" (Wz) during winter. It will be demonstrated that this leads to an increased flood risk. Nonstationarity of the peak discharges does not concern all Germany but for large areas of Southwest Germany the

  18. Does stratosphereic sudden warming occur more frequently during ENSO winters than during normal winters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Song, Kanghyun

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events exhibit pronounced interannual variability. Based on WMO definition of SSW, it has been suggested that SSW events occur more preferably during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters (both El Niño and La Niña winters) than during normal winters. This nonlinear relationship is re-examined here by considering six different definitions of SSW. For all definitions, SSW events are detected more frequently during El Niño winters than during normal winters, in consistent with an enhanced planetary-scale wave activity. However, a systematic relationship is not found during La Niña winters. While two SSW definitions, including WMO definition, show an increased SSW frequency during La Niña winters, other definitions show no change or even a reduced SSW frequency. This result is insensitive to the choice of reanalysis datasets and ENSO index, indicating that the reported ENSO-SSW relationship is not robust but dependent on the details of SSW definition.

  19. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  20. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  1. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  2. Registration of ‘Secretariat’ winter barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secretariat’ (PI 673931) is a six-row hulled winter feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in May 2014. Secretariat, formerly designated VA08B-85, was derived from the cross VA00B-199 / VA00B-259 and was developed using a mod...

  3. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  4. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  5. How marketers handled deliveries last winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A special study on how fuel oil marketers handled deliveries last winter is presented. A questionnaire was sent to the marketers asking how many fuel oil trucks they had, how penalties for small deliveries are assessed, and if many customers are calling for a summer fill. The results of the questionnaire are presented.

  6. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  7. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  8. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  9. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology Winter Newsletter 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2016-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2016.

  10. Safety and mobility impacts of winter weather - phase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Highway agencies spend millions of dollars to ensure safe and efficient winter travel. However, the effectiveness of winter-weather : maintenance practices on safety and mobility are somewhat difficult to quantify. Safety and Mobility Impacts of Wint...

  11. Safety and mobility impacts of winter weather : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highway agencies spend millions of dollars to ensure safe and efficient winter travel. However, the effectiveness of winter weather maintenance practices on safety and mobility are somewhat difficult to quantify. : Phase I of this project investigate...

  12. Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome : Delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloes, Alain; Di Donato, Nataliya; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Jongmans, Marjolijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314344349; Abdul-Raman, Omar A.; Albrecht, Beate; Allanson, Judith; Brunner, Han; Bertola, Debora; Chassaing, Nicolas; David, Albert; Devriendt, Koen; Eftekhari, Pirayeh; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Faravelli, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Giuliano, Fabienne; Guion Almeida, Leina; Juncos, Jorge; Kempers, Marlies; Eker, Hatice Koçak; Lacombe, Didier; Lin, Angela; Mancini, Grazia; Melis, Daniela; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Siu, Victoria Mok; Morin, Gilles; Nezarati, Marjan; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ramer, Jeanette C.; Osimani, Sara; Philip, Nicole; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Procaccio, Vincent; Roseli, Zeichi Seide; Rossi, Massimiliano; Rusu, Cristina; Sznajer, Yves; Templin, Ludivine; Uliana, Vera; Klaus, Mirjam; Van Bon, Bregje; Van Ravenswaaij, Conny; Wainer, Bruce; Fry, Andrew E.; Rump, Andreas; Hoischen, Alexander; Drunat, Séverine; Rivière, Jean Baptiste; Dobyns, William B.; Pilz, Daniela T.

    2015-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter, Fryns-Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode β- and γ-actins. We present detailed phenotypic

  13. Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: Delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Verloes (Alain); N. Di Donato (Nataliya); J. Masliah-Planchon (Julien); M. Jongmans; O.A. Abdul-Raman (Omar A.); B. Albrecht; J.E. Allanson (Judith); H.G. Brunner; D.R. Bertola (Débora Romeo); N. Chassaing (Nicolas); A. David (Albert); K. Devriendt (Koen); P. Eftekhari (Pirayeh); V. Drouin-Garraud (Valerie); F. Faravelli (Francesca); L. Faivre (Laurence); F. Giuliano (François); L. Guion Almeida (Leina); J. Juncos (Jorge); M.J.E. Kempers (Marlies); H.K. Eker (Hatice Koçak); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.E. Lin (Angela E); G.M.S. Mancini (Grazia); D. Melis (D.); T. Lourenco (Tania); R.K. Siu (Ronald); G. Morin; M. Nezarati (Marjan); M.J.M. Nowaczyk; J.C. Ramer (Jeanette C.); S. Osimani (Sara); N. Philip (Nicole); M.E. Pierpont (Mary Ella); V. Procaccio (Vincent); Z.-S. Roseli (Zeichi-Seide); M. Rossi (Massimiliano); C. Rusu (Christina); Y. Sznajer (Yves); L. Templin (Ludivine); V. Uliana (Vera); M. Klaus (Mirjam); B. van Bon (Bregje); C.M.A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts (Conny); B. Wainer (Bruce); N.K. Fry; A. Rump (Andreas); A. Hoischen (Alex); S. Drunat (Séverine); J.-B. Riviere; W.B. Dobyns (William); D.T. Pilz (Daniela)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBaraitser-Winter, Fryns-Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode β- and γ-actins. We present detailed

  14. Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome : delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloes, Alain; Di Donato, Nataliya; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Jongmans, Marjolijn; Abdul-Raman, Omar A.; Albrecht, Beate; Allanson, Judith; Brunner, Han; Bertola, Debora; Chassaing, Nicolas; David, Albert; Devriendt, Koen; Eftekhari, Pirayeh; Drouin-Garraud, Valerie; Faravelli, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Giuliano, Fabienne; Almeida, Leina Guion; Juncos, Jorge; Kempers, Marlies; Eker, Hatice Kocak; Lacombe, Didier; Lin, Angela; Mancini, Grazia; Melis, Daniela; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Siu, Victoria Mok; Morin, Gilles; Nezarati, Marjan; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J. M.; Ramer, Jeanette C.; Osimani, Sara; Philip, Nicole; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Procaccio, Vincent; Roseli, Zeichi-Seide; Rossi, Massimiliano; Rusu, Cristina; Sznajer, Yves; Templin, Ludivine; Uliana, Vera; Klaus, Mirjam; Van Bon, Bregje; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Wainer, Bruce; Fry, Andrew E.; Rump, Andreas; Hoischen, Alexander; Drunat, Severine; Riviere, Jean-Baptiste; Dobyns, William B.; Pilz, Daniela T.

    Baraitser-Winter, Fryns-Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode beta-and gamma-actins. We present detailed phenotypic

  15. Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloes, A.; Donato, N. Di; Masliah-Planchon, J.; Jongmans, M.C.J.; Abdul-Raman, O.A.; Albrecht, B.; Allanson, J.; Brunner, H.G.; Bertola, D.; Chassaing, N.; David, A.; Devriendt, K.; Eftekhari, P.; Drouin-Garraud, V.; Faravelli, F.; Faivre, L.; Giuliano, F.; Almeida, L.; Juncos, J.; Kempers, M.J.; Eker, H.K.; Lacombe, D.; Lin, A.; Mancini, G.; Melis, D.; Lourenco, C.M.; Siu, V.M.; Morin, G.; Nezarati, M.; Nowaczyk, M.J.; Ramer, J.C.; Osimani, S.; Philip, N.; Pierpont, M.E.; Procaccio, V.; Roseli, Z.S.; Rossi, M.; Rusu, C.; Sznajer, Y.; Templin, L.; Uliana, V.; Klaus, M.; Bon, B.W. van; Ravenswaaij, C.M.A. van; Wainer, B.; Fry, A.E.; Rump, A.; Hoischen, A.; Drunat, S.; Riviere, J.B.; Dobyns, W.B.; Pilz, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter, Fryns-Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode beta- and gamma-actins. We present detailed phenotypic

  16. The extreme 2013/2014 winter storms: Beach recovery along the southwest coast of England

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Tim; Masselink, Gerd; O'Hare, Tim; Saulter, Andrew; Poate, Tim; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark; Conley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The extreme 2013/2014 winter storms: Beach recovery along the southwest coast of England journaltitle: Marine Geology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2016.10.011 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Usage of Modified Holt-Winters Method in the Anomaly Detection of Network Traffic: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Szmit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Holt-Winters method is used, among others, in behavioural analysis of network traffic for development of adaptive models for various types of traffic in sample computer networks. This paper is devoted to the application of extended versions of these models for development of predicted templates and intruder detection.

  18. Usage of Modified Holt-Winters Method in the Anomaly Detection of Network Traffic: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Szmit; Anna Szmit

    2012-01-01

    The traditional Holt-Winters method is used, among others, in behavioural analysis of network traffic for development of adaptive models for various types of traffic in sample computer networks. This paper is devoted to the application of extended versions of these models for development of predicted templates and intruder detection.

  19. Behavioural plasticity in wintering Mediterranean ospreys revealed by stable isotopes analyses and GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Flavio; Robert, Aloïs; Dominici, Jean-Marie; Sforzi, Andrea; Triay Bagur, Rafel; Muñoz Navarro, Antoni; Guillou, Gaël; Bentaleb, Ilham; Duriez, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    To infer wintering ecology in Mediterranean ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) we relied on a dual and complementary approach, using both GPS tracking and multi stable isotope tracer approaches. A control sample of feathers from 80 individuals (mostly chicks) was collected over a large latitudinal gradient (from Lapland to Africa) to assess the variability of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios between breeding sites and habitat types across the Western Palearctic. Then, C, N and S isotopic compositions from an experimental set of 18 Mediterranean adults were examined to infer wintering ground locations and habitat types used during the inter-breeding period. Additionally, 12 adult ospreys were fitted with GPS devices and tracked during migration and the wintering season. By combining the two techniques we evidenced a partial migratory population with 41.7% of tagged individuals being resident and 58.3% that actually migrated. Ospreys spent the winter at temperate latitudes and showed a high plasticity in habitat selection. They made use of marine bays, coastal lagoons/marshland and inland freshwater sites. Movements and home range areas were reduced during the season. Wintering grounds were largely spread over the coasts of different countries of the basin, rather than concentrated in one single area. Such behavioural plasticity in the choice of location and habitat type suggests the implementing of broad-scale approaches for the protection of important areas for ospreys in winter. To contribute at assuring a right level of conservation of the osprey populations in the Mediterranean basin, a harmonization of the management protocols of wetland sites among countries is necessary.

  20. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...... the winter cultivars, five were after all sowing times completely vegetative, three cultivars had started ear differentiation after the first sowing time. Presumably, these latter ones are of the alternative types. Until the end of winter all cultivars had started ear differentiation after the earlier sowing...... dates. There were no clear differences between spring and winter cultivars any more. Within one sowing time there was no relation between the developmental succession of the cultivars at the end of winter and their date of anthesis. Grain yield was the lower the later the sowing time. Six...

  1. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  2. Probabilistic Weather Forecasting for Winter Road Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-03

    2002–2003. . . 5 3 Bayesian estimates of α0, α1, α2, α3, α4 and σ 2 versus time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 Empirical variogram of the residuals...equations, and forecast future weather by integrating them forward in time. Both kinds of forecast are deterministic and do not assess uncertainty ...the 2002–2003 winter season. We constructed the empirical variogram of the residuals of the linear regression of the observed temperature on the

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. 31st Winter Workshop in Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 31st edition of the Winter Workshop will be held January 25-31st, 2015 in the Keystone Resort, Colorado, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured.

  5. Holt-Winters Method with Missing Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Tomá\\v{s} Cipra; José Trujillo; Asunción Robio

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a simple procedure for interpolating, smoothing, and predicting in seasonal time series with missing observations. The approach suggested by Wright (Wright, D. J. 1986. Forecasting data published at irregular time intervals using extension of Holt's method. Management Sci. 32 499--510.) for the Holt's method with nonseasonal data published at irregular time intervals is extended to the Holt-Winters method in the seasonal case. Numerical examples demonstrate the procedure.

  6. Using Genetic Algorithm For Winter Maintenance Operations: Multi Depot K-Chinese Postman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Zeki Akyurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the assignment and routing problem of one of Istanbul’s winter maintenance activities, salt pouring, was scrutinized. The starting point of the study considers the high cost of winter maintenance work, a shrinking assigned budget, high numbers of vehicles and streets to service that the increase in difficulty to solve the problem due to their high numbers. In this respect, the problem was modeled as multi depot k-Chinese postman problem, a type of arc routing problem. This mathematical model was solved by genetic algorithm. For comparison, the current solution, Clarke and Wright Algorithm and Sweep Algorithm were used.

  7. BLIZZARDS OF THE WINTER OF 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION MARINICĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main blizzards from the winter of 2011-2012, caused by the radical weather change on January 25th, 2012. After the excessively droughty autumn of 2011 (Marinică, Marinică, 2012, the warm December on the whole was followed by a warm January in the first 25 days, and then a sudden change of the thermal time type occurred. The excessively cold interval January 26th- February 15th, 2012 caused many human victims in the entire country and at the level of the whole European continent, as well as significant material damages, this short episode of severe winter has been one of the coldest of the history of climatic observations. The analysis is a continuation of extended studies on the ever-growing climatic oscillations and risks, as a consequence of the climatic variability increase in Romania (Bogdan, Marinică, 2007, 2009.The paper is useful for a broad category of specialists interested in the climate and climatic risk.

  8. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  9. Ecological impacts of winter water level drawdowns on lake littoral zones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater littoral zones harbor diverse ecological communities and serve numerous ecosystem functions that are controlled, in part, by natural water level fluctuations. However, human alteration of lake hydrologic regimes beyond natural fluctuations threaten littoral zone ecological integrity. One type of hydrologic alteration in lakes is winter water level drawdowns, which are frequently employed for hydropower, flood control, and macrophyte control, among other purposes. Here, we synthesize the abiotic and biotic responses to annual and novel winter water level drawdowns in littoral zones of lakes and reservoirs. The dewatering, freezing, and increased erosion of exposed lakebeds drive changes in the littoral zone. Shoreline-specific physicochemical conditions such as littoral slope and shoreline exposure further induce modifications. Loss of fine sediment decreases nutrient availability over time, but desiccation may promote a temporary nutrient pulse upon re-inundation. Annual winter drawdowns can decrease taxonomic richness of macrophytes and benthic invertebrates and shift assemblage composition to favor taxa with r-selected life history strategies and with functional traits resistant to direct and indirect drawdown effects. Fish assemblages, though less directly affected by winter drawdowns (except where there is critically low dissolved oxygen), experience negative effects via indirect pathways like decreased food resources and spawning habitat. We identify eight general research gaps to guide future research that could improve our understanding about the complex effects of winter drawdowns on littoral zone ecology.

  10. [Food habits and winter diet of Charadrius melodus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Boca Ciega, Tamaulipas, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Villanueva, Iris; Contreras-Lozano, Jorge; Garcia-Salas, Juan; González-Páez, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) is a migratory endangered species that arrives, along with a great number of other winter migratory birds, to Boca Ciega every year. In spite of the importance of this ecosystem, these species, are threatened by the current habitat change caused by the dredging activities in the area. With the aim to generate new information about the importance of this area during winter, we studied C melodus activities during the winter season in Laguna Madre, from December 2009 to March 2010. Our objectives were: 1) determine the importance of the area during winter, 2) describe C. melodus ethology, feeding substrate preferences and food items, 3) to analyze and describe the sympatric diversity associated with C melodus. A total of ninety nine individuals were observed during the monitoring. The Cochran and Kendall test showed a high significance of the species with the substrate and signs tests using a binomial distribution that indicated a high preference for algal type of substrate. The highest activity recorded for this species during this winter season was feeding. The principal food items found in sediments were larvae of Diptera: Chironomidae and Ephydridae. The sympatric species of C. melodus were two families of Charadriiforms: Scolopacidae (nine species) and Charadriidae (two species). We concluded that this is an important area for feeding, protection and rest sites for this species, and its protection and management is recommended.

  11. The effects of winter recreation on alpine and subalpine fauna: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe F Sato

    Full Text Available The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests ('sign tests' we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation.

  12. The Effects of Winter Recreation on Alpine and Subalpine Fauna: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chloe F.; Wood, Jeff T.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests (‘sign tests’) we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism) were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation. PMID:23691190

  13. The effects of winter recreation on alpine and subalpine fauna: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chloe F; Wood, Jeff T; Lindenmayer, David B

    2013-01-01

    The ski industry is often perceived as having a negative impact on sensitive alpine and subalpine communities. However, empirical evidence of such impacts is lacking. We reviewed the available literature from the last 35 years to quantify the reported effects of winter recreation on faunal communities. Overall, using one-sample binomial tests ('sign tests') we found that the effects of all types of winter recreation-related disturbances (i.e. ski runs, resort infrastructure and winter tourism) were more likely to be negative or have no effect, than be positive for wildlife. More specifically, in Europe, where the majority of the available research was conducted, the impacts of winter recreation were most often negative for fauna. In terms of specific taxa, birds and to a lesser extent mammals and arthropods, responded negatively to disturbance. Results from our meta-analysis confirmed the results from our binomial tests. Richness, abundance and diversity of fauna were lower in areas affected by winter recreation when compared with undisturbed areas. For most regions and taxa, however, empirical evidence remains too limited to identify clear impacts of winter recreation. We therefore conclude that the majority of ski resorts are operating in the absence of knowledge needed to inform effective strategies for biodiversity conservation and ecologically-sound management. Thus, there is an urgent need for more empirical research to be conducted throughout this increasingly threatened ecological community, especially given the indication from the available literature that fauna often respond negatively to winter recreation.

  14. Have winter fuel payments reduced excess winter mortality in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, J

    2015-03-01

    The historical series of excess winter mortality (EWM) in England and Wales presents a negative trend. Winter fuel payments (WFPs) are the most important benefits for people aged 65 or over directly related to Winter Mortality in the UK. This study presents a time series analysis of the direct effect of WFPs on EWM in England and Wales. We find a significant structural break in trend and volatility in the EWM series in England and Wales in 1999-2000. After controlling for a number of covariates, an ARIMA-X model finds that WFPs can account for almost half of the reduction in EWM in England and Wales since 1999/2000. Almost half of the reduction in EWM since 1999/2000 is attributable to WFPs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  16. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  18. CARROT SEED GROWING THROUGH WINTERING SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Zvedenuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research work on carrot seed growing through wintering seedlings carried out at laboratory of seed studies and seed production of Transnistrian Research Institute of Agriculture, on the soil of the first terrace at the rive Dniester were presented in the article. Seed bearing plants of garden carrot ‘Krasavka’ were the object of the study. The seeds were sown to produce the seedlings on 15-16 August. In the first decade of December the plants were covered with white agrotextile with density 23g/m2 that was removed at the beginning of April. The proportion of plant that passed the winter depending on a year of cultivation was 95-100% under argotextile, and 50-80% in open plot. The plants under agrotextile reached 28 cm a high and had 5-7 well-developed leaves, while those on the open plot were at phase of active foliage growing about 10-13 cm. long. Thus, for early mechanized planting in optimal terms the wintering seedlings grown under agrotextile had the best biometrical characteristics. Moreover the outcome of carrot seedlings was 1.2-1.25 million per hectare. Such quantity of seedlings was sufficient to plant 9-10 ha of carrot plants, where the coefficient of multiplication reached 9-10, and only 3 when growing seeds through mother plant as biennial culture. Viability of seed plants grown through seedlings was 100%. Losses of plant with weight 120-150 grams from damage caused by diseases was 23%. The seed yield, when growing seedlings was 639 kg/ha, but growing through plants was 332 kg/ha. The seed outcome suitable for precise mechanized sowing through seedling growing was 77%, where seed germination was 90%, with seed fraction 1.51 and >2.0 mm. It was essentially improved their yielding characteristics. Seed outcome from this fraction obtained through planting method was 32%. The proportion of seeds in fraction 1-1.5 mm was 68%. For mechanized single-seed sowing, the seeds can be used only after mini-coating. The seed

  19. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  20. Polar Vortex Conditions during the 1995-96 Artic Winter: Meteorology and MLS Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The 1995-96 northern hemisphere (NH) 205 winter stratosphere was colder than in any of the previous 17 winters, with lower stratospheric temperatures continuously below the type 1 (primarily HN03) polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) threshold for over 2 1/2 months. Upper tropospheric ridges in late Feb and early Mar 1996 led to the lowest observed NH lower stratospheric temperatures, and the latest observed NH temperatures below the type 2 (water ice) PSC threshold. Consistent with the unusual cold and chemical processing on PSCS, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS observed a greater decrease in lower stratospheric ozone (03) in 1995-96 than in any of the previous 4 NH winters. 03 decreased throughout the vortex over an altitude range nearly as large as that typical of the southern hemisphere (SH). The decrease between late Dec 1995 and early Mar 1996 was about 2/3 of that over the equivalent SH period. As in other NH winters, temperatures in 1996 rose above the PSC threshold before the spring equinox, ending chemical processing in the NH vortex much earlier than is usual in the SH. A downward trend in column 03 above 100 hPa during Jan and Feb 1996 appears to be related to the lower stratospheric 03 depletion.

  1. Winter storm intensity, hazards, and property losses in the New York tristate area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimkus, Cari E; Ting, Mingfang; Booth, James F; Adamo, Susana B; Madajewicz, Malgosia; Kushnir, Yochanan; Rieder, Harald E

    2017-07-01

    Winter storms pose numerous hazards to the Northeast United States, including rain, snow, strong wind, and flooding. These hazards can cause millions of dollars in damages from one storm alone. This study investigates meteorological intensity and impacts of winter storms from 2001 to 2014 on coastal counties in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York and underscores the consequences of winter storms. The study selected 70 winter storms on the basis of station observations of surface wind strength, heavy precipitation, high storm tide, and snow extremes. Storm rankings differed between measures, suggesting that intensity is not easily defined with a single metric. Several storms fell into two or more categories (multiple-category storms). Following storm selection, property damages were examined to determine which types lead to high losses. The analysis of hazards (or events) and associated damages using the Storm Events Database of the National Centers for Environmental Information indicates that multiple-category storms were responsible for a greater portion of the damage. Flooding was responsible for the highest losses, but no discernible connection exists between the number of storms that afflict a county and the damage it faces. These results imply that losses may rely more on the incidence of specific hazards, infrastructure types, and property values, which vary throughout the region. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Effect of winter swimming on haematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Ricci, Cristian; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Winter swimming represents an intensive short-term exposure to cold, and thus it is considered a strong physical stress. Cold-based treatments, i.e. immersions in cold water, are spreading in sport medicine for improving recovery following muscle traumas, although a universal acceptance of that method is not still achieved. Fifteen healthy subjects (13 males and 2 females) were recruited among the participants to a 150 meters long swimming race in cold water (6 degrees C). Blood samples were collected the day before and immediately after the race and a panel of haematological parameters was evaluated. Swimming in cold water induced a significant variation in the blood cell fraction composition compared to the rest condition, as measured the day before the competition. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets count increased significantly (4.7%, P = 0.005; 40.6%, P mere haemoconcentration. When represented by brief exposure to cold water, winter swimming induces strong non-pathological modifications of haematological homeostasis.

  3. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  4. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  5. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  6. Nonlinear effects of winter sea ice on the survival probabilities of Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Tosca; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Olmastroni, Silvia; Pezzo, Francesco; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-08-01

    The population dynamics of Antarctic seabirds are influenced by variations in winter sea ice extent and persistence; however, the type of relationship differs according to the region and the demographic parameter considered. We used annual presence/absence data obtained from 1,138 individually marked birds to study the influence of environmental and individual characteristics on the survival of Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae at Edmonson Point (Ross Sea, Antarctica) between 1994 and 2005. About 25% of 600 birds marked as chicks were reobserved at the natal colony. The capture and survival rates of Adélie penguins at this colony increased with the age of individuals, and five age classes were identified for both parameters. Mean adult survival was 0.85 (SE = 0.01), and no effect of sex on survival was evident. Breeding propensity, as measured by adult capture rates, was close to one, indicating a constant breeding effort through time. Temporal variations in survival were best explained by a quadratic relationship with winter sea ice extent anomalies in the Ross Sea, suggesting that for this region optimal conditions are intermediate between too much and too little winter sea ice. This is likely the result of a balance between suitable wintering habitat and food availability. Survival rates were not correlated with the Southern Oscillation Index. Low adult survival after a season characterized by severe environmental conditions at breeding but favorable conditions during winter suggested an additional mortality mediated by the reproductive effort. Adélie penguins are sensitive indicators of environmental changes in the Antarctic, and the results from this study provide insights into regional responses of this species to variability in winter sea ice habitat.

  7. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data. PMID:28587066

  8. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A and optical (Landsat-8 data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM and a random forest (RF method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  9. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-05-25

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure-up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  10. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  11. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  12. Length of winter coat in horses depending on husbandry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocian, Krzysztof; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Janczarek, Iwona; Jabłecki, Zygmunt; Kolstrung, Ryszard

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyzes changes in the length of coat on selected body areas in horses and ponies kept under different husbandry (stable) conditions during the winter-spring period. The study included 12 Małpolski geldings and 12 geldings of Felin ponies aged 10-15 years. Horses were kept in two stables (six horses and six ponies in each stable). The type of performance, husbandry conditions and feeding of the studied animals were comparable. As of December 1, samples of hair coat from the scapula, sternum, back and abdomen areas of both body sides were collected seven times. The lengths of 20 randomly selected hair fibers were measured. Daily measurements of air temperature in the stables were also taken. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed using the following factors: the body part from where the coat was sampled, the subsequent examination and the stable as well as the interaction between these factors. The significance of differences between means was determined with a t-Tukey test. The relations between air temperature in the stable and hair length were calculated using Pearson's correlation. It was found that air temperature in the stable impacts the length of winter coat in horses and ponies. The effect of this factor is more pronounced in ponies; as in the stables with lower temperatures it produces a longer hair coat which is more evenly distributed over the body in comparison with horses. Keeping horses and ponies in stables with a low air temperature accelerates coat shedding by approximately 25 days. Coat shedding begins from the scapula area. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. WHITE – Winter hazards in terminal environment: An automated nowcasting system for Munich Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Keis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter weather is a decisive factor affecting the daily course of action at airports and causing delays or even safety hazards. Snow covered or iced aerodrome movement areas or aircraft require an initiation of counteractions on time. In order to minimize economic loss and to maintain safety, winter weather situations within an investigation area around an airport have to be detected and forecasted as precisely as possible. At the Department of Transport Meteorology of the German Aerospace Center's (DLR Institute of Atmospheric Physics the winter weather nowcasting system WHITE (Winter Hazards In Terminal Environment has been developed kindly supported by Munich Airport operations. Designed as an automated system WHITE assimilates multiple real-time data sources and assesses problematic winter weather aspects like the differentiation between snow and liquid precipitation, the identification of freezing precipitation and icing plus the rating of surface conditions. The innovative approach of WHITE, combining critical parameters for different predefined winter weather scenarios by means of Fuzzy Logic, classifying hazardous regions and generating winter weather objects, enables the determination of precipitation type and hazard's intensity. By nowcasting the current situation over a period of two hours it is also possible to estimate the beginning and the duration of hazardous conditions within the investigation area. In addition to the nowcasting system a participatory sensing approach is integrated within WHITE as a second main issue. The idea of this user-centered approach is based on the recent spread of high-capacity sensor-equipped mobile phones and the pervasive willingness of using the devices. Performance optimization, output evaluation and simplified handling with the system's output are the benefits resulting from the participatory sensing approach. In this work the basics, the data sources and development of the nowcasting system and

  14. Daily steps are low year-round and dip lower in fall/winter: findings from a longitudinal diabetes cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigal Ron J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher walking levels lead to lower mortality in type 2 diabetes, but inclement weather may reduce walking. In this patient population, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study to objectively quantify seasonal variations both in walking and in two vascular risk factors associated with activity levels, hemoglobin A1C and blood pressure. Methods Between June 2006 and July 2009, volunteer type 2 diabetes patients in Montreal, Quebec, Canada underwent two weeks of pedometer measurement up to four times over a one year follow-up period (i.e. once/season. Pedometer viewing windows were concealed (snap-on cover and tamper proof seal. A1C, blood pressure, and anthropometric parameters were also assessed. Given similarities in measures for spring/summer and fall/winter, and because not all participants completed four assessments, spring and summer values were collapsed as were fall and winter values. Mean within-individual differences (95% confidence intervals were computed for daily steps, A1C, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, by subtracting spring/summer values from fall/winter values. Results Among 201 participants, 166 (82.6% underwent at least one fall/winter and one spring/summer evaluation. Approximately half were women, the mean age was 62.4 years (SD 10.8, and the mean BMI was 30.1 kg/m2 (SD 5.7. Step counts averaged at a sedentary level in fall/winter (mean 4,901 steps/day, SD 2,464 and at a low active level in spring/summer (mean 5,659 steps/day, SD 2,611. There was a -758 (95% CI: -1,037 to -479 mean fall/winter to spring/summer within-individual difference. There were no significant differences in A1C or in anthropometric parameters. Systolic blood pressure was higher in fall/winter (mean 137 mm Hg, SD 16 than spring/summer (133 mm Hg, SD 14 with a mean difference of 4.0 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.3 to 5.7. Conclusions Daily step counts in type 2 diabetes patients are low, dipping lower during fall/winter. In this

  15. Coupled Effects of Climatic and Socio-economic Factors on Winter Cropping in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; DeFries, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    India is predicted to be one of the most vulnerable regions in terms of agricultural sensitivity to future climate changes. Approximately 69% of India's population is rural, and over 55% of the working population relies on agriculture for sustenance and livelihoods. Indian smallholder farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland represent 78% of the total Indian farmers and produce 41% of the country's food crops. These smallholder farmers are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes due to limited access to technology, infrastructure, markets, and institutional or financial support in the case of adverse climatic events. Baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability will provide useful information for regional-level, and eventually state- and national-level, strategies and policies that promote adaption to climate variability. We use a decade of remote sensing analysis of cropping patterns and climatic factors along with census data for irrigation and demographic factors to understand winter cropping trajectories across agro-ecological zones in India. Findings from multiple agro-ecological zones indicate that there are three primary trajectories in winter cropping in India - increasing, fluctuating, and decreasing. In the Central Indian Highlands, for example, the most dominant trend is that of fluctuating cropped area, ranging between ~37,300 km2 in 2010 and ~21,100 km2 in 2013, which is associated with village-level access to irrigation and local labor dynamics. Clay soil type and increasing irrigation coverage were associated with intensification. Yet, suitable soil type and access to irrigation do not reduce vulnerability to high daytime temperatures that is negatively associated with winter crop cover. With pronounced winter warming projected in the coming decades, effective adaptation by smallholder farmers would require additional strategies, such as access to fine-scale temperature forecasts

  16.  Winter time burst of CO2 from the High Arctic soils of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger; Elberling, Bo

    of relatively few measurements which appear to give small and constant emission rates. Further, most studies of the processes behind winter time emission of CO2 conclude that the flux during this time of year can be linked to the respiratory release of CO2 from soil micro organisms, which is temperature...... the winter at a high arctic location in Svalbard (78°N). Measurements were conducted in the field during the winter season of 2004-2005 and show reliable and continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes down to a level of 0.01 ìmol m-2 s-1 and good correspondence with other types of soil chambers. Our results...... indicate that a substantial part of the annual CO2 emission from the ecosystem occur during the freeze in period, where more CO2 is emitted from the soil over a few weeks than the accumulated flux for the rest of the winter. During the coldest part of the...

  17. Winter severity and snowiness and their multiannual variability in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Grzegorz; Richterová, Dáša; Kliegrová, Stanislava; Zusková, Ilona; Pawliczek, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyses winter severity and snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains and examines their long-term trends. The analysis used modified comprehensive winter snowiness (WSW) and winter severity (WOW) indices as defined by Paczos (1982). An attempt was also made to determine the relationship between the WSW and WOW indices. Measurement data were obtained from eight stations operated by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMGW-PIB), from eight stations operated by the Czech Hydrological and Meteorological Institute (CHMI) and also from the Meteorological Observatory of the University of Wrocław (UWr) on Mount Szrenica. Essentially, the study covered the period from 1961 to 2015. In some cases, however, the period analysed was shorter due to the limited availability of data, which was conditioned, inter alia, by the period of operation of the station in question, and its type. Viewed on a macroscale, snow conditions in the Karkonosze Mountains and Jizera Mountains (in similar altitude zones) are clearly more favourable on southern slopes than on northern ones. In the study area, negative trends have been observed with respect to both the WSW and WOW indices—winters have become less snowy and warmer. The correlation between the WOW and WSW indices is positive. At stations with northern macroexposure, WOW and WSW show greater correlation than at ones with southern macroexposure. This relationship is the weakest for stations that are situated in the upper ranges (Mount Śnieżka and Mount Szrenica).

  18. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  19. Winter precipitation change in South China in recent decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingning

    2013-04-01

    Precipitation change is one of important climate researches in China, but winter precipitation variation in South China has not been studied so frequently. In China, it is rainy when hot; so summer precipitation is usually one focus in research, esp. in South China. However, winter precipitation and its change influence people profoundly in South China, also. The most recent example is what happened over South China in winter 2008. In this winter, millions of people suffered from the unusual cold and snowy winter. It led to huge loss in economy and traffic as well. Roads closed and railway stations were jammed and crowded with people; many planes were grounded for heavy snow and bad weather. Transmission lines faulted in the mountains. The ommunication signals were affected. Everyday food supply including vegetables and meats had to be delayed or interrupted. In some city even water supply was interrupted. And garbage in the city was piled up. Just in this winter the snow depth and coverage area in many places in South China broke or equaled the historical records. In fact, it isn't the only one unusual winter precipitation event in South China. Since 1950s, several freezing and snowy winters struck the South in China. In this research, winter precipitation change in recent years in South China has been discussed based on the precipitation observations. The associated large scale atmospheric circulation change is also analyzed. It is found that snowy winter in South China hardly comes in most periods of 2000s, but in recent decades this heavy snow in winter has appeared several times as observations shows. This phenomenon could be related to the large scale atmospheric circulation change.

  20. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  1. Nitrate transboundary heavy pollution over East Asia in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, Syuichi; Uno, Itsushi; Osada, Kazuo; Kamiguchi, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shigekazu; Tamura, Kei; Wang, Zhe; Kurosaki, Yasunori; Kanaya, Yugo

    2017-03-01

    contrast, for type S, the production of SO42- led to the decomposition of NH4NO3, and more SO42- was transported. Notably, the type N transport pattern was limited to western Japan, especially the island of Kyushu. Transboundary air pollution dominated by SO42- (type S) has been recognized as a major pattern of pollution over East Asia. However, our study confirms the importance of transboundary air pollution dominated by NO3-, which will help refine our understanding of transboundary heavy PM2. 5 pollution in winter over East Asia.

  2. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    (CO2eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO2eq MJ−1 ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO2eq MJ−1...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...... to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N2O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise...

  3. Forecasting of primary energy consumption data in the United States: A comparison between ARIMA and Holter-Winters models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Ahmar, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    This research has a purpose to compare ARIMA Model and Holt-Winters Model based on MAE, RSS, MSE, and RMS criteria in predicting Primary Energy Consumption Total data in the US. The data from this research ranges from January 1973 to December 2016. This data will be processed by using R Software. Based on the results of data analysis that has been done, it is found that the model of Holt-Winters Additive type (MSE: 258350.1) is the most appropriate model in predicting Primary Energy Consumption Total data in the US. This model is more appropriate when compared with Holt-Winters Multiplicative type (MSE: 262260,4) and ARIMA Seasonal model (MSE: 723502,2).

  4. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Winter squash populations show great diversity in morphological characteristics, particularly fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit ... fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, length of seed cavity and flesh thickness. This evaluation .... Winter squash seeds from four provinces (Samsun, Amasya, Sinop and Bolu) of the ...

  5. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the

  6. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the storage periods. S Köse, E Ocak. Abstract. In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods.

  7. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient | Henedy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Arab patient. MMA Henedy, MJ Marafie, SJ Abulhasan. Abstract. An Arab child is presented herein with a phenotype that fits the rare Baraitser–Winter syndrome. Her clinical features included a unilateral iris coloboma, ptosis, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, full ...

  8. Winter cereal canopy effect on cereal and interseeded legume productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into winter cereals in the North Central USA can provide forage and a green manure crop. We hypothesize that winter cereal canopy traits such as leaf area index (LAI) and whole plant dry matter (DM) influence interseeded...

  9. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  10. Prevalence of hematozoa infections among breeding and wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Barnard; Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Steven M. Matsuoka

    2010-01-01

    The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) has declined precipitously over the past several decades,and stressors on both the breeding and wintering grounds are suspected causes. Over 3 years, we collected blood samples from breeding birds in Alaska and Maine and from wintering birds in Mississippi and Arkansas to determine the prevalence of hematozoan infections at...

  11. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92 Section 401.92 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up...

  12. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  13. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  14. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  15. Effect of different tillage intensity on yields and yield-forming factors in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Houšť

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study on application of minimum tillage technologies when growing winter wheat. Experiments were performed in the sugar-beet-growing region with loamy chernozem within the period of 2005–2009. Aanalysed and evaluated were effects of different methods of soil processing on yield-forming factors in stands of winter wheat grown after three different preceding crops (i.e. alfalfa, maize for silage and pea. Evaluated were the following four variants of tillage: (1 conventional ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1; (2 ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 2; (3 direct sowing into the untilled soil (Variant 3, and (4 shallow tillage to the depth of 0.10 m (Variant 4.The effect of different tillage intensity on winter wheat yields was statistically non-significant after all forecrops. After alfalfa, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded in Variant 2 (i.e. with ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 3 (direct sowing into the untilled soil, respectively. After maize grown for silage, higher yields were obtained in Variant 2 and Variant 1 (conventional ploughing while in Variants 4 and 3 the obtained yields were lower. When growing winter wheat after pea as a preceding crop, the highest and the lowest average yields were recorded after direct sowing (Variant 3 and in Variant 1 (i.e. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Results of studies on effect of different tillage technologies on yields of winter wheat crops indicate that under the given pedological and climatic conditions it is possible to apply methods of reduced tillage intensity. However, the choice of the corresponding technology must be performed with regard to the type of preceding crop.

  16. Winter Snowfall Turns an Emerald White

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Ireland's climate is normally mild due to the nearby Gulf Stream, but the waning days of 2000 saw the Emerald Isle's green fields swathed in an uncommon blanket of white. The contrast between summer and winter is apparent in this pair of images of southwestern Ireland acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on August 23, 2000 (left) and December 29, 2000 (right). The corresponding Terra orbit numbers are 3628 and 5492, respectively.The year 2000 brought record-breaking weather to the British Isles. England and Wales experienced the wettest spring and autumn months since 1766. Despite being one of the warmest years in recent history, a cold snap arrived between Christmas and New Year's Day. According to the UK Meteorological Office, the 18 centimeters (7 inches) of snow recorded at Aldergrove, Northern Ireland, on December 27-28 was the deepest daily fall since 1930.Prominent geographical features visible in the MISR images include Galway Bay near the top left. Further south, the mouth of the River Shannon, the largest river in the British Isles, meets the Atlantic Ocean. In the lower portions of the images are the counties of Limerick, Kerry and Cork.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology

  17. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  18. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  19. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For ... million Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes." "Fifty four million Americans are at risk for ...

  20. Winter Precipitation Classification from Two Dimensional Video Disdrometer Data: Observations from Gcpex and Lpvex Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, G. J.; Chandra, C. V.; Moisseev, D.

    2014-12-01

    The liquid-equivalent snow rate (SR) quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) using radar (both ground-base and satellite) is very important component of GPM research. Winter storms can have with different type of precipitations such as, pristine ice crystal, sleet, graupel-like snow, rimed and aggregated snow, and each type of precipitations have very different micro-physical properties (e.g. size, density, fall speed, dielectric constant), to estimate SR accurately using radar becomes a challenge. The first step to get a proper estimator from radar observations is the precipitation classification. The form of different winter precipitation relates to the environment especially the temperature and humidity. In addition, the different precipitation type also correspond to different shape and density resulting in different fall speeds. Recent research shows that 2DVD is able to observe winter precipitation successfully. The 2DVD can measure the fall speed of each particle falling into its observing area, and provide the contours from two orthogonal views. It is straight forward to estimate the diameter of snowflake from two views of 2DVD and compute the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to classify the different type of precipitation, we must not only estimate the diameter but also define several geometric features. In this paper we explore a technique to estimate features from the contours of 2D-Video images. In this paper, we analyze observations from two GPM winter campaigns namely, GCPEX and LPVEX. From these data sets , we derive the to get the statistics of fall speed and geometric features developed in this paper. Subsequently these are used to classify winter precipitation into four catalogs, namely rain, sleet, graupel-like snow and fluffy snow (may form by aggregation or aggregation with riming). We apply this procedure to two GCPEx cases which mixed with different type of precipitation in different time interval. Since we are using the

  1. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  2. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  4. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  5. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  6. Unexpected winter phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, L.; Ardyna, M.; Stec, K. F.; Claustre, H.; Prieur, L.; Poteau, A.; D'Alcala, M. Ribera; Iudicone, D.

    2017-11-01

    In mid- and high-latitude oceans, winter surface cooling and strong winds drive turbulent mixing that carries phytoplankton to depths of several hundred metres, well below the sunlit layer. This downward mixing, in combination with low solar radiation, drastically limits phytoplankton growth during the winter, especially that of the diatoms and other species that are involved in seeding the spring bloom. Here we present observational evidence for widespread winter phytoplankton blooms in a large part of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre from autonomous profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors. These blooms were triggered by intermittent restratification of the mixed layer when mixed-layer eddies led to a horizontal transport of lighter water over denser layers. Combining a bio-optical index with complementary chemotaxonomic and modelling approaches, we show that these restratification events increase phytoplankton residence time in the sunlight zone, resulting in greater light interception and the emergence of winter blooms. Restratification also caused a phytoplankton community shift from pico- and nanophytoplankton to phototrophic diatoms. We conclude that transient winter blooms can maintain active diatom populations throughout the winter months, directly seeding the spring bloom and potentially making a significant contribution to over-winter carbon export.

  7. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  8. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Dispersion of atmospheric air pollution in summer and winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichowicz, Robert; Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Fetter, Wojciech

    2017-11-04

    Seasonal variation of air pollution is associated with variety of seasons and specificity of particular months which form the so-called summer and winter season also known as the "heating" season. The occurrence of higher values of air pollution in different months of a year is associated with the type of climate, and accordingly with different atmospheric conditions in particular months, changing state of weather on a given day, and anthropogenic activity. The appearance of these conditions results in different levels of air pollution characteristic for a given period. The study uses data collected during a seven-year period (2009-2015) in the automatic measuring station of immissions located in Eastern Wielkopolska. The analysis concerns the average and maximum values of air pollution (i.e., particulate matter PM10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) from the perspective of their occurrence in particular seasons and months or in relation to meteorological actors such as temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

  10. Winter swimming: healthy or hazardous?. Evidence and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolettis, T M; Kolettis, M T

    2003-01-01

    Swimming in cold water during the winter season is an extreme sport, with fans all over the world. However, its effects on health have been debated. This article examines the hypothesis that the effects of winter swimming may depend on previous exposure to cold stimuli. Immersion in cold water in unaccustomed persons may lead to detrimental consequences, while, in regular winter swimmers, adaptive physiologic mechanisms increase tolerance to cold. Furthermore, these mechanisms may prevent the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases. Prospective studies and epidemiological data are needed to test this hypothesis.

  11. Reducing tillage intensity affects the cumulative emergence dynamics of annual grass weeds in winter cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, A; Melander, B; Jensen, P K

    2017-01-01

    Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The aim...... of this study was to investigate, understand and model the cumulative emergence patterns of A. spica-venti, V. myuros and Poa annua in winter cereals grown in three primary tillage regimes: (i) mouldboard ploughing, (ii) pre-sowing tine cultivation to 8–10 cm soil depth and (iii) direct drilling. Direct...... drilling delayed the cumulative emergence of A. spica-venti and V. myuros (counted together) in contrast with ploughing, while the emergence pattern of P. annua was unaffected by the type of tillage system. The total density of emerged weed seedlings varied between the tillage systems and years...

  12. Urban emissions of water vapor in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2017-09-01

    Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

  13. Chromosomal rearrangements caused by gamma-irradiation in winter wheat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the results of our investigation into several cytogenetic parameters of variability in mutation induction of modern winter wheat varieties and some connections between the means of cytogenetic indices and different doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations following the action of any kind of mutagen by the anaphases method is one of the most widely investigated and most precise methods which can be used to determine the fact of mutagenic action on plants and identify the nature of the mutagen. We combined in our investigation the sensitivity of genotype to mutagen using cytological analysis of mutagen treated wheat populations with the corresponding different varieties by breeding methods to reveal its connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagens action on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were subjected to 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy gamma irradiation, which are trivial for winter wheat mutation breeding. We investigated rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of winter wheat primary roots tips. The coefficients of correlations amid the rate of chromosomal aberrations and the dose of gamma-rays were on the level 0.8–0.9. The fragments/bridges ratio is a clear and sufficient index for determining the nature of the mutagen agent. We distinguished the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and delayed chromosomes. The ratio of chromosomal aberrations changes with the change in mutagen; note that bridge-types are characteristic of irradiation. Radiomutants are more resistant to gamma rays. This is apparent in the lower rate of chromosomal aberrations. Varieties obtained by chemical mutagenesis (varieties Sonechko, Kalinova are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than others. We propose these varieties as objects for a mutation breeding programme and radiation of mutants

  14. Timing of the compensation of winter respiratory carbon losses provides explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity of forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of net ecosystem productivity (NEPc) of forest ecosystems are essential for climate change decisions and requirements in the context of national forest growth and greenhouse gas inventories. However, drivers and underlying mechanisms determining NEPc (e.g. climate, nutrients......DOY depended on the integration method for NEPc, forest type, and whether the site had a distinct winter net respiratory carbon loss or not. The integration methods starting in autumn led to better predictions of NEPc from cDOY then the classical calendar method starting at January 1. Limited explanatory power...... of cDOY for NEPc was found for warmer sites with no distinct winter respiratory loss period. Our findings highlight the importance of the influence of winter processes and the delayed responses of previous seasons’ climatic conditions on current year's NEPc. Such carry-over effects may contain...

  15. [Comparison of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soil by composting in the spring and winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yun; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Wei, Yuan-Song; Yang, Yu; Shen, Ying; Zheng, Jia-Xi

    2010-06-01

    In this study, lab-scale bioremediation experiments of soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) with aerated composting were compared in the Spring and Winter. Results showed that PAHs degradation rate in the winter was higher than that in the spring, and the total PAHs degradation rates were over 70% for both Pile 1 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 1: 1) and Pile 2 (the dry weight ratio of soil, swine manure and sawdust as 1: 3: 1), but the PAHs degradation rate of Pile 1 as 74.61% was higher than that of Pile 2 the degradation rates of low, middle, high benzene-ring types PAHs were 66.46%, 79.12%, 75.88%, respectively. After composting most of kinds of PAHs contents in soil were less than 1 000 microg/kg (dry weight) except BbF, for example, BbF contents of these two piles in the Spring, 25 000 microg/kg and 20 000 microg/kg, respectively, were much higher than those in the winter experiments, both less than 5 000 microg/kg. The first reaction order model was used to simulate degradation of PAHs during composting, and results showed that the model was fitted better in winter (R2 > 0.6) than in spring, and the half-life of PAHs degradation in winter was about 13 d.

  16. The Chemical Composition and Mixing State of Sea Spray Aerosol and Organic Aerosol in the Winter-Spring Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpes, R.; Bondy, A. L.; Bonanno, D.; Moffet, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Ault, A. P.; Pratt, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic region is undergoing rapid transformations and loss of sea ice due to climate change. With increased sea ice fracturing resulting in greater open ocean surface, winter emissions of sea spray aerosol (SSA) are expected to be increasing. Additionally, during the winter-spring transition, Arctic haze contributes to the Arctic aerosol budget. The magnitude of aerosol climate effects depends on the aerosol composition and mixing state (distribution of chemical species within and between particles). However, few studies of aerosol chemistry have been conducted in the winter Arctic, despite it being a time when aerosol impacts on clouds are expected to be significant. To study aerosol composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic, atmospheric particles were collected near Barrow, Alaska in January and February 2014 for off-line individual particle chemical analysis. SSA was the most prevalent particle type observed. Sulfate and nitrate were observed to be internally mixed with SSA and organic aerosol. Greater than 98% of observed SSA particles contained organic content, with 15-35% organic volume fraction on average for individual particles. The SSA organic compounds consisted of carbohydrates, lipids, and fatty acids found in the seawater surface microlayer. SSA was determined to be emitted from open leads, while transported sulfate and nitrate contributed to aging of SSA and organic aerosol. Determining the aerosol chemical composition and mixing state in the winter Arctic will further the understanding of how individual aerosol particles impact climate through radiative effects and cloud formation.

  17. Cognitive predictors and moderators of winter depression treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral therapy vs. light therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Lilya; Rohan, Kelly J; Evans, Maggie; Mahon, Jennifer N; Nillni, Yael I

    2013-12-01

    There is no empirical basis for determining which seasonal affective disorder (SAD) patients are best suited for what type of treatment. Using data from a parent clinical trial comparing light therapy (LT), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination (CBT + LT) for SAD, we constructed hierarchical linear regression models to explore baseline cognitive vulnerability constructs (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, negative automatic thoughts, response styles) as prognostic and prescriptive factors of acute and next winter depression outcomes. Cognitive constructs did not predict or moderate acute treatment outcomes. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts were prescriptive of next winter treatment outcomes. Participants with higher baseline levels of dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts had less severe depression the next winter if treated with CBT than if treated with LT. In addition, participants randomized to solo LT who scored at or above the sample mean on these cognitive measures at baseline had more severe depressive symptoms the next winter relative to those who scored below the mean. Baseline dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts did not predict treatment outcomes in participants assigned to solo CBT or CBT + LT. Therefore, SAD patients with extremely rigid cognitions did not fare as well in the subsequent winter if treated initially with solo LT. Such patients may be better suited for initial treatment with CBT, which directly targets cognitive vulnerability processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  19. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  20. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  1. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  2. Evaluating spectral indices for winter wheat health status monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation index relationships for winter wheat in order to determine indices that are sensitive to changes in the wheat health status. The indices were derived from Landsat 8 scenes over the wheat growing area across Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  3. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...

  4. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  5. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  6. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    Based on hydrographic data and time series data of currents and temperature, the nearshore hydrographic structure during winter (November, 1981) has been studied to examine the possibility of discharging industrial effluents into the nearby sea...

  7. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  8. Inferring the links between breeding and wintering grounds in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inferring the links between breeding and wintering grounds in a Palearctic– African migratory bird, the Great Reed Warbler, using mitochondrial DNA data. ... of Palearctic African migratory passerines. Keywords: bird, connectivity, distribution range, genetic similarity, migration, mitochondria, population differentiation ...

  9. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  10. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  11. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  12. Winter population numbers [Fort Niobrara NWR fenced animal program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is for winter population numbers for bison, elk and longhorn from January 1st of the calendar year and is part of the Fort Niobrara Fenced Animal...

  13. Are solar minima associated with severe winters in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; de Laat, Jos; Luterbacher, Juerg; Ingram, William; Osborn, Tim

    2013-04-01

    There have been claims recently that severe winters in Europe are associated with solar minima. We revisit this based on three sets of data sources: historical instrumental observations available over the last three centuries (NAO, CET, De Bilt temperature, Frankfurt temperature) reconstructions based on documentary evidence (in winter partly based on freezing of canals, rivers and lakes) and the long 20C reanalysis that is now available. None of these data sources shows a significant correlation (linear, non-linear or lagged) between near-surface winter temperatures or atmospheric circulation over Europe and various measure of solar activity beyond common trends. We also show the origin of the differences between our analyses and other published investigations into the connection between solar activity and European winter severity.

  14. Winter cover crops decrease weediness in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Vyacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Maeorg, Erkki; Luik, Anne

    2017-01-01

    By inserting cover crops into organic cropping systems, the number and biomass of weeds decreased. Winter cover crops clearly have a suppressive effect on weeds by providing competition for light, water and space.

  15. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Winter Wildlife Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to the logistical challenges of accessing this refuge during the winter months, information on nonbreeding species use of refuge islands is very limited. This...

  16. Whooping Cranes During the 1985-1986 Winter

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report attempts to summarize whooping crane data collected by the Aransas biologist during the 1985-86 winter. It focuses on the distribution of the Wood...

  17. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  18. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  19. Sky luminance distribution in the North of Iberian Peninsula during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J. L.; de Blas, M.; García, A.; Gracia, A.; de Francisco, A.

    2010-10-01

    This work is based on the study of outdoor daylight conditions during the winter period in Pamplona (the Iberian Peninsula). The 15 standard sky types proposed by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) are used. The selected sky type in each moment is the one exhibiting the lowest root mean standard deviation (RMSD) when the theoretical and experimental luminance distributions in the sky hemisphere are compared. The selection was derived from luminance distribution data from 145 patches of the sky hemisphere and registered every 10 min from October to March from 2007 and 2008.The most frequent sky type observed in winter in Pamplona is V.5 (cloudless polluted with a broad solar corona), with a frequency of occurrence of 21%. Notwithstanding, the group of overcast skies exhibits a slightly higher frequency (40%) than the clear skies (37%). Seven out of the 15 standard sky types, i.e.V.5, I.1, III.4, II.1, IV.4, II.2 and III.3, are practically 80% of those under study. In order to provide a possible application in daylight climates studies, the frequency of occurrence of the 15 sky types is included in eleven intervals of solar elevation on the threshold corresponding to the time period and the location considered.

  20. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  1. Robust forecasting with exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing.

    OpenAIRE

    Gelper, SEC Sarah; Fried, R; Croux, C.

    2007-01-01

    Robust versions of the exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing method for forecasting are presented. They are suitable for forecasting univariate time series in presence of outliers. The robust exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing methods are presented as a recursive updating scheme. Both the update equation and the selection of the smoothing parameters are robustied. This robust method is equivalent to a particular form of the robust Kalman lter in a local linear trend model. A simulation s...

  2. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  3. Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

  4. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K. [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R.J. [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  5. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, M.; Pourazari, F.; Vico, G.

    2016-10-01

    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding-crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  6. Phenolic acid concentrations in organically and conventionally cultivated spring and winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchowski, Jerzy; Jonczyk, Krzysztof; Pecio, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-04-01

    Organic crops are often thought to contain more phenolic secondary metabolites than conventional ones. This study evaluated the influence of organic and conventional farming on concentrations of phenolic acids in spring and winter wheat cultivars. Five phenolic acids were identified: ferulic, sinapic, p-coumaric, vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Ferulic acid was the main phenolic acid in the grain of all tested wheat varieties. Significant differences among the examined cultivars in concentration of particular compounds were observed. Concentrations of phenolic acids varied significantly in organic and conventional wheat. Levels of ferulic and p-coumaric acids, as well as the total phenolic acid content were higher in organic crops. Concentrations of sinapic acid in spring wheat, as well as vanillic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid levels in both types of wheat were significantly higher in conventional grains. The 1000 kernel weight (TKW) of spring and winter wheat was significantly lower in organic crops. Organically produced spring and winter wheat had significantly higher concentrations of ferulic and p-coumaric acid as well as the total phenolic acid content than conventional wheat, though the differences in the levels of phenolics were not large. However, these differences are probably caused mainly by smaller size of organic wheat kernels (lower TKW). Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, M; Pourazari, F; Vico, G

    2016-10-24

    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding-crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  8. Fish Larvae Response to Biophysical Changes in the Gulf of California, Mexico (Winter-Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Avendaño-Ibarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the response of fish larvae assemblages to environmental variables and to physical macro- and mesoscale processes in the Gulf of California, during four oceanographic cruises (winter and summer 2005 and 2007. Physical data of the water column obtained through CTD casts, sea surface temperature, and chlorophyll a satellite imagery were used to detect mesoscale structures. Zooplankton samples were collected with standard Bongo net tows. Fish larvae assemblages responded to latitudinal and coastal-ocean gradients, related to inflow of water to the gulf, and to biological production. The 19°C and 21°C isotherms during winter, and 29°C and 31°C during summer, limited the distribution of fish larvae at the macroscale. Between types of eddy, the cyclonic (January registered high abundance, species richness, and zooplankton volume compared to the other anticyclonic (March and cyclonic (September. Thermal fronts (Big Islands of January and July affected the species distribution establishing strong differences between sides. At the mesoscale, eddy and fronts coincided with the isotherms mentioned previously, playing an important role in emphasizing the differences among species assemblages. The multivariate analysis indicated that larvae abundance was highly correlated with temperature and salinity and with chlorophyll a and zooplankton volume during winter and summer, respectively.

  9. Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006): Dedication to Professor Hannspeter Winter (1941 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Bob

    2007-03-01

    Professor H Winter. It was with great sadness that we learnt of the death of colleague and friend Professor Hannspeter Winter in Vienna on the 8 November 2006. In memory of him and the contribution he made both to our conference and to the field of the physics of highly charged ions we dedicate these proceedings. Hannspeter was one of our distinguished invited speakers at HCI2006 and gave a talk on the status of the ITER programme. His invited paper on the subject is included in these proceedings. Hannspeter will be particularly remembered for his pioneering work on ion-surface interactions that, together with his colleagues at the Vienna University of Technology (TUW), has stimulated a worldwide experimental and theoretical interest in this field. He was appointed Director of the Institut fuer Allgemeine Physik at TUW in 1987 and using both his scientific and management skills has made it one of the leading university physics laboratories in the world. His research publications, of which there are 270, have inspired many others to work in the field of atomic and plasma physics. He was also a great European playing a major role in the EURATOM fusion programme, the European Physical Society and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and was an evaluator and advisory board member for many national and international institutions. Hannspeter was also an interesting and friendly social companion with interests in current affairs, music and fine wines and will be greatly missed both on a scientific and social level. Our condolences go to his wife Renate, son Dorian and his relatives. R W McCullough Co-chair HCI2006

  10. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Fristrup Schou

    Full Text Available Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies. We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  11. Strong Costs and Benefits of Winter Acclimatization in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies on thermal acclimation in insects are often performed on animals acclimated in the laboratory under conditions that are not ecologically relevant. Costs and benefits of acclimation responses under such conditions may not reflect costs and benefits in natural populations subjected to daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations. Here we estimated costs and benefits in thermal tolerance limits in relation to winter acclimatization of Drosophila melanogaster. We sampled flies from a natural habitat during winter in Denmark (field flies) and compared heat and cold tolerance of these to that of flies collected from the same natural population, but acclimated to 25 °C or 13 °C in the laboratory (laboratory flies). We further obtained thermal performance curves for egg-to-adult viability of field and laboratory (25 °C) flies, to estimate possible cross-generational effects of acclimation. We found much higher cold tolerance and a lowered heat tolerance in field flies compared to laboratory flies reared at 25 °C. Flies reared in the laboratory at 13 °C exhibited the same thermal cost-benefit relations as the winter acclimatized flies. We also found a cost of winter acclimatization in terms of decreased egg-to-adult viability at high temperatures of eggs laid by winter acclimatized flies. Based on our findings we suggest that winter acclimatization in nature can induce strong benefits in terms of increased cold tolerance. These benefits can be reproduced in the laboratory under ecologically relevant rearing and testing conditions, and should be incorporated in species distribution modelling. Winter acclimatization also leads to decreased heat tolerance. This may create a mismatch between acclimation responses and the thermal environment, e.g. if temperatures suddenly increase during spring, under current and expected more variable future climatic conditions.

  12. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2017-10-10

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  13. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  14. Properties of stratospheric warming events during northern winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Pauline; Claud, Chantal; Manzini, Elisa; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    During wintertime the polar mid-stratosphere is characterized by the setting up of westerly winds around the pole; the so-called polar vortex. The polar vortex is one of the most variable features of the zonal-mean circulation of the earth atmosphere, due to a highly non linear interaction between planetary-scale Rossby waves and the zonal flow. Indeed, the interaction between the upward tropospheric propagating waves and the polar vortex leads to a zonal flow weakening, implying a large day to day vortex variability. In the most dramatic cases the polar vortex breaks down, the stratospheric polar flow can reverse its direction and the temperatures can rise locally by more than 50K in a span of a few days. Such phenomena are known as Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) and constitute, since their discovery, the most impressive dynamical events in the physical climate system. There are however situations where the polar vortex does not break down, but temperatures increase dramatically. In this study, we propose a global characterization of stratospheric warmings situations based on a temperature threshold in the 50-10hPa layer, in order to assess the properties of daily stratospheric temperature variability during the northern winter. The originality of this approch consists in evaluating the wintertime positive temperature anomalies in terms of intensity and duration. We will show that there is a wide spectrum of warming types. The major SSWs are the most extreme, but there are other events that share some common properties with the major ones. Though neglected, these latter warmings may play a key role in the coupling of the stratosphere-troposphere system.

  15. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...

  16. Impacts of winter feeding of reindeer on vegetation and soil in the sub-Arctic: insights from a feeding experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Turunen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall impacts of winter feeding, including the effects of both forage and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, were studied in an experiment in the Hammastunturi herding cooperative (68°N, Finland, with 300 reindeer in a sub-xeric heath forest (35 ha during March/April 2009 and 2010. The feeding practices on the 50 plots were: (1 feeding with grass silage+hay with leftovers cleared in the spring; (2 feeding with grass silage+hay with leftovers not cleared; and (3 feeding with pellets. In addition, (4 unfenced and (5 fenced control plots were included, on which the reindeer were not fed. No invasive plant species introduced through grass silage+hay were observed on the plots. The coverage of Deschampsia flexuosa increased on grass silage+hay plots after the first winter, and both coverage and height of the grass increased after the second winter. The coverage of Dicranum sp. and Pleurozium schreberi was lower on plots where reindeer were fed with grass silage (leftover silage not cleared vs. controls. Some dwarf shrubs, e.g., Calluna vulgaris, showed a similar response after the second winter. The N content of Empetrum nigrum was higher on grass silage plots (leftover silage not cleared after the first winter vs. controls. After two winters, the N content of both E. nigrum and Vaccinium myrtillus was increased. Of the soil variables studied, C/N decreased on grass silage+hay plots vs. fenced controls. We conclude that even a moderate level of feeding may cause changes that can lead to a gradual shift from nutrient-poor heath forest towards a more nutrient-rich type.

  17. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanis Vasilios

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  18. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend to accumul......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...... to reduce weed numbers and soil seedbank. However, in recent years Integrated Weed Management (IWM) principles have acquired a stronger place in agriculture (Ghersa et al., 2000; Bastiaans et al., 2008). IWM systems aim at manipulating soil tillage, crop rotation and cover cropping to minimize the impact...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help...

  19. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  20. Winter climate change: a critical factor for temperate vegetation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Juergen

    2010-07-01

    Winter ecological processes are important drivers of vegetation and ecosystem functioning in temperate ecosystems. There, winter conditions are subject to rapid climate change. The potential loss of a longer-lasting snow cover with implications to other plant-related climate parameters and overwintering strategies make the temperate zone particularly vulnerable to winter climate change. A formalized literature search in the ISI Web of Science shows that plant related research on the effects of winter climate change is generally underrepresented. Temperate regions in particular are rarely studied in this respect, although the few existing studies imply strong effects of winter climate change on species ranges, species compositions, phenology, or frost injury. The generally positive effect of warming on plant survival and production may be counteracted by effects such as an increased frost injury of roots and shoots, an increased insect pest risk, or a disrupted synchrony between plants and pollinators. Based on the literature study, gaps in current knowledge are discussed. Understanding the relative effects of interacting climate parameters, as well as a stronger consideration of shortterm events and variability of climatic conditions is urgent. With respect to plant response, it would be particularly worthwhile to account for hidden players such as pathogens, pollinators, herbivores, or fungal partners in mycorrhization.

  1. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  2. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  3. Learning at Old Age: A Study on Winter Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer bees) to 6 months (winter bees). We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight/no flight opportunity) to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning. PMID:20428511

  4. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  5. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  7. Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Verloes, Alain; Di Donato, Nataliya; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Jongmans, Marjolijn; Abdul-Raman, Omar A; Albrecht, Beate; Allanson, Judith; Brunner, Han; Bertola, Debora; Chassaing, Nicolas; David, Albert; Devriendt, Koen; Eftekhari, Pirayeh; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Faravelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter, Fryns-Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode β- and γ-actins. We present detailed phenotypic descriptions and neuroimaging on 36 patients analyzed by our group and six cases from the literature with a molecularly proven actinopathy (9 ACTG1 and 33 ACTB). The major clinical anomalies are striking dy...

  8. Comparative study on the ventilation mode of the residential building in Beijing area in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. J.; Li, Q. P.; Guo, Y.; Hu, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    With the development of residential energy conservation technology, the air tightness requirement of the window is higher and higher. So in winter the cold penetration wind cannot satisfy the requirement of indoor personnel to fresh air. The common ventilation mode includes natural ventilation, natural inlet and mechanical exhaust, wall type ventilator with heat exchange, ventilation unit with heat exchange. Looking for energy saving, comfortable way of ventilation, the application effect of the way of ventilation is evaluated in air distribution and comfort performance and the initial investment by FLUENT software. The conclusion is that the mode of ventilation unit with heat exchange has higher superiority compared with the others.

  9. The formation and evolution of Titan's winter polar vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teanby, Nicholas A; Bézard, Bruno; Vinatier, Sandrine; Sylvestre, Melody; Nixon, Conor A; Irwin, Patrick G J; de Kok, Remco J; Calcutt, Simon B; Flasar, F Michael

    2017-11-21

    Saturn's largest moon Titan has a substantial nitrogen-methane atmosphere, with strong seasonal effects, including formation of winter polar vortices. Following Titan's 2009 northern spring equinox, peak solar heating moved to the northern hemisphere, initiating south-polar subsidence and winter polar vortex formation. Throughout 2010-2011, strengthening subsidence produced a mesospheric hot-spot and caused extreme enrichment of photochemically produced trace gases. However, in 2012 unexpected and rapid mesospheric cooling was observed. Here we show extreme trace gas enrichment within the polar vortex dramatically increases mesospheric long-wave radiative cooling efficiency, causing unusually cold temperatures 2-6 years post-equinox. The long time-frame to reach a stable vortex configuration results from the high infrared opacity of Titan's trace gases and the relatively long atmospheric radiative time constant. Winter polar hot-spots have been observed on other planets, but detection of post-equinox cooling is so far unique to Titan.

  10. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  11. Winter rain and summer ozone: a predictive relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J S; Basso, M J; Okin, B A

    1978-06-02

    Insights from dendrochronology have provided a new seasonal predictor for air pollution meteorology. In the San Francisco Bay Area summer ozone excesses over the federal ozone standard are correlated (correlation coefficient r = .87) with precipitation for the two preceding winters, a factor related to tree-ring width in a precipitation-stressed climate. The hypothesis that reactive hydrocarbon emissions from vegetative biomass affects these ozone excesses was supported by a similar correlation between summer hydrocarbon average maximums and the two-winter precipitation factor, reaching r = .88 at suburban stations. A weak tendency for hot summers to follow wet winters (in 16 years of California data) explains only a minor part of the ozone-rain relationship in multiple correlations.

  12. The Impact of Winter Heating on Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004–2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating. PMID:25629878

  13. Human health and social factors in winter climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pressman, N. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). School of Urban and Regional Planning)

    1991-01-01

    This presentation examines the broad theme of human needs with specific reference to a range of winter-induced problems. Both physiological and psychological aspects are analyzed vis-a-vis thermal comfort and human behavioural response. The use of public space suggets that social activity is very different in winter when compared with summer. However, such activity can be increased through employing planning and design strategies. For example, the outdoor season can be extended by up to six weeks by applying microclimate principles. If more intense levels of social interaction are desired - when people tend to be confined indoors - proximity and density will be important factors influencing such contact, thereby contributing to a reduction of stress and isolation. Since winter conditions spawn unique problems, special solutions will be required to combat them. It is essential to create a better 'fit' between human requirements and the corresponding built environment. (orig.).

  14. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  15. Winter temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-03-20

    Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals.

  16. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  17. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  18. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Korsukova; T.G. Gornostai; O.I. Grabelnych; N.V. Dorofeev; T.P. Pobezhimova; N.A. Sokolova; L.V. Dudareva; V.K. Voinikov

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L), and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g) is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings...

  19. Shrubland carbon sink depends upon winter water availability in the warm deserts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Scott, Russell L.; John A. Arnone,; Jasoni, Richard L.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Moreo, Michael T.; Papuga, Shirley A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.

    2018-01-01

    Global-scale studies suggest that dryland ecosystems dominate an increasing trend in the magnitude and interannual variability of the land CO2 sink. However, such model-based analyses are poorly constrained by measured CO2 exchange in open shrublands, which is the most common global land cover type, covering ∼14% of Earth’s surface. Here we evaluate how the amount and seasonal timing of water availability regulate CO2 exchange between shrublands and the atmosphere. We use eddy covariance data from six US sites across the three warm deserts of North America with observed ranges in annual precipitation of ∼100–400mm, annual temperatures of 13–18°C, and records of 2–8 years (33 site-years in total). The Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mojave Deserts present gradients in both mean annual precipitation and its seasonal distribution between the wet-winter Mojave Desert and the wet-summer Chihuahuan Desert. We found that due to hydrologic losses during the wettest summers in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts, evapotranspiration (ET) was a better metric than precipitation of water available to drive dryland CO2 exchange. In contrast with recent synthesis studies across diverse dryland biomes, we found that NEP could not be directly predicted from ET due to wintertime decoupling of the relationship between ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP). Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE=GEP/ET) did not differ between winter and summer. Carbon use efficiency (CUE=NEP/GEP), however, was greater in winter because Reco returned a smaller fraction of carbon to the atmosphere (23% of GEP) than in summer (77%). Combining the water-carbon relations found here with historical precipitation since 1980, we estimate that lower average winter precipitation during the 21st century reduced the net carbon sink of the three deserts by an average of 6.8TgC yr1. Our results highlight that winter precipitation is critical to the annual carbon balance of these

  20. Injury characteristics in the German professional male soccer leagues after a shortened winter break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    aus der Fünten, Karen; Faude, Oliver; Lensch, Jochen; Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    The winter break in the top 2 German professional soccer leagues was shortened from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks in the 2009-2010 season. To investigate whether this change affected injury characteristics by comparing the second half of the 2008-2009 (long winter break) with the equivalent period in the 2009-2010 season (short winter break). Prospective cohort study. German male professional soccer leagues. Seven professional German male soccer teams (184 players in the 2008-2009 season, 188 players in the 2009-2010 season). Injury incidences and injury characteristics (cause of injury, location, severity, type, diagnosis), including their monthly distribution, were recorded. A total of 300 time-loss injuries (2008-2009 n = 151, 2009-2010 n = 149) occurred. The overall injury incidence per 1000 soccer hours was 5.90 (95% confidence interval = 5.03, 6.82) in 2008-2009 and 6.55 (5.58, 7.69) in 2009-2010. Match injuries per 1000 hours were 31.5 (25.0, 38.0) in the first season and 26.5 (20.2, 32.7) in the second season; the corresponding training values were 2.67 (2.08-3.44) and 3.98 (3.19-4.95), respectively. The training injury incidence (incidence rate ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1.07, 2.08], P = .02) and the risk of sustaining a knee injury (incidence rate ratio = 1.66 [1.00, 2.76], P = .049) were higher in 2009-2010 after the short winter break; the incidence of moderate and severe injuries (time loss >7 days) trended higher (incidence rate ratio = 1.34 [0.96, 1.86], P = .09). Shortening the winter break from 6.5 to 3.5 weeks did not change the overall injury incidence; however, a higher number of training, knee, and possibly more severe injuries (time loss >7 days) occurred.

  1. Winter Conditions and Land Cover Structure the Subnivium, A Seasonal Refuge beneath the Snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Sonia K; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    In seasonally snow-covered environments, many organisms endure winter by using the subnivium, a below-snow thermally stable seasonal refugium. Because the insulation of snow is dependent on snow depth and density, the stability of temperatures within the subnivium varies across land cover types. Additionally, across much of the Northern Hemisphere snow extent, depth and duration are generally decreasing while snow density is increasing due to climate change. These changes are likely to destabilize the thermal profile of the subnivium, although they have not yet been quantified. To explore the effects of land cover and climate change on the subnivium, we measured snow pack characteristics (depth and density), and ambient and subnivium temperatures from three different land cover types (prairie, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest) and within a micro-greenhouse (2.5 x 2.5 x 2 m) that maintained a temperature of 5 °C warmer than outdoor ambient temperatures, and automatically opened during snow events throughout the winter of 2013/14. We found that the mean daily subnivium temperature was significantly colder in the deciduous cover type than the prairie cover type, and that prairie had higher maximum subnivium temperatures than both of the other cover types. Our climate change simulation revealed that, although ambient temperatures within the micro-greenhouse were 5 °C warmer than outside the greenhouse, the daily minimum subnivium temperature was significantly lower inside the greenhouse. Our findings suggest that climate change could have considerable effects on the refuge quality of the subnivium, and that some cover types appear to be more susceptible to these effects than others.

  2. Winter Conditions and Land Cover Structure the Subnivium, A Seasonal Refuge beneath the Snow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia K Petty

    Full Text Available In seasonally snow-covered environments, many organisms endure winter by using the subnivium, a below-snow thermally stable seasonal refugium. Because the insulation of snow is dependent on snow depth and density, the stability of temperatures within the subnivium varies across land cover types. Additionally, across much of the Northern Hemisphere snow extent, depth and duration are generally decreasing while snow density is increasing due to climate change. These changes are likely to destabilize the thermal profile of the subnivium, although they have not yet been quantified. To explore the effects of land cover and climate change on the subnivium, we measured snow pack characteristics (depth and density, and ambient and subnivium temperatures from three different land cover types (prairie, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest and within a micro-greenhouse (2.5 x 2.5 x 2 m that maintained a temperature of 5 °C warmer than outdoor ambient temperatures, and automatically opened during snow events throughout the winter of 2013/14. We found that the mean daily subnivium temperature was significantly colder in the deciduous cover type than the prairie cover type, and that prairie had higher maximum subnivium temperatures than both of the other cover types. Our climate change simulation revealed that, although ambient temperatures within the micro-greenhouse were 5 °C warmer than outside the greenhouse, the daily minimum subnivium temperature was significantly lower inside the greenhouse. Our findings suggest that climate change could have considerable effects on the refuge quality of the subnivium, and that some cover types appear to be more susceptible to these effects than others.

  3. GLOBAL DECREASES IN TOTAL OZONE DURING THE WINTER MONTHS

    OpenAIRE

    タカオ, トシノリ; Toshinori, TAKAO

    1990-01-01

    Global network of total ozone measurements by Dobson spectrophotometer shows ozone decrease in recent years. At midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, ozone loss was significant during the winter months of 1983 and 1985. In some regions, there is a positive correlation between the annual mean of total ozone amounts and the solar cycle.

  4. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...

  5. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low winter rainfall poses a challenge to production of high biomass from cover crops, which is necessary for the success of conservation agriculture systems in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of white oats (Avena sativa), grazing vetch (Vicia dasycarpa), ...

  6. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  7. Winter and spring variation in daily milk yield and mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of genotype and season on daily milk yield (DMY) and mineral composition of pasture-based dairy cows. This was done by collecting data from 20 Friesian, 20 Jersey and 20 Friesian × Jersey crossbred cows in the early stage of their 4th parity in winter and spring, ...

  8. Ecology of geese wintering at the Lower Rhine area (Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.H.

    1996-01-01


    "Die wilde Ganß hat viel und mancherley Nahmen 1 wird aber auch von etlichen Schnee=Ganß genennet / deweil sie zu Anfang deß Winters 1 wann der Schnee verhanden / sich bey uns aufhält" zo begon Conrad Gesner in de 17e eeuw zijn beschrijving van de ganzen. Ook tegenwoordig hebben ganzen

  9. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  10. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during

  11. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  12. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  13. Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep (Laccadives) sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.

    Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep Sea during winter have been studied using the data collected in December during the 13th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani. The mixed layer depth in this region varies between 30 and 70 m. The thickness...

  14. Classroom Ideas Using Technology: A Snowflake in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Snowflakes falling in Brisbane, Australia would likely make news headlines during any season of a given year, even during winter. Year 8 students at Ormiston College which is located in Brisbane, have made their own snowflakes--of a kind. Using the programming language Scratch, all Year 8 Mathematics students wrote code to construct Swedish…

  15. Travels in Tartary : Decoding Ten Export Winter Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese export paintings collection of the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden includes ten winter views in Tartary painted on canvas. That these ten paintings have never before been studied as a group has inspired the present author to conduct research into their origins, the findings of

  16. Characteristic features of winter precipitation and its variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Northwestern parts of India receive considerable amount of precipitation during the winter months of December–March. Although, it is only about 15% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation is very important for rabi crops and to maintain the glaciers extend in the Himalaya, which melt and supply water to the rivers ...

  17. Periphyton biomass on artificial substrates during the summer and winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Signor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the periphyton production on artificial substrates considering it as a source of low cost live food for fish. Blades of artificial substrates such as wood, black plastic, acrylic, fiberglass, ceramics and glass (all with 144cm2 blades, 24 for each substrate were submerged 20.0cm below the water column for 35 days in the winter and 42 days in the summer. The blades were randomly installed in 200m3 pond and evaluated for the biomass production at different phases during the summer and winter. Four blades of each substrate were collected weekly, and the periphytic community was carefully scraped with a spatula and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. The periphytic biomass productivity was evaluated by artificial substrate area and per day. The results evidenced the characteristic periodicity in periphyton biomass production and a significant variability in the collect period and season in the different artificial substrates used. Ceramic and wood showed the best results in the summer while wood showed the best results in the winter. The priphyton biomass productions differ among periods, substrates and seasons. Wood and ceramics could be indicated for periphyton biomass production in either winter or summer.

  18. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare the views of the local spectators concerning the effects of the Winter Universiade and the European Youth Olympic Festival, two mega sport events held in Turkey in 2011. The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. The Mega Event ...

  19. Registration of “Pritchett” soft white winter club wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft white club winter wheat (Triticium aestivum L. ssp. compactum) is a unique component of the wheat production in the PNW, comprising 6-10% of the wheat crop. It is valued for milling and baking functionality and marketed for export in a 20-30% blend with soft white wheat as Western White. Our g...

  20. Registration of ‘Joe’ hard white winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Joe’, a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2015. Joe was selected from a two-way cross of KS04HW101-3/KS04HW119-3 made in 2005 at Hays, KS. The ...

  1. Registration of USDA-UTWH-102 winter hardy orchardgrass germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS announces the release of USDA-UTWG-102 orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) (Reg. No., PI) germplasm. USDA-UTWH-102 possesses increased winter hardiness and provides utility to applied orchardgrass breeding and genetic programs. USDA-UTWH-102 is a 24 clone synthetic derived from orchard...

  2. Registration of ‘Tatanka’ Hard Red Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tatanka’ hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2016. Tatanka was selected from a single cross of KS07HW81/T151 made in 2006 at Hays, KS. The objectiv...

  3. Registration of ‘Snowglenn’ Winter Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowglenn’ (Reg. No. CV-#####, PI ######) winter durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) developed and tested as VA05WD-40 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Snowglenn was derived from the three-way cross N1291-86 / N1439-83 // ‘Alidur’. Snowglenn is a f...

  4. Winter bait stations as a multispecies survey tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy Robinson; Samuel A. Cushman; Michael K. Lucid

    2017-01-01

    Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km2 mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and...

  5. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  6. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to inhibit carcinogenesis, upcoming announcements and more. |

  7. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about miso, the buttery probiotic, upcoming announcements and more. |

  8. Pathosystem management of powdery mildew in winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Winter wheat cropping has changed considerably over the years 1974-1986 in The Netherlands. Yield has been increased from 5 to 8 ton/ha, due to short strawed cultivars and higher levels of agrochemical inputs. The changes were described. Epidemics and damage relations of powdery mildew

  9. Winter survival of Harmonia axyridis in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.; Stam, J.M.; Jong, de P.W.; Hemerik, L.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the establishment of Harmonia axyridis in Europe, populations of native ladybirds have decreased. Overwintering survival is one of the aspects of the biology of H. axyridis that may contribute to its firm establishment in and invasion of a new area. In this study winter survival of five wild

  10. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    release and uptake by the follow-on crop. Improved synchrony, as observed by Murungu et al. (2010), with ... particularly timely planting and weed control. Relaying cover crops, particularly after late vegetative stage ..... appropriate fertilizer management on winter cover crops in a conservation agriculture system. PhD Thesis ...

  11. Wintering seabirds in West Africa: foraging hotspots off Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the distribution of wintering seabirds in the context of fisheries and hydrography. The avifauna was dominated by surface-feeding and shallow plunge-diving, often planktivorous, seabirds, originating from West Palaearctic breeding grounds (Arctic, subarctic and temperate zones). Many seabirds were ...

  12. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  13. Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with skeletal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... Abstract We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous. Egyptian parents with Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS). The patient had bilateral colobomas of the iris and choroid. Our patient had also retinal hypoplasia, which was not reported previously in this syndrome ...

  14. Geographic variation in winter adaptations of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Laura C.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Sheriff, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding adaptations of nonhibernating northern endotherms to cope with extreme cold is important because climate-induced changes in winter temperatures and snow cover are predicted to impact these species the most. We compared winter pelage characteristics and heat production of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben, 1777) on the southern edge of their range, in Pennsylvania (USA), to a northern population, in the Yukon (Canada), to investigate how hares might respond to changing environmental conditions. We also investigated how hares in Pennsylvania altered movement rates and resting spot selection to cope with variable winter temperatures. Hares from Pennsylvania had shorter, less dense, and less white winter coats than their northern counterparts, suggesting lower coat insulation. Hares in the southern population had lower pelage temperatures, indicating that they produced less heat than those in the northern population. In addition, hares in Pennsylvania did not select for resting spots that offered thermal advantages, but selected locations offering visual obstruction from predators. Movement rates were associated with ambient temperature, with the smallest movements occurring at the lower and upper range of observed ambient temperatures. Our results indicate that snowshoe hares may be able to adapt to future climate conditions via changes in pelage characteristics, metabolism, and behavior.

  15. Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991─1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Camy-Peyret

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ozone loss in winter 1991–1992 is recalculated based on observations of the HALOE satellite instrument, Version 19, ER-2 aircraft measurements and balloon data. HALOE satellite observations are shown to be reliable in the lower stratosphere below 400 K, at altitudes where the measurements are most likely disturbed by the enhanced sulfate aerosol loading, as a result of the Mt.~Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. Significant chemical ozone loss (13–17 DU is observed below 380 K from Kiruna balloon observations and HALOE satellite data between December 1991 and March 1992. For the two winters after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, HALOE satellite observations show a stronger extent of chemical ozone loss towards lower altitudes compared to other Arctic winters between 1991 and 2003. In spite of already occurring deactivation of chlorine in March 1992, MIPAS-B and LPMA balloon observations indicate that chlorine was still activated at lower altitudes, consistent with observed chemical ozone loss occurring between February and March and April. Large chemical ozone loss of more than 70 DU in the Arctic winter 1991–1992 as calculated in earlier studies is corroborated here.

  16. Feeding habits of songbirds in East Texas clearcuts during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald W. Worthington; R. Montague Jr. Whiting; James G. Dickson

    2004-01-01

    This east Texas study was undertaken to determine the importance of seeds of forbs, grasses, and woody shrubs to songbirds wintering in young pine plantations which had been established utilizing the clearcut regeneration system. The feeding habits and preferences of four species of songbirds, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), song sparrows...

  17. How Do Plants and Animals Prepare for Winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how a farm-based class in the Great Lakes region investigated how plants and animals prepare for winter. Two groups of children, ranging in ages from three to five years old, had a farm, pasture, gardens, forest, and a pond available for exploration. A low teacher-to-child ratio was maintained, with one teacher to…

  18. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, November (2016), s. 110-114 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Caloric reserves * Ichthyosaura * Lissotriton * Metabolic rate * Newt * Oxygen consumption * Respirometry * Salamander * Thermal sensitivity * Wintering Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2016

  19. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  20. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  1. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  2. Genetic Potential of Winter Wheat Grain Quality in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugaliyeva, Aigul I.; Morgounov, Alexey I.

    2016-01-01

    The grain quality of winter wheat varies significantly by cultivars and growing region, not previously differentiated by end-use (baking, confectionery, etc.) in the national breeding programs. In these conditions it is advisable to determine the genetic potential and analyze the actual grain quality. Determining the genetic potential requires the…

  3. Fertilizer effects on a winter cereal cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits associated with conservation tillage in the Southeast are improved by using a winter cereal cover crop. In general, cover crop benefits increase as biomass production is increased, but the infertile soils typically require additional N (inorganic or organic). Currently, limited informatio...

  4. OIT Times--Winter 2001, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Newsletter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2000-12-01

    Winter 2001 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a 12-page quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies. This issue focuses on OIT's upcoming Expo, the 4th Biennial Industrial Energy Efficiency Symposium and Expo, coming up February 19 - 22, 2001, in Washington, DC. Mailing will include the OIT Clearinghouse Tri-fold.

  5. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices among some winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on seed yield of some winter rapeseed cultivars and to study relevant drought tolerance indices, along with identifying resistant cultivars to drought stress. Plant materials were sown in split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete blocks ...

  6. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, People's Republic of China. 7China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. Abstract. This study aimed to identify vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat cultivar Jing841 by comparing the transcrip- tome data with that of a spring wheat cultivar ...

  7. EFFECT OF PLANTITNG PATTERN OF WINTER WHEAT ON AGRODIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Моskalets Т. Z.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the introductions of cultivars and lines of wheat soft winter wheat that are adaptive to specific physical and climatic conditions ecotopes regards forest-steppe and Polissia ecotypes by ecological and biological characteristics. We also determined their influence on formation of the diversity and productivity of agricultural ecosystems. It was established that mosaic planting pattern of winter wheat allows to get a high yield (up to 9 t/ha and of strong and superstrong wheat (Ariivka, L 4696/96, KC-5, KC-7, KC-14, KC-22, Yuvivata 60, etc. in comparison to monocultivar technology. Some genotypes, namely Yuvivata 60, Ariiivka KC-22, KC-7 have moderate and high resistance towards complex diseases. The mosaic planting pattern of cultivars is the important factor of increasing the diversity and strengthening the links in agricultural ecosystems. Based on the long-term ecological research of genetic forms of winter soft wheat in different ecotopes and comparing them by major agronomic features with cultivar-standards we selected some promising cultivars and lines. We suggested the semi dwarf, medium-grown productive, and high adaptive genotypes of wheat soft winter, like Prydesnianska, Ariiivka, Nosshpa 100, КС-5, КС-7, КС-14, КС-21, КС-22, Yuvivata 60, Zoriana Nosivska, КС-16, КС-17, Л9646/96.

  8. Development of an artificial diet for winter moth, Operophtera brumata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Hibbard; Joseph Elkinton; George. Boettner

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, is an invasive pest that was introduced to North America in the 1930s. First identified in Nova Scotia, this small geometrid native to Europe has spread to New England. It has caused extensive defoliation of deciduous trees and shrubs.

  9. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  10. Mangrove species' responses to winter air temperature extremes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao

    2017-01-01

    The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of winter air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to winter temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to winter temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to winter temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of winter temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) winter air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological

  11. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  12. Winter Responses of Forest Birds to Habitat Corridors and Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Cassady St. Clair

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss may disrupt the movement or dispersal of forest-dwelling birds. Despite much interest in the severity of these effects and ways of mitigating them, little is known about actual movement patterns in different habitat types. We studied the movement of wintering resident birds, lured by playbacks of mobbing calls, to compare the willingness of forest birds to travel various distances in continuous forest, along narrow corridors (fencerows, and across gaps in forest cover. We also quantified the willingness of Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus to cross gaps when alternative forested detour routes were available. All species were less likely to respond to the calls as distance increased to 200 m, although White-breasted Nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis and Hairy Woodpeckers (Picoides villosus were generally less likely to respond than chickadees and Downy Woodpeckers (P. pubescens. Chickadees were as likely to travel in corridors as in continuous forest, but were less likely to cross gaps as the gap distance increased. The other species were less willing to travel in corridors and gaps relative to forest, and the differences among habitats also increased with distance. For chickadees, gap-crossing decisions in the presence of forested detours varied over the range of distances that we tested, and were primarily influenced by detour efficiency (the length of the shortcut relative to the available detour. Over short distances, birds used forested detours, regardless of their efficiency. As absolute distances increased, birds tended to employ larger shortcuts in the open when detour efficiency was low or initial distance in the open was high, but they limited their distance from the nearest forest edge to 25 m. Thus, chickadees were unwilling to cross gaps of > 50 m when they had forested alternatives, yet they sometimes crossed gaps as large as 200 m when no such choice existed. Our results suggest that

  13. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias; Dalsgaard, Sofie B

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized that o...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression.......At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...

  14. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  15. Cold truths: how winter drives responses of terrestrial organisms to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline M; Henry, Hugh A L; Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-02-01

    Winter is a key driver of individual performance, community composition, and ecological interactions in terrestrial habitats. Although climate change research tends to focus on performance in the growing season, climate change is also modifying winter conditions rapidly. Changes to winter temperatures, the variability of winter conditions, and winter snow cover can interact to induce cold injury, alter energy and water balance, advance or retard phenology, and modify community interactions. Species vary in their susceptibility to these winter drivers, hampering efforts to predict biological responses to climate change. Existing frameworks for predicting the impacts of climate change do not incorporate the complexity of organismal responses to winter. Here, we synthesise organismal responses to winter climate change, and use this synthesis to build a framework to predict exposure and sensitivity to negative impacts. This framework can be used to estimate the vulnerability of species to winter climate change. We describe the importance of relationships between winter conditions and performance during the growing season in determining fitness, and demonstrate how summer and winter processes are linked. Incorporating winter into current models will require concerted effort from theoreticians and empiricists, and the expansion of current growing-season studies to incorporate winter. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. Estimating inter-annual variability in winter wheat sowing dates from satellite time series in Camargue, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfron, Giacinto; Delmotte, Sylvestre; Busetto, Lorenzo; Hossard, Laure; Ranghetti, Luigi; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro; Boschetti, Mirco

    2017-05-01

    Crop simulation models are commonly used to forecast the performance of cropping systems under different hypotheses of change. Their use on a regional scale is generally constrained, however, by a lack of information on the spatial and temporal variability of environment-related input variables (e.g., soil) and agricultural practices (e.g., sowing dates) that influence crop yields. Satellite remote sensing data can shed light on such variability by providing timely information on crop dynamics and conditions over large areas. This paper proposes a method for analyzing time series of MODIS satellite data in order to estimate the inter-annual variability of winter wheat sowing dates. A rule-based method was developed to automatically identify a reliable sample of winter wheat field time series, and to infer the corresponding sowing dates. The method was designed for a case study in the Camargue region (France), where winter wheat is characterized by vernalization, as in other temperate regions. The detection criteria were chosen on the grounds of agronomic expertise and by analyzing high-confidence time-series vegetation index profiles for winter wheat. This automatic method identified the target crop on more than 56% (four-year average) of the cultivated areas, with low commission errors (11%). It also captured the seasonal variability in sowing dates with errors of ±8 and ±16 days in 46% and 66% of cases, respectively. Extending the analysis to the years 2002-2012 showed that sowing in the Camargue was usually done on or around November 1st (±4 days). Comparing inter-annual sowing date variability with the main local agro-climatic drivers showed that the type of preceding crop and the weather conditions during the summer season before the wheat sowing had a prominent role in influencing winter wheat sowing dates.

  17. Divergence of the diapause transcriptome in apple maggot flies: winter regulation and post-winter transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Peter J; Powell, Thomas H Q; Walden, Kimberly K O; Schieferecke, Adam J; Feder, Jeffrey L; Hahn, Daniel A; Robertson, Hugh M; Berlocher, Stewart H; Ragland, Gregory J

    2016-09-01

    The duration of dormancy regulates seasonal timing in many organisms and may be modulated by day length and temperature. Though photoperiodic modulation has been well studied, temperature modulation of dormancy has received less attention. Here, we leverage genetic variation in diapause in the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, to test whether gene expression during winter or following spring warming regulates diapause duration. We used RNAseq to compare transcript abundance during and after simulated winter between an apple-infesting population and a hawthorn-infesting population where the apple population ends pupal diapause earlier than the hawthorn-infesting population. Marked differences in transcription between the two populations during winter suggests that the 'early' apple population is developmentally advanced compared with the 'late' hawthorn population prior to spring warming, with transcripts participating in growth and developmental processes relatively up-regulated in apple pupae during the winter cold period. Thus, regulatory differences during winter ultimately drive phenological differences that manifest themselves in the following summer. Expression and polymorphism analysis identify candidate genes in the Wnt and insulin signaling pathways that contribute to population differences in seasonality. Both populations remained in diapause and displayed a pattern of up- and then down-regulation (or vice versa) of growth-related transcripts following warming, consistent with transcriptional repression. The ability to repress growth stimulated by permissive temperatures is likely critical to avoid mismatched phenology and excessive metabolic demand. Compared with diapause studies in other insects, our results suggest some overlap in candidate genes/pathways, though the timing and direction of changes in transcription are likely species specific. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  19. Movements of wintering surf scoters: Predator responses to different prey landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, M.; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, S.A.; Boyd, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Disentangling migratory routes and wintering grounds of Iberian near-threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Long-distance migrants are suffering drastic declines in the last decades. Causes beneath this problem are complex due to the wide spatial and temporal scale involved. We aim to reveal migratory routes, stopover areas, wintering grounds, and migratory strategies for the most southwestern populations of the near-threatened European Roller Coracias garrulus in order to identify conservation key areas for the non-breeding stage of this species. To this end, we used tracking data from seven satellite transmitters fitted to birds breeding in different populations throughout the Iberian Peninsula and four geolocators fitted to individuals in a southeastern Iberian population. Precise satellite data were used to describe daily activity patterns and speed in relation to the main regions crossed during the migration. Individuals from the most southwestern Iberian populations made a detour towards the Atlantic African coast whereas those from northeastern populations followed a straight north-to-south route. We identified important stopover areas in the Sahel belt, mainly in the surroundings of the Lake Chad, and wintering grounds on southwestern Africa farther west than previously reported for the species. Concerning the migratory strategy, satellite data revealed: 1 a mainly nocturnal flying activity, 2 that migration speed depended on the type of crossed habitat, with higher average speed while crossing the desert; and 3 that the migration was slower and lasted longer in autumn than in spring. The studied populations showed weak migratory connectivity, suggesting the confluence of birds from a wide range of breeding grounds in a restricted wintering area. Therefore, we suggest to target on defining precisely key areas for this species and identifying specific threats in them in order to develop an appropriate global conservation programme for the European Roller.

  1. Movements of wintering surf scoters: predator responses to different prey landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Molly; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, Samuel A; Boyd, W Sean

    2008-04-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated.

  2. Uncertainties in modelling heterogeneous chemistry and Arctic ozone depletion in the winter 2009/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wohltmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stratospheric chemistry and denitrification are simulated for the Arctic winter 2009/2010 with the Lagrangian Chemistry and Transport Model ATLAS. A number of sensitivity runs is used to explore the impact of uncertainties in chlorine activation and denitrification on the model results. In particular, the efficiency of chlorine activation on different types of liquid aerosol versus activation on nitric acid trihydrate clouds is examined. Additionally, the impact of changes in reaction rate coefficients, in the particle number density of polar stratospheric clouds, in supersaturation, temperature or the extent of denitrification is investigated. Results are compared to satellite measurements of MLS and ACE-FTS and to in-situ measurements onboard the Geophysica aircraft during the RECONCILE measurement campaign. It is shown that even large changes in the underlying assumptions have only a small impact on the modelled ozone loss, even though they can cause considerable differences in chemical evolution of other species and in denitrification. Differences in column ozone between the sensitivity runs stay below 10% at the end of the winter. Chlorine activation on liquid aerosols alone is able to explain the observed magnitude and morphology of the mixing ratios of active chlorine, reservoir gases and ozone. This is even true for binary aerosols (no uptake of HNO3 from the gas-phase allowed in the model. Differences in chlorine activation between sensitivity runs are within 30%. Current estimates of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT number density and supersaturation imply that, at least for this winter, NAT clouds play a relatively small role compared to liquid clouds in chlorine activation. The change between different reaction rate coefficients for liquid or solid clouds has only a minor impact on ozone loss and chlorine activation in our sensitivity runs.

  3. SAGE III aerosol extinction validation in the Arctic winter: comparisons with SAGE II and POAM III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of SAGE III multiwavelength aerosol extinction coefficient measurements to infer PSC type is contingent on the robustness of both the extinction magnitude and its spectral variation. Past validation with SAGE II and other similar measurements has shown that the SAGE III extinction coefficient measurements are reliable though the comparisons have been greatly weighted toward measurements made at mid-latitudes. Some aerosol comparisons made in the Arctic winter as a part of SOLVE II suggested that SAGE III values, particularly at longer wavelengths, are too small with the implication that both the magnitude and the wavelength dependence are not reliable. Comparisons with POAM III have also suggested a similar discrepancy. Herein, we use SAGE II data as a common standard for comparison of SAGE III and POAM III measurements in the Arctic winters of 2002/2003 through 2004/2005. During the winter, SAGE II measurements are made infrequently at the same latitudes as these instruments. We have mitigated this problem through the use of potential vorticity as a spatial coordinate and thus greatly increased of the number of coincident events. We find that SAGE II and III extinction coefficient measurements show a high degree of compatibility at both 1020 nm and 450 nm except a 10–20% bias at both wavelengths. In addition, the 452 to 1020 nm extinction ratio shows a consistent bias of ~30% throughout the lower stratosphere. We also find that SAGE II and POAM III are on average consistent though the comparisons show a much higher variability and larger bias than SAGE II/III comparisons. In addition, we find that SAGE II and POAM III data sets are not well correlated at and below 18 km. Overall, we find both the extinction values and the spectral dependence from SAGE III are robust and we find no evidence of a significant defect within the Arctic vortex.

  4. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in milk production on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is gaining importance as a forage legume in the Republic of Croatia. Pea seed contains 20-30 percent of protein, it is utilized without thermal treatment in feeding different types and categories of livestock, and with stable yield it provides an appreciable income per hectare. Two-year field trials (2005-2006 were carried out to determine the effect of winter pea seed inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on the number and mass (g/plant-1 of root nodules and also on the yield and quality of winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani in a mixture with wheat cv. Sana. Just before sowing, pea seeds were inoculated with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 from the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb. The highest number of root nodules (43 nodules/plant, as well as the highest nodule mass (0.219 g/plant-1 were determined in the inoculated variant. The highest number of pods (19.0 and seeds per plant (60 were determined in the inoculated variant as well. The highest 1000-seed mass (132 g and seed mass per plant (7.93 g were also determined in the inoculated variant. Average pea seed yield ranged from 2949 kg ha-1 (control up to 3353 kg ha-1 (inoculation. The conclusion of this research is that the highest seed (3353 kg ha-1 and crude protein yields (833 kg ha-1 were obtained with inoculated forage winter pea cv. Maksimirski rani. Seed inoculation of the studied pea cultivar Maksimirski rani with the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 influenced also higher milk production per hectare compared to the control and the nitrogen top-dressed variant.

  5. Determining crop acreage estimates for specific winter crops using shape attributes from sequential MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, A. B.; Lawson, K.; Huete, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    There are increasing societal and plant industry demands for more accurate, objective and near real-time crop production information to meet both economic and food security concerns. The advent of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite platform has augmented the capability of satellite-based applications to monitor large agricultural areas at acceptable pixel scale, cost and accuracy. Fitting parametric profiles to growing season vegetation index time series reduces the volume of data and provides simple quantitative parameters that relates to crop phenology (sowing date, flowering). In this study, we modelled various Gaussian profiles to time sequential MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) images over winter crops in Queensland, Australia. Three simple Gaussian models were evaluated in their effectiveness to identify and classify various winter crop types and coverage at both pixel and regional scales across Queensland's main agricultural areas. Equal to or greater than 93% classification accuracies were obtained in determining crop acreage estimates at pixel scale for each of the Gaussian modelled approaches. Significant high to moderate correlations (log-linear transformation) were also obtained for determining total winter crop (R2 = 0.93) areas as well as specific crop acreage for wheat (R2 = 0.86) and barley (R2 = 0.83). Conversely, it was much more difficult to predict chickpea acreage (R2 ≤ 0.26), mainly due to very large uncertainties in survey data. The quantitative approach utilised here further had additional benefits of characterising crop phenology in terms of length of growing season and providing regression diagnostics of how well the fitted profiles matched the EVI time series. The Gaussian curve models utilised here are novel in application and therefore will enhance the use and adoption of remote sensing technologies in targeted agricultural application. With innate simplicity and accuracies comparable to other

  6. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    temperatures for ants that experienced warmer winters compared with those that experienced cooler winters. Our results provide evidence that overwintering temperatures can substantially influence organismal performance, and suggest that we cannot ignore overwintering effects when forecasting organismal...

  8. Winter Community Structure Changes in Frazil Ice and Open Water in Riverine Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, K

    2004-01-01

    ...) that examined dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and changes in river microbiology during winter, periods of low water temperature, and periods of ice-cover, with the objective of providing guidance for winter water-quality modeling...

  9. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Van Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font, L.; Klaassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  10. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordana Županac; Kristina Gršić; Ana Pisačić; Mihaela Blažinkov; Darko Uher

    2009-01-01

    .... Three year field trials (2003-2005) were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms...

  11. Mechanism of the biological response to winter cooling in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; DileepKumar, M.; Raghukumar, S.; Nair, K.K.C.; Ramaiah, N.

    the upwelling season and during much of the winter (northeast) monsoon. The processes that enable this high winter productivity have hitherto been poorly understood, being variously attributed to surface cooling effects or wind-driven changes in ocean...

  12. Small nation, big ships winter navigation and technological nationalism in a peripheral country, 1878-1978

    OpenAIRE

    Matala, Saara; Sahari, Aaro

    2017-01-01

    Finland is the only country in the world where all ports freeze over during a typical winter. Over the century 1878-1978, Finland developed a winter-seafaring system that broke the winter isolation and eliminated seasonal variation in shipping. By using diverse archival sources, we deconstruct the dominant narrative of Finnish winter seafaring through which national as well as technological development is often presented as natural, inevitable and straightforward. We reinterpret the Finnish w...

  13. Projections of thermal conditions for Poland for winters 2021?2050 in relation to atmospheric circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Piotrowski; Joanna Jędruszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Winter thermal conditions in Poland are largely determined by atmospheric circulation. Therefore, the projection of future temperature change should be considered in relation to changes in circulation patterns. This paper assesses the spatial variability in winter temperature in Poland in the 2021?2050 period based on the CLM, HIRHAM5 and RACMO2 models. Thermal conditions in winter have been studied in relation to the atmospheric circulation as a main factor of winter temperature change i...

  14. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  15. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiological markers. Converging evidence also points to a role for the major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in one or more aspects of SAD. Ultimately, as with other psychiatric illnesses, SAD is best considered as a complex disorder resulting from the interaction of several vulnerability factors acting at different levels, the various genetic mechanisms that underlie them, and the physical environment. Models of SAD that emphasize its potential role in human evolution will also be discussed. PMID:17969868

  16. Energy emergency planning guide: Winter 1977-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    This Energy Emergency Planning Guide for Winter, 1977-78 has been prepared in order to: identify and evaluate actions available to deal with energy emergencies this winter; provide an advance indication to the public of those actions considered most likely to be taken by the government, and provide industry, state, and local governments with suggestions about actions which they can take to deal with energy emergencies. The Guide contains specifications for over 50 standby programs and procedures, recommended implementation guidelines for using these programs keyed to a pre-emergency phase and three phases of shortfalls, and a design for an Energy Emergency Center. Flexible implementation guidelines are proposed for natural gas, petroleum, electricity/coal, and propane shortages. (MCW)

  17. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    -administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district...... of the capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol....... CONCLUSION: The majority of ill toddlers received paracetamol if they had several symptoms. However, paracetamol was administrated in 37% of days with fever. This use of paracetamol seems reasonable as the parents differentiate between degrees of illness and withhold paracetamol until the second day...

  18. Recrystallization and damage of ice in winter sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Lishman, Ben; Sammonds, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Ice samples, after sliding against a steel runner, show evidence of recrystallization and microcracking under the runner, as well as macroscopic cracking throughout the ice. The experiments that produced these ice samples are designed to be analogous to sliding in the winter sport of skeleton. Changes in the ice fabric are shown using thick and thin sections under both diffuse and polarized light. Ice drag is estimated as 40-50% of total energy dissipation in a skeleton run. The experimental results are compared with visual inspections of skeleton tracks, and to similar behaviour in rocks during sliding on earthquake faults. The results presented may be useful to athletes and designers of winter sports equipment. This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'.

  19. Polarization Lidar Liquid Cloud Detection Algorithm for Winter Mountain Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhao, Hongjie

    1992-01-01

    We have collected an extensive polarization lidar dataset from elevated sites in the Tushar Mountains of Utah in support of winter storm cloud seeding research and experiments. Our truck-mounted ruby lidar collected zenith, dual-polarization lidar data through a roof window equipped with a wiper system to prevent snowfall accumulation. Lidar returns were collected at a rate of one shot every 1 to 5 min during declared storm periods over the 1985 and 1987 mid-Jan. to mid-Mar. Field seasons. The mid-barrier remote sensor field site was located at 2.57 km MSL. Of chief interest to weather modification efforts are the heights of supercooled liquid water (SLW) clouds, which must be known to assess their 'seedability' (i.e., temperature and height suitability for artificially increasing snowfall). We are currently re-examining out entire dataset to determine the climatological properties of SLW clouds in winter storms using an autonomous computer algorithm.

  20. Epidemic carbon monoxide poisoning following a winter storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, P M; Hampson, N B

    1997-01-01

    Hospital emergency departments were surveyed to estimate the number of patients treated for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a severe winter storm disrupted electrical service in western Washington State. At least 81 persons were treated. The two main sources of CO were charcoal briquettes (54% of cases) and gasoline-powered electrical generators (40% of cases). Of the 44 persons affected by CO from burning charcoal, 40 (91%) were members of ethnic minority groups; 27 did not speak English. All persons affected by CO from generators were non-Hispanic Whites. This was the largest epidemic of storm-related CO poisoning reported in the United States. This epidemic demonstrated the need to anticipate CO poisoning as a possible consequence of winter storms in cold climates and to make preventive messages understandable to the entire population at risk, including those persons who do not understand written or spoken English.

  1. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Atlantic. There are two centres of abundance, one in the eastern Norwegian Sea and Faroe-Shetland Channel, associated with the interface between Norwegian Sea Deep Water and Intermediate Water layers, and another in the Irminger Sea southwest of Iceland in association with Labrador Sea Water. In the open...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  2. Wintering Map for Honey Bee Colonies in El-Behera Governorate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The good wintering of honey bee colonies depends mainly on the wintering regions and beekeeping practices. To identify the suitable regions for colonies wintering at El-Behera governorate, different datasets were prepared and spatially analyzed by using ArcGIS. The input datasets were temperature, distance from roads, ...

  3. Opmerkelijke Ruigpootbuizerdinvasie in de winter 2010-2011: oorzaken in een historische en Europese context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vansteelant, W.; Faveyts, W.; Buckens, J.

    2011-01-01

    Notable invasion of Rough Legged-buzzards in winter 2010-2011: circumstances in an historical and European context In the winter 2010 - 2011, never before seen numbers of Rough-legged Buzzards Buteo lagopus were observed in Flanders. A strong invasion of this normally scarce over-wintering species

  4. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  5. The arctic winter stratosphere: simulated with a 3-D chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Martina Maria Petronella van den

    2004-01-01

    During the past two decades, the ozone layer has developed a “hole” each winter and spring above the Antarctic continent. Also in cold Arctic winters substantial stratospheric ozone depletion has been measured, although less than in the Antarctic stratosphere. In the Arctic winter stratosphere,

  6. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus winter mortality in The Netherlands : The effect of severe weather and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, CJ; Ens, B.J.; Heg, Dierik; Hulscher, JB; VanderMeer, J; Smit, CJ

    1996-01-01

    Wintering Oystercatchers in The Netherlands are concentrated in the Wadden Sea (c. 200 000), with substantial numbers in the Delta area (c. 90 000). Only 1% of the total wintering population is normally found along the North Sea coast. Cold-rushes under severe winter conditions lead to a reduction

  7. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....

  8. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming... 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters, Mammoth Hot...

  9. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY...) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. DATES: The...

  10. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone ] National Park, located in Idaho...

  11. Late winter home range and habitat use of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Kely N. Mertz; Jennifer M. Menzel; Kenneth K. Sturm

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked two male and one female Virginia northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia at Snowshoe Mountain Resort, in winter 2003 and Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2004, respectively, to document winter home range and habitat use in or near ski areas. Male home range...

  12. Swimming through winter necessary for children’s health and development

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, TJ

    2015-01-01

    If your child is swimming this winter they will be fitter and develop a stronger immune system, making them less susceptible to common winter illnesses. Senior lecturer at Monash University’s Faculty of Education, Dr. Tim Lynch, agrees and said that swimming is possible during winter thanks to the comforts offered by modern indoor swimming facilities.

  13. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  14. Nutritional condition of Pacific Black Brant wintering at the extremes of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous stores of energy allow birds to survive periods of severe weather and food shortage during winter. We documented changes in lipid, protein, moisture, and ash in body tissues of adult female Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) and modeled the energetic costs of wintering. Birds were collected at the extremes of their winter range, in Alaska and Baja California, Mexico. Body lipids decreased over winter for birds in Alaska but increased for those in Baja California. Conversely, body protein increased over winter for Brant in Alaska and remained stable for birds in Baja California. Lipid stores likely fuel migration for Brant wintering in Baja California and ensure winter survival for those in Alaska. Increases in body protein may support earlier reproduction for Brant in Alaska. Predicted energy demands were similar between sites during late winter but avenues of expenditure were different. Birds in Baja California spent more energy on lipid synthesis while those in Alaska incurred higher thermoregulatory costs. Estimated daily intake rates of eelgrass were similar between sites in early winter; however, feeding time was more constrained in Alaska because of high tides and short photoperiods. Despite differences in energetic costs and foraging time, Brant wintering at both sites appeared to be in good condition. We suggest that wintering in Alaska may be more advantageous than long-distance migration if winter survival is similar between sites and constraints on foraging time do not impair body condition. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  15. Perspectives in Winter Limnology: Closing the annual cycle of freezing lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, K.; Leppäranta, M.; Viljanen, M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Winter has traditionally been considered as an ecologically insignificant season and, together with technical difficulties, this has led winter limnology to lag behind summer limnology. Recently, rapidly expanding interest in climate warming has increased water research in winter. It has also become

  16. Feral rye (Secale cereal) control in winter canola in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW) feral rye is a predominant winter annual grass weed in the low-rainfall region where a winter wheat-tillage fallow rotation has been practiced for more than 130 yrs and winter canola has been introduced recently. A 3-yr study was conducted in Washington to determine th...

  17. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  18. Enhanced Warming with Atmospheric Blocking over European Region during Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, M.; Huang, J.; He, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A 62-yr (1948-2009) atmospheric blocking climatology over European region during winter is presented. The blocking activity in the European region shows a downward long-term trend. The relationship between blocking index and teleconnection patterns (TCPs) are examined. The statistical result shows the SCAND and the EA patterns can significant effect the blocking, approximately 40% of the blocking frequency variation can be explained by these two patterns. The frequency of European blocking is sensitive to the phase of the SCAND and EA. The average number of blocking days is 46 days during the positive phase of the SCAND which is twice higher than during the negative phase (18). During the negative phase of the EA, the average number of blocking days is 32, which is 54% greater during the negative phase of the EA than during the positive phase (21). The duration of the European blocking is also sensitive to the phase of the SCAND, but isn't sensitive for the EA. The 500 hPa geopotential height composite analysis also shows an evidence of a statistical relationship between the TCPs and blocking, showing that the positive (negative) phase of the SCAND (EA) provides the right conditions for the formation and sustenance of blocking activity over the European region. However, the blocking centers are located at Scandinavia and the Urals with positive of the SCAND and Siberia with negative of the EA. Finally, the downstream surface air temperature (SAT) impact associated with European winter blocking is discussed. The result shows that the SAT of Eurasian continent is significant different between high blocking index winters and low blocking index winters.

  19. Report on the Workshops "VLTI Community Days" "VLTI Winter School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merand, A.

    2017-06-01

    The infrastructure of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is in the process of being upgraded and second-generation interferometric instruments are entering service (GRAVITY) or under construction (MATISSE). The VLTI Community Days presented these developments and began a discussion with the community on the future of the VLTI. Prior to the VLTI Community Days, a short Winter School was held to introduce early stage researchers to VLTI observation and data reduction.

  20. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  1. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  2. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feed cost to achieve a growth rate of 0,5 kg/ d during the first winter following weaning was 93% higher than the cost to achieve a growth rate of 0,25 kg!d. ... selecting the correct rearing strategy for heifers in the sourveld. Die invloed van verskillende ... function of pre- and post-weaning nutrition. However, because of the ...

  3. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.

    1999-12-16

    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  4. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  5. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  6. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  7. Army Communicator. Volume 36, Number 4, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    knowledge and accelerate learning as units and personnel rotate in and out of theaters or organizations.” Army leaders realized that “without...QuickScan 20 Winter - 2011 The Future Signal Corps Leaders are the critical element in the network By MAJ Jay H. Anson This article uses the Kotter ...Spoth, 2010). Had the two Services collaborated on their unmanned aerial system programs, the DOD would Applying the Kotter Change Model in shaping

  8. Error analysis for Winters' Additive Seasonal Forecasting System

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Edward

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for deriving the variance of the forecast error for Winters' Additive Seasonal Forecasting system is given. Both point and cumulative T-step ahead forecasts are dealt with. Closed form expressions are given in the cases when the model is (i) trend-free and (ii) non-seasonal. The effects of renormal ization of the seasonal factors is also discussed. The fact that the error variance for this system can be infinite is discussed and the relationship of this property ...

  9. Government must act now to prevent looming winter crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    It may seem odd to be talking about winter pressures now, but there are signs that the next 6-8 months are going to be challenging in the extreme. A report from the RCN and the Royal College of Emergency Medicine suggests that emergency department staff are locked in a cycle of permanent crisis. Add a spell of icy weather into the mix and the NHS could collapse under the strain.

  10. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Frederiksen, Carsten S.

    2011-01-01

    During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation ...

  11. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  12. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  13. Averages of b-hadron Properties as of Winter 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Anikeev, K.; CERN. Geneva; Chang, P.; Gershon, T.; Harr, R.; Hocker, Andreas; Iijima, T.; Kirkby, David P.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Lehner, F.; Limosani, A.; Luth, V.; Sakai, Y.; Schneider, O.; Schwanda, C.; Smith, J.; Stocchi, A.; Trabelsi, K.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Weiser, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports world averages for measurements on b-hadron properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using the available results as of winter 2005 conferences. In the averaging, the input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and all known correlations are taken into account. The averages include lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, semileptonic decay parameters, rare decay branching fractions, and CP violation measurements.

  14. Winter School on Mirror Symmetry, Vector Bundles and Lagrangian Submanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, S-T

    2002-01-01

    The collection of articles in this volume are based on lectures presented during the Winter School on Mirror Symmetry held at Harvard University. There are many new directions suggested by mirror symmetry which could potentially have very rich connections in physics and mathematics. This book brings together the latest research in a major area of mathematical physics, including the recent progress in mirror manifolds and Lagrangian submanifolds. In particular, several articles describing homological approach and related topics are included.

  15. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  16. Short Communication A vetch winter cover crop can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... after a fallow (no winter cover crop) for most of the cases when the N fertiliser application rate was below 180 kg ha−1. Where no N fertiliser was applied, maize yields after vetch were 4.71 and 7.26 tons ha−1 for the first and second seasons, translating into an N fertiliser replacement value of approximately 90 kg N ha−1.

  17. Naval War College Review. Volume 68, Number 1, Winter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    international security, we should neverthe- less be mindful of the very significant challenges facing many submarine forces around the world� The...Naval Institute Press, 2014); James P� Delgado, Silent Killers : Submarines and Underwater Warfare (Oxford, U�K�: Osprey, 2011); Nicholas Whitestone...Winter 2015, Vol. 68, No. 1 United States Pacific Fleet USS Pennsylvania, flagship Flagship of the Commander-in-Chief Serial 0114W May 28, 1942 SECRET

  18. Relay cropping of spring barley and winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Roslon, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    The general objective of this thesis was to investigate various management practices in order to design a relay cropping system of spring barley and winter wheat with high yielding capacity and good weed suppressive capability under Swedish conditions. The work consisted of two greenhouse experiments, one small-scale field experiment and two field experiments. The factors investigated were seed rate of barley and wheat, undersowing time of wheat and timing of nitrogen fertilisation. Wheat see...

  19. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol i...... in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness....

  20. Exceptional Arctic warmth of early winter 2016 and attribution to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Macias-Fauria, Marc; King, Andrew; Uhe, Peter; Philip, Sjoukje; Kew, Sarah; Karoly, David; Otto, Friederike; Allen, Myles; Cullen, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    have risen on the North Pole, modulated by decadal North Atlantic variability. For all phases of this variability, a warm event like the one of this winter would have been extremely unlikely in the climate of a century ago. Both sets of models also give very comparable results and show that the bulk of the arctic temperature increase is due to anthropogenic emissions. This also holds for the warm extremes caused by the type of circulation present in the early winter of 2016.

  1. Extraordinary Features of the Planetary Wave Propagation During the Boreal Winter 2013/2014 and the Zonal Wave Number Two Predominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Hirooka, T.

    2017-11-01

    Observational features of the winter 2013/2014 are investigated using of the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis data. This winter can be characterized by the continuous predominance of planetary waves of zonal wave number two (WN2) that did not cause major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. It is found that the vertical component of the Eliassen-Palm flux of WN2 for the winter 2013/2014 is almost equal to the highest value of the winter 2008/2009. The longitudinal distribution of vertical components of Plumb wave activity flux for this winter shows marked downward propagation around 100°W and upward propagation around 60°E, both of which are the strongest of their type among the 56 winters since 1958/1959. The convergence of wave packets propagating from around 60°E contributes to the development and continuance of the quasi-barotropic Aleutian High, which is associated with the extension of negative extended refractive index (Ks) region. The extension of negative Ks region is related to the convergence or reflection of the wave packets emanating from tropospheric blocking highs developing in the North Pacific Ocean; the development and continuance of the quasi-barotropic Aleutian High is considered to be one of plausible reasons for the lack of major SSWs in the winter 2013/2014. In addition to these results, we revealed the significant contribution of smaller scale waves (with a zonal wave number of three or more) to the structure of localized wave packet propagation in the stratosphere.

  2. Effect of effluents of a thermal power plant complex on reproductive processs of a winter season weed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, F.A.; Iqbal, M.; Ghouse, A.K.M. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India))

    1990-05-01

    The Kasimpur Thermal Power Plant Complex (located in the District Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India) runs on a low grade, sulphur rich, bituminous type of coal with a daily average consumption rte of about 3,192 metric tons during winter season. Its effluents, mainly consisting of oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and carbon as well as particulate matters, were noted to affect the reproductive behavior of Melilotus indica-a winter season weed growing wild as a component of a grassland community. The samples consisting of 10 plants were collected at monthly intervals from 5 sites located about 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 20 km leaward from the Complex. Emergence of inflorescence was delayed at the polluted sites. However, fruit formation started simultaneously (in March) at all the five sites. The pollution induced senescence of floral buds, flowers and fruits, but did not alter markedly weight of seed and fruit.

  3. The History of Winter: A Professional Development "Teacher as Scientist" Experiential Learning Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    ) Program, the Global Snowflake Network (GSN) launched in the winter of 2006 engages an international audience including both formal and informal education groups. The goal is to provide an interactive online data resource in science and education for the characterization of snowfall and related weather systems. The Global Snowflake Network has been accepted as an education outreach proposal for the International Polar Year. Collaborations with other agencies and universities also with IPY-accepted proposals are now underway. HOW and the GSN are endorsed by the NASA Goddard Education Office and many of the Goddard Snow and Ice Team scientists. Together these programs offer a unique, sustainable, and proven outreach for the Cryosphere research program. Snowflakes are like frozen data points, their shape is a record of atmospheric conditions at the time of their formation. The shapes of snowflakes vary over the winter season, with the source of a weather system and over the course of a given snowfall. The objective of the Global Snowflake Network (GSN) is to create a global ground team of teachers, students, families, and researchers worldwide to identify snowflake types during the progress of snowfalls. The result is a unique and scientifically valid resource useful to meteorology and scientific modeling of Earth's Hydrosphere. The Global Snowflake Network (GSN), simultaneously a science program and an education program is presented as a simple, scientifically valid project that has the potential to spread the IPY message and produce a lasting resource to further scientific understanding of Earth's hydrology through the study of snow.

  4. ?Intrinsic? correlations and their temporal evolutions between winter-time PNA/EPW and winter drought in the west United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Piao; Zuntao Fu; Naiming Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, relations between winter-time Pacific-Northern America pattern (PNA)/East Pacific wave-train (EPW) and winter-time drought in the west United States over the period of 1951?2010 are analyzed. Considering traditional Pearson?s Correlation Coefficient can be influenced by non-stationarity and nonlinearity, a recently proposed method, Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (DPCCA) is applied. With DPCCA, we analyzed the ?intrinsic? correlations between PNA/EPW and the winter...

  5. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  6. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  7. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    and applying the material to the cereals in the rotation, possibly after digestion in a biogas reactor. Cereal grain protein content was increased more by the N in the grass-clover than from manure application, probably due to different timing ofN availability. Green-manure crops or manures with a relatively......The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental...... left on the soil as mulch. Animal manure was applied as slurry to the cereal crops in the rotation in rates corresponding to 40% of the N demand of the cereal crops. Application of 50 kg NH4-N ha-' in manure increased average wheatgrain yield by 0.4-0.9 Mg DM ha-1, whereas the use of catch crops did...

  8. NS Ibar and NS Ulog: New winter feed barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At Institute of Field and Vegetable crops for decades, new varieties of winter six-row feed barley having high yield, good adaptability, stability and quality are produced. As a result of long process of breeding, two new varieties of winter six-row barley - NS Ibar and NS Ulog have been selected. The primary aim during creation of these varieties was selection for yield, and maintaining quality and other agronomic traits at least to the standard variety level. The two-year multilocation trial of Commission for the registration of varieties, showed that the NS Ibar and NS Ulog are distinct, uniform and stable varieties, and that on the base of average for all the test sites and years they achieved a significantly higher yield than the standard variety. New varieties of winter six-row feed barley are characterized by high genetic potential for yield, which is more than 10 t ha-1. NS Ibar i NS Ulog had a shorter plant, while the resistance to lodging was at the level of the standard variety.

  9. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  10. Winter survival of Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradis, A.; Miller, M.W.; Landucci, G.; Ruda, P.; Taddei, S.; Spina, F.

    2008-01-01

    The Eurasian woodcock Scolopax rusticola is a popular game bird in much of Europe. However, little is known about its population dynamics. We estimated winter survival of woodcock in a protected area with no hunting in central Italy. We radio-tagged 68 woodcocks with battery-powered radio-transmitters during 2001-2005. Woodcocks were captured in fields at night from November through February and fitted with radios. Birds were classified on capture as juveniles or adults using plumage characteristics. Woodcocks were relocated daily through March of each year or until they died, disappeared from the study area, or until their radio failed. We constructed a set of eight competing models of daily survival for the period 1 December - 28 February. Estimates of survival were obtained using the program SURVIV and Akaike's Information Criteria. The best model suggested daily survival was a constant 0.9985 (95% CI = 0.9972-0.9998), corresponding to a survival rate of 0.88 (SE = 0.05) for the 90-day winter study period. Our estimate of juvenile survival is higher than previously reported, and may reflect the protected status of the study area. Our estimates of winter survival may be helpful in managing harvested woodcock populations as well as in conserving populations in an increasingly urbanised environment. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  11. Modeling temperature inversion in southeastern Yellow Sea during winter 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ig-Chan; Moon, Jae-Hong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Hong, Ji-Seok; Pang, Sung-Jun

    2017-05-01

    A significant temperature inversion with temperature differences larger than 3°C was observed in the southeastern Yellow Sea (YS) during February 2016. By analyzing in situ hydrographic profiles and results from a regional ocean model for the YS, this study examines the spatiotemporal evolution of the temperature inversion and its connection with wind-induced currents in winter. Observations reveal that in winter, when the northwesterly wind prevails over the YS, the temperature inversion occurs largely at the frontal zone southwest of Korea where warm/saline water of a Kuroshio origin meets cold/fresh coastal water. Our model successfully captures the temperature inversion observed in the winter of 2016 and suggests a close relation between northwesterly wind bursts and the occurrence of the large inversion. In this respect, the strong northwesterly wind drove cold coastal water southward in the upper layer via Ekman transport, which pushed the water mass southward and increased the sea level slope in the frontal zone in southeastern YS. The intensified sea level slope propagated northward away from the frontal zone as a shelf wave, causing a northward upwind flow response along the YS trough in the lower layer, thereby resulting in the large temperature inversion. Diagnostic analysis of the momentum balance shows that the westward pressure gradient, which developed with shelf wave propagation along the YS trough, was balanced with the Coriolis force in accordance with the northward upwind current in and around the inversion area.

  12. Twentieth Century Winter Changes in Southern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Frederiksen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last sixty years, there have been large changes in the southern hemisphere winter circulation and reductions in rainfall particularly in the southern Australian region. Here we examine the corresponding changes in dynamical modes of variability ranging from storm tracks, onset-of-blocking modes, northwest cloud-band disturbances, Antarctic low-frequency modes, intraseasonal oscillations, and African easterly waves. Our study is performed using a global two-level primitive equation instability-model with reanalyzed observed July three-dimensional basic states for the periods 1949–1968, 1975–1994, and 1997–2006. We relate the reduction in the winter rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia since the mid-1970s and in south-eastern Australia since the mid-1990s to changes in growth rate and structures of leading storm track and blocking modes. We find that cyclogenesis and onset-of-blocking modes growing on the subtropical jet have significantly reduced growth rates in the latter periods. On the other hand there is a significant increase in the growth rate of northwest cloud-band modes and intraseasonal oscillation disturbances that cross Australia and are shown to be related to recent positive trends in winter rainfall over northwest Western Australia and central Australia, in general. The implications of our findings are discussed.

  13. [Spatial distribution characteristics of NMHCs during winter haze in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing-Chun; Peng, Yan-Chun; Tan, Ji-Hua; Hao, Ji-Ming; Chai, Fa-He

    2013-12-01

    NMHCs and NOx samples were simultaneously collected and analyzed in six urban and suburban representative sampling sites (Sihuan, Tian'anmen, Pinguoyuan, Fatou, Beijing Airport and Miyun) during a typical haze period in winter 2005, Beijing. The concentrations of NMHCs during the sampling period in descending order were: Sihuan (1101.29 microg x m(-3)) > Fatou (692.40 microg x m(-3)) >Tian'anmen (653.28 microg x m(-3)) >Pinguoyuan (370.27 microg x m(-3)) > Beijing Airport (350.36 microg x m(-3)) > Miyun (199.97 microg x m(-3)). Atmospheric benzene pollution in Beijing was rather serious. The ratio of NMHCs/NOx ranged from 2.1 to 6.3, indicating that the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing were controlled by VOCs during the sampling period. Analysis of propylene equivalent concentration and ozone formation potential showed that the NMHCs reactivity descended in the order of Sihuan > Fatou > Tian'anmen > Pinguoyuan > Beijing Airport > Miyun. B/T values (0.52 to 0.76) indicated that besides motor vehicle emission, coal combustion and other emission sources were also the sources of NHMCs in Beijing in winter. The spatial variations of isoprene in Beijing indicated that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to isoprene increased and the emissions by biogenic sources decreased in winter. The spatial variations of propane and butane indicated that LPG emissions existed in the urban region of Beijing.

  14. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.

  15. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  16. Sleep and Mood During A Winter in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Houseal, Matt; Miller, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Seasonal variations in sleep characteristics and their association with changes in mood were examined in 91 American men and women also who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. Measures of total hours of sleep over a 24-hr period, duration of longest (i.e.,"nighttime") sleep event, number of sleep events, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep remained unchanged over the course of the austral winter (March through October). However, exposure to total darkness based on station latitude was significantly associated with total hours of sleep, duration of are longest sleep event, time of sleep onset, and quality of sleep. Reported vigor the previous month was a significant independent predictor of changes in all five sleep measures; previous month's measures of all six POMS subscales were significant independent predictors of sleep quality. Sleep characteristics were significant independent predictors of vigor and confusion the following month; total sleep, longest sleep event, sleep onset and sleep quality were significant independent predictors of tension-anxiety and depression. Changes in mood during the austral winter are preceded by changes in sleep characteristics, but prolonged exposure to the photoperiodicity characteristic of the high latitudes appears to be associated with improved sleep. In turn, mood changes appear to affect certain sleep characteristics, especially sleep quality.

  17. Decadal predictability of winter windstorm frequency in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höschel, Ines; Grieger, Jens; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Winter windstorms are one of the most impact relevant extreme-weather events in Europe. This study is focussed on windstorm frequency in Eastern Europe at multi-year time scale. Individual storms are identified by using 6-hourly 10m-wind-fields. The impact-oriented tracking algorithm is based on the exceedance of the local 98 percentile of wind speed and a minimum duration of 18 hours. Here, storm frequency is the number of 1000km-footprints of identified windstorms touching the location during extended boreal winter from October to March. The temporal development of annual storm frequencies in Eastern Europe shows variations on a six to fifteen years period. Higher than normal windstorm frequency occurred end of the 1950s and in beginning of the seventies, while lower than normal frequency were around 1960 and in the forties, for example. The correlation between bandpass filtered storm frequency and North Atlantic sea surface temperature shows a significant pattern with a positive correlation in the subtropical East Atlantic and significant negative correlations in the Gulfstream region. The relationship between these multi-year variations and predictability on decadal time scales is discussed. The resulting skill of winter wind storms in the German decadal prediction system MiKlip, based on the numerical earth system model MPI-ESM, will be presented.

  18. Plasma catecholamines, serotonin and their metabolites and beta-endorphin of winter swimmers during one winter. Possible correlations to psychological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Jorma; Lindeman, Sari; Joukamaa, Matti; Huttunen, Pirkko

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. The study was a follow-up one, in which blood pressure and hormonal changes were investigated during one winter swimming season in winter swimmers (WSs) and non-swimmer controls on three occasions (autumn, winter and spring). Humoral results were compared to psychological traits recorded at the time of the three blood samplings. Results. Mean systolic blood pressure of the WSs fell from 134 ± 12 mmHg to 128 ± 12 mmHg (p < 0.05) during the winter, and a slight but non-significan...

  19. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  20. Predictable climate dynamics of abnormal East Asian winter monsoon: once-in-a-century snowstorms in 2007/2008 winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwei; Li, Jianping; Jiang, Zhihong; He, Jinhai

    2011-10-01

    In 2008 (January-February), East Asia (EA) experiences the most severe and long-persisting snowstorm in the past 100 years. Results in this study show that 2007/2008 winter is dominant by the third principal mode of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) which explains 8.7% of the total surface air temperature variance over EA. Significantly distinguished from the first two leading modes, the third mode positive phase features an increased surface pressure over the northwestern EA, an enhanced central Siberian high (CSH), a strengthened and northwestward extended western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and anomalously strong moisture transport from western Pacific, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to EA. It also exhibits an intimate linkage with the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the Arctic Ocean areas adjacent to northern Eurasian continent, central North Pacific and northeastern Pacific. Such SSTAs emerge in prior autumn and persist through ensuing winter, signifying precursory conditions for the anomalous third EAWM mode. Numerical experiments with a simple general circulation model demonstrate that the Arctic SSTAs excite geo-potential height anomalies over northern Eurasian continent and impacts on the CSH, while the extra-tropical Pacific SSTAs deform the WPSH. Co-effects of them play crucial roles on origins of the third EAWM mode. Based on these results, an empirical model is established to predict the third mode of the EAWM. Hindcast is performed for the 1957-2008 period, which shows a quite realistic prediction skill in general and good prediction ability in the extreme phase of the third mode of the EAWM such as 2007/2008 winter. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool and may facilitate the seasonal prediction of high-impact weather associated with the abnormal EAWM.

  1. Predictable climate dynamics of abnormal East Asian winter monsoon: once-in-a-century snowstorms in 2007/2008 winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhiwei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Dorval, QC (Canada); Li, Jianping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Jiang, Zhihong; He, Jinhai [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)

    2011-10-15

    In 2008 (January-February), East Asia (EA) experiences the most severe and long-persisting snowstorm in the past 100 years. Results in this study show that 2007/2008 winter is dominant by the third principal mode of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) which explains 8.7% of the total surface air temperature variance over EA. Significantly distinguished from the first two leading modes, the third mode positive phase features an increased surface pressure over the northwestern EA, an enhanced central Siberian high (CSH), a strengthened and northwestward extended western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and anomalously strong moisture transport from western Pacific, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to EA. It also exhibits an intimate linkage with the sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the Arctic Ocean areas adjacent to northern Eurasian continent, central North Pacific and northeastern Pacific. Such SSTAs emerge in prior autumn and persist through ensuing winter, signifying precursory conditions for the anomalous third EAWM mode. Numerical experiments with a simple general circulation model demonstrate that the Arctic SSTAs excite geo-potential height anomalies over northern Eurasian continent and impacts on the CSH, while the extra-tropical Pacific SSTAs deform the WPSH. Co-effects of them play crucial roles on origins of the third EAWM mode. Based on these results, an empirical model is established to predict the third mode of the EAWM. Hindcast is performed for the 1957-2008 period, which shows a quite realistic prediction skill in general and good prediction ability in the extreme phase of the third mode of the EAWM such as 2007/2008 winter. Since all these predictors can be readily monitored in real time, this empirical model provides a real time forecast tool and may facilitate the seasonal prediction of high-impact weather associated with the abnormal EAWM. (orig.)

  2. [Freezing resistance and injury indices for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. I . Comparison of freezing resistance for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Cheng-ying; Yang, Xiao-guang; Yang, Jie; Li, Ke-nan; Zheng, Dong-xiao

    2015-10-01

    The relationships between mortality rate and low temperature for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period were identified through two-year outdoor potting experiments and indoor manually controlled freezing experiments. We defined the lethally critical temperature and the density of antifreeze capability when the mortality rate reached 10%, 20% and 50% for different cultivars of winter-spring wheat during mid-winter period. The strong-winterness wheat (Yanda 1817 and Jing 411) showed the best freezing resistance and the 50%-lethal temperatures (LT50) of these two cultivars were -21.5 °C and -21.2 °C, respectively. The freezing resistance of winterness wheat and weak-winternes wheat were worse than that of strong-winterness wheat. The LT50 of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 were -21.1 °C and -20.3 °C, while that of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 were -18.5 °C and -18.4 °C , respectively. Springness wheat (Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110) showed the worst freezing resistance, and the LT50 were -15.4 °C and -14.7 °C, respectively. When temperature declined to freezing injury occurred, mortality rate increment for weak-winterness wheat was the highest for each 1 °C decrease. The mortality rates of weak-winterness wheat cultivars Zheng 366 and Ping' an 8 increased by 16.8% and 25.8%, and that of winterness wheat cultivars Nongda 211 and Nongda 5363 increased by 14.7% and 18.9%. The mortality rate of strong-winterness wheat cultivars Yanda 1817 and Jing 411 increased by 15.4% and 13.1%, and that of springiness wheat cultivas Zheng 9023 and Yanzhan 4110 increased by 13.8% and 15.1%. Comparatively, if temperature decreased continuously after the occurrence of freezing injury, the weak-winterness wheat would suffer greater risk.

  3. Sorting out non-sorted circles: Effects of winter climate change on the Collembola community of cryoturbated subarctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Eveline; Monteux, Sylvain; Becher, Marina; Blume-Werry, Gesche; Keuper, Frida; Klaminder, Jonatan; Kobayashi, Makoto; Lundin, Erik J.; Milbau, Ann; Roennefarth, Jonas; Teuber, Laurenz Michael; Weedon, James; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSC) are a common type of cryoturbated (frost-disturbed) soil in the arctic and store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) by the burial of organic matter. They appear as sparsely vegetated areas surrounded by denser tundra vegetation, creating patterned ground. Snowfall in the arctic is expected to increase, which will modify freezing intensity and freeze-thaw cycles in soils, thereby impacting on SOC dynamics. Vegetation, soil fauna and microorganisms, important drivers of carbon turnover, may benefit directly from the altered winter conditions and the resulting reduction in cryoturbation, but may also impact each other through trophic cascading. We investigated how Collembola, important decomposer soil fauna in high latitude ecosystems, are affected by increased winter insulation and vegetation cover. We subjected NSC in North-Swedish subarctic alpine tundra to two years of increased thermal insulation (snow fences or fiber cloth) in winter and spring, increasing soil temperatures and strongly reducing freeze-thaw frequency. From these NSC we sampled the Collembola community in: (i) the non-vegetated center, (ii) sparsely vegetated parts in the center and (iii) the vegetated domain surrounding NSC. To link changes in Collembola density and community composition to SOC dynamics, we included measurements of decomposer activity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total extractable nitrogen (TN). We observed differences in Collembola density, community composition and soil fauna activity between the sampling points in the NSC. Specifically Collembola diversity increased with the presence of vegetation and density was higher in the vegetated outer domains. Increased winter insulation did not affect diversity but seemed to negatively affect density and decomposer activity in the vegetated outer domains. Interestingly, SOM distribution over NSC changed with snow addition (also to a lesser extent with fleece insulation) towards less SOM in the

  4. Distribution and habitat use of the Bluenose caribou herd in mid-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Carruthers

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The mid-winter distribution and densities of the Bluenose caribou herd were compared with previous surveys over six years and were similar in all years except 1981 when exceptionally mild weather prevailed. Differences in group size, distribution and habitat use between sexes were noted in 1983. Caribou were distributed disproportionately to availability of vegetation types and used lakes significantly more than expected based on their occurrence. Male groups used conifer cover more than did female-calf groups which used open areas (lakes, fens, bogs more than males. Cow-calf groups chose areas with a higher small lake density compared to lake density generally available. Generally caribou preferred habitat between 200 and 300 m in elevation with high densities of lakes less than 1 km2 in size. Snow depths and hardness were greater in most unoccupied habitats than in occupied habitats. Wolves were associated with high densities of cow/calf groups.

  5. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  6. Unification types of housing during Sochi Olympics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Babaev

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the statement of the unification problem of housing accommodation of participants, spectators, staff, committee during the Winter Olympics in Sochi. We give a mathematical formalization of the problem, where the unknown variables are theelements of the combination of types of accommodation sorted by the level of comfortand representation.

  7. Do we have to correct winter precipitation for nowcast applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Koch, Roland; Olefs, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In mountain regions like the Alps, a significant fraction of the annual precipitation falls as snow. There is an increasing demand for high-quality analysis, nowcast and short-range forecasts of snowfall. Operational services, such as traffic maintenance, real-time flood-warning systems of hydrological services and avalanche warning products, but also hydropower companies and ski resorts need reliable information on precipitation, snow depth and the corresponding snow water equivalent. However, producing accurate precipitation maps in complex terrain using only remote sensing techniques and uncorrected rain gauge data is a difficult task. In cold and windy conditions, conventional rain gauge measurements are prone to large errors when snow passes the rain gauge and sublimation occurs at heated devices. Empirical correction formulas are given by the WMO to compensate the potential undercatch (Goodison, 2008). The project pluSnow aims to combine snow depth measurements and precipitation data to minimize the error of gauge undercatch on the basis of snow depth data from 63 automatic weather stations (TAWES), operated by the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). These TAWES are equipped with SHM30 laser sensors to measure snow depth with high accuracy and temporal resolution of 0.01 m and 10 minutes, respectively. The pluSnow project will contribute to existing research efforts around the globe which focus on improving the precision of solid precipitation measurements. Here we present a first study based on the original TAWES data between 2006 and 2015. The fraction of solid precipitation to total winter precipitation between November and April (NDJFMA) and the potential undercatch of measured precipitation following Goodison (2008) for all TAWES sorted by altitude are analysed. Examples of the TAWES data in the original high temporal resolution of 10 min are given. The two main parameters used for the correction of precipitation

  8. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  9. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  10. Characteristics of summer and winter precipitation over northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guang; Xiao, Hui; Yang, Huiling; Bi, Yongheng; Xu, Wenjing

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the statistical properties of summer and winter precipitation over the northern China plain are investigated by using a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) and a micro-rain radar (MRR). The properties of summer precipitation presented herein are bulk properties (radar reflectivity, reflectivity-weighted fall velocity, liquid water content, and rainfall rate), raindrop fall velocity, axis ratio, and particle size distribution. Well correlations can be found among the diurnal cycles of radar reflectivity, liquid water content, and rainfall rate, whereas reflectivity-weighted fall velocity is poorly related to other bulk properties. The vertical profiles exhibit that radar reflectivity for stratiform rain is increasing with the altitude decreasing, in contrast, liquid water content and rainfall rate are reducing during the falling. These facts are useful for the radar-based rainfall rate retrieval algorithm. Axis ratio measurements are, for the first time, obtained and analyzed in northern China, which are particularly important for improving microphysical scheme in the climate models. In the constraint gamma model, the μ - Λ relation is adapted to the particle size distribution of stratiform rain, while the normalized gamma distributions for convective rain are separated to maritime-like and continental categories following the orientations and mechanisms of the storms. A new bulk-property-based algorithm is developed for the classification of convective and stratiform precipitation. For winter precipitation, radar reflectivity and snowfall rate for aggregates are calculated from the disdrometer data. The relationship of radar reflectivity and snowfall rate is obtained and validated with MRR data. The characteristics of summer and winter precipitation will be used to improve the microphysical scheme and evaluate the representation of precipitation in the climate models.

  11. Winter weather conditions vs. air quality in Tricity, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga; Czarnecka, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to assess the influence of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 particulate matter concentration of pollutants during winter with consideration of an excess of admissible standards. The basis for the analysis were hourly concentrations of PM10 and sulfur dioxide as well as the basic meteorological elements automatically recorded at five stations located in the Tricity agglomeration, and operating within the weather station network belonging to the Agency of Regional Air Quality Monitoring in the Gdańsk Metropolitan Area (ARMAAG). The analysis covers the calendar winters (December-February) in the years 2004/2005 through 2009/2010. The variability of the concentrations of both pollutants under certain weather conditions, i.e. air temperature and relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, as well as wind speed and direction, were evaluated by means of cluster analysis using k-means belonging to a group of non-hierarchical cluster analysis method. The composite effect of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 concentrations in isolated clusters were determined by multiple linear regression, using a stepwise procedure, at the significance level α = 0.05 and α = 0.01. The effect of individual weather elements on the pattern of concentration levels was determined using partial regression coefficients. Clusters grouping the highest concentrations of pollutants were characterised, in most cases, by the lowest air temperature and a lower wind speed, and often a higher pressure, and sometimes slightly lower relative air humidity, i.e. the conditions of anticyclonic weather. Weather conditions had a statistically significant effect on the concentrations of both pollutants in all clusters; however, air temperature and wind speed had the crucial role. Thermal conditions were the decisive factor in the winter season 2005/2006 with the most frequent, overnormative daily

  12. "Winter of our anxiety" by J. Steinbeck in USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Liya Iskanderovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the Soviet reception of the novel by John Steinbeck. «The winter of our anxiety» published in the USSR within the sunset of «thaw» in 1962. Despite the restrained assessment of the novel at its homeland and the general low opinion about the post-war work of Steinbeck, in the USSR «Winter of our anxiety» was accepted very warmly, after the Nobel committee of Soviet critics began to talk about the return of «old times of Steinbeck>s «Grapes of wrath». However, no doubt that the reason for the success of this book in the USSR was not much Steinbeck>s «critics of bourgeois reality», the «American Dream», which commonly was written by the domestic press as guessable Soviet readers parallels between the way the main character of the novel Ethan Allen Hawley, committed them to choose between good and evil, «money and humanity» - and his own life, ambiguous and unstable situation of the creative intelligentsia in the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1960. However, the inability to say publicly about his own doubts and problems that inevitably led to a repetition of the rhetoric of the 1930s reduced the value of the novel «Winter of our anxiety» in denouncing the American way of life. Documentary base article made reviews of the novel members of the editorial board of the magazine «Foreign Literature «, research works by R.D. Orlova «Money against humanity» («Foreign Literature», 1962, № 3 and I.M. Levidova «Postwar books of John Steinbeck» («Questions of Literature», 1962, № 8.

  13. Depletions in winter total ozone values over southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been made of the recently re-evaluated time series of daily total ozone values for the period 1979 to 1992 for southern England. The series consists of measurements made at two stations, Bracknell and Camborne. The series shows a steady decline in ozone values in the spring months over the period, and this is consistent with data from an earlier decade that has been published but not re-evaluated. Of exceptional note is the monthly mean for January 1992 which was very significantly reduced from the normal value, and was the lowest so far measured for this month. This winter was also noteworthy for a prolonged period during which a blocking anticyclone dominated the region, and the possibility existed that this was related to the ozone anomaly. It was possible to determine whether the origin of the low ozone value lay in ascending stratospheric motions. A linear regression analysis of ozone value deviation against 100hPa temperature deviations was used to reduce ozone values to those expected in the absence of high pressure. The assumption was made that the normal regression relation was not affected by atmospheric anomalies during the winter. This showed that vertical motions in the stratosphere only accounted for part of the ozone anomaly and that the main cause of the ozone deficit lay either in a reduced stratospheric circulation to which the anticyclone may be related or in chemical effects in the reduced stratospheric temperatures above the high pressure area. A study of the ozone time series adjusted to remove variations correlated with meteorological quantities, showed that during the period since 1979, one other winter, that of 1982/3, showed a similar although less well defined deficit in total ozone values.

  14. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  16. Changes in the elemental composition of winter wheat plants caused by the action of Megafol and retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Miroshnichenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of field experiments conducted during the 2015–2016 vegetation seasons, retardants Medax Top, 1.0 l/ha (prohexadione-Са and mepiquat-chloride, appeared more effective than Terpal, 1.5 l/ha (mepiquat-chloride and ethephon, on field plots with high-yield varieties. Foliar application of Megafol promoted the productivity of winter wheat varieties Smuglyanka and Podolyanka and reduced the negative influence of retardants on the wheat plants in the vegetation seasons which were characterized by moisture deficit. The influence of modern retardants – prohexadione-Ca + mepiquat-chloride (Medax Top and mepiquat-chloride + etefone (Terpal, both BASF, Germany on the accumulation of some macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat plants was determined. The assays were performed on an ICP-MS Agilent 7700x mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, USA with ICP-MS Mass Hunter WorkStation. Samples of winter wheat plants were taken in the phase of flowering and grain ripening. The samples were dried, homogenized, 0.400 gof weight was dissolved in ICP-grade nitric acid in the Milestone Start D (Milestone Inc., USA. All solutions were prepared on 1st class water (18 MΩ cm–1 obtained on the Scholar-UV Nex Up 1000 (Human Corporation, Korea water purification system. The ICP-MS Complete Standard IV-ICPMS-71A was used as the external standard, and the internal standard was Sc, both of Inorganic Ventures, USA. According to the ICP-MS results of plant samples of winter wheat of Smuglylanka and Podolanka, it has been shown that, in conditions of wheat growing on light soils of Polissya, modern compositional retardants affect the ionome of plants during the vegetation season, as well as change the content of inorganic elements in the grain. It was found that winter wheat of the middle-stem intensive Podolyanka type reacted more responsively to retardant treatment than the short-stem highly intensive Smuglyanka type. At the same time, there was an

  17. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Training Supplement. Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    aeijzur8S falra:.to benzodiazep;nes. A. :iii: Do not admlnllterfosphenytoln filter Ihan 150 mglmln since Ihls m.y result In hypolenllon. 4. Do nol aU"",p1...dlab8tn Ino4>i<Ius a R.n.IIns~1’fIcienc:y " Proteinuria Winter 2011 RDL 141 General d~de ... o Waa~neu o Fatigue TMEP use: o HIV Post bposul9...Training SupplementP&O 150 Where do you foresee taking casualties? Where is it most critical for the Medics to be located? Do you need to task organize

  18. Experimental Winter Coccidiosis in Sheltered and Unsheltered Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niilo, L.

    1970-01-01

    Hereford calves, seven months old, were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bovis and E. zurnii and housed in a heated building together with uninoculated animals. Duplicate groups of similarly treated animals were left unsheltered in cold winter weather. Clinical coccidiosis developed in most of the inoculated calves, sheltered and unsheltered. There was no marked difference in the severity of the infections. The sheltered uninoculated contact animals remained clinically unaffected, but mild coccidiosis developed in the unsheltered controls. The results suggest that cold may increase the host's susceptibility to clinical coccidiosis, but may not increase the severity of the signs once the clinical infection is established. PMID:4245999

  19. Skillful seasonal predictions of winter precipitation over southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick; Smith, Doug; Ren, Hong-Li; Liu, Ying; Eade, Rosie

    2017-07-01

    Southern China experiences large year-to-year variability in the amount of winter precipitation, which can result in severe social and economic impacts. In this study, we demonstrate prediction skill of southern China winter precipitation by three operational seasonal prediction models: the operational Global seasonal forecasting system version 5 (GloSea5), the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) and the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM1.1m). The correlation scores reach 0.76 and 0.67 in GloSea5 and CFSv2, respectively; and the amplitude of the ensemble mean forecast signal is comparable to the observed variations. The skilful predictions in GloSea5 and CFSv2 mainly benefit from the successful representation of the observed ENSO teleconnection. El Niño weakens the Walker circulation and leads to the strengthening of the subtropical high over the northwestern Pacific. The anti-cyclone then induces anomalous northward flow over the South China Sea and brings water vapor to southern China, resulting in more precipitation. This teleconnection pattern is too weak in BCC-CSM1.1m, which explains its low skill (0.13). Whereas the most skilful forecast system is also able to simulate the influence of the Indian Ocean on southern China precipitation via changes in southwesterly winds over the Bay of Bengal. Finally, we examine the real-time forecast for 2015/16 winter when a strong El Niño event led to the highest rainfall over southern China in recent decades. We find that the GloSea5 system gave good advice as it produced the third wettest southern China in the hindcast, but underestimated the observed amplitude. This is likely due to the underestimation of the Siberian High strength in 2015/2016 winter, which has driven strong convergence over southern China. We conclude that some current seasonal forecast systems can give useful warning of impending extremes. However, there is still need for further model improvement to fully represent the complex

  20. Soil compaction in timber skidding in winter conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Šušnjar, Marijan; Horvat, Dubravko; Šešelj, Josip

    2006-01-01

    The research of soil compaction in timber skidding was carried out on two skid trails of uniform slope –15%and 30 %. The degree of soil compaction is shown by changes of water-air soil characteristics of the skid trail after a certain number of passes of a loaded skidder and by comparison between these values and the characteristics of untreaded soil during research. The research was carried out in winter conditions at low air and soil temperatures and with the research site covered with s...

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  2. Hearing and bat defence in geometrid winter moths.

    OpenAIRE

    Rydell, J; Skals, N; Surlykke, A; Svensson, M

    1997-01-01

    Audiograms and behavioural responses to ultrasound reveal that male geometrid winter moths (Agriopis and Erannis spp.; Ennominae, and Alsophila aescularia; Oenochrominae), which have large wings and a slow flight, have good, broadly tuned ultrasonic hearing with best frequencies at 25-40 kHz, coinciding with the frequencies used by most sympatric aerial-hawking bats. Ultrasonic pulses (27 kHz 110 dB at 1 m) delivered at distances of 1-12 m evoked consistent reactions of free flying, male A. m...

  3. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  4. NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY DURING HEAT SHOCK IN WINTER WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenko S.B.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates are the basic source of nitrogen for the majority of plants. Absorption and transformation of nitrates in plants are determined by external conditions and, first of all, temperature and light intensity. The influence of the temperature increasing till +40 0С on activity of nitrate reductase was studied. It is shown, that the rise of temperature was accompanied by sharp decrease of activity nitrate reductase in leaves of winter wheat, what, apparently, occurred for the account deactivations of enzyme and due to its dissociation.

  5. Winter range drift in the George River Caribou Herd: a response to summer forage limitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Schmelzer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Space use by the George River caribou herd (GRCH changes in correspondence with migration patterns. The traditional range of this herd encompasses an area of approximately 900 000 km2. Range use is seasonal and includes travel to traditional calving grounds. Winter range use however, is more variable. The GRCH has grown rapidly from 5000 animals in 1954 to approximately 775 000 in 1993. Beginning in the mid 1980s, the calving and summer range habitats of the GRCH have deteriorated, resulting in a decline in physical condition and subsequent poor calf survival and low pregnancy rates. We assessed the importance of the winter range as a food source compensating for poor summer range quality through an evaluation of winter range drift and use intensity. We hypothesized that if winter ranges provide a compensatory source of forage, then George River caribou should avoid sites heavily used during the previous winter at a population level. Winter ranges for the GRCH were calculated using 4300 caribou locations obtained 1986-2000. We found that in spite of a doubling in net range area, the size of annual winter ranges did not increase, indicating the occurrence of range drift. Further, George River caribou exhibited avoidance of wintering areas at several spatial scales. Avoidance occurred across a use threshold, where the degree of use (or density during the previous winter determined the level of avoidance during the subsequent winter. As the spatial scale decreased, the degree of avoidance increased. Caribou significantly avoided areas used the previous winter at spatial scales below and including 245 km2 (corresponding to a 75% use distribution. Results suggest winter foraging allows caribou suspend the effects of density-dependent summer forage limitation on herd productivity. As such, analysis of GRCH population trends should be considered in light of both summer and winter range resources.

  6. Duration of prepupal summer dormancy regulates synchronization of adult diapause with winter temperatures in bees of the genus Osmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmia (Osmia) bees are strictly univoltine and winter as diapausing adults. In these species, the timing of adult eclosion with the onset of wintering conditions is critical, because adults exposed to long pre-wintering periods show increased lipid loss and winter mortality. Populations from warm ar...

  7. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  8. NS Zitos: New two-row winter barley variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At Institute of Field and Vegetable crops, plant breeders for a decade's are constantly developing new barley cultivars, which have better yield, quality and other agronomical traits then older barley varieties. At 2012 new winter malting barley cultivar NS Zitos was registered. The primary aim during creation of this variety was selection for barley quality, and to maintain yield and other agronomic traits at least at standard (control variety level. Commission for the registration of varieties of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, conducted trial at multiple locations in two year, and it was found that the variety NS Zitos was distinct, uniform and stable cultivar, and had yield at all locations and in all year at standard (control variety level, and better technological quality. In both trial years NS Zitos, had grain yield over 11000 kg per hectare at location Novi Sad, which indicates that this variety has a high genetic yield potential. NS Zitos is medium early winter barley cultivar, which is characterized by good resistance to lodging, large seeds size and greater thousand kernel weight.

  9. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  10. [Attitudes of winter sport participants toward ski helmet mandatory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Study of Winter Wheat Yield Quality Analysis at ARDS Turda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Adrian Ceclan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the potential for yield and quality indicators for winter wheat genotypes in terms of pedological and climate condition and applied technology, at ARDS Turda during 2014 – 2015. Depending on the climatic conditions that are associated with applied technology is a decisive factor in successful wheat crop for all genotypes that were studied at Ards Turda during the 2014 – 2016. That’s wy each genotype responded differently to the conditions of the ARDS Turda also through the two levels of fertilisations applied in the winter with fertilizers 20:20:0, 250 kg/ha assuring 50 kg/ha N and P active substance and second level of fertilisations with 150 kg/ha ammonium nitrate assuring 50 kg/ha N active substance. All genotype that were studied in terms of yield and quality indicators were influenced by the fertilization level. The influence of pedo-climatic conditions, applied technologies and fertilizers level at ARDS Turda showed that all genotypes with small yield had higher protein and gluten content respectively Zeleny index.

  12. Blue Creek Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs; Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation, Washington

    1994-11-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund that portion of the Washington Wildlife Agreement pertaining to the Blue Creek Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Spokane Tribe, Upper Columbia United Tribes, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). If fully implemented, the proposed action would allow the sponsors to protect and enhance 2,631 habitat units of big game winter range and riparian shrub habitat on 2,185 hectares (5,400 acres) of Spokane Tribal trust lands, and to conduct long term wildlife management activities within the Spokane Indian Reservation project area. This Final Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of securing land and conducting wildlife habitat enhancement and long term management activities within the boundaries of the Spokane Indian Reservation. Four proposed activities (habitat protection, habitat enhancement, operation and maintenance, and monitoring and evaluation) are analyzed. The proposed action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its reservoir.

  13. On statistical irregularity of stratospheric warming occurrence during northern winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkova, Elena N.; Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Pogoreltsev, Alexander I.

    2017-10-01

    Statistical analysis of dates of warming events observed during the years 1981-2016 at different stratospheric altitudes reveals their non-uniform distributions during northern winter months with maxima at the beginning of January, at the end of January - beginning of February and at the end of February. Climatology of zonal-mean zonal wind, deviations of temperature from its winter-averaged values, and planetary wave (PW) characteristics at high and middle northern latitudes in the altitude range from the ground up to 60 km is studied using the database of meteorological reanalysis MERRA. Climatological temperature deviations averaged over the 60-90°N latitudinal bands reveal cooler and warmer layers descending due to seasonal changes during the polar night. PW amplitudes and upward Eliassen-Palm fluxes averaged over 36 years have periodical maxima with the main maximum at the beginning of January at altitudes 40-50 km. During the above-mentioned intervals of more frequent occurrence of stratospheric warming events, maxima of PW amplitudes and Eliassen-Palm fluxes, also minima of eastward winds in the high-latitude northern stratosphere have been found. Climatological intra-seasonal irregularities of stratospheric warming dates could indicate reiterating phases of stratospheric vacillations in different years.

  14. The winter St. Helena climate index and extreme Benguela upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Eberhard; Agenbag, Jacobus J.; Feistel, Rainer

    2005-09-01

    Climate changes in the subtropical South-east Atlantic turn out to be well described by the St. Helena Island Climate Index (HIX) and observed fluctuations are in good agreement with inter-decadal variability of the entire South Atlantic Ocean. Year-to-year variations of the averaged austral winter HIX (July-September), representative of the main upwelling season, were compared with (i) corresponding averages of the geostrophic alongshore component of the south-east trade wind (SET) between St. Helena Island in the south-west and Luanda/Angola in the north-east, (ii) the meridional distribution of surface waters colder than 13 °C to characterise intense Benguela upwelling (IBU), and (iii) the meridional position of the Angola-Benguela Frontal Zone (ABFZ) determined by means of sea surface temperature images for offshore distances between 50 and 400 km. Temporal changes of these parameters were investigated and showed that the frequency of consecutive years of strong and relaxed Benguela upwelling is characterised by a quasi-cycle of about 11-14 years. It is proposed that the index of the winter HIX may be used as a 'surveyor's rod' to describe interannual changes in the Benguela upwelling regime as well as those of the embedded marine ecosystem.

  15. 2010 winter games tracks energy in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    An online energy tracker was developed by BC Hydro to publicly monitor the real-time energy consumption at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic winter game sites within Vancouver, Richmond, Whistler and Whistler Blackcomb. The venues and associated sites participating in the live energy tracking project were the Richmond Olympic Oval, Canada Hockey Place, Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, South East False Creek Community Centre, Whistler Blackcomb Roundhouse Lodge and snowmaking facilities, and the Olympic and Paralympic Villages. The system was developed to allow venue managers to optimize their use of electricity on an hourly and daily basis. An energy tracking display board developed by Pulse Energy enabled them to compare their performance to similar facilities in real time, and to determine the greenhouse gas savings achieved as result of building and operating practices. Some venues had the potential to save as much as 15 to 20 per cent in energy costs with corresponding reductions in carbon emissions. Efficiency and conservation was built into the design of many new venues. The retrofits made to several existing buildings will continue to contribute to British Columbia's conservation goals long after the 2010 winter games are over.

  16. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth Kirk; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered......INTRODUCTION: Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent......-administered paracetamol in toddlers during a winter-period in relation to symptoms, doctor contacts and severity-rated illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective diary study covering a three-month winter-period. It comprised a cohort of 183 infants born in February 2001 in a district...... of the capital area in Denmark. RESULTS: According to the parents, a total of 119 toddlers (65%) received paracetamol at least once during the study period; 9.3% of the toddlers received paracetamol for more than ten days. The administration of paracetamol rose as the number of symptoms increased. Paracetamol...

  17. Thermal environment in Swedish hospitals. Summer and winter measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, J.; Fransson, N.; Jagemar, L. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy and Environment

    2005-08-01

    Two distinct groups of individuals (staff and patients) occupy hospital environments. The physical, social and individual needs of the patients as well as of the nursing staff vary to a large extent. Consequently, it is important to provide for a comfortable indoor environment for both groups of individuals. The variations between the groups make it hard to optimize the indoor environment for all individuals. Objective measurements and distribution of questionnaires were administrated in an orthopaedic ward. Questionnaires were distributed in order to learn more about how the indoor environment is perceived. To assess the response to the questionnaires, physical indoor climate variables were measured simultaneously. A combination of objective measurements and questionnaires is a suitable method to assess and analyse the indoor environment in hospital buildings. The data was collected during summer and winter to in order to identify possible seasonal variations. Comparisons show that the difference between staff and patients perception of the indoor air temperature differ more during winter than summer despite that physical measurements showed that the temperatures were similar in both seasons. (author)

  18. Performance of blueberry cultivars under mild winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gilberto Sousa Medeiros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of yield performance is important to find the most adapted blueberry cultivars in a particular region. This research aimed to evaluate the flowering and hasvesting periods, the production per plant, and fruit quality of eight rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Aliceblue, Bluebelle, Bluegem, Briteblue, Climax, Delite, Powderblue, and Woodard and two highbush blueberries (Georgiagem and O’Neal, in mild winter conditions in Pinhais-PR. Flowering and harvesting periods, production, berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ratio and color of the fruits were evaluated in the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 growing seasons, when the plants had two and three years old, respectively. Cultivars flowered from August to September, and harvest was concentrated in November and December. Berry weight, size, pH, soluble solids and acidity varied among the cultivars. The average ratios of 14.97 and 13.39 for each crop proved that the cultivars have good fruit quality. There was little variation in fruit color in the two years evaluated. Blueberry cultivars showed the staining characteristics and physical and chemical attributes of quality compatible to blueberry from other traditional regions. Under mild winter conditions, young plants of rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, Climax, Delite, Bluegem and Powderblue, are the most productive, while the highbusch cultivars bear few fruits.

  19. Projecting Future Change in Growing Degree Days of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Castillo, N.; Gaitan Ospina, C. F.; Mcpherson, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Southwest Oklahoma is one of the most productive regions in the Great Plains where winter wheat is produced. To assess the effect of climate change on the growing degree days (GDD) available for winter wheat production, we selected from the CMIP5 archive, two of the best performing Global Climate Models (GCMs) for the region (MIROC5 and CCSM4) to project the future change in GDD under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 —a "business as usual" future trajectory for greenhouse gas concentrations. Two quantile mapping downscaling methods were applied to both GCMs to obtain local scale projections. The downscaled outputs were applied to a GDD formula to show the GDD changes between the historical period (1961-2004) and the future period (2006-2098) in terms of mean differences. The results show that at the end of the 2098 growing season, the increase in GDD is expected to be between -2.0 and 6. Depending on the GCM used, Southwest Oklahoma is expected to see an increase in future GDD under the CCSM4 GCM and a mix of increase, no change and decrease under the MIROC5 GCM.

  20. Climate and smoke: an appraisal of nuclear winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, R P; Toon, O B; Ackerman, T P; Pollack, J B; Sagan, C

    1990-01-12

    The latest understanding of nuclear winter is reviewed. Considerable progress has been made in quantifying the production and injection of soot by large-scale fires, the regional and global atmospheric dispersion of the soot, and the resulting physical, environmental, and climatic perturbations. New information has been obtained from laboratory studies, field experiments, and numerical modeling on a variety of scales (plume, mesoscale, and global). For the most likely soot injections from a full-scale nuclear exchange, three-dimensional climate simulations yield midsummer land temperature decreases that average 10 degrees to 20 degrees C in northern mid-latitudes, with local cooling as large as 35 degrees C, and subfreezing summer temperatures in some regions. Anomalous atmospheric circulations caused by solar heating of soot is found to stabilize the upper atmosphere against overturning, thus increasing the soot lifetime, and to accelerate interhemispheric transport, leading to persistent effects in the Southern Hemisphere. Serious new environmental problems associated with soot injection have been identified, including disruption of monsoon precipitation and severe depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer in the Northern Hemisphere. The basic physics of nuclear winter has been reaffirmed through several authoritative international technical assessments and numerous individual scientific investigations. Remaining areas of uncertainty and research priorities are discussed in view of the latest findings.

  1. Polar mesosphere winter echoes during MaCWAVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kirkwood

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available During the MaCWAVE winter campaign in January 2003, layers of enhanced echo power known as PMWE (Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes were detected by the ESRAD 52 MHz radar on several occasions. The cause of these echoes is unclear and here we use observations by meteorological and sounding rockets and by lidar to test whether neutral turbulence or aerosol layers might be responsible. PMWE were detected within 30 min of meteorological rocket soundings (falling spheres on 5 separate days. The observations from the meteorological rockets show that, in most cases, conditions likely to be associated with neutral atmospheric turbulence are not observed at the heights of the PMWE. Observations by instrumented sounding rockets confirm low levels of turbulence and indicate considerable small-scale structure in charge density profiles. Comparison of falling sphere and lidar data, on the other hand, show that any contribution of aerosol scatter to the lidar signal at PMWE heights is less than the detection threshold of about 10%.

  2. Electrification in winter storms and the analysis of thunderstorm overflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Marx

    1991-01-01

    The emergence of 24 hr operational lightning detection networks has led to the finding that positive lightning strokes, although still much fewer in number than the normal negative strokes, are present in summer and winter storms. Recent papers address the importance of understanding the meteorological conditions which lead to a dominance of one polarity of stroke over another; the appearance of positive strokes at the end of a storm appeared to presage the end-of-storm downdraft and subsidence leading to downburst activity. It is beginning to appear that positive strokes may be important meteorological indicators. Significant research accomplishments on the following topics are addressed: (1) a study to verify that the black boxes used in the lightning networks to detect both negative and positive strokes to ground were accurate; (2) the use of slow tails to determine the polarity of distant lightning; (3) lightning initiation in winter vs. summer storms; (4) the upgrade of sensors for the measurement of electric field signals associated with lightning; (5) the analysis of lightning flash records from storms between 40 and 125 km from the sensor; and (6) an interesting aspect of the initiation process which involves the physical processes driving the stepped leader. The focus of current research and future research plans are presented.

  3. Zonal Wind Indices to Reconstruct CONUS Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, David J.; Steinschneider, Scott; Lall, Upmanu

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal precipitation forecasts over the contiguous United States (CONUS) during the 2015-2016 El Niño exhibited significant bias over many regions, especially in the western United States where seasonal information is particularly valuable for reservoir operation. Diagnosing the origin of this bias requires understanding the empirical signal from tropical heating to midlatitude precipitation. In this paper, we find that atmospheric zonal wind indices computed over the region typically associated with the winter jet stream provide a skillful, spatially distributed, linear prediction of precipitation over CONUS, over all winters (January-March; JFM). Furthermore, we show that more (less) central (eastern) Pacific Ocean heating may have contributed to the unexpected 2016 JFM CONUS precipitation and that this was likely predictable based on antecedent (December) sea surface temperatures. The zonal wind indices act as intermediate variables in a causal chain, and our analyses provide support for the potential for empirical prediction and also a diagnostic for physics-based models to help improve forecasts.

  4. de Winters pattern: Spotted and successfully thrombolysed with streptokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Shergill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, no other investigation can replace the role electrocardiogram (ECG that still holds the pivotal role in emergency rooms. Rightfully thence, the classification of ACS patients into ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI or non-STEMI (NSTEMI is based on these zig-zag lines on a squared paper strip. This classification is important as both the groups differ in their pathophysiology as well as management. While, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention is done in STEMI sufferers; thrombolysis is contraindicated in the ones with NTEMI. There are, however, some patterns which do not show obvious ST elevation in ECG but are in fact associated with critical narrowing of major heart vessels. de Winter is one such “NSTEMI-STEMI equivalent.” Although now widely agreed on as a STEMI equivalent, its management with streptokinase (STK is controversial. We are reporting a case of 38-year-old male with chest pain, whose ECG revealed the classical de Winter pattern and was successfully thrombolysed with STK. Complete set of classical ECG tracings and its management with STK (perhaps first such report across the globe are the two major highlights of this report.

  5. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  6. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  7. Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis Lectin as a cytotoxic effector in the lifecycle of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese McConnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The lectin found in the tubers of the Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis plant is an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP; Type II RIPs have shown anti-cancer properties, and hence have potential as therapeutic agents. Here we present a modified protocol for the extraction and purification of the E. hyemalis lectin (EHL using affinity chromatography. De novo amino acid sequencing of EHL confirms its classification as a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. The biocidal properties of EHL have been investigated against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Arrested first stage larvae treated with EHL have shown some direct mortality, with surviving larvae subsequently showing a range of phenotypes including food avoidance, reduced fecundity, developmental delay and constitutive dauer larvae formation. Both inappropriate dauer larvae development and failure to locate to bacterial food source are consistent with the disruption of chemosensory function and the ablation of amphid neurons. Further investigation indicates that mutations that disrupt normal amphid formation can block the EHL-induced dauer larvae formation. In combination, these phenotypes indicate that EHL is cytotoxic and suggest a cell specific activity against the amphid neurons of C. elegans.

  8. Shape and Size Characteristics of Bedload Transported During Winter Storm Events in the Cwm Treweryn Stream, Brecon Beacons, South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    WALSH, TUNCER DEMİR & RORY PETER DOMINIC

    2005-01-01

    Bedload transport in the Cwm Treweryn stream, a tributary of the Usk in the Brecon Beacons, South Wales, was investigated during a wet winter period in early 1995 using basket-type bedload traps and the tracing of painted clasts. The Cwm Treweryn is a typical mountain stream of the region with its gravel-bedload, flashy regime, high gradient and pool-riffle sequences. In particular, the study explored - for a range of categories of clast size - the nature of any influence of clast shape on be...

  9. The separated polar winter stratopause - A gravity wave driven climatological feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Matthew H.; Gille, John C.; Rodgers, Clive D.; Brasseur, Guy

    1989-01-01

    An examination of satellite-derived temperatures reveals that the winter polar stratopause is usually elevated and warmer than the adjacent midlatitude stratopause. This separated stratopause occurs in both hemispheres, but is more pronounced and persistent in the southern winter. It descends with time towards spring and exhibits week-to-week variability. Observational diagnostics and results from a two-dimensional model suggest that gravity-wave driving can account for this separated polar stratopause by driving a meridional circulation, with downwelling over the winter pole. In the model, the solar heating pattern induces stronger winter westerlies than summer easterlies, which leads to a stronger gravity-wave-driven circulation in the winter hemisphere. Spherical geometry and the high latitude location of the winter westerly jet combine to yield a concentrated region of downwelling. Model results suggest that descent of the temperature maximum with time is probably caused by wave/mean-flow interaction.

  10. Current range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris). Part II: Winter range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Holzman, S.; Iñigo-Elias, Eduardo E.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of wintering areas for Neotropical migrants is well established. The wintering range of the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) is described in detail and presented in maps. The paper also discusses extralimital records from islands in the Caribbean Basin as well as scattered wintering individuals outside the winter range. The possibility of eastern birds wintering on the Yucatan Peninsula and adjacent Central America is considered. An extensive treatment of the protected areas of Peninsular Florida, the northern Bahamas, and Cuba describes the importance of upland habitats within these protected areas for wintering buntings. This information should be useful to land management agencies, conservation organizations, and private landholders for the welfare of the bunting and biodiversity in general and may also be of interest to ornithologists, other biological disciplines, naturalists, and birders.

  11. Activity report of the 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition wintering party in 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Miyaoka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-40 wintering party, with 40 members, has successfully conducted the third-year project of the Vth five-year JARE program, over the period from 1st February 1999 to 31st January 2000, at Syowa Station, Antarctica.The framework of the JARE-40 wintering party program was the same as those of JARE-38 and JARE-39, comprising three routine observation programs and project/monitoring research observation programs in upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric sciences and glaciology, geophysics, and biology. In addition to many continuing projects, several new observations were started: 50MHz/112MHz aurora radars and a VLF wave receiver as part of the ionosphere program, aerosol sonde observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs as part of the meteorological program, HF/MF radars as part of the upper atmospheric physics program, frequent VLBI experiments as part of the geophysics program, and biological field surveys (including two dives, including monitoring of the undersea behavior of Weddell seals using bio-logging devices.In terms of inland field surveys, two parties were organized: fuel transportation and glaciological/meteorological observations along the route to Mizuho Station in August-September and to Dome Fuji/Yamato air-basecamp in November-January. These surveys involved snow sampling, precise GPS positioning, and sub-glacial surveys using three types of ice radar.Logistical activities, conducted in cooperation with the JARE-40 summer party, included the construction of a second summer lodge, the startup of a second 300 kVA generator and co-generator system, the development of a sewage plant, solar power panels, an access road to the A-heliport, and the cleanup of disused buildings. During the wintering period, efforts were directed towards the maintenance of all facilities at Syowa Station, safety management, and practical support for field operations.The Antarctic Environmental

  12. Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM): A Winter Weather Nowcasting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Dixon, Mike; Hage, Frank; Cole, Jeff; Wade, Chuck; Tuttle, John; McGettigan, Starr; Carty, Thomas; Stevenson, Lloyd; Fellner, Warren; Knight, Shelly; Karplus, Eli; Rehak, Nancy

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a winter weather nowcasting system called Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM), designed to provide airline, airport, and air traffic users with winter weather information relevant to their operations. The information is provided on an easy to use graphical display and characterizes airport icing conditions for nonmeteorologists. The system has been developed and refined over a series of winter-long airport demonstrations at Denver's Stapleton International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and New York's LaGuardia Airport. The WSDDM system utilizes commercially available weather information in the form of Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D radar reflectivity data depicted as color coded images on a window of the display and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) surface weather reports from Automated Surface Observating System stations and observers. METAR information includes wind speed and direction, air temperature, and precipitation type/rate, which are routinely updated on an hourly basis or more frequently if conditions are changing. Recent studies have shown that the liquid equivalent snowfall rate is the most important factor in determining the holdover time of a deicing fluid. However, the current operational snowfall intensity reported in METARs is based on visibility, which has been shown to give misleading information on liquid equivalent rates in many cases due to the wide variation in density and shape of snow. The particular hazard has been identified as high visibility-high snowfall conditions. The WSDDM system addresses this potentially hazardous condition through the deployment of snow gauges at an airport. These snow gauges report real-time estimates of the liquid equivalent snowfall rate once every minute to WSDDM users. The WSDDM system also provides 30-min nowcasts of liquid equivalent snowfall rate through the use of a real-time calibration of radar reflectivity and snow gauge snowfall

  13. Atlantic forcing of Western Mediterranean winter rain minima during the last 12,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Fletcher, William J.; Mischke, Steffen; De Batist, Marc; Campbell, Jennifer F. E.; Joannin, Sebastien; Tjallingii, Rik; El Hamouti, Najib; Junginger, Annett; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Schneider, Birgit; Lauer, Tobias; Spitzer, Katrin; Strupler, Michael; Brachert, Thomas; Mikdad, Abdeslam

    2017-02-01

    The limited availability of high-resolution continuous archives, insufficient chronological control, and complex hydro-climatic forcing mechanisms lead to many uncertainties in palaeo-hydrological reconstructions for the Western Mediterranean. In this study we present a newly recovered 19.63 m long core from Lake Sidi Ali in the North African Middle Atlas, a transition zone of Atlantic, Western Mediterranean and Saharan air mass trajectories. With a multi-proxy approach based on magnetic susceptibility, carbonate and total organic C content, core-scanning and quantitative XRF, stable isotopes of ostracod shells, charcoal counts, Cedrus pollen abundance, and a first set of diatom data, we reconstruct Western Mediterranean hydro-climatic variability, seasonality and forcing mechanisms during the last 12,000 yr. A robust chronological model based on AMS 14C dated pollen concentrates supports our high-resolution multi-proxy study. Long-term trends reveal low lake levels at the end of the Younger Dryas, during the mid-Holocene interval 6.6 to 5.4 cal ka BP, and during the last 3000 years. In contrast, lake levels are mostly high during the Early and Mid-Holocene. The record also shows sub-millennial- to centennial-scale decreases in Western Mediterranean winter rain at 11.4, 10.3, 9.2, 8.2, 7.2, 6.6, 6.0, 5.4, 5.0, 4.4, 3.5, 2.9, 2.2, 1.9, 1.7, 1.5, 1.0, 0.7, and 0.2 cal ka BP. Early Holocene winter rain minima are in phase with cooling events and millennial-scale meltwater discharges in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Our proxy parameters do not show so far a clear impact of Saharan air masses on Mediterranean hydro-climate in North Africa. However, a significant hydro-climatic shift at the end of the African Humid Period (∼5 ka) indicates a change in climate forcing mechanisms. The Late Holocene climate variability in the Middle Atlas features a multi-centennial-scale NAO-type pattern, with Atlantic cooling and Western Mediterranean winter rain maxima generally

  14. What caused the spring intensification and winter demise of the 2011 drought over Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D. Nelun; Mo, Kingtse C.; Fu, Rong; Pu, Bing; Bowerman, Adam; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Solis, Ruben S.; Yin, Lei; Mace, Robert E.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Ren, Tong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    The 2011 Texas drought, the worst 1-year drought on record, was characterized by spring intensification of rainfall deficit and surface dryness. Such spring intensification was led by an unusually strong increase of convective inhibition (CIN), which suppressed convection at the time critical for the onset of the April-June rainfall season. The CIN increase appeared to be caused by strong sub-seasonal anomalously westerly winds at 850 hPa (U850) in April, in addition to surface dryness due to cumulative rainfall deficit since fall of 2010. The anomalous U850 advected warm dry air from the Mexican Plateau to Texas, enhancing cap inversion, and exacerbating static stability initially elevated by an anomalously high surface Bowen ratio due to rainfall deficits from winter through spring over Texas. Strengthened westerly U850 in April, in addition to the persistent rainfall deficits from winter through spring, are common characteristics in other strong drought events experienced over Texas. Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project-type simulations with prescribed La Niña SSTAs in the tropical Pacific do not show a strengthening of westerly U850 in April, suggesting that internal atmospheric variability at intraseasonal scale, instead of La Niña, may initiate the spring drought intensification over Texas. Soil moisture deficits in late spring are significantly correlated with positive 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the south central U.S. 2-3 weeks later, suggesting that intensified surface dryness in late-spring could reinforce the drought-inducing anomalous mid-tropospheric high. The drought diminished in the winter of 2011/2012 despite a second La Niña event. Our analysis suggests an important role for strong westerly wind anomalies, the resultant increase of CIN in spring, and subsequent positive feedback between dry surface anomalies and the anomalous large-scale circulation pattern in drought intensification. Clarification of the mechanisms behind

  15. THE YIELD OF LETTUCE BREEDING LINE UNDER LED LAMPS IN WINTER GREENHOUSE IN THE NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dalke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is widely known and favorite vegetable crop among people. In Europe the main production of lettuce is performed on protected ground with application of  artificial  light  sources. The artificially-lighted  culture  of salad became very actually acquired in the north. Previously, on the basis of multi-year studies on yield registration and experiments with different regimes of lighting we have defined the appropriate parameters of supplementary lighting for lettuce with sodium high-pressure lamps that provided the production in different seasons per year. The aim was to study the accumulation of biomass and yield quality in lettuce ‘Aphytsion’ being grown in winter rotation under light-emitting diodes lamps. The accumulation of biomass and yield quality was studied in ‘Aphytsion’,  grown in winter rotation under lightemitting diodes lamps ECOLED-BIO-112-185WD120 UniversaLED (ООО ‘GK’  ‘CET’, Perm, in  industrial greenhouse OOO ‘Prigorodniy’  at Syktyvkar city. The commodity  output  was obtained  for  two  cycle  of  cultivation, November-December  and  December-January.  Yield  of foliage biomass was 2.4 kg/m2 with flow density PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation about 90 μmole quantum/m2  s. at 20 W/m2 with total light energy 54 MJ/m2  supplied to plants from LED lamps. The plants produced about 0.5 g. of dry weight calculated on one mole of spent light energy. Energy efficiency of PAR was 3% that corresponded with data observed earlier with sodium high-pressure lamps. The conclusion was made about the suitableness of this type of light-emitting diode lamps for lettuce cultivation in winter rotation in first photic zone. It was recommended to increase duration of supplemental lighting up to 22-24 hours in December and up to 20-22 hours in January to improve the productivity and biological value of plant output. It enables to raise RAP income in plants by 35 %, on

  16. Combined Use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A Images for Winter Crop Mapping and Winter Wheat Yield Assessment at Regional Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Skakun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Timely and accurate information on crop yield and production is critical to many applications within agriculture monitoring. Thanks to its coverage and temporal resolution, coarse spatial resolution satellite imagery has always been a source of valuable information for yield forecasting and assessment at national and regional scales. With availability of free images acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing satellites, it becomes possible to provide temporal resolution of 3–5 days, and therefore, to develop next generation agriculture products at higher spatial resolution (10–30 m. This paper explores the combined use of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A for winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment at regional scale. For the former, we adapt a previously developed approach for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument at 250 m resolution that allows automatic mapping of winter crops taking into account a priori knowledge on crop calendar. For the latter, we use a generalized winter wheat yield forecasting model that is based on estimation of the peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from MODIS image time-series, and further downscaled to be applicable at 30 m resolution. We show that integration of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A improves both winter crop mapping and winter wheat yield assessment. In particular, the error of winter wheat yield estimates can be reduced up to 1.8 times compared to using a single satellite.

  17. Is the OJIP Test a Reliable Indicator of Winter Hardiness and Freezing Tolerance of Common Wheat and Triticale under Variable Winter Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapacz, Marcin; Sasal, Monika; Kalaji, Hazem M.; Kościelniak, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    OJIP analysis, which explores changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemical performance, has been used as a measure of plant susceptibility to stress. However, in the case of freezing tolerance and winter hardiness, which are highly environmentally variable, the use of this method can give ambiguous results depending on the species as well as the sampling year and time. To clarify this issue, we performed chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over three subsequent winters (2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13) on 220 accessions of common winter wheat and 139 accessions of winter triticale. After freezing, leaves were collected from cold-acclimated plants in the laboratory and field-grown plants. Observations of field survival in seven locations across Poland and measurements of freezing tolerance of the studied plants were also recorded. Our results confirm that the OJIP test is a reliable indicator of winter hardiness and freezing tolerance of common wheat and triticale under unstable winter environments. Regardless of species, the testing conditions giving the most reliable results were identical, and the reliability of the test could be easily checked by analysis of some relationships between OJIP-test parameters. We also found that triticale is more winter hardy and freezing tolerant than wheat. In addition, the two species were characterized by different patterns of photosynthetic apparatus acclimation to cold. PMID:26230839

  18. Head injuries in winter sports: downhill skiing, snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating and ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Brian; McDonald, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Winter sports are often associated with high speed, which carries with it the potential for collision. As such, head injuries are among the more commonly encountered injuries in winter-related sporting activities. This article focuses on popular winter sports such as downhill skiing and snowboarding, sledding, snowmobiling, ice skating, and hockey. In virtually all of these activities, the incidence and severity of head injuries can be reduced by the use of appropriate protective headgear.

  19. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  20. Climate Change Affects Winter Chill for Temperate Fruit and Nut Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Eike Luedeling; Girvetz, Evan H.; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Brown, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate fruit and nut trees require adequate winter chill to produce economically viable yields. Global warming has the potential to reduce available winter chill and greatly impact crop yields. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated winter chill for two past (1975 and 2000) and 18 future scenarios (mid and end 21st century; 3 Global Climate Models [GCMs]; 3 greenhouse gas emissions [GHG] scenarios). For 4,293 weather stations around the world and GCM projections, Safe Win...

  1. Over-winter ecology of Oncorhynchus nerka in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhart, G.B.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    1996-05-01

    Included in this section of the report on limnology of Lakes in the Snake River Plain are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995. The winter is usually a very harsh period for animals, and little is know about the over-winter ecology os sockeye salmon. They are active a temperatures below 4 F. The chapter discusses methods and results. 14 figs, 4 tabs.

  2. STUDIES ON THE RESISTANCE TO WINTERING OF THE ITALIAN BEES APIS MELLIFERA LIGUSTICA REARED IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA PÂRVU; CORINA AURELIA ZUGRAVU; IOANA CRISTINA ANDRONIE; CARMEN BERGHEŞ; IUDITH IPATE

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted on bee families of Apis mellifera carpatica and Apis mellifera ligustica breeds. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The experimental period was of 6 months. The resistance to wintering was evaluated on the basis of several apicultural indicators: mortality, feed intake during the winter, general state of the family. Mortality was 35% during wintering for the Carpathian bee and 52% for the Italian bee. The differences were very significant (p≤0.001). When winte...

  3. Neurotic psychopathology and alexithymia among winter swimmers and controls - a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeman, Sari; Hirvonen, Jorma; Joukamaa, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Random samples of 25 voluntary Finnish winter swimmers (7 males, 18 females) and 11 controls (3 males, 8 females were followed prospectively during the winter season from October 1999 to May 2000 to (determine whether winter swimming is beneficial for mental well-being, as many of its practitioners claim. The Crown-Crisp Experimental Index (CCEI) was used for measuring free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessionality, depression, somatic anxiety and hysteria, and the 20-item version of t...

  4. Patterns of winter distribution and abundance of sedentary lesser Kestrek (Falcon naumanni) in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Negro, Juan J.; De la Riva, M.; Bustamante, Javier

    1991-01-01

    [EN] During 1988—1989 we studied a wintering population of Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumnanni) in the south of Spain, by mapping the area in which they occurred and estimating their numbers. Adults of both sexes remained during winter in the vicinity of the colony at which they had previously bred. The percentage of sedentary birds to total breeders varied from 6 to 88%. All juveniles left the colonies during winter, migrating to Africa. All colonies with sedentary...

  5. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe’s ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between natural snow conditions and monthly overnight stays is estimated. Based on these model results, we quantify the risk of tourism demand losses due to weather variability and assess the potential impacts o...

  6. Composite Simulation of Dynamic Water Content and Water Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liming

    2014-01-01

    In order to forecast the effect of climate warming on agriculture, ENWATBAL model was used to simulate evapotranspiration of winter wheat due to the change of air temperature and precipitation in the coming decades. The effect of climate warming on winter wheat yield in the future decades was speculated by the past yield and climate data in last decades, and the possible water use efficiency in the future decades was calculated. The results indicate that climate warming would increase winter ...

  7. Aerosol absorption over Bay of Bengal during winter: Variability and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sumita; Ramachandran, S.; Rajesh, T. A.; Srivastava, Rohit

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) mass concentration were made over the Bay of Bengal (BoB) during the period of 27 December 2008-29 January 2009. BC mass concentration is highest over the Coastal-BoB (5.1 ± 3.0 μg m-3) and is more than a factor of two higher than the South-BoB (2.5 ± 1.4 μg m-3). The source regions of BC over the study region is identified using the Total Potential Source Contribution Function (TPSCF) analysis. The probable source regions over the Coastal-BoB and North-BoB (India, Indo-Gangetic plain, Pakistan, Afghanistan) are found to be distinctly different than that over the East-BoB and South-BoB (mostly from southeast Asia). The spectral distribution of absorption coefficients suggested similar source types of BC present over the entire BoB, with significant contribution of absorbing aerosols from the sources other than fossil fuel burning. Our results suggest that the entire BoB remains dominantly influenced by aerosols emitted from biomass/biofuel burning during winter. Single scattering albedo (SSA) is found to vary in the range of 0.63-0.70 over different parts of BoB with the lowest value over Coastal-BoB and the highest value over South-BoB. SSA values observed in the present study are the lowest ever reported over the BoB in the last decade indicating highest concentration of absorbing aerosols over the BoB during winter. The present work and the results obtained will have strong implications while investigating the effect of anthropogenic aerosols over marine environment, and in estimating the spatiotemporal variation of aerosol radiative impact.

  8. Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome: delineation of the spectrum in 42 cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloes, Alain; Di Donato, Nataliya; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Jongmans, Marjolijn; Abdul-Raman, Omar A; Albrecht, Beate; Allanson, Judith; Brunner, Han; Bertola, Debora; Chassaing, Nicolas; David, Albert; Devriendt, Koen; Eftekhari, Pirayeh; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Faravelli, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Giuliano, Fabienne; Guion Almeida, Leina; Juncos, Jorge; Kempers, Marlies; Eker, Hatice Koçak; Lacombe, Didier; Lin, Angela; Mancini, Grazia; Melis, Daniela; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Siu, Victoria Mok; Morin, Gilles; Nezarati, Marjan; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata J M; Ramer, Jeanette C; Osimani, Sara; Philip, Nicole; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Procaccio, Vincent; Roseli, Zeichi-Seide; Rossi, Massimiliano; Rusu, Cristina; Sznajer, Yves; Templin, Ludivine; Uliana, Vera; Klaus, Mirjam; Van Bon, Bregje; Van Ravenswaaij, Conny; Wainer, Bruce; Fry, Andrew E; Rump, Andreas; Hoischen, Alexander; Drunat, Séverine; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dobyns, William B; Pilz, Daniela T

    2015-01-01

    Baraitser–Winter, Fryns–Aftimos and cerebrofrontofacial syndrome types 1 and 3 have recently been associated with heterozygous gain-of-function mutations in one of the two ubiquitous cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes ACTB and ACTG1 that encode β- and γ-actins. We present detailed phenotypic descriptions and neuroimaging on 36 patients analyzed by our group and six cases from the literature with a molecularly proven actinopathy (9 ACTG1 and 33 ACTB). The major clinical anomalies are striking dysmorphic facial features with hypertelorism, broad nose with large tip and prominent root, congenital non-myopathic ptosis, ridged metopic suture and arched eyebrows. Iris or retinal coloboma is present in many cases, as is sensorineural deafness. Cleft lip and palate, hallux duplex, congenital heart defects and renal tract anomalies are seen in some cases. Microcephaly may develop with time. Nearly all patients with ACTG1 mutations, and around 60% of those with ACTB mutations have some degree of pachygyria with anteroposterior severity gradient, rarely lissencephaly or neuronal heterotopia. Reduction of shoulder girdle muscle bulk and progressive joint stiffness is common. Early muscular involvement, occasionally with congenital arthrogryposis, may be present. Progressive, severe dystonia was seen in one family. Intellectual disability and epilepsy are variable in severity and largely correlate with CNS anomalies. One patient developed acute lymphocytic leukemia, and another a cutaneous lymphoma, indicating that actinopathies may be cancer-predisposing disorders. Considering the multifaceted role of actins in cell physiology, we hypothesize that some clinical manifestations may be partially mutation specific. Baraitser–Winter cerebrofrontofacial syndrome is our suggested designation for this clinical entity. PMID:25052316

  9. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  10. Clustering of European winter storms: A multi-model perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renggli, Dominik; Buettner, Annemarie; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel; Zimmerli, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The storm series over Europe in 1990 (Daria, Vivian, Wiebke, Herta) and 1999 (Anatol, Lothar, Martin) are very well known. Such clusters of severe events strongly affect the seasonally accumulated damage statistics. The (re)insurance industry has quantified clustering by using distribution assumptions deduced from the historical storm activity of the last 30 to 40 years. The use of storm series simulated by climate models has only started recently. Climate model runs can potentially represent 100s to 1000s of years, allowing a more detailed quantification of clustering than the history of the last few decades. However, it is unknown how sensitive the representation of clustering is to systematic biases. Using a multi-model ensemble allows quantifying that uncertainty. This work uses CMIP5 decadal ensemble hindcasts to study clustering of European winter storms from a multi-model perspective. An objective identification algorithm extracts winter storms (September to April) in the gridded 6-hourly wind data. Since the skill of European storm predictions is very limited on the decadal scale, the different hindcast runs are interpreted as independent realizations. As a consequence, the available hindcast ensemble represents several 1000 simulated storm seasons. The seasonal clustering of winter storms is quantified using the dispersion coefficient. The benchmark for the decadal prediction models is the 20th Century Reanalysis. The decadal prediction models are able to reproduce typical features of the clustering characteristics observed in the reanalysis data. Clustering occurs in all analyzed models over the North Atlantic and European region, in particular over Great Britain and Scandinavia as well as over Iberia (i.e. the exit regions of the North Atlantic storm track). Clustering is generally weaker in the models compared to reanalysis, although the differences between different models are substantial. In contrast to existing studies, clustering is driven by weak

  11. Excess winter deaths in Europe: a multi-country descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Tom; Southgate, Rosamund J; Waite, Thomas; Harrell, Ruth; Kovats, Sari; Bone, Angie; Doyle, Yvonne; Murray, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    Winter deaths are a known health and social care challenge for many countries. A previous international comparison showed significant differences in excess winter deaths across Europe in the 1990s, with the northern countries having lower excess winter mortality than those in southern Europe. The Excess Winter Deaths Index (EWDI) is the ratio of deaths in the winter period (December to March) compared with deaths in the non-winter period. Data from the Eurostat database and national registries were used to calculate the EWDI for 31 countries in Europe across the time period 2002/2003 to 2010/2011. National EWDI values show heterogeneity, with a broad pattern of increasing EWDI values from northern to southern Europe and increasing mean winter temperature (r(2) = 0.50, P > 0.0001). Malta, Portugal, Spain, Cyprus and Belgium all had an EWDI that was statistically significantly higher than the average EWDI for the other 30 European countries. There was no clear association between country-level EWDI and the level of inter-annual variability in winter temperature across Europe. This article demonstrates the differences in EWDI that exist between European countries with implications for both research and policy. Many deaths may be avoidable as environmental, social and personal factors are known to contribute to winter mortality. We now need to work to better understand the causes of inter-country differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-10-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  13. Survival of Wild Adults of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann under Natural Winter Conditions in North East Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Peñarrubia-María

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwintering of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann at the northern limits of its geographic distribution is not yet well known. With the aim of estimating the survival rate of medfly adults in northeast Spain under natural winter conditions, a two-winter-season trial was carried out. A control was carried out in a climatic chamber at 25°C. The results showed that medfly adults were unable to survive the entire winter season in the Girona area. Climatic conditions, including the daily minimum temperature, daily maximum temperature and the high rainfall, appeared to be involved in adult mortality in winter.

  14. Projecting the impact of climate change on phenology of winter wheat in northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juknys, Romualdas; Velička, Rimantas; Kanapickas, Arvydas; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita; Masilionytė, Laura; Vagusevičienė, Ilona; Pupalienė, Rita; Klepeckas, Martynas; Sujetovienė, Gintarė

    2017-05-01

    Climate warming and a shift in the timing of phenological phases, which lead to changes in the duration of the vegetation period may have an essential impact on the productivity of winter crops. The main purpose of this study is to examine climate change-related long-term (1961-2015) changes in the duration of both initial (pre-winter) and main (post-winter) winter wheat vegetation seasons and to present the projection of future phenological changes until the end of this century. Delay and shortening of pre-winter vegetation period, as well as the advancement and slight extension of the post-winter vegetation period, resulted in the reduction of whole winter wheat vegetation period by more than 1 week over the investigated 55 years. Projected changes in the timing of phenological phases which define limits of a main vegetation period differ essentially from the observed period. According to pessimistic (Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5) scenario, the advancement of winter wheat maturity phase by almost 30 days and the shortening of post-winter vegetation season by 15 days are foreseen for a far (2071-2100) projection. An increase in the available chilling amount is specific not only to the investigated historical period (1960-2015) but also to the projected period according to the climate change scenarios of climate warming for all three projection periods. Consequently, the projected climate warming does not pose a threat of plant vernalization shortage in the investigated geographical latitudes.

  15. Winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest: The roles of moisture, temperature, and snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contosta, Alexandra R.; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.; Varner, Ruth K.; Frey, Serita D.

    2016-12-01

    Winter soil respiration at midlatitudes can comprise a substantial portion of annual ecosystem carbon loss. However, winter soil carbon dynamics in these areas, which are often characterized by shallow snow cover, are poorly understood due to infrequent sampling at the soil surface. Our objectives were to continuously measure winter CO2 flux from soils and the overlying snowpack while also monitoring drivers of winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest. We show that the relative roles of soil temperature and moisture in driving winter CO2 flux differed within a single soil-to-snow profile. Surface soil temperatures had a strong, positive influence on CO2 flux from the snowpack, while soil moisture exerted a negative control on soil CO2 flux within the soil profile. Rapid fluctuations in snow depth throughout the winter likely created the dynamic soil temperature and moisture conditions that drove divergent patterns in soil respiration at different depths. Such dynamic conditions differ from many previous studies of winter soil microclimate and respiration, where soil temperature and moisture are relatively stable until snowmelt. The differential response of soil respiration to temperature and moisture across depths was also a unique finding as previous work has not simultaneously quantified CO2 flux from soils and the snowpack. The complex interplay we observed among snow depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and CO2 flux suggests that winter soil respiration in areas with shallow seasonal snow cover is more variable than previously understood and may fluctuate considerably in the future given winter climate change.

  16. Use of geolocators reveals previously unknown Chinese and Korean scaly-sided merganser wintering sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soloveyva, Diana; Afanasiev, Vsevolod; Fox, James W.

    2012-01-01

    areas in successive years, suggesting winter fidelity to catchments if not specific sites. A single female from the adjacent Avvakumovka catchment wintered on saltwater in Korea, at least 1300 km east of Chinese wintering birds. Most sea duck species (Tribe Mergini) form pairs away from breeding areas......, suggesting that this high level of winter dispersal amongst close-nesting females is a potential mechanism to maintain gene flow in this threatened species that has specialist habitat requirements. Hence, female scaly-sided mergansers disperse widely from breeding areas, but show fidelity to nesting areas...

  17. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Stelzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  18. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Ralph J; Chittka, Lars; Carlton, Marc; Ings, Thomas C

    2010-03-05

    Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7) in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008) and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  19. 3rd International Winter School and Conference on Network Science

    CERN Document Server

    Barzel, Baruch; Puzis, Rami

    2017-01-01

    This book contains original research chapters related to the interdisciplinary field of complex networks spanning biological and environmental networks, social, technological, and economic networks. Many natural phenomena can be modeled as networks where nodes are the primitive compounds and links represent their interactions, similarities, or distances of sorts. Complex networks have an enormous impact on research in various fields like biology, social sciences, engineering, and cyber-security to name a few. The topology of a network often encompasses important information on the functionality and dynamics of the system or the phenomenon it represents. Network science is an emerging interdisciplinary discipline that provides tools and insights to researchers in a variety of domains. NetSci-X is the central winter conference within the field and brings together leading researchers and innovators to connect, meet, and establish interdisciplinary channels for collaboration. It is the largest and best known even...

  20. NAO influence on extreme winter temperatures in Madrid (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, L.; Garcia, R.; Hernandez, E.; Teso, T. del [Dept. Fisica de la Tierra II, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Diaz, J. [Centro Universitario de Salud Publica, Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain)

    2002-12-01

    Extremely cold days (ECDs), with minimum temperatures lower than -4.6 C, have been analysed for Madrid. This threshold corresponds to the 5th percentile of the period 1963-1999. Adopting a case analysis approach, five synoptic patterns have been identified that produce these extremely low temperatures. Three of them are associated with cold air flows over the Iberian Peninsula, and the other two with a lack of significant circulation over the region. A non-linear association with the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) has been identified using log-linear models. The NAO positive phase leads to an increase in the winter frequency of those synoptic patterns associated with stagnant air flow over Iberia, while those characterised by cold, northern flows do not appear to be similarly influenced. (orig.)

  1. Biomass and nutrient cycling by winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koefender

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops are of fundamental importance for the sustainability of the no-tillage system, to ensure soil coverage and to provide benefits for the subsequent crop. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of biomass and the content and accumulation of nutrients by winter cover crops. The experimental design used in the experiment was a randomized complete block with four replications and six treatments: oilseed radish, vetch, black oats, vetch + black oats, vetch + oilseed radish and fallow. Black oat, oilseed radish in single cultivation and black oat + vetch and vetch + oilseed radish intercroppings showed higher dry matter production. Vetch + oilseed radish intercropping demonstrates higher performance regarding cycling of nutrients, with higher accumulations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Zn, Fe, Na and B.

  2. Thermal environment and sleep in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yosuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Nabeshima, Yuki; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the sleep and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from 0 AM to 7 AM in a gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used emergency supplies consisting of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. Air temperature, humidity were measured around the sleeping subjects through the night. Sleep parameters, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and heart rate of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires relating to thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after sleep. The sleep efficiency indices were lower when the subjects slept using the blankets. As the microclimate temperature between the human body and blanket was lower, mean skin temperature was significantly lower in the case of blankets.

  3. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  4. A further study of spectral energetics in the winter atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.-C.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of standing (time-mean) and transient (time-departure) waves to the atmospheric spectral energetics are analyzed using the NMC (National Meteorological Center) data of winter 1976-1977. It is found that the standing long waves are responsible for the major horizontal sensible heat transport and also for the significant horizontal momentum transport. Furthermore, the major contents of eddy available energy and eddy kinetic energy of standing waves are in the long-wave regime. However, the spectral energetics analysis indicates that the standing long waves are energetically less efficient than the transient long and short waves. It is suggested that the lower efficiency of the standing long waves in the atmospheric energetics may be one of the physical factors causing the underforecast of the standing long waves in the numerical weather prediction models.

  5. NAO influence on extreme winter temperatures in Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Prieto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Extremely cold days (ECDs, with minimum temperatures lower than -4.6°C, have been analysed for Madrid. This threshold corresponds to the 5th percentile of the period 1963–1999. Adopting a case analysis approach, five synoptic patterns have been identified that produce these extremely low temperatures. Three of them are associated with cold air flows over the Iberian Peninsula, and the other two with a lack of significant circulation over the region. A nonlinear association with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO has been identified using log-linear models. The NAO positive phase leads to an increase in the winter frequency of those synoptic patterns associated with stagnant air flow over Iberia, while those characterised by cold, northern flows do not appear to be similarly influenced.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; synoptic-scale meteorology; general or miscellaneous

  6. CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings, and Gauge Theory is the analytic continuation of the yearly training school of the former EC-RTN string network "Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe". The 2010 edition of the school is supported and organized by the CERN Theory Divison, and will take place from Monday January 25 to Friday January 29, at CERN. As its predecessors, this school is meant primarily for training of doctoral students and young postdoctoral researchers in recent developments in theoretical high-energy physics and string theory. The programme of the school will consist of five series of pedagogical lectures, complemented by tutorial discussion sessions in the afternoons. Previous schools in this series were organized in 2005 at SISSA in Trieste, and in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 at CERN, Geneva. Other similar schools have been organized in the past by the former related RTN network "The Quantum Structure of Spacetime and the Geometric Nature of Fundamenta...

  7. SOME ENVIRONMENTEAL FACTORS AFFECTING BROILER HOUSING IN WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek FOUDA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to study some environmental factors affecting broiler housing in winter season. The results showed that, temperature fluctuations between house ceiling and floor ranged between 0.4 to 5.93 ºC during the first two days of age. The average house temperature reduced gradually from 29.7 to 21.3 ºC. The indoor relative humidity ranged between 43.6 to 74.3 %. Specific heating power, specific fuel consumption and heating energy requirements ranged between 3850.2 W/ºC , 0.34 kg /h. ºC and 308.9 kJ/h. kg at the first week of age to 6213.4 W/ºC , 0.36 kg /h. ºC and 19.3 kJ/h. kg at the end of the life respectively

  8. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  9. Assessing solar energy and water use efficiencies in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar, G.; Hipps, L. E.; Kanemasu, E. T.

    1982-01-01

    The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.

  10. Effects of Winter Climate Change on Plant and Soil Ecology of Cryoturbated Non-Sorted Circles Tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, S.; Krab, E. J.; Rönnefarth, J.; Becher, M.; Blume-Werry, G.; Kreyling, J.; Keuper, F.; Klaminder, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Lundin, E. J.; Milbau, A.; Teuber, L. M.; Weedon, J.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Cryoturbation is the movement of soil particles through repeated freeze-thaw events, resulting in the burial of large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). Non-sorted circles are a common type of cryoturbated ground in arctic and alpine areas underlain by permafrost. They appear as sparsely vegetated areas surrounded by denser tundra vegetation. Climate change in arctic environments will likely increase winter precipitation in large parts of the Arctic in Europe, Asia and America, resulting in deeper snow cover. Snow is a good thermal insulator and modifications in freezing intensity and freeze-thaw cycles are therefore likely, which could affect the burial of organic matter. Moreover, vegetation, soil fauna and soil microbial communities, which are important drivers of SOC dynamics, may be impacted directly by the altered winter conditions and indirectly by reduced cryoturbation. We aimed to investigate this, and therefore subjected non-sorted circles in North-Swedish subarctic alpine tundra to two years of increased thermal insulation in winter and spring, using snow fences or fibre cloth (Figure 1). Both snow fences and fibre cloth manipulations increased surface soil temperatures, especially daily minimum temperatures, and strongly reduced freeze-thaw frequency. We compared the impacts of these manipulations on plant performance, soil chemistry, soil fauna and soil microbial communities between the centre of the circles and the dense tundra heath just outside. Directly after snowmelt, the extra winter insulation decreased plant leaf damage, both in the centre and in adjacent tundra, but responses differed between species. We will further present the responses of plant phenology and growth, soil pH and dissolved organic carbon content, soil fauna activity, Collembola community composition and body size distribution, as well as fungal and bacterial diversity profiles and functional groups abundance. We expect that winter warming due to increased snow cover and

  11. Flow variability within the Alaska Coastal Current in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa; Wang, David; Wijesekera, Hemantha; Scott Pegau, W.; Moum, James N.

    2017-05-01

    Coastal circulation off Kayak Island in the northern Gulf of Alaska was explored in wintertime (October 2012 to March 2013) by deploying nine moorings within the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC). Hydrographic, bottom-pressure, and velocity observations depicted well the winter variability of the ACC. Atmospheric observations showed a net loss of heat, 30 W m-2 or more, from the ocean to the atmosphere and indicated that storms with downwelling-favorable winds over 10 m s-1 frequently passed over the area. Due to vigorous mixing during storms, the waters were well-mixed or weakly stratified whereas bottom-pressure anomalies were mainly related to surface-elevation fluctuations and indicated that there was also a cross-shelf surface-elevation gradient. Current observations showed along-shelf nearly barotropic subtidal flow of 40 cm s-1 or more throughout the water column. They also indicated that along-shelf flow was primarily driven by the cross-shelf pressure gradient resulting from the cross-shelf surface-elevation gradient and not by wind stress. Analyses suggested that flow dynamics within the ACC in winter were well-described by vertically averaged momentum equations and showed a dominance of the cross-shelf pressure gradient that was mainly balanced by the Coriolis term. Observations also showed that when winds relaxed, cold low-salinity waters moved offshore and stratification was reestablished. Consequently, near-shore waters were less dense, i.e., cooler and fresher than offshore waters resulting in the cross-shelf density gradient that may have contributed to the along-shelf flow by generating near-surface currents of ˜20 cm s-1.

  12. Climate Curriculum Modules on Volcanic Eruptions, Geoengineering, and Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2016-12-01

    To support a climate dynamics multidisciplinary curriculum for graduate and senior university students, I will describe proposed on-line modules on volcanic eruptions and climate, geoengineering, and nuclear winter. Each of these topics involves aerosols in the stratosphere and the response of the climate system, but each is distinct, and each is evolving as more research becomes available. While nature can load the stratosphere with sulfate aerosols for several years from large volcanic eruptions, humans could also put sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere on purpose through geoengineering or soot as a result of the fires from a nuclear war. As reported for the first time in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, volcanic eruptions are a natural analog for the climate impacts of potential anthropogenic aerosol injections into the stratosphere, either sulfates from potential attempts to cool the climate to counteract global warming, or smoke that would be produced from fires in cities and industrial targets in a nuclear war. Stratospheric aerosols would change the temperature, precipitation, total insolation, and fraction of diffuse radiation due to their radiative impacts, and could produce more ultraviolet radiation by ozone destruction. Surface ozone concentration could also change by changed transport from the stratosphere as well as changed tropospheric chemistry. There would be two options: 1) Each module would stand alone and could be taught independently, or 2) The volcanic eruptions module would stand alone, and would also serve as a prerequisite for each of the other two modules, which could be taught independently of each other. Each module includes consideration of the physical climate system as well as impacts of the resulting climate change. Geoengineering includes both solar radiation management and carbon dioxide reduction. The geoengineering and nuclear winter modules also include consideration of policy and

  13. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  14. Mid-Winter Dust Storms Near Hellas Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    One of the primary objectives for the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during the Extended Mission is to continue daily monitoring of martian weather as expressed in clouds, dust storms, and patches of polar frost. During the Primary Mission, which lasted from March 1999 through January 2001, changes that occurred over a single martian year (687 Earth days) were observed. Now it is possible to see what the martian atmosphere will do for at least two-thirds of a second martian year, because the Extended Mission will run into April 2002.This picture captures two dust storms, each large enough to cover Arizona or New Mexico. One is located near the lower left, the other at the lower right. Taken on April 8, 2001 (mid-southern winter), this is a mosaic of six MOC daily global images centered around Hellas Planitia in the martian southern hemisphere. Hellas Planitia is the dominant elliptical feature just below the center of the picture. The bright, nearly white surfaces along the lower (southern) edge of the picture are covered by wintertime frost. The strong temperature difference between the winter frost and the warmer air just off the edge of this polar cap generates winds that--at this time of year--are often strong enough to lift dust into large, reddish-brown, billowy clouds.North is up and sunlight illuminates the area from the upper left. The martian equator forms the arc along the top of the picture; 500 kilometers (km) is equal to about 311 miles. The approximately 500 kilometer-wide circular feature just above the center is the crater Huygens.

  15. Conception of ecological strategy «Olympic sport for maintainance of nature» during leadthrough of winter Olympic Games 2022 in Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko O.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted scientific and to scientifically-methodical literatures on issue of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiads. Conception of ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of winter Olympiad is developed 2022 (Ukraine, Carpathians. It was offered, that ecological strategy of organization and leadthrough of Olympiad had an ecological motto «Olympic sport for the maintainance of nature». Strategy included the ways of decision of problem of negative influence of global change of climate on the olympic winter types of sport. The problems of providing of ecological safety of sporting activity are considered in relation to a man and wild-life. Solution is offered questions of the ecological marketing, management and ecological inlightening. The ecological ground of choice of Lvov is conducted as a city of organizer of winter Olympiad 2022. As a mountain-skier center a mountain-skier complex Borzhava, located in the area Carpathians of Ukraine, is offered.

  16. Ornithological Fauna of the Waste Water Treatment Plants in the Northern Left Bank Ukraine (Chernihiv and Kyiv Regions: Winter Populations and Ecological Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedun О. М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses winter bird populations of the waste water treatment plants (WWTP located in the North of Left -bank Ukraine. The said population comprises 12 orders and 29 families. The most numerous are Passeriformes (37 species, Аnsеriformes (16 species and Falconiformes (6 species. Parus major was registered at all types of facilities while most of the others house Passer montanus, Carduelis carduelis, Turdus pilaris, and Parus caeruleus. The largest number of wintering birds was registered at Bortnychi aeration station, Chernihiv municipal WWTP and Chernihiv wool processing factory - 79. 51 and 15 species respectively. The nuclear part of the bird numbers are the species residing at the facilities all year around (65.8 %; species occurring there in winter only account for 34.2 %. Dendrophilous (38 species and hydrophilous (35 species dominate among them. The primary role in forming the winter fauna of the waste water treatment plants belongs to the zones of water bodies and dams.

  17. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    greater in native grasslands than in exotic grasslands.Among the three types of management (mowed, burned, and control) applied to exotic grasses, birds were most abundant in the mowed area. Sedge Wrens, however, were never encountered in mowed sites. Meadowlarks were similarly abundant in all treatments, but Le Conte’s Sparrows were detected only in the control (unmanaged) area. Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) accounted for 93 percent of all rodent captures, with the number of captures peaking December through February. Hispid cotton rat numbers and total rodent numbers were greatest in control and pre-burn areas, and lowest in the mowed area. Mammal diversity, however, was greatest in the mowed habitat.Native and exotic grasslands differed essentially in all categories (bird numbers and diversity, vegetation characteristics, components of variation, diversity of insects and arachnids, and seed abundance and diversity) used to measure and compare them. This indicates that fundamental ecosystem processes have been altered after native grasslands have undergone invasion and ultimate domination by exotic grass species. Future research in Texas grassland ecosystems is essential because: 1) Texas sustains more area in grasslands than any other state or province in the Central Flyway; 2) Texas serves as the winter destination or migration pathway for hundreds of species of birds, including winter residents and Neotropical migrants; 3) ecology, distribution, and numbers of grassland birds wintering in southern latitudes of the United States remains poorly understood; and 4) climate change threatens to further accelerate advances of invading grass species.

  18. Plasma catecholamines, serotonin and their metabolites and beta-endorphin of winter swimmers during one winter. Possible correlations to psychological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Jorma; Lindeman, Sari; Matti, Joukamaa; Huttunen, Pirkko

    2002-11-01

    The study was a follow-up one, in which blood pressure and hormonal changes were investigated during one winter swimming season in winter swimmers (WSs) and non-swimmer controls on three occasions (autumn, winter and spring). Humoral results were compared to psychological traits recorded at the time of the three blood samplings. Mean systolic blood pressure of the WSs fell from 134 +/- 12 mmHg to 128 +/- 12 mmHg (p winter, and a slight but non-significant drop was also seen in the controls. Mean plasma noradrenaline concentrations diminished significantly from autumn to spring, and more so in the WS-group, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Adrenaline levels also showed a decreasing trend, and the change was significant when calculated by using the combined means of both groups. Plasma homovanillic acid and beta-endorphin values were on the same level in all seasonal samples in both groups. Plasma serotonin levels decreased in both groups by about 50 per cent by spring, but 5-HIAA did not change significantly. HVA showed correlation with blood pressure and anxiety in the autumn (r=0.367). In the winter measurement endorphin and hysteria had a negative correlation (r=0.370). In the spring 5-HIAA and obsessionality had a positive correlation (r=0.351). In summary, blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels decreased during winter swimming practice over one winter, but these changes were also observed in the control persons. Plasma serotonin was lower in the spring in both groups. The changes in the humoral status speak for adaptation to the research situation, or reflect seasonal variation from autumn to spring. No clear effect of winter swimming as such was detected.

  19. Winter in the Ouachitas--a severe winter storm signature in Pinus echinata in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Stevenson; Thomas B. Lynch; Pradip Saud; Robert Heineman; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Chris Cerny; James M. Guldin

    2016-01-01

    Each year severe winter storms (≈ice storms) damage trees throughout the southern USA. Arkansas and Oklahoma have a history of severe winter storms. To extend that history back beyond the reach of written records, a distinctive tree ring pattern or signature is needed. Storm-caused breakage, branch loss and bending stress provide that signature. We found a severe storm...

  20. Winter ecology and habitat use of lesser prairie-chickens in west Texas, 2008-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Clint W.; Pirius, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range by more than 90 percent since the late 1800s. The lesser prairie-chicken has been listed as a candidate species for protection under the Endangered Species Act and is undergoing review for actual listing. Populations and distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas are thought to be at or near all time lows. These factors have led to substantially increased concern for conservation of the species. It is apparent that sound management and conservation strategies for lesser prairie-chickens are necessary to ensure the long-term persistence of the species. To develop those strategies, basic ecological information is required. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We examined home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the winters of 2008–9, 2009–10, and 2010–11 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in west Texas. We captured and radio-tagged 53 adult lesser prairie-chickens. We obtained sufficient locations to estimate winter home-range size for 23 individuals. Home-range size did not differ between years or by sex. Although female prairie-chickens had slightly larger home ranges (503.5 ± 34.9 ha) compared to males (489.1 ± 34.9 ha), the differences were not significant (t2 = 0.05, P = 0.96). During the nonbreeding season, we found that 97.2 percent of locations of male and female prairie-chickens alike were within 3.2 kilometers (km) of the lek of capture. Most locations (96.8%) were within 1.7 km of a known lek and almost all locations (99.9%) were within 3.2 km of an available water source. Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges, grassland dominated areas with sand shinnery oak were used more than available, and sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) areas dominated with grassland as well as sand sagebrush areas