WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter cereal cover

  1. Effect of date of termination of a winter cereal rye cover crop (Secale cereale) on corn seedling disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is an expanding conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health, water quality, and potentially crop yields. Presently, winter cereals are the most widely used cover crops in the upper Midwest. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn, ...

  2. Nitrate Leaching from Winter Cereal Cover Crops Using Undisturbed Soil-Column Lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, John J; Ricigliano, Kristin A

    2017-05-01

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching, especially in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under total maximum daily load (TMDL) restraints. Winter cereals are common cool-season crops in the Bay watershed, but studies have not directly compared nitrate-N (NO-N) leaching losses from these species. A 3-yr cover crop lysimeter study was conducted in Beltsville, MD, to directly compare NO-N leaching from a commonly grown cultivar of barley ( L.), rye ( L.), and wheat ( L.), along with a no-cover control, using eight tension-drained undisturbed soil column lysimeters in a completely randomized design with two replicates. The lysimeters were configured to exclude runoff and to estimate NO-N leaching and flow-weighted NO-N concentration (FWNC). The temporal pattern of NO-N leaching showed a consistent highly significant ( leaching with cover crops compared with no cover but showed only small and periodically significant ( leaching was more affected by the quantity of establishment-season (mid-October to mid-December) precipitation than by cover crop species. For example, compared with no cover, winter cereal covers reduced NO-N leaching 95% in a dry year and 50% in wet years, with corresponding reductions in FWNC of 92 and 43%, respectively. These results are important for scientists, nutrient managers, and policymakers because they directly compare NO-N leaching from winter cereal covers and expand knowledge for developing management practices for winter cereals that can improve water quality and increase N efficiency in cropping systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  4. Nitrate leaching from winter cereal cover crops using undisturbed soil-column lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are important management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) leaching in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, which is under Total Maximum Daily Load restraints. Cool-season annual grasses such as barley, rye, or wheat are common cover crops, but studies are needed to directly compare field ni...

  5. Nitrogen and Winter Cover Crop Effects on Spring and Summer Nutrient Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilization of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] with swine-lagoon effluent in summer, April to September, does not match the period of productivity of the winter annual cover crops, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), cereal rye (Secale cereale), and berseem clover (Trifolium alexan...

  6. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  7. Winter rye cover crops as a host for corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health and water quality. However, emerging implementations of cover cropping, such as winter cereals preceding corn, may dampen beneficial rotation effects by putting similar crop species i...

  8. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping.

  9. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  10. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  11. Winter rye cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops have been grown successfully in Iowa, but sometimes a cereal rye cover crop preceding corn can reduce corn yields. Our research examines the effect of a rye cover crop on infections of the succeeding corn crop by soil fungal pathogens. Plant measurements included: growth stage, height, r...

  12. Herbicide spring treatments for the control of brome grasses (Bromus spp. in winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of different ALS-inhibiting herbicides for the control of brome species (Bromus spp. was tested in three field trials in the year 2010 – 2012 in the region of North-West-Bavaria Franken. As a result of the trials the standard herbicide Attribut (Propoxycarbazone was confirmed for the control of brome. In case of infestation with brome and black grass the herbicide Broadway (Pyroxsulam offers a certain control of both problematic grass weeds. This illustrates the high dependency of sufficient brome control in winter cereals on the effectiveness of specific ALS-Inhibitor herbicides. Because of the high risk of herbicide resistance to ACCaseand ALS-inhibiting herbicides in brome, integrated weed management is essential for the sustainable control of brome in winter cereals, respectively winter wheat.

  13. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  14. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

  15. Cereal aphid colony turnover and persistence in winter wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linton Winder

    Full Text Available An understanding of spatial and temporal processes in agricultural ecosystems provides a basis for rational decision-making with regards to the management and husbandry of crops, supporting the implementation of integrated farming strategies. In this study we investigated the spatial and temporal distribution of aphid pests (Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum within winter wheat fields. Using an intensive sampling programme we investigated distributions at both the small (single shoot and large (field scales. Within two fields, a grid with 82 locations was established (area 120 m by 168 m. At each location, 25 shoots were individually marked and aphid counts by observation conducted on 21 and 22 occasions as the crop matured, resulting in 43,050 and 45,100 counts being conducted in the two fields respectively. We quantified field scale spatial distributions, demonstrating that spatial pattern generally emerged, with temporal stability being both species- and field- dependent. We then measured turnover of colonies at the small (individual shoot and large (field scales by comparing consecutive pairs of sampling occasions. Four turnover categories were defined: Empty (no aphids recorded on either occasion; Colonised (aphids recorded on the second occasion but not the first; Extinction (aphids recorded on the first occasion but not the second; Stable (aphids recorded on both occasions. At the field scale, population stability soon established, but, at the small scale there was a consistently high proportion of unoccupied shoots with considerable colonisation and extinction and low stability. The redistribution of aphids within the crop at the local scale is a vulnerability which could be used to disrupt population development--by mediating exposure to ground-active natural enemies and by incurring a metabolic cost caused by the physiological demands to re-establish on a nearby host plant.

  16. Feasibility of winter cover crop production under rainfed conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    CONDITIONS IN THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA. L. MUZANGWA, C. ... planting, resulting in higher weed dry weights at 3 and 6 weeks after planting (WAP). April planted cover crops ...... of micro-arthropods in a sub-tropical forest ecosystem ... American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul ...

  17. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  18. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  19. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  20. Reducing tillage intensity affects the cumulative emergence dynamics of annual grass weeds in winter cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, A; Melander, B; Jensen, P K

    2017-01-01

    Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The aim...... with a higher total emergence seen under direct drilling, followed by pre-sowing tine cultivation and ploughing. The emergence patterns of all species were differently influenced by the tillage systems, suggesting that under direct drilling, in which these species occur simultaneously, management interventions...

  1. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  2. Winter Cover Crop Effects on Nitrate Leaching in Subsurface Drainage as Simulated by RZWQM-DSSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R. W.; Chu, X.; Ma, L.; Li, L.; Kaspar, T.; Jaynes, D.; Saseendran, S. A.; Thorp, K.; Yu, Q.

    2007-12-01

    Planting winter cover crops such as winter rye (Secale cereale L.) after corn and soybean harvest is one of the more promising practices to reduce nitrate loss to streams from tile drainage systems without negatively affecting production. Because availability of replicated tile-drained field data is limited and because use of cover crops to reduce nitrate loss has only been tested over a few years with limited environmental and management conditions, estimating the impacts of cover crops under the range of expected conditions is difficult. If properly tested against observed data, models can objectively estimate the relative effects of different weather conditions and agronomic practices (e.g., various N fertilizer application rates in conjunction with winter cover crops). In this study, an optimized winter wheat cover crop growth component was integrated into the calibrated RZWQM-DSSAT hybrid model and then we compare the observed and simulated effects of a winter cover crop on nitrate leaching losses in subsurface drainage water for a corn-soybean rotation with N fertilizer application rates over 225 kg N ha-1 in corn years. Annual observed and simulated flow-weighted average nitrate concentration (FWANC) in drainage from 2002 to 2005 for the cover crop treatments (CC) were 8.7 and 9.3 mg L-1 compared to 21.3 and 18.2 mg L-1 for no cover crop (CON). The resulting observed and simulated FWANC reductions due to CC were 59% and 49%. Simulations with the optimized model at various N fertilizer rates resulted in average annual drainage N loss differences between CC and CON to increase exponentially from 12 to 34 kg N ha-1 for rates of 11 to 261 kg N ha-1. The results suggest that RZWQM-DSSAT is a promising tool to estimate the relative effects of a winter crop under different conditions on nitrate loss in tile drains and that a winter cover crop can effectively reduce nitrate losses over a range of N fertilizer levels.

  3. Winter cereal yields as affected by animal manure and green manure in organic arable farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Ilse Ankjær

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply through animal and green manures on grain yield of winter wheat and winter rye was investigated from 1997 to 2004 in an organic farming crop rotation experiment in Denmark on three different soil types varying from coarse sand to sandy loam. Two experimental....... Adjusting for these model-estimated side-effects resulted in wheat grain yields gains from manure application of 0.7-1.1 Mg DM ha-1. The apparent recovery efficiency of N in grains (N use efficiency, NUE) from NH4-N in applied manure varied from 23% to 44%. The NUE in the winter cereals of N accumulated......-estimated benefit of increasing N input in grass-clover from 100 to 500 kg N ha-1 varied from 0.8 to 2.0 Mg DM ha-1 between locations. This is a considerably smaller yield increase than obtained for manure application, and it suggests that the productivity in this system may be improved by removing the cuttings...

  4. The Performance of Early-Generation Perennial Winter Cereals at 21 Sites across Four Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Hayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A network of 21 experiments was established across nine countries on four continents and spanning both hemispheres, to evaluate the relative performance of early generation perennial cereal material derived from wheat, rye, and barley and to inform future breeding strategies. The experimental lines were grown in replicated single rows, and first year production and phenology characteristics as well as yield and persistence for up to three years were monitored. The study showed that the existing experimental material is all relatively short-lived (≤3 years, with environments that are milder in summer and winter generally conferring greater longevity. No pedigree was superior across this diverse network of sites although better performing lines at the higher latitude sites were generally derived from Thinopyrum intermedium. By contrast, at lower latitudes the superior lines were generally derived from Th. ponticum and Th. elongatum parentage. The study observed a poor relationship between year 1 performance and productivity in later years, highlighting the need for perennial cereal material with greater longevity to underpin future experimental evaluation, and the importance for breeding programs to emphasize post-year 1 performance in their selections. Hybrid lines derived from the tetraploid durum wheat generally showed greater longevity than derivatives of hexaploid wheat, highlighting potential for greater use of Triticum turgidum in perennial wheat breeding. We advocate a model in future breeding initiatives that develops perennial cereal genotypes for specific target environments rather than a generic product for one global market. These products may include a diversity of cultivars derived from locally adapted annual and perennial parents. In this scenario the breeding program may have access to only a limited range of adapted perennial grass parents. In other situations, such as at very high latitude environments, perennial crops derived

  5. Influence of Salt Stress on Growth and Frost Resistance of Three Winter Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak-Slamani, Renata; Brzóstowicz, Aleksander

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents results of a study on the influence of 0-150 mmol NaCl dm-3 Hoagland solution on growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and frost resistance of seedlings of three winter cereals: wheat - cv. Almari, rye - cv. Amilo, and triticale - cv. Tornado. Sodium chloride at 25 mmol dm-3 caused better growth of wheat shoots and roots, both of fresh and dry matter. Higher concentrations of NaCl in the medium decreased the biomass of the tested seedlings. The influence of NaCl on the chlorophyll content in the seedlings varied. The conductometry method showed that the resistance of the cell walls of wheat and rye to low temperature decreased in the presence of NaCl in the growth medium. Luminescence has shown that seedlings that grew in NaCl-containing medium indicated an impediment of electron flow at a lower temperature than the control plants.

  6. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  7. Sediment yield control in vineyards covered with cereal. Effect of tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    A study has been carried out about the use of plant cover treatment to avoid land degradation in a hillside rainfed vineyard in Madrid under Mediterranean semiarid climate. Three treatments were tested: traditional tillage (lab) soil covered by Brachypodium distrachyon (bra) with self-sowing, soil covered by Scale cereale (sec) mown in Spring. Three erosion plots per treatment were placed in the middle of the strips and 2 simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot in autumn, before and after the tillage. (Author) 7 refs.

  8. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  9. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  10. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  11. Land Use Cover Mapping of Water Melon and Cereals in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Fiorentino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The new high-resolution images from the satellites as IKONOS, SPOT5, Quickbird2 give us the opportunity to map ground features, which were not detectable in the past, by using medium resolution remote sensed data (LANDSAT. More accurate and reliable maps of land cover can then be produced. However, classification procedure with these images is more complex than with the medium resolution remote sensing data for two main reasons: firstly, because of their exiguous number of spectral bands, secondly, owing to high spatial resolution, the assumption of pixel independence does not generally hold. It is then necessary to have a multi-temporal series of images or to use classifiers taking into account also proximal information. The data in this study were (i a remote sensing image taken by SPOT5 satellite in July 2007 and used to discriminate the water melon cover class and, (ii three multi-temporal remote sensing images taken by SPOT5 satellite in May, June and July 2008 used to discriminate water melon and cereal crop cover classes. For water melon recognition, providing a single image in 2007, an object-oriented technique was applied instead of a traditional, per pixel technique obtaining an increase of overall accuracy of 15%. In 2008, since it was available a multi-temporal data set, a traditional ‘Maximum Likelihood’ technique was applied for both water melon and cereal crop cover class. The overall accuracy is greater than 95%.

  12. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  13. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality a...

  14. Impact of sowing density and nitrogen fertilization on Rumex obtusifolius L. development in organic winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rumex obtusifolius L. (broad-leafed dock is very important in organic farming systems. Indeed, concerns about managing this weed without the use of herbicides is one of the major factors limiting the uptake of these systems by conventional farmers. Against this background, we analyzed the impact of two management practices on the development of R. obtusifolius populations in two winter cereal trials: spelt (Triticum spelta [L.] Thell. and triticale (×Triticosecale [A.Camus] Wittm.. The management factors were sowing density (SD and nitrogen fertilization (NF at the tillering stage. The results showed that an increase in SD and NF led to stronger crop growth and better soil coverage by the end of spring, demonstrated by a significant decrease in photosynthetic active radiation (PAR at soil level. However, although there was an SD effect, it was too weak in April to restrict an increase in R. obtusifolius populations through the recruitment of new R. obtusifolius plants. An increase in R. obtusifolius population density was also linked to an increase in the NF level, illustrating the nitrophilic character of this weed. Although an increase in SD and NF at the tillering stage led to a higher canopy density, these two practices failed to reduce R. obtusifolius density in the cereal crops. Nevertheless, cereal yields were shown to be maintained or improved. Our results indicate that, even when combining weed harrowing and some cultural weed control methods, this perennial weed is difficult to control.

  15. Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growing enough cover crop biomass to adequately suppress weeds is one of the primary challenges in reduced-tillage systems that rely on mulch-based weed suppression. We investigated two approaches to increasing cereal rye biomass for improved weed suppression: (1) increasing soil fertility and (2) i...

  16. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L., annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L. yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha-1, referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N0, N2, and N3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standard of 10 mg N l�1 even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest. In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake correlated well with average NO3

  17. Effect of winter cover crops on soil nitrogen availability, corn yield, and nitrate leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S; Huang, B; Bembenek, R

    2001-10-25

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation since 1987. In addition to the cover crop treatments, there were four N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, and 201 kg N ha(-1), referred to as N0, N1, N2, and N3, respectively) applied to corn. The experiment was a randomized split-block design with three replications for each treatment. Lysimeters were installed in 1987 at 0.75 m below the soil surface for leachate collection for the N 0, N 2, and N 3 treatments. The result showed that vetch monoculture had the most influence on soil N availability and corn yield, followed by the bicultures. Rye or ryegrass monoculture had either no effect or an adverse effect on corn yield and soil N availability. Leachate NO3-N concentration was highest where vetch cover crop was planted regardless of N rates, which suggests that N mineralization of vetch N continued well into the fall and winter. Leachate NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N fertilizer rates and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water standard of 10 mg N l(-1) even at recommended N rate for corn in this region (coastal Pacific Northwest). In comparisons of the average NO3-N concentration during the period of high N leaching, monocultured rye and ryegrass or bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch very effectively decreased N leaching in 1998 with dry fall weather. The amount of N available for leaching (determined based on the presidedress nitrate test, the amount of N fertilizer applied, and N uptake) correlated well with average NO3-N during

  18. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Soil Nitrogen Availability, Corn Yield, and Nitrate Leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, S.; Huang, B.; Bembenek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Biculture of nonlegumes and legumes could serve as cover crops for increasing main crop yield, while reducing NO3 leaching. This study, conducted from 1994 to 1999, determined the effect of monocultured cereal rye (Secale cereale L.), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and bicultured rye/vetch and ryegrass/vetch on N availability in soil, corn (Zea mays L.) yield, and NO3-N leaching in a silt loam soil. The field had been in corn and cover crop rotation sin...

  19. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  20. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  1. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  2. Climate Change: Natural Water and Fertilization Effects on Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) Yield in Monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    . Akad. Tidskr. 139:8. Jolánkai, M., 2005. Effect of climate change on plant cultivation. „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 41. 47-58. Kádár, I., 1992. A növénytáplálás alapelvei és módszerei. MTA TAKI. Budapest. 398 p. Kádár, I., 2005. A rozs (Secale cereale L.) műtrágyázása meszes csernozjom talajon. Növénytermelés. In press Kádár, I., Lásztity, B. & Szemes I., 1982. Az őszi rozs tápanyagfelvételének vizsgálata szabadföldi tartamkísérletben. II. Levélanalízis. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu felvétele. Agrokémia és Talajtan. 31. 17-28. Kádár, I., Szemes, I. & Lásztity, B., 1984. Relationship between "year effect" and state of nutrition in a long-term winter rye experiment. Növénytermelés. 33. 235-241. Kádár, I. & Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA Talajtani és Agrokémiai Kutató Intézete. Budapest. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajokon. MTA Doktori Értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest. Láng, I., 2005. Éghajlat és időjárás: változás-hatás-válaszadás. „AGRO-21" Füzetek. 43. 3-10. Láng, I., Harnos, Zs. & Jolánkai, M., 2004. Alkalmazkodási stratégiák klímaváltozás esetére: nemzetközi tapasztalatok hazai lehetőségek. "AGRO-21" Füzetek. 35. 70-77. Márton, L., 2002. Climate fluctuations and the effects of N fertilizer on the yield of rye (Secale cereale L.). Plant Production. 51. 199-210. Márton, L., 2004. Rainfall and fertilization effects on crops yield in a global climate change. In: Proc. Role of Multipurpose Agriculture in Sustaining Global Environment-AGROENVIRON 2004 (Udine, 20-24. October 2004). Part 3. 451-456. DPVTA. Udine. Márton, L., 2005a. Disasters as drought-, and rainfall excess and artificial fertilization effects on crop yield. In: Proc. International Conference on Energy, Environment and Disasters-INCEED2005 (Charlotte, 24-30. July 2005). 49-50. ISEG. Charlotte. Márton L., 2005b. Artificial fertilizers and climate change impacts on crops yield. In: Proc

  3. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  4. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  5. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  6. Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia cerealis Isolated from Diseased Wheat Fields and Evaluation of the Resistance of Korean Winter Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sook Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was identified as a sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis that the isolates from abnormal symptoms in wheat that showed yellowing leaves, necrotic spot on stem base and dead tillers. These isolates have slower growth property and fewer mycelia than Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(1A (KACC 40106. They showed binuclear cell, same media cultural and DNA characteristics to R. cerealis. They caused same symptoms on leaves and stem base appeared in artificial inoculation test, comparing to diseased wheat fields and also affect to maturing of kernels. They have optimal growth temperature and acidity on the artificial media as 20~25℃ and pH 5~7, respectively. In the investigation of varietal resistance of Korean winter cereal crops to sharp eyespot, there was no resistant in wheat cultivars that all materials infected over 20% diseased ratio. 12 cultivars including ``Anbaekmil``, however, considered to moderate resistance with 20 to 30% infection ratio. The others crops using in feeding, whole crop barley, oat, rye and triticale were resistant below 15% diseased degree except the rye that showed over 50% infection rate. It was the first evaluation to sharp eyespot resistance for the Korean feeding crop cultivars. Most tested Korean barley cultivars for malting and food were moderate and susceptible to the sharp eyespot. Only 3 hulled barley, ``Tapgolbori``, ``Albori`` and ``Seodunchalbori``, showed resistance with less than 10% diseased ratio. All tested naked barley cultivars showed susceptible response to the disease.

  7. Donor of winter rye short stem (Secale cereale L. Gnom 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article proves that the genetic cluster analysis using of parents – offspring system at the period of 38 generations of directional intentional selection to short stem, the height of winter rye plants has been reduced less than 90 cm with simultaneously productivity integral components increasing. Directional selection on parent plants short stem has revealed pleiotropic effects to increasing averages of productivity yield capacity, spike length, flowers number, grains, and short stem and simultaneously its productivity reducing, plant and weight reducing of 100 direct descendants grains. Plant height donor of short stem Gnome 1 has been controlled prevailing by genetic factors and has been less influenced by environmental conditions. Selection by enlargement of elite plants grains has predetermined genetically increasing of the average height of families in the next generation without the concept selection requirements satisfaction. Therefore, the directed selections, by the structural analysis results, are annually held in two phases, first – to the expressed short stem and then among of them – to the high weight of 100 grains per plant and desirable productivity elements. A creative dominant short stem donor with stems up to 90 cm and a weight of 100 grains per plant more than 4.0 g has been made. A short stem spike shortness donor Dwarf 1possesses a significant reserve of common genetic mutation of quantitative characteristics, which can be used by direct and indirect selection. This population has been represented by its large amount, in order to enhance capabilities of directional selection plants short stem providing with the desired productivity components during the studying. Informative additive genetic cluster analysis is high. Plants productivity is considered to be extremely complicated selection characteristics, including many component constituents parts related genetically. One of these traits changing inevitably causes

  8. Output of continuous directed selection aimed at short stem development in Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Скорик

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides progress report on the barley of F3к-10029/Saratovske 4 height decreasing throughout 1974 to 2012 by way of selecting plants of the shortest stem. 38 years of selecting the shortest stem genotypes cut down plant height by 5,7 times at the background of dominant Hl gene expression. Average plant height during 38 breeding cycles was descending by 2,69 cm, but this was not an even trend. New creative donor for ultimate short stem characteristic, Gnome 3, has been developed, with Hl-3Hl-3alleles designation. Relative impact on the efficacy of minus-selection by the plant height of the selection differential (38,00% and inheritance coefficient in its narrow sense (14,56% is established. Efficiency of the selection is realized with the decrease of winter rye height plants by 72,08% as expected by the relative breeding forecast. Analyzes is completed for 11 genetic and statistical clusters of average utilitarian characteristics of Gnome 3 ultra short stem rye over the period from 1974 to 2012.

  9. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  10. Soil Water Improvements with the Long Term Use of a Winter Rye Cover Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basche, A.; Kaspar, T.; Archontoulis, S.; Jaynes, D. B.; Sauer, T. J.; Parkin, T.; Miguez, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-third of maize and one-quarter of soybeans globally, is projected to experience increasing rainfall variability with future climate change. One approach to mitigate climate impacts is to utilize crop and soil management practices that enhance soil water storage, reducing the risks of flooding and runoff as well as drought-induced crop water stress. While some research indicates that a winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation increases soil water, producers continue to be concerned that water use by cover crops will reduce water for a following cash crop. We analyzed continuous in-field soil moisture measurements over from 2008-2014 at a Central Iowa research site that has included a winter rye cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation for thirteen years. This period of study included years in the top third of wettest years on record (2008, 2010, 2014) as well as years in the bottom third of driest years (2012, 2013). We found the cover crop treatment to have significantly higher soil water storage from 2012-2014 when compared to the no cover crop treatment and in most years greater soil water content later in the growing season when a cover crop was present. We further found that the winter rye cover crop significantly increased the field capacity water content and plant available water compared to the no cover crop treatment. Finally, in 2012 and 2013, we measured maize and soybean biomass every 2-3 weeks and did not see treatment differences in crop growth, leaf area or nitrogen uptake. Final crop yields were not statistically different between the cover and no cover crop treatment in any of the years of this analysis. This research indicates that the long-term use of a winter rye cover crop can improve soil water dynamics without sacrificing cash crop growth.

  11. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  12. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wass, Eva

    2011-07-01

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  13. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Eva (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  14. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Tubbs, R Scott; Wann, Dylan Q; Sullivan, Dana

    2010-10-01

    Thrips are the most consistent insect pests of seedling cotton in the southeastern United States, where symptoms can range from leaf curling to stand loss. In a 2 year study, thrips adults and immatures were sampled at 14, 21 and 28 days after planting on cotton planted with a thiamethoxam seed treatment in concert with crimson clover, wheat or rye winter cover crops and conventional or strip tillage to investigate potential differences in thrips infestations. Densities of adult thrips, primarily Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), peaked on the first sampling date, whereas immature densities peaked on the second sampling date. Regardless of winter cover crop, plots that received strip tillage experienced significantly fewer thrips at each sampling interval. In addition, assessment of percentage ground cover 42 days after planting showed that there was more than twice as much ground cover in the strip-tilled plots compared with conventionally tilled plots. Correlation analyses showed that increased ground cover was inversely related to thrips densities that occurred on all three sampling dates in 2008 and the final sampling date in 2009. Growers who utilize strip tillage and a winter cover crop can utilize seed treatments for mitigation of early-season thrips infestation.

  15. Winter cover crops as a best management practice for reducing nitrogen leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, W. F.; Scarborough, R. W.; Chirnside, A. E. M.

    1998-10-01

    The role of rye as a winter cover crop to reduce nitrate leaching was investigated over a three-year period on a loamy sand soil. A cover crop was planted after corn in the early fall and killed in late March or early April the following spring. No-tillage and conventional tillage systems were compared on large plots with irrigated corn. A replicated randomized block design experiment was conducted on small plots to evaluate a rye cover crop under no-tillage and conventional tillage and with commercial fertilizer, poultry manure and composted poultry manure as nitrogen fertilizer sources. Nitrogen uptake by the cover crop along with nitrate concentrations in groundwater and the soil profile (0-150 cm) were measured on the large plots. Soil nitrate concentrations and nitrogen uptake by the cover crop were measured on the small plots. There was no significant difference in nitrate concentrations in the groundwater or soil profile with and without a cover crop in either no-tillage or conventional tillage. Annual amounts of nitrate-N leached to the water-table varied from 136.0 to 190.1 kg/ha in 1989 and from 82.4 to 116.2 kg/ha in 1991. Nitrate leaching rates were somewhat lower with a cover crop in 1989, but not in 1990. There was no statistically significant difference in corn grain yields between the cover crop and non-cover crop treatments. The planting date and adequate rainfall are very important in maximizing nitrogen uptake in the fall with a rye cover crop. On the Delmarva Peninsula, the cover crop should probably be planted by October 1 to maximize nitrogen uptake rates in the fall. On loamy sand soils, rye winter cover crops cannot be counted on as a best management practice for reducing nitrate leaching in the Mid-Atlantic states.

  16. Tillage effects on N2O emissions as influenced by a winter cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Mutegi, James; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    emissions may be more important than the effect on soil C. This study monitored emissions of N2O between September 2008 and May 2009 in three tillage treatments, i.e., conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and direct drilling (DD), all with (+CC) or without (−CC) fodder radish as a winter cover...... application by direct injection N2O emissions were stimulated in all tillage treatments, reaching 250–400 μg N m−2 h−1 except in the CT + CC treatment, where emissions peaked at 900 μg N m−2 h−1. Accumulated emissions ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 kg N2O ha−1. A strong positive interaction between cover crop......Conservation tillage practices are widely used to protect against soil erosion and soil C losses, whereas winter cover crops are used mainly to protect against N losses during autumn and winter. For the greenhouse gas balance of a cropping system the effect of reduced tillage and cover crops on N2O...

  17. Experiments on the use of some chloronitrobenzene and organic mercury compounds for the control of low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Jamalainen

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause of damage from low-temperature parasitic fungi during overwintering was in the experiments with winter rye mainly Fusarium nivale (Fr. Ces., in the experiments with winter wheat both F. nivale and the Typhula spp. fungi, T. itoana Imai and T. idahoensis Remsb. The pentachloronitrobenzene compounds PCNB and the organic mercury compounds phenylmercuryacetate (PMA and phenylmercurysalicylate (PMS were effective against both the Fusarium and the Typhula fungi in the experiments in which the treatments of the seedlings had been performed in November under weather conditions normal for South Finland. The effect of treatments performed correspondingly earlier in October was slighter. In experiments made in South Finland in the winter 1955—56 and in the winter 1957—58, when low-temperature parasitic fungi appeared in abundance, the increases in yield due to treatment of the seedlings with PCNB and with the mercury compounds PMA and PMS performed in November were very considerable; winter rye (7 tests 12—122 per cent, winter wheat (4 tests 31—735 per cent, and winter barley (one test 124 per cent. – In the experiments made in 1956—57 in South Finland no increase in yield was obtained through treatment of the seedlings because low-temperature fungi did not appear. The mercury compounds PMA and PMS when applied on the stands in autumn were more effective against low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals than the PCNB preparations. The effect of zineb and hexachloronitrobenzene (HCNB preparations in controlling low-temperature parasitic fungi on winter cereals by treating the stands in autumn was found to be much slighter than the effect of PCNB and of the organic mercury fungicides. The amount of active ingredient in the PCNB preparations was in most experiments 5 kg per hectare. In the two PMA preparations used in the experiments the amount of active ingredient was 125 and 425 kg per hectare, the corresponding amounts of Hg

  18. IOD influence on the early winter tibetan plateau snow cover: diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Chaoxia; Tozuka, Tomoki; Yamagata, Toshio [The University of Tokyo, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Using diagnostic analyses and an AGCM simulation, the detailed mechanism of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) influence on the early winter Tibetan Plateau snow cover (EWTPSC) is clarified. In early winter of pure positive IOD years with no co-occurrence of El Nino, the anomalous dipole diabatic heating over the tropical Indian Ocean excites the baroclinic response in the tropics. Since both baroclinic and barotropic components of the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula increase dramatically in early winter due to the equatorward retreat of the westerly jet, the baroclinic mode excites the barotropic Rossby wave that propagates northeastward and induces a barotropic cyclonic anomaly north of India. This enables the moisture transport cyclonically from the northern Indian Ocean toward the Tibetan Plateau. The convergence of moisture over the plateau explains the positive influence of IOD on the EWTPSC. In contrast, the basic zonal wind over the Arabian Peninsula is weak in autumn. This is not favorable for excitation of the barotropic Rossby wave and teleconnection, even though the IOD-related diabatic heating anomaly in autumn similar to that in early winter exists. This result explains the insignificant (significant positive) partial correlation between IOD and the autumn (early winter) Tibetan Plateau snow cover after excluding the influence of ENSO. The sensitivity experiment forced by the IOD-related SST anomaly within the tropical Indian Ocean well reproduces the baroclinic response in the tropics, the teleconnection from the Arabian Peninsula, and the increased moisture supply to the Tibetan Plateau. Also, the seasonality of the atmospheric response to the IOD is simulated. (orig.)

  19. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  20. Long-term variability in Northern Hemisphere snow cover and associations with warmer winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A monthly snow accumulation and melt model is used with gridded monthly temperature and precipitation data for the Northern Hemisphere to generate time series of March snow-covered area (SCA) for the period 1905 through 2002. The time series of estimated SCA for March is verified by comparison with previously published time series of SCA for the Northern Hemisphere. The time series of estimated Northern Hemisphere March SCA shows a substantial decrease since about 1970, and this decrease corresponds to an increase in mean winter Northern Hemisphere temperature. The increase in winter temperature has caused a decrease in the fraction of precipitation that occurs as snow and an increase in snowmelt for some parts of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the mid-latitudes, thus reducing snow packs and March SCA. In addition, the increase in winter temperature and the decreases in SCA appear to be associated with a contraction of the circumpolar vortex and a poleward movement of storm tracks, resulting in decreased precipitation (and snow) in the low- to mid-latitudes and an increase in precipitation (and snow) in high latitudes. If Northern Hemisphere winter temperatures continue to warm as they have since the 1970s, then March SCA will likely continue to decrease.

  1. Anatomical features of leaves of three cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and settling the plants by cereal leaf beetles, Oulema spp. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of flag leaves anatomy of three winter wheat cultivars: Almari, Gama and Weneda were carried out as it was state that there are great differences in the intensity of cereal leaf beetle feeding on the leaves. In order to determine the features conditioning the differentiated resistance of these cultivars following parameters were measured: the thickness of leaf blade, the length of trichomes and their density in the adaxial epidermis, the number of silicon cells in 1 mm2 epidermis and the thickness of the external cell walls of epidermis. The observations of cross section of the leaves were made in a light microscope and that of surface of the adaxial epidermis in a scanning electron microscope. In this study it was shown that Gama cv. distinguishes of the shortest trichomes with poor density, the lowest number of the silicon cells in 1 mm2 and epidermis cells with the thinest walls. This features indicate a poor resistance of Gama cv. against feeding of the pests and give reasons for the presence a much higher number of the cereal leaf beetle larvae (about 100% than at the extant two cultivars. Dependence between the thickness of leaf blades and the number of larvae of the infesting pests has not been stated.

  2. Biogeochemical Impact of Snow Cover and Cyclonic Intrusions on the Winter Weddell Sea Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, J.-L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J.-M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A.-M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.

  3. Sediment yield control in vineyards covered with cereal. Effect of tillage; Control de la perdida de suelo en vinedos con cubiertas de gramineas. Efecto del laboreo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Marques, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    A study has been carried out about the use of plant cover treatment to avoid land degradation in a hillside rainfed vineyard in Madrid under Mediterranean semiarid climate. Three treatments were tested: traditional tillage (lab) soil covered by Brachypodium distachyon (bra) with self-sowing, soil covered by Scale cereale (sec) mown in Spring. Three erosion plots per treatment were placed in the middle of the strips and 2 simulated rainfalls were carried out at each plot in autumn, before and after the tillage. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. The efficacy of winter cover crops to stabilize soil inorganic nitrogen after fall-applied anhydrous ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Corey; Armstrong, Shalamar

    2015-03-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge on the ability of cover crops to increase the effectiveness of fall-applied nitrogen (N). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of two cover crop species to stabilize inorganic soil N after a fall application of N. Fall N was applied at a rate of 200 kg N ha into living stands of cereal rye, tillage radish, and a control (no cover crop) at the Illinois State University Research and Teaching Farm in Lexington, Illinois. Cover crops were sampled to determine N uptake, and soil samples were collected in the spring at four depths to 80 cm to determine the distribution of inorganic N within the soil profile. Tillage radish (131.9-226.8 kg ha) and cereal rye (188.1-249.9 kg ha N) demonstrated the capacity to absorb a minimum of 60 to 80% of the equivalent rate of fall-applied N, respectively. Fall applying N without cover crops resulted in a greater percentage of soil NO-N (40%) in the 50- to 80-cm depth, compared with only 31 and 27% when tillage radish and cereal rye were present at N application. At planting, tillage radish stabilized an average of 91% of the equivalent rate of fall-applied N within the 0- to 20-cm, depth compared with 66 and 57% for the cereal rye and control treatments, respectively. This study has demonstrated that fall applying N into a living cover crop stand has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of soil nitrate and to stabilize a greater concentration of inorganic N within the agronomic depths of soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  6. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  7. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  8. Isotope composition of winter precipitation and snow cover in the foothills of the Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Malygina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, several general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean (atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models  – GCMs have been improved by modeling the hydrological cycle with the use of isotopologues (isotopes of water HDO and H2 18O. Input parameters for the GCM models taking into account changes in the isotope composition of atmospheric precipitation were, above all, the results obtained by the network GNIP – Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. At different times, on the vast territory of Russia there were only about 40 simultaneously functioning stations where the sampling of atmospheric precipitation was performed. In this study we present the results of the isotope composition of samples taken on the foothills of the Altai during two winter seasons of 2014/15 and 2015/16. Values of the isotope composition of precipitation changed in a wide range and their maximum fluctuations were 25, 202 and 18‰ for δ18О, dexc and δD, respectively. The weighted-mean values of δ18О and δD of the precipitation analyzed for the above two seasons were close to each other (−21.1 and −158.1‰ for the first season and −21.1 and −161.9‰ for the second one, while dexc values differed significantly. The comparison of the results of isotope analysis of the snow cover integral samples with the corresponding in the time interval the weighted-mean values of precipitation showed high consistency. However, despite the similarity of values of δ18О and δD, calculated for precipitation and snow cover, and the results, interpolated in IsoMAP (from data of the GNIP stations for 1960–2010, the dexc values were close to mean annual values of IsoMAP for only the second winter season. According to the trajectory analysis (the HYSPLIT model, the revealed differences between both, the seasons, and the long-term average values of IsoMAP, were associated with a change of main regions where the air masses

  9. Variability of snow line elevation, snow cover area and depletion in the main Slovak basins in winters 2001–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčí Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variability of snow line (SL elevation, snow cover area (SCA and depletion (SCD in winters 2001–2014 is investigated in ten main Slovak river basins (the Western Carpathians. Daily satellite snow cover maps from MODIS Terra (MOD10A1, V005 and Aqua (MYD10A1, V005 with resolution 500 m are used.

  10. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  11. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  12. Modeling the long-term effect of winter cover crops on nitrate transport in artificially drained fields across the Midwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall-planted cover crop is a management practice with multiple benefits including reducing nitrate losses from artificially drained fields. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to simulate the impact of a cereal rye cover crop on reducing nitrate losses from drained fields across five...

  13. Rolled-crimped winter rye cover effects on hand-weeding times and fruit yield and quality of cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides are in demand by some segments of society. However, weeds often are deleterious in such crops, and managing them without herbicides is difficult. Stale seedbeds and rolled-crimped winter rye cover crops are non-chemical methods that may help manage we...

  14. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    OpenAIRE

    La Hovary, C.; Danehower, D. A.; Ma, G.; Reberg-Horton, C.; Williamson, J. D.; Baerson, S. R.; Burton, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX) levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of tot...

  15. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  16. Effect of temperature and precipitation on nitrate leaching from organic cereal cropping systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabloun, Mohamed; Schelde, Kirsten; Tao, F

    2015-01-01

    The effect of variation in seasonal temperature and precipitation on soil water nitrate (NO3single bondN) concentration and leaching from winter and spring cereals cropping systems was investigated over three consecutive four-year crop rotation cycles from 1997 to 2008 in an organic farming crop...... rotation experiment in Denmark. Three experimental sites, varying in climate and soil type from coarse sand to sandy loam, were investigated. The experiment included experimental treatments with different rotations, manure rate and cover crop, and soil nitrate concentrations was monitored using suction......N concentration for winter and spring cereals, respectively, and 68% and 77% of the variation in the square root transform of annual NO3single bondN leaching for winter and spring cereals, respectively. Nitrate concentration and leaching were shown to be site specific and driven by climatic factors and crop...

  17. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  18. Biomass and nitrogen accumulation of hairy vetch-cereal rye cover crop mixtures as influenced by species proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance and suitability of a legume-grass cover crop mixture for specific functions may be influenced by the proportions of each species in the mixture. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate aboveground biomass and species biomass proportions at different hairy vetch (Vicia villo...

  19. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient croppin...

  20. Silagem de cereais de inverno submetidos ao manejo de duplo propósito Silage of winter cereals submitted to double purpose management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar a silagem de 12 genótipos de seis espécies de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito (forragem e grãos, submetidos ao corte na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies e os genótipos testados foram: trigo BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu; aveia-preta Agro zebu, UPFA 21 -Moreninha e Comum; aveia-branca UPF 18; centeio BR 1 e BRS Serrano; Cevada BRS Marciana; e triticale BRS 148. Os genótipos foram submetidos a três cortes com o objetivo de simular o pastejo, conforme manejo indicado para duplo propósito. Após o terceiro corte, permitiu-se o desenvolvimento das culturas para a ensilagem. As silagens foram feitas em silos experimentais de PVC quando as forrageiras atingiram o estádio fenológico de grão pastoso. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos (genótipos e três repetições (parcelas. Foram determinadas a produção de matéria seca e a composição estrutural do material ensilado, o valor nutritivo e os parâmetros fermentativos das silagens. O centeio BR 1 e a aveiabranca UPF 18 apresentaram as maiores produções de matéria seca. O trigo BRS Umbu produziu silagem com maior participação de grãos e valor nutritivo mais elevado. Todos os genótipos apresentaram condições satisfatórias para a ensilagemThe objective of this research was to evaluate the silage of 12 genotypes of six species of double purpose winter cereals (forage and grains submitted to harvest at Depressão Central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Species and genotypes tested were: BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu wheat; Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha and Commom black-oat; UPF 18 white oat; BR 1 and BRS Serrano rye; BRS Marciana barley; and BRS 148 triticale. Genotypes were submitted to tree harvests with the objective to simulate grazing, according to double purpose management. After the third harvest, the

  1. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    OpenAIRE

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and ...

  2. Impact of sea ice cover changes on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric winter circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Handorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of the Arctic atmosphere to low and high sea ice concentration phases based on European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF Re-Analysis Interim (ERA-Interim atmospheric data and Hadley Centre's sea ice dataset (HadISST1 from 1989 until 2010 has been studied. Time slices of winter atmospheric circulation with high (1990–2000 and low (2001–2010 sea ice concentration in the preceding August/September have been analysed with respect to tropospheric interactions between planetary and baroclinic waves. It is shown that a changed sea ice concentration over the Arctic Ocean impacts differently the development of synoptic and planetary atmospheric circulation systems. During the low ice phase, stronger heat release to the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean reduces the atmospheric vertical static stability. This leads to an earlier onset of baroclinic instability that further modulates the non-linear interactions between baroclinic wave energy fluxes on time scales of 2.5–6 d and planetary scales of 10–90 d. Our analysis suggests that Arctic sea ice concentration changes exert a remote impact on the large-scale atmospheric circulation during winter, exhibiting a barotropic structure with similar patterns of pressure anomalies at the surface and in the mid-troposphere. These are connected to pronounced planetary wave train changes notably over the North Pacific.

  3. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    Balkcom,Kipling Shane; Wood,Charles Wesley; Adams,James Fredrick; Meso,Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N) requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaoli...

  4. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  5. Field investigations of apparent optical properties of ice cover in Finnish and Estonian lakes in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field programme on light conditions in ice-covered lakes and optical properties of lake ice was performed in seven lakes of Finland and Estonia in February–April 2009. On the basis of irradiance measurements above and below ice, spectral reflectance and transmittance were determined for the ice sheet; time evolution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR transmittance was examined from irradiance recordings at several levels inside the ice sheet. Snow cover was the dominant factor for transmission of PAR into the lake water body. Reflectance was 0.74–0.92 in winter, going down to 0.18–0.22 in the melting season. The bulk attenuation coefficient of dry snow was 14–25 m–1; the level decreased as the spring was coming. The reflectance and bulk attenuation coefficient of snow-free ice were 0.1–0.4 and 1–5 m–1. Both were considerably smaller than those of snow cover. Seasonal evolution of light transmission was mainly due to snow melting. Snow and ice cover not only depress the PAR level in a lake but also influence the spectral and directional distribution of light.

  6. Cover, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Strategic Insights, v. 10, Issue 3 (Winter 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The cover on this edition of Strategic Insights features the NATO sigil overlaid with Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man. The original Vitruvian Man was designed by the Roman architect Vitruvius in an attempt to define artistic proportions for the human body. Da Vinci made adjustments to Vitruvius’s proportions, making them more accurate. Specifically, da Vinci realized that the circle and square that outline the limits of the man’s limbs do not have the same center: the center of the circl...

  7. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  8. Influência de cortes similando pastejo na composição química de grãos de cereais de inverno Cut effects simulating grazing on the chemical composition of grains of winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo de Jesus Antunes Del Duca

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A demanda crescente pela integração lavoura-pecuária no planalto sul-rio-grandense direciona ao aproveitamento dos cereais de inverno para duplo propósito (forragem e grão. Assim, é necessário um melhor conhecimento dessas culturas relativamente à utilização como forragem e ao valor econômico dos grãos no uso potencial para alimentação humana ou animal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de cortes (um e dois, simulando pastejo bovino, na composição química dos grãos de aveia-branca (UPF 14, de aveia-preta (comum, de centeio (BR 1, de triticale (BR 4, de cevada (BR 2 e de trigo (IPF 55204 e PF 87451. Os cortes não afetaram, na média dos cereais, os valores de fibra bruta, de extrato etéreo, de energia bruta e de atividade ureática, tendo o teor de matéria mineral aumentado com dois cortes. Excetuando aveia-preta e cevada, com os cortes verificou-se incremento nos percentuais de proteína bruta. Entretanto, observou-se, na média dos cereais, redução com os cortes nos teores de extrativos não-nitrogenados. Os resultados obtidos conduzem à possibilidade de uso dos cereais de inverno para duplo propósito, com aproveitamento dos grãos sem maiores prejuízos à sua composição química.An increased demand for activities integrating crop-cattle production in the Rio Grande do Sul plateau has contributed to a dual purpose use (forage and grain of winter small grains. Therefore, a better knowledge on how to use these cereals for pasture, as well as on the economic value of grains and their potential use in human and animal foods, is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cuts (one and two simulating cattle grazing in the chemical composition of the grain of white oats (UPF 14, black oats Avena strigosa (comum, rye (BR 1, triticale (BR 4, barley (BR 2, and wheat (IPF 55204 and PF 87451. In the cereal average, cuts did not affect the values of crude fiber, fat, crude energy, and

  9. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  10. Valor nutritivo da forragem de genótipos de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito Nutritive value of forage of genotypes of double purpose winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo da forragem de 12 genótipos de seis espécies de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito (forragem e grãos, submetidos ao corte, na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies e genótipos testados foram: trigo (BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu; aveia-preta (Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha e Comum; aveia-branca (UPF 18; centeio (BR 1 e BRS Serrano; Cevada (BRS Marciana e triticale (BRS 148.Os genótipos foram distribuídos em 36 parcelas experimentais, num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As análises de valor nutritivo e composição mineral foram feitas pelo método da reflectância do infravermelho proximal (NIRS, em amostras do estrato superior a 10 cm de altura da forragem. Os genótipos de aveia e o trigo BRS Umbu apresentaram os melhores resultados de valor nutritivo. A composição mineral apresentou pequena variabilidade entre os genótipos testados. Os resultados demonstram que os cereais de inverno produzem forragem de elevado valor nutritivo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the nutritive value of the forage of 12 genotypes of six double purpose (forage and grains winter cereal species submitted to harvest in the region of Depressão Central in Rio Grande do Sul state. The species and genotypes tested were: wheat (BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu; black oat (Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha and Commom black-oat; white-oat (UPF 18; rye (BR 1 and BRS Serrano; barley (BRS Marciana; and triticale (BRS 148. The genotypes were distributed in 36 experimental plots in completely randomized experimental design, with 12 treatments and three replications. Analysis of nutritive value and mineral composition were performed by the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in samples of stratum greater than 10 cm height of forage. Oat genotypes and BRS Umbu wheat

  11. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  12. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  13. Assessing climate change impacts on winter cover crop nitrate uptake efficiency on the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed using the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in this region owing to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, little is known about climate change impacts on the ef...

  14. Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watersheds using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW) due to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, future climate conditions (FCCs) are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrat...

  15. Genetic variability induced in winter rye (Secale cereale l.), soya bean (Glicine max merill.) and china aster (Callistephus chinensis L. Nees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, S.; Darlewska, M.; Dobosz-Rojewska, K.; Wosinska, A.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal treatments for mutation induction were established as follows: for China aster - treating seeds with gamma rays of 6-9 rad; for soya bean - irradiating seeds with fast neutrons of 100 rad, for rye - soaking the grains in water solutions of NEU (0.04% concentration) and of SA (1.5-2.0-2.5 mM concentration). The most interesting mutants of each species are kept in collection. They include the following mutants of China aster (homogamic) of soya bean (with tall and strong stems, with great leaves) and of winter rye (short-straw mutants, xanthina, with horizontal type of growth and with late senescence, combined with long spikes). (author)

  16. Effects of some benzoxazinoids on in vitro growth of Cephalosporium gramineum and other fungi pathogenic to cereals and on Cephalosporium stripe of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniuk, Stefan; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A; Marín, David; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2006-02-22

    The benzoxazolinones benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxybenzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) and selected degradation products of these compounds were examined for their in vitro antifungal activity against Cephalosporium gramineum, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, and Fusarium culmorum. BOA was also applied to the soil-incorporated inoculum of C. gramineum to test its capability of reducing Cephalosporium stripe disease in winter wheat. MBOA reduced the mycelial growth of G. graminis var. tritici, C. gramineum, and F. culmorum by 50% (EC50) at the concentrations of 77, 134, and 271 microg/mL of corn meal agar, respectively, and the corresponding BOA EC50 values for the fungi were 11, 189, and 456 microg/mL. BOA degradation products 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (APO), 2-acetylamino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (AAPO), and o-aminophenol (o-AP) were much more inhibitory to the growth of C. gramineum and G. graminis var. tritici than the parent compounds. APO, AAPO, and o-AP EC50 values were found to be as low as 0.58, 4.57, and 1.4 microg/mL, respectively, for C. gramineum and 0.78, 2.18, and 0.80 microg/mL for G. graminis var. tritici. These compounds applied at the corresponding concentrations did not significantly affect the mycelial growth of F. culmorum. The treatment of C. gramineum inoculum with a 1% water solution of BOA resulted in a significant reduction infection of winter wheat with C. gramineum as compared to the control with the untreated inoculum,but this treatment was not as effective as the application of a commercial fungicide.

  17. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  18. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenchuk, Philipp R.; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme...... winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering...... events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas...

  19. A long-term assessment of the variability in winter use of dense conifer cover by female white-tailed deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn D Delgiudice

    Full Text Available Long-term studies allow capture of a wide breadth of environmental variability and a broader context within which to maximize our understanding of relationships to specific aspects of wildlife behavior. The goal of our study was to improve our understanding of the biological value of dense conifer cover to deer on winter range relative to snow depth and ambient temperature.We examined variation among deer in their use of dense conifer cover during a 12-year study period as potentially influenced by winter severity and cover availability. Female deer were fitted with a mixture of very high frequency (VHF, n = 267 and Global Positioning System (GPS, n = 24 collars for monitoring use of specific cover types at the population and individual levels, respectively. We developed habitat composites for four study sites. We fit multinomial response models to VHF (daytime data to describe population-level use patterns as a function of snow depth, ambient temperature, and cover availability. To develop alternative hypotheses regarding expected spatio-temporal patterns in the use of dense conifer cover, we considered two sets of competing sub-hypotheses. The first set addressed whether or not dense conifer cover was limiting on the four study sites. The second set considered four alternative sub-hypotheses regarding the potential influence of snow depth and ambient temperature on space use patterns. Deer use of dense conifer cover increased the most with increasing snow depth and most abruptly on the two sites where it was most available, suggestive of an energy conservation strategy. Deer use of dense cover decreased the most with decreasing temperatures on the sites where it was most available. At all four sites deer made greater daytime use (55 to >80% probability of use of open vegetation types at the lowest daily minimum temperatures indicating the importance of thermal benefits afforded from increased exposure to solar radiation. Date

  20. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  1. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the ma...

  2. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  3. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All

  4. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... of the relationship between cover crop C/N and Neff was confirmed, so mixtures can be used to adjust the extent and timing of mineralisation of the incorporated biomass to the subsequent cash crop requirements. Prediction of the cash crops N status on the cover crop C/N appears to be a useful approach, but, it may...

  5. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. La Hovary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter rye (Secale cereale L. is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth.

  6. Assessing quality and quantity of groundwater DOC in relation to plant export from different over-winter green-cover treatments in tillage farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine; Hackett, Richard; Richards, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The biogeochemistry of nitrogen is often connected to carbon and C/N dynamics. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) electron donor availability can be related to groundwater denitrification (Buss, et al. 2005). Therefore groundwater nitrate attenuation processes are also frequently linked to carbon availability. In recent years the role of over-winter green cover in tillage farming has been studied extensively. Nevertheless further research on the biogeochemical effect of green cover on soil/sediment and groundwater quality is still needed. In particular plant roots are known to exude different types of organic compounds, but their role in groundwater quality has not been investigated in depth. According to Cannavo et al. (2004a,b), in addition to quantity, the quality of water-extractable soil organic matter (e.g. molecular size/weight) has also an important role for microbial activity. In this study we investigate the effect of over-winter green-cover on potential DOC export to shallow groundwater (2 - 5 m below ground level), located on tillage land in Oak Park, Carlow, Ireland. The experiment includes three over-winter green-cover treatments: natural green-cover, mustard and no-cover (sprayed with herbicide following harvest); and is underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer. The site is equipped with 4 shallow piezometers per treatment (total no. of piezometers is 20, including treatments and surrounding piezometers). In addition to monitoring the quantity of DOC concentrations in shallow groundwater under different green cover treatments over time, an attempt was made to evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater using Excitation Emission Fluorescence Matrix (EEFM) profiles obtained from analyses performed on a Varian Fluorescence Spectrophotometer of a single batch of samples (from all 20 installed piezometers in September 2009). To evaluate the quality of dissolved organic matter in shallow groundwater, computation of the

  7. Effect of Grafting Method, Graft Cover and Foliar Spray of some Mineral Elements on Persian Walnut Graft-take and Winter Survival Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persian walnut (Juglans regia L. is an important nut crop in Iran and many parts of the world. One of the major challenges of growing walnut is planting of non-grafted walnut trees in orchards, which leads to the reduction of yield, quality and productivity of walnut orchards. Compared to the other fruit trees, walnut grafting is difficult and even newly grafted walnut seedlings are vulnerable to fall or winter frost chilling, so that most of the seedlings are lost after subjecting to the cold winter. There are a few studies reporting successful grafting in outdoor conditions, however, final grafting take after winter has been usually ignored. Hence, increased walnut grafting success and improved tree growth after grafting through foliar nutrient application may lead to increased tolerance of chilling. Therefore, main goals of this research were to investigate the effect of some graft covers and role of foliar spray of calcium, boron and zinc on the reduction of frost damage in newly grafted seedlings under outdoor conditions. Materials and methods: This research was conducted at agricultural research station, Khoy city, west Azerbaijan province, during 2012-2014. In the first experiment, three methods of grafting including cleft, bark and V-shaped, and two kinds of graft covers including moist sawdust and superabsorbent plus cotton wool were investigated in terms of grafting success and quality of seedlings. In the second experiment, effect of the three above-mentioned grafting methods and two levels of foliar spray including sequential spray of Ca (4 ppm, B and Zn (2% (3 times during growth season and control (no spray were studied in terms of frost damage. The experiments conducted in factorial based on randomized complete block design with 10 trees in each plot. Data were collected 45 days after grafting take, final grafting take after one winter, subsequent scion growth length and diameter and concentration of Ca, B and Zn in

  8. Effect of summer throughfall exclusion, summer drought, and winter snow cover on methane fluxes in a temperate forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken, W.; Davidson, E.A.; Savage, K.; Sundquist, E.T.; Steudler, P.

    2006-01-01

    Soil moisture strongly controls the uptake of atmospheric methane by limiting the diffusion of methane into the soil, resulting in a negative correlation between soil moisture and methane uptake rates under most non-drought conditions. However, little is known about the effect of water stress on methane uptake in temperate forests during severe droughts. We simulated extreme summer droughts by exclusion of 168 mm (2001) and 344 mm (2002) throughfall using three translucent roofs in a mixed deciduous forest at the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA. The treatment significantly increased CH4 uptake during the first weeks of throughfall exclusion in 2001 and during most of the 2002 treatment period. Low summertime CH4 uptake rates were found only briefly in both control and exclusion plots during a natural late summer drought, when water contents below 0.15 g cm-3 may have caused water stress of methanotrophs in the A horizon. Because these soils are well drained, the exclusion treatment had little effect on A horizon water content between wetting events, and the effect of water stress was smaller and more brief than was the overall treatment effect on methane diffusion. Methane consumption rates were highest in the A horizon and showed a parabolic relationship between gravimetric water content and CH4 consumption, with maximum rate at 0.23 g H2O g-1 soil. On average, about 74% of atmospheric CH4 was consumed in the top 4-5 cm of the mineral soil. By contrast, little or no CH4 consumption occurred in the O horizon. Snow cover significantly reduced the uptake rate from December to March. Removal of snow enhanced CH4 uptake by about 700-1000%, resulting in uptake rates similar to those measured during the growing season. Soil temperatures had little effect on CH4 uptake as long as the mineral soil was not frozen, indicating strong substrate limitation of methanotrophs throughout the year. Our results suggest that the extension of snow periods may affect the annual rate

  9. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    The importance of cereal starch production worldwide cannot be overrated. However, the qualities and resulting values of existing raw and processed starch do not fully meet future demands for environmentally friendly production of renewable, advanced biomaterials, functional foods, and biomedical...... additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review, we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean technology methods can be implemented to replace, for example, chemical modification. The recently...... released cereal genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now pave the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain, converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome...

  10. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  11. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  12. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  13. N use efficiencies and N2O emissions in two contrasting, biochar amended soils under winter wheat—cover crop—sorghum rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, Roman; Neftel, Albrecht; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Krauss, Maike; Six, Johan; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-08-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues, is evaluated as an option to tackle major problems of the global food system. Applied to soil, biochar can sequester carbon and have beneficial effects on nitrogen (N) cycling, thereby enhancing crop yields and reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. There is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms, but many experiments indicated increased yields and manifold changes in N transformation, suggesting an increase in N use efficiency. Biochar’s effects can be positive in extensively managed tropical agriculture, however less is known about its use in temperate soils with intensive fertilisation. We tested the effect of slow pyrolysis wood chip biochar on N use efficiency, crop yields and N2O emissions in a lysimeter system with two soil types (sandy loamy Cambisol and silty loamy Luvisol) in a winter wheat—cover crop—sorghum rotation. 15N-labelled ammonium nitrate fertiliser (170 kg N ha-1 in 3 doses, 10% 15N) was applied to the first crop to monitor its fate in three ecosystem components (plants, soil, leachate). Green rye was sown as cover crop to keep the first year’s fertiliser N for the second year’s sorghum crop (fertilised with 110 kg N ha-1 in two doses and natural abundance 15N). We observed no effects of biochar on N fertiliser use efficiency, yield or N uptake for any crop. Biochar reduced leaching by 43 ± 19% but only towards the end of the experiment with leaching losses being generally low. For both soils N2O emissions were reduced by 15 ± 4% with biochar compared to the control treatments. Our results indicate that application of the chosen biochar induces environmental benefits in terms of N2O emission and N leaching but does not substantially affect the overall N cycle and hence crop performance in the analyzed temperate crop rotation.

  14. Assessing the impacts of future climate conditions on the effectiveness of winter cover crops in reducing nitrate loads into the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Yeo, In-Young; McCarty, Gregory W.; Hively, W. Dean

    2017-01-01

    Winter cover crops (WCCs) have been widely implemented in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW) due to their high effectiveness at reducing nitrate loads. However, future climate conditions (FCCs) are expected to exacerbate water quality degradation in the CBW by increasing nitrate loads from agriculture. Accordingly, the question remains whether WCCs are sufficient to mitigate increased nutrient loads caused by FCCs. In this study, we assessed the impacts of FCCs on WCC nitrate reduction efficiency on the Coastal Plain of the CBW using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Three FCC scenarios (2085 – 2098) were prepared using General Circulation Models (GCMs), considering three Intergovernmnental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) greenhouse gas emission scenarios. We also developed six representative WCC implementation scenarios based on the most commonly used planting dates and species of WCCs in this region. Simulation results showed that WCC biomass increased by ~ 58 % under FCC scenarios, due to climate conditions conducive to the WCC growth. Prior to implementing WCCs, annual nitrate loads increased by ~ 43 % under FCC scenarios compared to the baseline scenario (2001 – 2014). When WCCs were planted, annual nitrate loads were substantially reduced by ~ 48 % and WCC nitrate reduction efficiency water ~ 5 % higher under FCC scenarios relative to the baseline. The increase rate of WCC nitrate reduction efficiency varied by FCC scenarios and WCC planting methods. As CO2 concentration was higher and winters were warmer under FCC scenarios, WCCs had greater biomass and therefore showed higher nitrate reduction efficiency. In response to FCC scenarios, the performance of less effective WCC practices (e.g., barley, wheat, and late planting) under the baseline indicated ~ 14 % higher increase rate of nitrate reduction efficiency compared to ones with better effectiveness under the baseline (e

  15. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and cereals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation may be used on cereals and cereal products to control insect infestation and microbiological problems. Such problems include mould growth, mycotoxin production, pathogens, spore-forming organisms and total microbial load. Deleterious effects of gamma-irradiation arise only at relatively high dose levels with consequences on germination rate, wheat flour dough properties, and cake and noodle quality. Radiation-induced changes to starch have greater impact on behaviour of cereal products than such changes to other cereal components

  16. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangchul; Yeo, In-Young; Sadeghi, Ali M; McCarty, Gregory W; Hively, W Dean; Lang, Megan W

    2016-01-01

    The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs) as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB) is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE) reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC). The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean), with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  17. Impacts of Watershed Characteristics and Crop Rotations on Winter Cover Crop Nitrate-Nitrogen Uptake Capacity within Agricultural Watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchul Lee

    Full Text Available The adoption rate of winter cover crops (WCCs as an effective conservation management practice to help reduce agricultural nutrient loads in the Chesapeake Bay (CB is increasing. However, the WCC potential for water quality improvement has not been fully realized at the watershed scale. This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term impact of WCCs on hydrology and NO3-N loads in two adjacent watersheds and to identify key management factors that affect the effectiveness of WCCs using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and statistical methods. Simulation results indicated that WCCs are effective for reducing NO3-N loads and their performance varied based on planting date, species, soil characteristics, and crop rotations. Early-planted WCCs outperformed late-planted WCCs on the reduction of NO3-N loads and early-planted rye (RE reduced NO3-N loads by ~49.3% compared to the baseline (no WCC. The WCCs were more effective in a watershed dominated by well-drained soils with increased reductions in NO3-N fluxes of ~2.5 kg N·ha-1 delivered to streams and ~10.1 kg N·ha-1 leached into groundwater compared to poorly-drained soils. Well-drained agricultural lands had higher transport of NO3-N in the soil profile and groundwater due to increased N leaching. Poorly-drained agricultural lands had lower NO3-N due to extensive drainage ditches and anaerobic soil conditions promoting denitrification. The performance of WCCs varied by crop rotations (i.e., continuous corn and corn-soybean, with increased N uptake following soybean crops due to the increased soil mineral N availability by mineralization of soybean residue compared to corn residue. The WCCs can reduce N leaching where baseline NO3-N loads are high in well-drained soils and/or when residual and mineralized N availability is high due to the cropping practices. The findings suggested that WCC implementation plans should be established in watersheds according to local edaphic and agronomic

  18. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  19. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...... phosphate compared with potato tuber starch and in order to investigate the effect of increased endosperm starch phosphate, the potato starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase (StGWD) was overexpressed specifically in the developing barley endosperm. StGWD overexpressors showed wild......-type phenotype. Transgenic cereal grains synthesized starch with higher starch bound phosphate content (7.5 (±0.67) nmol/mg) compared to control lines (0.8 (±0.05) nmol/mg) with starch granules showing altered morphology and lower melting enthalpy. Our data indicate specific action of GWD during starch...

  20. Les Malalties dels cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Puiggrós i Jové, Josep Maria

    1989-01-01

    En aquest treball es fa una descripció de les principals malalties dels cereals que han estat trobades a Catalunya. Agrupant-les segons ataquin la fulla i espiga: oïdi, rovells, septòries, Rhynchosporium, Helminthosporium, i virus; al coll i tija: Cercosporella, Ophiobolus, Rhizoctbnia i Fusarium o bé les que vénen de la llavor: carbons, càries i Helminthospbrium. A part de la descripció, hom fa esment de les observacions efectuades els darrers anys en els diferents indrets de...

  1. The Effect of Biofertilizers and Winter Cover Crops on Essential Oil Production and Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In searching for new strategies of medicinal plant production with high yield but without undesirable compounds or effects, it is important to investigate unconventional alternatives such as application of PGPR and cover crops cultivation. This experiment was conducted in a split plots arrangement with two factors based on randomized complete block design with three replications during years 2009-10, at Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops in autumn assigned to the main plots. The sub factor was biofertilizer application with four levels, included 1-Nitroxin (containing Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp., 2-Biophosphorous (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 3-Nitroxin + Biophosphorous and 4-Control. During growing season plants were harvested by three cuts. Results showed that total shoots dry weight, leaves yield and LAI in plants under no cover crop cultivation had a significant advantage. Biofertilizers increased most characteristics e.g. fresh and dry total shoot yield, dry leaves and LAI. The interaction between fertilizer and cover crop was significant, as the highest yield of fresh shoots was observed in mix of nitroxin and biophosphorous with no cover crop, the highest and the lowest of leaf and green area index were obtained in plants treated by nitroxin without cover crop and biophosphorous with cover crop, respectively. Plants harvested in cut 3 had the lowest LAI and other two cuts had no significant difference concerning this trait. The highest and the lowest fresh and dry shoot yield were observed in cut 2 and 1, respectively. The most essential oil yield was in cut 2 and 3 (without significant difference and cut 1 was the lowest. The results showed that the interaction between biofertilizers and no cover crop cultivation was significant, as use of the biofertilizers especially nitroxin and biophosphorous in no cover crop condition enhanced the most characteristics of

  2. Radiation disinfestation of stored cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisseau, P.

    1988-01-01

    Post-harvest grain losses range world-wide between 5 and 10 percent and even 40 percent in some tropical areas where environmental conditions are favourable to cereal degradation. The grain losses during storage are of various origins: insects, microorganisms, rodents, birds. Their consequences on human health and cereal processing are of quantitative and qualitative nature [fr

  3. Conducting field trials for frost tolerance breeding in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattivelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Cereal species can be damaged by frost either during winter or at flowering stage. Frost tolerance per se is only a part of the mechanisms that allow the plants to survive during winter; winterhardiness also considers other biotic or physical stresses that challenge the plants during the winter season limiting their survival rate. While frost tolerance can also be tested in controlled environments, winterhardiness can be determined only with field evaluations. Post-heading frost damage occurs from radiation frost events in spring during the reproductive stages. A reliable evaluation of winterhardiness or of post-heading frost damage should be carried out with field trials replicated across years and locations to overcome the irregular occurrence of natural conditions which satisfactorily differentiate genotypes. The evaluation of post-heading frost damage requires a specific attention to plant phenology. The extent of frost damage is usually determined with a visual score at the end of the winter.

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Response to Cover Crop and Nitrogen Fertilization under Bioenergy Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, U. M.; Singh, H. P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Removal of aboveground biomass for bioenergy/feedstock in bioenergy cropping systems may reduce soil C storage. Cover crop and N fertilization may provide additional crop residue C and sustain soil C storage compared with no cover crop and N fertilization. We evaluated the effect of four winter cover crops (control or no cover crop, cereal rye, hairy vetch, and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture) and two N fertilization rates (0 and 90 kg N ha-1) on soil organic C (SOC) at 0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm depths under forage and sweet sorghums from 2010 to 2013 in Fort Valley, GA. Cover crop biomass yield and C content were greater with vetch/rye mixture than vetch or rye alone and the control, regardless of sorghum species. Soil organic C was greater with vetch/rye than rye at 0-5 and 15-30 cm in 2011 and 2013 and greater with vetch than rye at 5-15 cm in 2011 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC was greater with cover crops than the control at 0-5 cm, but greater with vetch and the control than vetch/rye at 15-30 cm. The SOC increased at the rates of 0.30 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 0-5 cm for rye and the control to 1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 15-30 cm for vetch/rye and the control from 2010 to 2013 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC also increased linearly at all depths from 2010 to 2013, regardless of cover crops. Nitrogen fertilization had little effect on SOC. Cover crops increased soil C storage compared with no cover crop due to greater crop residue C returned to the soil under forage and sweet sorghum and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture had greater C storage than other cover crops under forage sorghum.

  5. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  6. More protein in cereals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  7. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  8. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  9. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  10. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  11. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  12. Produtividade de soja e milho após coberturas de inverno e descompactação mecânica do solo Soybean and corn yield after soil winter covers and soil mechanical loosening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Debiasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de coberturas de inverno e da descompactação mecânica do solo sobre o desempenho de soja e milho, em sistema de plantio direto. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em Eldorado do Sul, RS, sobre Argissolo Vermelho compactado, nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007. No primeiro, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas. Os tratamentos consistiram de duas profundidades teóricas de atuação da haste sulcadora da semeadora (0,06 e 0,12 m, subparcela e de três tipos de coberturas do solo no inverno (parcela: pousio, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa e aveia-preta+ervilhaca (Vicia Sativa. Em 2006, a cobertura aveia-preta+ervilhaca foi substituída por nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus. No segundo experimento, realizado em blocos ao acaso, o solo foi escarificado e os tratamentos consistiram do uso de aveia-preta ou nabo-forrageiro como cobertura de inverno. Os cultivos de cobertura reduziram a compactação superficial do solo (0-0,06 m em comparação ao pousio e, na safra 2006/2007, sob condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica, proporcionaram maior produtividade de milho e soja. Isso não se repetiu em 2006/2007, quando a disponibilidade hídrica foi adequada. O aumento da profundidade de atuação das hastes sulcadoras não influenciou a produtividade da soja e do milho. A escarificação reduziu a produtividade da soja e do milho em relação ao SPD contínuo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil winter covers and soil mechanical loosening on soybean and corn yield, in no-tillage system. Two experiments were carried oud in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, in a compacted Argissolo Vermelho (Haplic Acrisol, in the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons. The first experiment was carried out in a complete block design, with a split plot arrangement. The treatments were two theoretical working depths of a driller chisel-type furrow opener (0.06 and 0

  13. Desempenho operacional de semeadura-adubadora em diferentes manejos da cobertura e da velocidade Operational performance of seeder in different forward speed and winter cover crop management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Furlani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de uma semeadora-adubadora no sistema plantio direto. Os fatores estudados foram três manejos das culturas de cobertura, selecionados em função do tamanho de fragmentos da vegetação, triturador de palhas (palha totalmente triturada, roçadora (palha parcialmente picada e rolo-facas (palha acamada, combinados com três velocidades do conjunto trator-semeadora-adubadora, sendo 4,0; 5,0 e 6,0 km h-1. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com nove tratamentos e oito repetições, totalizando 72 observações. Para comparar os tratamentos, avaliaram-se a capacidade de campo operacional, a força de tração e a potência na barra, o consumo horário e por área, e a patinagem dos rodados do trator. O desempenho da semeadora-adubadora não foi influenciado pelos três manejos na cultura de cobertura vegetal. O aumento da velocidade provocou diminuição da força de tração, sendo o inverso para a capacidade de campo operacional e a potência na barra. O consumo horário de combustível aumentou com a velocidade, enquanto o operacional diminuiu.The present work aimed to evaluate the seeder performance in the direct sowing system. The studied factors were three cover crop managements, chosen according to the size of the vegetation fragment, such as straw (straw totally triturated, weeder (straw partially chopped and knife-rolls (straw practically entire, combined with three speeds of the seeder, being 4.0; 5.0 and 6.0 km h-1. The experimental outlining was carried out in casual blocks in factorial scheme 3 x 3, with nine treatments and eight repetitions, totalizing 72 observations. In the course of the experiment the following variants were evaluated: effective field capacity, force and power in the bar, hourly and area consumption of fuel and tractor’s pulleys sliding. The data reached were tabulated and submitted to factorial variant

  14. Comparison of DNDC and RZWQM2 for simulating hydrology and nitrogen dynamics in a corn-soybean system with a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Smith, W.; Qi, Z.; Grant, B.; VanderZaag, A.

    2017-12-01

    Biophysical models are needed for assessing science-based mitigation options to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. In order to account for trade-offs between environmental indicators such as GHG emissions, soil C change, and water quality it is important that models can encapsulate the complex array of interrelated biogeochemical processes controlling water, nutrient and energy flows in the agroecosystem. The Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model is one of the most widely used process-based models, and is arguably the most sophisticated for estimating GHG emissions and soil C&N cycling, however, the model simulates only simple cascade water flow. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of DNDC to a comprehensive water flow model, the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2), to determine which processes in DNDC may be limiting and recommend improvements. Both models were calibrated and validated for simulating crop biomass, soil hydrology, and nitrogen loss to tile drains using detailed observations from a corn-soybean rotation in Iowa, with and without cover crops. Results indicated that crop yields, biomass and the annual estimation of nitrogen and water loss to tiles drains were well simulated by both models (NSE > 0.6 in all cases); however, RZWQM2 performed much better for simulating soil water content, and the dynamics of daily water flow (DNDC: NSE -0.32 to 0.28; RZWQM2: NSE 0.34 to 0.70) to tile drains. DNDC overestimated soil water content near the soil surface and underestimated it deeper in the profile which was presumably caused by the lack of a root distribution algorithm, the inability to simulate a heterogeneous profile and lack of a water table. We recommend these improvements along with the inclusion of enhanced water flow and a mechanistic tile drainage sub-model. The accurate temporal simulation of water and N strongly impacts several biogeochemical processes.

  15. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  16. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  17. Manejo de Conyza bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate: coberturas de inverno e herbicidas em pré-semeadura da soja Management of glyphosate resistant Conyza bonariensis: winter cover crops and herbicides in soybean pre-seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Lamego

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Conyza bonariensis tornou-se a principal planta daninha da cultura da soja no Sul do Brasil, em decorrência da evolução para resistência ao herbicida glyphosate. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes coberturas de inverno e da associação de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja, visando ao controle de C. bonariensis resistente ao glyphosate. Um experimento foi conduzido em campo, na safra 2010/2011. Os tratamentos foram conduzidos em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as coberturas de inverno foram alocadas nas parcelas principais: aveia-preta, nabo, ervilhaca, azevém, trigo e pousio. Nas subparcelas, foram alocados os tratamentos de manejo de dessecação pré-semeadura da soja: glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + 2,4-D (1.050 g e.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1, glyphosate (720 g e.a ha-1 + chlorimuron-ethyl (80 g i.a ha-1/paraquat (200 g i.a ha-1 + diuron (100 g i.a ha‑1 e roçada. O nabo foi a espécie de cobertura que produziu o maior volume de massa seca durante o inverno, enquanto a ervilhaca foi a que apresentou maior efeito supressor sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento inicial de C. bonariensis. Associações de glyphosate com 2,4-D ou chlorimuron-ethyl, seguidas da aplicação sequencial de paraquat + diuron, causaram maior redução na infestação de C. bonariensis.Conyza bonariensis became the main weed in soybean crop in Southern Brazil, as a consequence of the evolution of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different winter cover crops and the association of burn-down herbicides on the control of glyphosate-resistant C. bonariensis. A field experiment was conducted in the 2010/2011 season. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot scheme, with the winter

  18. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P

    2004-01-01

    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  19. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  20. El cerealémetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  1. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  2. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  4. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loss in stream water from a no-till corn-soybean rotation planted with winter cover crops cereal rye (Secale cereale and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa in non-tile drained paired watersheds in Illinois, USA. The paired watersheds are under mixed land use (agriculture, forest, and pasture. The control watershed had 27 ha of row-crop agriculture, and the treatment watershed had 42 ha of row crop agriculture with cover crop treatment (CC-treatment. During a 4-year calibration period, 42 storm events were collected and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs for each storm event were calculated for total suspended solids (TSS, nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonia-N (NH4-N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP, and total discharge. Predictive regression equations developed from the calibration period were used for calculating TSS, NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP losses of surface runoff for the CC-treatment watershed. The treatment period consisted of total 18 storm events, seven of which were collected during the cereal rye, eight in the hairy vetch cover crop season and three during cash crop season. Cover crops reduced TSS and discharge by 33% and 34%, respectively in the CC-treatment watershed during the treatment period. However, surprisingly, EMCs for NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP did not decrease. Stream discharge from the paired-watersheds will continue to be monitored to determine if the current water quality results hold or new patterns emerge.

  5. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  6. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: I. Soil-Inversion, High-Residue Cover Crops and Herbicide Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. The main plots were two soil-inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. The subplots were three cover crop treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye and winter fallow; and sub subplots were four herbicide regimes: preemergence (PRE alone, postemergence (POST alone, PRE + POST and a no herbicide check (None. The PRE herbicide regime consisted of a single application of pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1. The POST herbicide regime consisted of a single application of glufosinate at 0.60 kg ai ha−1 plus S-metolachlor at 0.54 kg ai ha−1 and the PRE + POST regime combined the prior two components. At 2 weeks after planting (WAP cotton, Palmer amaranth densities, both BR and WR, were reduced ≥90% following all cover crop treatments in the IT. In the NIT, crimson clover reduced Palmer amaranth densities >65% and 50% compared to winter fallow and cereal rye covers, respectively. At 6 WAP, the PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes in both IT and NIT reduced BR and WR Palmer amaranth densities >96% over the three years. Additionally, the BR density was reduced ≥59% in no-herbicide (None following either cereal rye or crimson clover when compared to no-herbicide in the winter fallow. In IT, PRE, POST and PRE + POST herbicide regimes controlled Palmer amaranth >95% 6 WAP. In NIT, Palmer amaranth was controlled ≥79% in PRE and ≥95% in PRE + POST herbicide regimes over three years. POST herbicide regime following NIT was not very consistent. Averaged across three years, Palmer amaranth controlled ≥94% in PRE and PRE + POST herbicide regimes regardless of cover crop. Herbicide regime effect on cotton yield was highly significant; the maximum cotton yield was

  7. Nutritional evaluation of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An advisory group of experts, comprising nutritionists, analysts and plant breeders, discussed the desirability of nutritional goals for plant breeding and attempted to specify the deficiencies of various cereal crops in essential nutrients. It considered the plant factors influencing the value for human and animal nutrition and the feasibility of improving these by genetic and plant breeding methods. Methods of assaying nutritional quality were discussed, particularly in relation to the need for rapid, inexpensive methods capable of being used as screening procedures in plant breeding programmes. The proceedings contain 9 scientific papers and a conclusion and recommendations, including a review of the chemical cuzymatic, microbiological and animal assay techniques that are available

  8. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  9. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  10. Correlations between land covers and honey bee colony losses in a country with industrialized and rural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Antoine; Eickermann, Michael; Kraus, François; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2015-11-01

    High levels of honey bee colony losses were recently reported from Canada, China, Europe, Israel, Turkey and the United States, raising concerns of a global pollinator decline and questioning current land use practices, in particular intense agricultural cropping systems. Sixty-seven crops (data from the years 2010-2012) and 66 mid-term stable land cover classes (data from 2007) were analysed for statistical relationships with the honey bee colony losses experienced over the winters 2010/11-2012/13 in Luxembourg (Western Europe). The area covered by each land cover class, the shortest distance between each land cover class and the respective apiary, the number of plots covered by each land use class and the size of the biggest plot of each land cover class within radii of 2 km and 5 km around 166 apiaries (2010), 184 apiaries (2011) and 188 apiaries (2012) were tested for correlations with honey bee colony losses (% per apiary) experienced in the winter following the season when the crops were grown. Artificial water bodies, open urban areas, large industrial facilities including heavy industry, railways and associated installations, buildings and installations with socio-cultural purpose, camping-, sports-, playgrounds, golf courts, oilseed crops other than oilseed rape like sunflower or linseed, some spring cereals and former forest clearcuts or windthrows were the land cover classes most frequently associated with high honey bee colony losses. Grain maize, mixed forest and mixed coniferous forest were the land cover classes most frequently associated with low honey bee colony losses. The present data suggest that land covers related to transport, industry and leisure may have made a more substantial contribution to winter honey bee colony losses in developed countries than anticipated so far. Recommendations for the positioning of apiaries are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, E.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; McDaniel, M. D.; Robertson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye (secale cereale) cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination. Corn stover contributed 66 (another 163 was in harvested corn stover), corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. shoots as a source of soil C. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

  12. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew; Cogger, Craig; Bary, Andy; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight), two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(-)-N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1) biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1) and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1). Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1) N and had mean C:N ratio rye, 97 kg ha(-1) for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1) for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination) compared with the monocultures (29%). Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  13. Aflatoxin contamination of locallyprocessed cereal-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding children with cereal-based foods has potential to expose them to aflatoxins (AFs).This study was conducted to determine the occurrence and levels of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) in 64 commercial locally produced cereal-based complementary foods obtained from producers and popular markets in ...

  14. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  15. Stress, breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    2002-04-01

    Recent research has shown that regular consumption of breakfast cereal is associated with lower stress levels and reports of better physical and mental health. The present study examined this issue using an objective indicator of stress, salivary cortisol. The results showed that stress was associated with higher cortisol levels and daily consumption of breakfast cereal was associated with lower cortisol levels. Although it was not possible to rule out all the alternative explanations of the association between breakfast cereal consumption and cortisol, analyses did show that the effect could not be accounted for by general health or nutritional status. The effects of breakfast cereal consumption and stress were also independent, which shows that the effects of breakfast found here cannot be due to stress buffering. Further research manipulating the nutrient content of the breakfast cereal is now required to provide further information about the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  16. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  17. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  18. Host genotype is an important determinant of the cereal phyllosphere mycobiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    The phyllosphere mycobiome in cereals is an important determinant of crop health. However, an understanding of the factors shaping this community is lacking. Fungal diversity in leaves from a range of cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), winter and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare...... and location have minor effects. We found many host-specific fungal pathogens, but also a large diversity of fungi that were relatively insensitive to host genetic background, indicating that host-specific pathogens live in a 'sea' of nonspecific fungi....

  19. Assessing Impacts of National Scale Droughts on Cereal Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udmale, P. D.; Ichikawa, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Till date, several drought indices have been developed and used to monitor local to regional scale droughts on various temporal scales. However, there are no generalized criteria to define a threshold to declare a national level drought using drought indices. EM-DAT (a global database on natural and technological disasters) lists disasters (including drought) from 1900 until the present confirming one of the following criteria: 10 or more people dead; 100 or more people affected; the declaration of a state of emergency; or a call for international assistance. This data is gathered from various organizations like United Nations Institutes, Governments, etc. and do not cover all disasters or have political limitations that could affect the numbers. These criteria are neither objective nor quantitative, and accordingly may cause uncertainties when the data is used for further investigation on disaster impacts. Here we present a methodology to define drought at a national scale and its impacts on national level crop production (mainly cereals). We define drought based on the percentage of cropland area affected by drought in a country during its seasonal rainfall. For this purpose meteorological definition of drought in combination with country's cropland area is proposed to prepare a drought inventory for major cereal producing countries (1902-2012). This drought inventory together with FAO's Crop data is used to identify the impacts of drought on a national level cereal production (and yield) using Superposed Epoch Analysis for the period 1961-2012.

  20. Benefits from cover crops based on plant-microbial interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Manici , L.M.; Kelderer, M.; Caputo, F.; De Luca Picione , F.; Topp, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed on the impact of two different cover crops (cereal and legume) on composition of root fungal endophytes and rhizospheric bacterial communities as a function of crop health in replanted apple orchards.

  1. Decrease in Content of Lead in Danish Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Per Bent; Aarkrog, Asker; Fenger, Jørgen Folkvard

    1978-01-01

    ENVIRONMENTAL pollution by lead, resulting in part from the use of petrol additives, is well established, and lead is known to be transferred through food chains1. However, there has apparently been no previous long term study of the lead content of food. We have been able to make such a study...... by using samples of Danish food substances, which have been collected annually at the Health Physics Department of Risø National Laboratory. The samples are always dry ashed at 500 °C for 24 h and then stored in polyethylene boxes with close fitting lids. Tests show that this causes no loss of lead...... or contamination by lead. So far we have examined three cereals (spring and winter wheat (Triticum vulgare) and barley (Hordeurn sativum), and total diet2, which is the average daily diet of an adult in Denmark. (The composition of total diet is given in ref. 2.) We report here that there has been an overall...

  2. Breakfast Cereals: The Extreme Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Connor

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of my talk today is to review several aspects of the market structure, strategic rivalry, and economic performance of the ready-to-eat cereals industry. To do so, I will at times take a long historical view of the breakfast cereals industry because many of the behaviors we observe today seem to me to be imbedded in habits of business rivalry that were learned many decades ago and yet persist today. My perspective on the RTE breakfast cereals industry is informed by nearly twenty y...

  3. Perancangan Interior Nestlé's Cereal World Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Wibowo, Linda Gunawan

    2014-01-01

    Nestlé's Cereal World is a new facility in foodservice industry, which people can explore and obtain a new experience about cereal through 4 main facilities: attraction, discover, dining, and shopping. Nestlé's Cereal World design will use Nestlé's interior branding, which the tangible and intangible design will represent the Nestlé's Cereal identity.

  4. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases – coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes and colonic and breast cancer. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of whole......-grains, however, are unclear but is most likely assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. The DF fraction of cereals consists of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), resistant starch, oligosaccharides (mostly fructans) and the non-carbohydrate polyphenolic ether...... lignin. The main NSP in cereals are arabinoxylan (AX), mixed linkages β(1-3; 1-4)-glucan (β-glucan) and cellulose, which vary significantly according to the cereal species but also between different tissues of the grains. Rye, triticale, wheat and corn are rich in AX, whereas barley and oats contain...

  5. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  6. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  7. Starter cultures for cereal based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J

    2014-02-01

    Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycotoxins in organic and conventional cereals and cereal products grown and marketed in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Markov, Ksenija; Frece, Jadranka; Zadravec, Manuela; Jaki, Vesna; Krupić, Igor; Vahčić, Nada

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the levels of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM) in unprocessed cereals (n = 189) and cereal-based products (n = 61) were determined using validated ELISA methods. All samples originated from either conventional or organic production corresponded to the 2015 harvest in Croatia. Based on the mean mycotoxin concentrations, the risk for the consumer to exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for these toxins by the consumption of both types of cereals and cereal-based products was assessed. Mycotoxin contamination of organic cereals and organic cereal-based products was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Given that the exposure assessment resulted in a small fraction of the TDI (maximum: DON, 12% of TDI), the levels of the investigated mycotoxins in both types of cereals and cereal-based products from the 2015 harvest did not pose a human health hazard.

  9. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  10. Cereals for the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The region of semi-arid tropics is the most famine prone area of the world. This region with nearly one billion people extends across some 20 million square kilometres. Major domesticated cereals adapted to semi-arid regions are sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Several minor cereals are grown as speciality crops, or harvested in the wild in times of severe drought and scarcity. Important in the African Sahel are the fonios Digitaria iburua Stapf, D. exilis (Kapist) Stapf and Brachiaria deflexa (Schumach). C.E. Hubbard. These species are aggressive colonizers and are commonly encouraged as weeds in cultivated fields. Sown genotypes differ from their close wild relatives primarily in the lack of efficient natural seed dispersal. The fonios lend themselves to rapid domestication. Several wild cereals extend well beyond the limits of agriculture into the Sahara. Commonly harvested are the perennial Stipagrostis pungens and Panicum turgidum, and the annual Cenchrus biflorus (kram-kram). Kram-kram yields well under extreme heat and drought stress, and holds promise as a domesticated cereal. Sauwi millet (Panicum sonorum) is promising cereal in arid northwestern Mexico. (author). 31 refs

  11. Efeito de coberturas de inverno e sua época de manejo sobre a infestação de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho Effect of winter cover crops and their management timing on weed infestation in maize crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Balbinot Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available No sistema de plantio direto, a presença de palha sobre o solo proporciona significativa supressão de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de coberturas de inverno e sua época de manejo em reduzir a infestação de plantas daninhas na cultura de milho quando semeada em sucessão. Dois experimentos foram realizados em Canoinhas, SC, nas safras 2003/04 e 2004/05. No primeiro experimento, avaliaram-se seis coberturas de solo no inverno: nabo forrageiro, aveia-preta, centeio, azevém, consórcio entre aveia-preta e ervilhaca e o consórcio entre nabo forrageiro, aveia-preta, centeio, azevém e ervilhaca. Essas coberturas foram roçadas em três épocas antes da semeadura do milho: 1, 10 e 25 dias. Já no segundo experimento, foram avaliados os efeitos de supressão de plantas daninhas pela palha das seis coberturas citadas anteriormente, mais a ervilhaca. As palhas de azevém e do consórcio das cinco espécies utilizadas no experimento apresentaram alta capacidade em suprimir a emergência e o acúmulo de massa seca das plantas daninhas, enquanto a palha de nabo forrageiro apresentou baixo potencial de supressão. O manejo das coberturas próximo à semeadura da cultura de milho reduziu a infestação de plantas daninhas.Straw on the soil significantly reduces weed infestation under the no-tillage system. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of winter cover crops and their management timing in reducing weed infestation in maize crop. Two experiments were carried out in Canoinhas, SC, Brazil, in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were investigated: oilseed radish, black oat, rye, rye grass, intercropped among black oat and common vetch and among oilseed radish, black oat, rye, ryegrass and common vetch. These cover crops were slashed down at three different times before maize seeding (1, 10 and 25 days. In the second experiment, the potential to reduce weed

  12. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  13. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  14. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  15. Snow cover and temperature relationships in North America and Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.; Owe, M.; Rango, A.

    1983-01-01

    In this study the snow cover extent during the autumn months in both North America and Eurasia has been related to the ensuing winter temperature as measured at several locations near the center of each continent. The relationship between autumn snow cover and the ensuing winter temperatures was found to be much better for Eurasia than for North America. For Eurasia the average snow cover extent during the autumn explained as much as 52 percent of the variance in the winter (December-February) temperatures compared to only 12 percent for North America. However, when the average winter snow cover was correlated with the average winter temperature it was found that the relationship was better for North America than for Eurasia. As much as 46 percent of the variance in the winter temperature was explained by the winter snow cover in North America compared to only 12 percent in Eurasia.

  16. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  17. Rye cover crop and gamagrass strip effects on NO3 concentration and load in tile drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, T C; Jaynes, D B; Parkin, T B; Moorman, T B

    2007-01-01

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or "tiles." Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concentrations in subsurface drainage to acceptable levels; therefore, additional approaches need to be devised. We compared two cropping system modifications for NO3 concentration and load in subsurface drainage water for a no-till corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) management system. In one treatment, eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) was grown in permanent 3.05-m-wide strips above the tiles. For the second treatment, a rye (Secale cereale L.) winter cover crop was seeded over the entire plot area each year near harvest and chemically killed before planting the following spring. Twelve 30.5x42.7-m subsurface-drained field plots were established in 1999 with an automated system for measuring tile flow and collecting flow-weighted samples. Both treatments and a control were initiated in 2000 and replicated four times. Full establishment of both treatments did not occur until fall 2001 because of dry conditions. Treatment comparisons were conducted from 2002 through 2005. The rye cover crop treatment significantly reduced subsurface drainage water flow-weighted NO3 concentrations and NO3 loads in all 4 yr. The rye cover crop treatment did not significantly reduce cumulative annual drainage. Averaged over 4 yr, the rye cover crop reduced flow-weighted NO3 concentrations by 59% and loads by 61%. The gamagrass strips did not significantly reduce cumulative drainage, the average annual flow-weighted NO3 concentrations, or cumulative NO3 loads averaged over the 4 yr. Rye winter cover crops grown after corn and soybean have the potential to reduce the NO3 concentrations and loads delivered to surface waters by subsurface drainage systems.

  18. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  19. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  20. The First Results of Monitoring the Formation and Destruction of the Ice Cover in Winter 2014-2015 on Ilmen Lake according to the Measurements of Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaev, V. Yu.; Panfilova, M. A.; Titchenko, Yu. A.; Meshkov, E. M.; Balandina, G. N.; Andreeva, Z. V.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) opens up new opportunities for studying and monitoring the land and inland waters. It is the first time radar with a swath (±65°) covering regions with cold climate where waters are covered with ice and land with snow for prolonged periods of time has been used. It is also the first time that the remote sensing is carried out at small incidence angles (less than 19°) at two frequencies (13.6 and 35.5 GHz). The high spatial resolution (4-5 km) significantly increases the number of objects that can be studied using the new radar. Ilmen Lake is chosen as the first test object for the development of complex programs for processing and analyzing data obtained by the DPR. The problem of diagnostics of ice-cover formation and destruction according to DPR data has been considered. It is shown that the dependence of the radar backscatter cross section on the incidence angle for autumn ice is different from that of spring ice, and can be used for classification. A comparison with scattering on the water surface has shown that, at incidence angles exceeding 10°, it is possible to discern all three types of reflecting surfaces: open water, autumn ice, and spring ice, under the condition of making repeated measurements to avoid possible ambiguity caused by wind.

  1. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  2. The Need for Cooperation in Cereal Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, J.W. van der

    2004-01-01

    The trends and needs in cereal research as discussed in 2003 AACC annual meeting are presented. The seminar identified the need of feeding a growing world population with less arable land and under more adverse agronomic conditions. An urgent need of eliminating mycotoxins and coeliac diseases to

  3. From protein catalogues towards targeted proteomics approaches in cereal grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Sultan, Abida; Grasser, Klaus D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to their importance for human nutrition, the protein content of cereal grains has been a subject of intense study for over a century and cereal grains were not surprisingly one of the earliest subjects for 2D-gel-based proteome analysis. Over the last two decades, countless cereal grain prote...

  4. Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa

    Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one

  5. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  6. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  7. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

  8. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  9. Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Snoo, de G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering

  10. March-June temperature reconstruction in the Czech Lands based on cereal harvest dates in the 1501-2008 period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Možný, Martin; Dobrovolný, Petr; Trnka, Mirek

    2010-05-01

    Cereal crop harvests reflect the weather patterns of the period immediately preceding them, and thus the dates at which they begin may be used as a source of proxy data on regional climate. Using systematic phenological observations in the Czech Lands (now known as the Czech Republic) after 1848, together with exploration of further surviving documentary evidence (chronicles, diaries, financial accounts etc.), it has proved possible to create series of winter wheat harvest dates for the period 1501-2008. Employing linear regression, the harvesting dates of the main cereal species (wheat, rye, barley, oats) were first converted to winter wheat harvest days and then normalised to the same altitude above sea level. The next step consisted of using series of winter wheat harvest dates to reconstruct mean March-June temperatures in the Czech Lands, applying standard palaeoclimatological methods. Series reconstructed by linear regression explain 70% of temperature variability. A profound cold period corresponding with late winter wheat harvests was noted between 1659 and 1705. In contrast, warm periods (i.e. early winter wheat harvests) were found for the periods of 1517-1542, 1788-1834 and 1946-2008. The period after 1951 is the warmest of all throughout the entire 1501-2008 period. Comparisons with other European temperature reconstructions derived from documentary sources (including grape harvest dates), tree-ring and instrumental data reveal generally close agreement, with significant correlations. Lower correlations around A.D. 1650 and 1750 may be partly related to deterioration of socio-economic conditions in the Czech Lands resulting from prolonged wars. The results obtained demonstrate that it is possible to use widely-available cereal harvest data for climate analysis and also that such data constitute an independent proxy data series for the region of Central Europe crucial to further studies of the potential impact of climatic variability and climate change

  11. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  12. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  13. Presence of aflatoxins in cereals from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs, one of the most toxic and the strongest natural carcinogens can be found in a variety of food commodities, including cereals. For that purpose, the aim of this study was to investigate occurrence of AFs (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 in 130 cereal samples. AFs content was determined by direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Samples with AFs content higher than 1 μg/kg were analyzed again with confirmatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Analyses showed that none of the analyzed wheat (30, barley (20, oats (20 and rye (20 samples was contaminated with AFs. On the other hand, among 40 analyzed maize samples 24 of them (60% were contaminated in the following way: 6 (25% samples had AFs concentration between 1 and 10 μg/kg, 14 (58% samples between 10 and 50 μg/kg and 4 (17% between 50 and 70.3 μg/kg. The most predominant aflatoxin was AFB1 which was detected in all contaminated maize samples. AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 were found in 12, 5 and 1 sample, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of the occurrence of AFs in five different cereals from Serbia.

  14. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  15. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  16. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  18. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  19. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  20. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean 210 Pb/ 210 Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from 210 Pb and 210 Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively.

  1. 210Pb and 210Po in Finnish cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtiainen, Tuukka; Kostiainen, Eila; Hallikainen, Anja

    2011-05-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal grains produced in Finland. The cereal species were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oats (Avena sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), which account for 90% of the Finnish consumption of cereal products. The survey consisted of 18 flour and 13 unprocessed cereal samples and one hulled grain sample from 22 flour mills. According to the results, the mean (210)Pb/(210)Po concentrations in wheat grains, wheat flour, rye flour, oat grains and barley grains were 0.29, 0.12, 0.29, 0.36 and 0.36 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Combined with the consumption rates of the products, we assess that the mean effective doses from (210)Pb and (210)Po in cereal products for the adult male and female population are 22 and 17 μSv per year, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  3. Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance under Organic Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lawson

    Full Text Available Cover crop benefits include nitrogen accumulation and retention, weed suppression, organic matter maintenance, and reduced erosion. Organic farmers need region-specific information on winter cover crop performance to effectively integrate cover crops into their crop rotations. Our research objective was to compare cover crop seeding mixtures, planting dates, and termination dates on performance of rye (Secale cereale L. and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth monocultures and mixtures in the maritime Pacific Northwest USA. The study included four seed mixtures (100% hairy vetch, 25% rye-75% hairy vetch, 50% rye-50% hairy vetch, and 100% rye by seed weight, two planting dates, and two termination dates, using a split-split plot design with four replications over six years. Measurements included winter ground cover; stand composition; cover crop biomass, N concentration, and N uptake; and June soil NO3(--N. Rye planted in mid-September and terminated in late April averaged 5.1 Mg ha(-1 biomass, whereas mixtures averaged 4.1 Mg ha(-1 and hairy vetch 2.3 Mg ha(-1. Delaying planting by 2.5 weeks reduced average winter ground cover by 65%, biomass by 50%, and cover crop N accumulation by 40%. Similar reductions in biomass and N accumulation occurred for late March termination, compared with late April termination. Mixtures had less annual biomass variability than rye. Mixtures accumulated 103 kg ha(-1 N and had mean C:N ratio <17:1 when planted in mid-September and terminated in late April. June soil NO3(--N (0 to 30 cm depth averaged 62 kg ha(-1 for rye, 97 kg ha(-1 for the mixtures, and 119 kg ha(-1 for hairy vetch. Weeds comprised less of the mixtures biomass (20% weeds by weight at termination compared with the monocultures (29%. Cover crop mixtures provided a balance between biomass accumulation and N concentration, more consistent biomass over the six-year study, and were more effective at reducing winter weeds compared with monocultures.

  4. Produtividade de feijão-guará e efeito supressivo de culturas de cobertura de inverno em espontâneas de verão = Common bean yield and the suppressive effect of winter cover crops on summer weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique von Hertwig Bittencourt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito das coberturas de inverno centeio, aveia, azevém, ervilhaca e nabo forrageiro (e suas associações, em sistema de plantio direto, sobre a cobertura do solo e a produção de biomassa das coberturas de inverno, sobre a biomassa de plantas espontâneas deverão, no período crítico de competição, e sobre a produtividade do feijão, cv Guará. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental constituído por blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Observaram-se as maiores percentagens de cobertura do solo no inverno, com os tratamentos centeio + ervilhaca, centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro e aveia + ervilhaca; a produção de biomassa de cobertura foi maior com centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro. Oefeito de supressão observado foi maior no monocultivo de azevém e no consórcio de centeio + ervilhaca + nabo forrageiro, porém não foi detectada correlação da biomassa de cobertura com a supressão de plantas espontâneas de verão. Os melhores rendimentos de feijão foram obtidos com o monocultivo de azevém, monocultivo de aveia e combinação centeio + ervilhaca, que atingiram 1.950, 1.730 e 1.790 kg ha-1, respectivamente. O azevém e a aveia em monocultivo apresentaram os menores custos com sementes e as maiores receitas, ou seja, os maiores retornos por unidade monetária investida.The effect of the winter cover crops rye, oat, ryegrass, vetch and fodder radish (and their mixtures in no-tillage systems was investigated on soil cover, cover crop biomass and summer weed biomass during the critical competition stage with common bean. Bean yield was also evaluated. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks and four repetitions. The highest soil cover during winter was observed in the treatments rye + vetch, rye + vetch +fodder radish and oat + vetch. The highest values of cover crops biomass production were observed in the treatments rye + vetch + fodder radish. Weed suppression was higher

  5. Effect of cover crops on emergence and growth of carrot (Daucus carota L. in no-plow and traditional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to determine the influence of cover crop biomass incorporated into the soil at different times and using different treatments on carrot emergence and growth. 7 species of cover crops were included in the study: Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Vicia sativa, Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, and Helianthus annuus.  Number of emerged carrot plants significantly depended on the cover crop used and on the method of pre-winter and spring pre-sowing tillage. Carrot emerged best after a rye or oats cover crop. Regardless of the cover crop species used, the largest number of carrots emerged in cultivation on ridges. In other variants of no-plow tillage, number of seedlings was significantly lower and did not differ from that under traditional plow tillage. The highest leaf rosettes were formed by carrot growing after a rye or oats cover crop. The highest rosettes were produced by carrots in the treatments where tillage was limited to the use of a tillage implement in spring and the lowest ones after pre-winter plowing. The effect of tillage on the emergence and height of carrot leaves largely depended on weather conditions in the successive years of the study. The largest number of leaves was found in carrots grown after a buckwheat cover crop and in cultivation without cover crop, while the smallest one after phacelia and white mustard. Carrots produced the largest number of leaves after a sunflower cover crop and the use of a tillage implement in spring, while the number of leaves was lowest when the mustard biomass was incorporated into the soil in spring. The use of cover crops significantly increased the mass of leaves produced by carrot as compared to the cultivation without cover crop. The largest mass of leaves was produced by carrots grown after the phacelia and mustard cover crops. Conventional plow tillage and pre-winter tillage using a stubble cultivator promoted an increase in the mass

  6. Counties performance evaluation of cereal production in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Mustafaj; Elfrida Dishmema; Albina Basholli; Brunilda Baraku

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the Albanian economy. Agricultural production occupies for about 1/5 of the country's GDP. Agricultural production includes all realized production in all counties of the country. Cereal constitutes a significant part in agricultural production, which are grown all over the country. The main cereals cultivated in the country are wheat, maize, rye, barley and oats. The highest level of cereal production in Albania is reached in low and coasta...

  7. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  8. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  9. Development of cereals for animal feed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.

  10. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Gauthier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB and Gibberella ear rot (GER, two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum.

  11. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  12. Sistemas de coberturas de solo no inverno e seus efeitos sobre o rendimento de grãos do milho em sucessão Soil covering systems in the winter and its effects on maize grain yield grown in succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Alves da Silva

    2007-08-01

    milho também aumenta quando em sucessão à ervilhaca.The black oats use (Avena strigosa as species of soil covering in the winter, cause immobilization of the nitrogen (N, that reduces the plant development and grain yield of maize cultivated in succession. Thus, the black oat intercropped systems with leguminous as common vetch (Vicia sativa and brassicas as oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus is aimed at increasing nitrogen (N disponibility in the system and the permanence timing of its residues in the soil. Two experiments were carried out in the growth seasons of 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one was aimed at evaluating the effect of three winter species of soil covering, grown as a single culture and as intercropped crops on maize grain yield, with and without nitrogen side-dressed. The second one was aimed at determining the most adequate seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat in intercropped systems, as soil covering crops in the winter preceding maize, under different nitrogen levels side-dressed. In Experiment I, treatments were composed by N application of 180kg ha-1, a control without N side-dressed and seven winter soil covering systems. In the Experiment II, treatments consisted of two levels of N side-dressing application in maize, a control without N side-dressed, and of three seed ratio of oilseed radish and black oat, as single and as intercropped crops and a control without crop in the winter. In all intercropped systems, independently of seed ratio used, the oilseed radish was mostly responsible for the yield of dry mass of the systems. The intercropped systems of common vetch or oilseed radish with black oat minimize the negative effect of oat on maize grain yield cultivated in succession in systems with low N availability and, even with high N supply, maize grain yield also increases when grown after common vetch.

  13. Estratégias de manejo de coberturas de solo no inverno para cultivo do milho em sucessão no sistema semeadura direta Management strategies of winter cover crops to maize grown in succession in no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Regis Ferreira da Silva

    2006-06-01

    . Both maize and black oat belong to the Poaceae family and the continuous use of black oat may bring some losses to maize in succession. Therefore, other winter cover crop species, belonging to other taxonomic families, such legumes and crucifers, have been studied as alternatives to the no-till system which includes maize as a cash crop in the summer. The objectives of this review are: i to describe the main advantages and limitations of winter cover crops, cultivated in pure stands or mixtures and ii to discuss cover crops management strategies that most benefit the maize crop in succession.

  14. Cover crop and nitrogen fertilization influence soil carbon and nitrogen under bioenergy sweet sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crop and N fertilization may maintain soil C and N levels under sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) biomass harvested for bioenergy production. The effect of cover crops (hairy vetch [Vicia villosa Roth], rye [Secaele cereale L.], hairy vetch/rye mixture, and the control [no cover crop...

  15. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  16. Long-lasting ergot lipids as new biomarkers for assessing the presence of cereals and cereal products in archaeological vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucejko, Jeannette J; La Nasa, Jacopo; Porta, Francesca; Vanzetti, Alessandro; Tanda, Giuseppa; Mangiaracina, Claudio Filippo; Corretti, Alessandro; Colombini, Maria Perla; Ribechini, Erika

    2018-03-02

    Cereals were very important in ancient diets, however evidence from archaeological sites of the vessels used for processing or storing cereals is comparatively rare. Micro-organisms, as well as chemical-physical effects can easily degrade cereals during the burial period. This can lead to a complete cereal decay and to serious difficulties in estimating the intensity of use of the cereals by ancient populations. Here, we present a novel biomarker approach entailing the detection of secondary lipid metabolites produced by ergot fungi (genus Claviceps), which are common cereal pests. The aim was to identify the original presence of Gramineae and to indirectly establish if vessels were used for cereal storage/processing. The fatty acid and TAG-estolide profiles of the remains from more than 30 archaeological vessels were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-Q-ToF). The detection of lipids derived from ergot in archaeological and historic contexts rests on its complex chemistry, providing a unique and relatively recalcitrant chemical signature for cereals. This research demonstrated that the combination of our innovative biomarker approach along with environmental and archaeological evidence can provide unprecedented insights into the incidence of cereals and related processing activities in ancient societies.

  17. Impact of change in winter strategy of one parasitoid species on the diversity and function of a guild of parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Thiago Oliveira; Krespi, Liliane; Bonnardot, Valérie; van Baaren, Joan; Outreman, Yannick

    2016-03-01

    The rise of temperatures may enable species to increase their activities during winter periods and to occupy new areas. In winter, resource density is low for most species and an increased number of active consumers during this season may produce heightened competitive pressure. In Western France, the aphid parasitoid species Aphidius avenae Haliday has been known to adopt a winter diapausing strategy adjacent to newly sown cereal crops, until recent reports of active winter populations in cereal crops. We investigate how the addition of this species to the winter guild of parasitoids may change the structure of the aphid-parasitoid food web and the host-exploitation strategies of previously occurring parasitoids. We showed that in winter, Aphidius avenae was mostly associated with two aphid species, Sitobion avenae Fabricius and Metopolophium dirhodum Walker, while the generalist species Aphidius rhopalosiphi was restricted to the aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. in the presence of Aphidius avenae. Due to this new competition, winter food webs present a higher degree of compartmentalization and lower proportional similarity index values than spring ones. Parasitoid and aphid abundances responded significantly to changes in daily high temperatures, suggesting that the host-parasitoid community structure can be partly predicted by climate. This study demonstrates how a change in the winter strategy of one species of a guild can modify complex interspecific relationships in host-parasitoid systems.

  18. Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and triticale after using physical and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, E.J.; Murani, R.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: It was decided to induce mutations separately in rye and triticale to obtain forms resistant to lodging. Seeds of rye cv. 'Dankowskie Zlote' and triticale cv. 'Lasko' were irradiated with fast neutrons and treated with MNH, rye cv. 'LAD 2T80' was treated with only MNH. The mutant selection was made in M 3 and the progenies were evaluated with regard to plant height. In total, 226 changed forms were found, most of them shorter than the control. Some of them should be useful as a source of resistance to lodging. (author)

  20. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  1. Cereal sprouts: composition, nutritive value, food applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K

    1980-01-01

    The practice of sprouting of cereal grains has become popular in the western world. Sprouted grains are thought of as having exceptional nutritive value. Sprouting is easy and can be done without sophisticated equipment. Untreated seeds of good quality and high germination percentage are placed in an environment of adequate water, a desirable temperature, and a certain composition of gases in the atmosphere for several days for sprouting. The sprouts can be kept for a few days to over a week under refrigeration. They can be used in many different foods including breakfast items, salads, soups, casseroles, pasta, and baked products. Sprouting of grains causes increased enzyme activity, a loss of total dry matter, an increase in total protein, a change in amino acid composition, a decrease in starch, increases in sugars, a slight increase in crude fat and crude fiber, and slightly higher amounts of certain vitamins and minerals. Most of the increases in nutrients are not true increases, however. They simply reflect the loss of dry matter, mainly in the form of carbohydrates, due to respiration during sprouting. As total carbohydrates decreases, the percentage of other nutrients increases. There are no nutritional evaluations of cereal sprouts in humans. Animal studies with cattle, pigs, chickens, and rats have failed to show a superior nutritive value of sprouted grains over ungerminated grains. Studies with humans are not likely to produce more encouraging results.

  2. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enujiugha, Victor N; Badejo, Adebanjo A

    2017-03-04

    Probiotics offer remarkable potential for the prevention and management of various infective and noninfective disorders. They are reported to play key roles in the suppression of gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anticarcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, and improvement in inflammatory bowel disease. Although probiotic foods are classically confined to beverages and cheese, containing live organisms of the lactic acid bacteria family, such health-promoting foods are traditionally dairy-based, comprising milk and its fermented products. However, recent research focuses on the probiotic potentials of fermented cereal-based beverages which are especially consumed in developing countries characterized by low nutritional security and high incidence of gut pathogen infections. Moreover, lactose intolerance and cholesterol content associated with dairy products, coupled with the vegetarian tendencies of diverse populations in the third world, tend to enforce the recent recourse to nondairy beverages. Probiotic microorganisms are mostly of human or animal origin; however, strains recognized as probiotics are also found in nondairy fermented substrates. This review examines the potentials of some traditional cereal-based beverages to serve as probiotic foods, their microbial and functional properties, as well as their process optimization and storage for enhanced utilization.

  3. Collection and hauling of cereal grain chaff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reding, B.; Leduc, P. [Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute, Humboldt, Saskatchewan (Canada); Stumborg, M. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Cereal grain chaff has been identified by Energy Mines and Resources, Canada, and Agriculture Canada, as a suitable feedstock for ethanol production. Canada produces 13,300,000 t (14,600,000 ton) of cereal grain chaff annually; mainly in the prairie region. Work conducted at the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI), Humboldt, Saskatchewan, has determined that the collection of chaff for centralized processing is a problem due to low bulk density in its natural state. This problem can be overcome by densification using either compression or size reduction. Either method will be economical in a chaff shed radius of 140 km (87 mi) when chaff is densified to 160 kg/m{sup 3} (10 lb/ft{sup 3}). The size reduction method of densification may be economical to hauling distances exceeding 166 km (103 mi), particularly if size reduction is a required part of ethanol processing. Further work is under way to develop the required equipment modifications to allow existing farm equipment to be used for this purpose.

  4. Dietary fibers and associated phytochemicals in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Nørskov, Natalja P; Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Laerke, Helle Nygaard

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole-grain (WG) cereal consumption to a reduced risk of developing several chronic diseases-coronary heart disease, arteriosclerosis, type-2 diabetes, and some form of cancers. The underlying physiological mechanisms behind the protective effects of WG are unclear, but can most likely be assigned to a concerted action of dietary fiber (DF) and a wide variety of phytochemicals. Physiologically, it is important that soluble nonstarch polysaccharides contribute to higher viscosity in the small intestine as this may influence rate and extent of digestion and absorption. Associated with the DF matrix of cereals is an array of nonnutritive constituents predominantly concentrated in the bran fraction. Among them, the phenolic phytochemicals, benzoic acid and cinnamic derivatives and lignans, are of importance in a nutritional-health perspective. Only a small fraction of the phenolics is absorbed in the small intestine, but the availability can be increased by bioprocessing. The major part, however, is passed to the large intestine where the microbiota, which degrade and metabolize DF to SCFAs and gases, also convert the phenolic compounds into a range of other metabolites that are absorbed into the body and with the capability of influencing the metabolism at the cellular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Microbial biomass and soil fauna during the decomposition of cover crops in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Colpo Gatiboni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant residues is a biological process mediated by soil fauna, but few studies have been done evaluating its dynamics in time during the process of disappearance of straw. This study was carried out in Chapecó, in southern Brazil, with the objective of monitoring modifications in soil fauna populations and the C content in the soil microbial biomass (C SMB during the decomposition of winter cover crop residues in a no-till system. The following treatments were tested: 1 Black oat straw (Avena strigosa Schreb.; 2 Rye straw (Secale cereale L.; 3 Common vetch straw (Vicia sativa L.. The cover crops were grown until full flowering and then cut mechanically with a rolling stalk chopper. The soil fauna and C content in soil microbial biomass (C SMB were assessed during the period of straw decomposition, from October 2006 to February 2007. To evaluate C SMB by the irradiation-extraction method, soil samples from the 0-10 cm layer were used, collected on eight dates, from before until 100 days after residue chopping. The soil fauna was collected with pitfall traps on seven dates up to 85 days after residue chopping. The phytomass decomposition of common vetch was faster than of black oat and rye residues. The C SMB decreased during the process of straw decomposition, fastest in the treatment with common vetch. In the common vetch treatment, the diversity of the soil fauna was reduced at the end of the decomposition process.

  6. East African governments' responses to high cereal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, G.W.; Roza, P.; Berkum, van S.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the responses of governments in four East African countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia) with respect to price formation and price transmission in the cereal sector. All four countries were confronted with high cereal prices in 2008. Government policies applied largely

  7. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  8. Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fermentation and malting on some cereal weaning foods enriched with African locust beans were carried out. Cereals (wheat and millet) were malted for the period of 144 hours and further fermented for 48 hours by natural fermentation. The millet, wheat and locust bean flours were mixed together in the ratio ...

  9. Adult polyphagous coleopterans overwintering in cereal boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, W; Steenberg, T

    1998-01-01

    . Generally the mortality was low in autumn and mid-winter, not exceeding 5%. A more pronounced post-winter mortality of up to 30% was observed at the end of hibernation. Only a negligible number were infected by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus. Infection experiments...... with B, bassiana isolates from Sitona lineatus, Tachyporus hypnorum and three species of ground beetles showed a similarly low susceptibility of B. lampros and A. dorsale to B. bassiana and, although Tachyporus spp. showed a distinct mycophagy and a significantly higher mortality, this could...

  10. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  11. Life Cycle Assessment in the Cereal and Derived Products Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renzulli, Pietro A.; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Benedetto, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    environmental improvement in such systems. Following a brief introduction to the cereal sector and supply chain, this chapter reviews some of the current cereal-based life cycle thinking literature, with a particular emphasis on LCA. Next, an analysis of the LCA methodological issues emerging from......This chapter discusses the application of life cycle assessment methodologies to rice, wheat, corn and some of their derived products. Cereal product systems are vital for the production of commodities of worldwide importance that entail particular environmental hot spots originating from...... their widespread use and from their particular nature. It is thus important for tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) to be tailored to such cereal systems in order to be used as a means of identifying the negative environmental effects of cereal products and highlighting possible pathways to overall...

  12. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  13. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  14. Dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e produção de fitomassa por plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno com o uso de dejetos de suínos Dynamics of soil nitrogen and cover crops dry matter production in the fall/winter as affected by pig slurry use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-10-01

    favoreceu o crescimento da aveia em detrimento da ervilhaca, ocorrendo o melhor equilíbrio entre a produção de fitomassa e a adição de N na dose de 20 m³ ha-1 de dejetos. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a eficiência das plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno em ciclar nutrientes fornecidos pelos dejetos de suínos e a importância da utilização de espécies com elevado potencial de produção de matéria seca e que sejam exigentes em N.The use of pig slurry before implanting cover crops in the fall/winter is becoming a common practice in southern Brazil, although its effects on crops and soil are still poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of soil N as well as to study the cover crop yields under use of pig slurry in the fall/winter. The study was developed in the growing season 2000 on an experimental area of the Soils Department of UFSM, RS. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and three replications. The main plots had black oat, black oat (30 % + common vetch (70 % mixture and spontaneous vegetation of the area (fallow. Four pig slurry rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 were applied on the split-plots. The mineral N contents (N-NH4+ and N-NO2- + N-NO3- were evaluated at seven dates in the layers of 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth. The dry matter production and N, P and K concentration of cover crops and spontaneous vegetation were evaluated. Mineral soil N increased with liquid manure application, with similar N dynamics when applied on residues of oat/corn or on weeds/corn residues. After application of 80 m³ ha-1 there was evidence of N-NO3- leaching to depths below 60 cm, higher in weeds/corn system than oat/corn crop system. Dry matter production as well as the content of N, P and K in cover crops increased with the use of slurry. For single oat the increase of dry matter production with a slurry dose of 40 was 2.7 mg ha-1 compared to no-slurry treatment. In

  15. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  16. Lists of semi-dwarf cereal stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The lists are prepared in relation to the Co-ordinated Research Programme. At the first Research Co-ordination Meeting on evaluation of cereal semi-dwarf mutants for cross breeding, March 1981, programme participants were requested to list semi-dwarf mutants available at their institutes including also non-induced semi-dwarf stocks being used in cross-breeding programme for short stature. List-I is prepared from such lists provided by programme participants. Further it was requested to name breeders and institutes providing characteristics of the listed semi-dwarf stocks. List-II gives that information. In the List-I: Parents of semi-dwarf stocks derived from cross breeding, are shown in brackets. In column ''Culm length'', figures are in cm and those of parent cultivars are shown in brackets

  17. Fusarium head blight of cereals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard Nielsen, Linda; Jensen, Jens Due; Nielsen, Ghita Cordsen

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction differentiating 10 Fusarium spp. and Microdochium nivale or M. majus was applied to a total of 396 grain samples of wheat, barley, triticale, oat, and rye sampled across Denmark from 2003 to 2007, along with selected samples of wheat and barley from...... 1957 to 2000, to determine incidence and abundance of individual Fusarium spp. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, zearalenone, T-2, and HT-2 were quantified using liquid chromatography–double mass spectrometry. Major differences in the Fusarium species complex among the five cereals...... as well as great yearly variation were seen. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in wheat, with DON as the dominant mycotoxin. F. langsethiae, F. culmorum, and F. avenaceum were dominant in barley and oat, leading to relatively high levels of the mycotoxins T-2 and HT-2. F...

  18. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  19. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  20. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  1. Current and Future Technologies for Microbiological Decontamination of Cereal Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Agata; Ziuzina, Dana; Bourke, Paula

    2018-06-01

    Cereal grains are the most important staple foods for mankind worldwide. The constantly increasing annual production and yield is matched by demand for cereals, which is expected to increase drastically along with the global population growth. A critical food safety and quality issue is to minimize the microbiological contamination of grains as it affects cereals both quantitatively and qualitatively. Microorganisms present in cereals can affect the safety, quality, and functional properties of grains. Some molds have the potential to produce harmful mycotoxins and pose a serious health risk for consumers. Therefore, it is essential to reduce cereal grain contamination to the minimum to ensure safety both for human and animal consumption. Current production of cereals relies heavily on pesticides input, however, numerous harmful effects on human health and on the environment highlight the need for more sustainable pest management and agricultural methods. This review evaluates microbiological risks, as well as currently used and potential technologies for microbiological decontamination of cereal grains. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Wheat Nitrogen Fertilisation Effects on the Performance of the Cereal Aphid Metopolophium dirhodum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. J. Gash

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of five rates of nitrogen fertiliser applications on the performance of the cereal aphid Metopolophium dirhodum on winter wheat, within the range of rates recommended for UK crops, were investigated over two seasons in field-grown crops and also on plants grown in the glasshouse. Longevity was unaffected by the level of fertilisation, but aphid intrinsic rate of increase and fecundity increased with each level applied. In the second field season, when a higher upper limit was used, many of these increases were significant. A previously unreported finding for this species was that there was a significant decrease in fecundity for the highest rate of fertilisation. Results for the glasshouse-reared aphids followed a similar pattern to those in the field, and overall they underline recent reports in the literature of the negative effects of high nutrient concentrations on the performance of herbivorous insects. The underlying reasons for these are discussed.

  3. Application of gamma-irradiation to cereals and stockfeeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma-radiation may be used on cereals and stockfeeds to control insect infestation and, at higher dose rates, microbiological problems such as mould growth, aflatoxin production, pathogens, rope producing bacteria and total plate count. Major problems arise only at relatively high dose levels and affect functionality of cereals in terms of germination, dough properties, starch behaviour and cake and noodle quality. Chemical and physical changes to starch have the greatest impact on the properties of cereals and their products as a consequence of gamma-radiation

  4. Formation of the texture of fermented milk and cereal product by varying the particle size distribution of cereal compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pas'ko O. V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining animal and plant components is a promising direction of creating specialized foods of high biological and nutritional value. In this regard, research aimed at developing a fermented product technology based on combination of raw milk and grain products is relevant. In researches a set of generally accepted standard methods including physical-chemical, microbiological, biochemical, rheological, and mathematical methods of statistical processing of research results and development of mathematical models has been applied. The paper presents the results of research aimed at developing the technology of fermented milk – cereal product. In the first phase of research to substantiate product composition the systematic approach has been applied considering components of the product, changes of their status and properties as the current biotechnological systems (BPS. Selection of the grains' optimum ratio in the composition has been carried out on the basis of a set of indicators: the chemical composition and energy value, the content of B vitamins and dietary fibers, the indicator of biological value, organoleptic characteristics. Analysis of the combined results allows choose cereal flakes composition ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye for further studies. As the main source of carbohydrate honey is used, it also improves the organoleptic properties of the product. Nutritional supplement glycine is used as a modifier of taste and smell. It has been found that introduction of glycine at 0.1 % in the BPS "milk – cereal composition" naturally decreases the intensity of taste and smell of cereal composition. The effect of particle size distribution of cereal composition on properties of the biotechnological system of milky cereal product has been established as well. For technology of the developed product the fraction selected cereal composition (Oatmeal : Barley : Rye as a 1 : 1 : 1 with a particle size of 670–1 000 microns has

  5. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  6. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking. ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Cereal Subcategory § 406.90 Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory. The...

  7. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  8. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    temperature relationships of the bacterial community from winter-warmed plots and plots with ambient soil temperatures were compared. No change in optimum temperature for growth could be detected, indicating that the microbial community has not been warm-adapted. This fits with what was seen also in the laboratory experiment where no changes in temperature response occurred when exposing bacteria to temperatures below 10 °C within two months. The increase in activity measured during winter should thereby be due to changes in environmental factors, which will be further investigated. One big difference between heated and control plots was that heated plots were snow free during the entire winter, while control plots were covered by a 10 cm snow cover. The plant community composition and flowering time also differed in the warmed and ambient plot.

  10. Physicochemical, nutritive and safety evaluation of local cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... practices and good manufacturing processing should be considered. Such initiatives need to be carried amongst local cereal producers to help minimize food safety risk and ... potential for contamination and deterioration with.

  11. Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods – A review. ... The realization that food has a role beyond provision of energy and body forming ... with growing interest in the research and development of functional foods.

  12. Phytase-mediated mineral solubilization from cereals underin vitrogastric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne V. F.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    that of the microbial phytases. No increases in soluble cadmium, lead or arsenic were observed with microbial phytase-catalyzed phytate dephosphorylation. CONCLUSION Microbial phytase treatment abated phytate chelation hence enhanced the release of iron and zinc from the phytate-rich cereals at the simulated gastric......BACKGROUND Enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) in cereals may improve mineral bioavailability in humans. This study quantified enzymatic dephosphorylation of phytic acid by measuring inositol tri- to hexakisphosphate (InsP3-6) degradation and iron and zinc release...... cereal phytic acid at similar rates and to similar extents. Microbial phytase-catalysed phytate dephosphorylation was accompanied by increased iron and zinc release from the cereal substrates. For wheat bran at pH 5, the endogenous wheat phytase activity produced mineral release equal to or better than...

  13. Fruit and cereal bioactives: sources, chemistry, and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem; Hall, Clifford, III

    2011-01-01

    "Presenting up-to-date data in an easy-to-use format, this comprehensive overview of the chemistry of bioactive components of fruits and cereals addresses the role of these compounds in determining...

  14. Cadmium contamination in cereal-based diets and diet ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitonen, P.H.; Thompson, H.C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Cereal-based diet and/or diet ingredient cadmium levels were determined by graphite furnace AAS. Cadmium contamination was 88.3 and 447 ppb in two cereal-based diets, 44.6 and 48.9 ppb in two purified diets, and ranged from less than 1.1 to 22,900 ppb in the ingredients of one cereal-based diet. The major source of cadmium contamination was attributed to the calcium supplement used for diet formulation. Comparative analyses of two purified diet samples and one cereal-based diet by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) gave virtually identical results for Cd. A comparative study of Cd levels determined by flame and furnace AAS was also made by the NCTR and the NIST

  15. Using tube rhizotrons to measure variation in depth penetration rate among modern North-European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytting, Nanna Karkov; Andersen, Sven Bode; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Deeper plant root systems are desired for improved water and nitrogen uptake in leaching environments. However, phenotyping for deep roots requires methods that enable plants to develop deep roots under realistic conditions. Winter cereals raise further complications as early growth occurs under ...

  16. Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) - a New Pest of Cereals in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Gotlin Čuljak; Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2002-01-01

    The first finding of the Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov in Croatia was registered in 1999. This insect is important pest of cereals (specially in wheat and barley) in USD and South Africa. Information on morphometrie allows a differentiation to other similar-looking species. The distribution of the species is briefly demonstrated. Damage to small grain cereals, range of host plants and possible strategies to control the aphids are presented.

  17. Impact of sodium chloride on breakfast cereal products

    OpenAIRE

    Moreau, Lydie

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the amount of sodium chloride in breakfast cereals without changing their properties, it is necessary to understand the role of this salt. Hence, a model system was developed. This model, composed of native waxy maize starch, glucose and a mixture of amino-acids generated similar colour and residual volatiles after heating compared to commercial breakfast cereals. Systematically designed experiments used this model to study the influence of NaCl concentration (0 % to 5.44 %) on colo...

  18. Brand-Supermarket Demand for Breakfast Cereals and Retail Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Benaissa Chidmi; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2007-01-01

    The Berry, Levinsohn, and Pakes (1995) market equilibrium model is extended to the supermarket chain level to examine consumer choices and retail competition for thirty-seven brands of breakfast cereals in Boston. Estimated taste parameters for product characteristics vary significantly across consumers. Although consumers are price-sensitive with respect to their chosen cereals, they exhibit strong brand and supermarket loyalty. Retail markups increase and marginal costs decrease with grocer...

  19. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  20. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  1. Determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzesi, I.; Susan, M.

    2005-01-01

    The applicability of the TLC for determination of pesticide residues in cereal grains was studied using corn, rice and wheat as representative commodities and atrazine, captan, chlorpyrifos, chlortoluron, diazinon, diuron, fenitrothion, metoxuron, prochloraz, triforine as representative compounds. Following the extraction with ethyl acetate the efficiency of extraction was tested with Bio-Rad SX-3 gel, GPC, silica gel, florisil and RP-18 reverse phase silica cartridge. The GPC alone or in combination with silica or florisil cleanup were the most suitable for cleanup of the extracts. The TLC elution characteristics of 131 pesticide active ingredients were tested with eight elution systems. The detectability of the selected compounds was determined with six detection methods including two chemical and four bioassay procedures. In addition to the basic methods, the non-toxic Penicillium cyclopium fungi spore inhibition was introduced and it was found very sensitive for some fungicide compounds. The minimum detectable quantities of the tested compounds ranged from 1 ng to 100 ng. The average recoveries from rice and wheat ranged from 78% to 89%, and the limits of quantitation, LOQ, were between 0.01 and 0.2 mg/kg for the selected ten compounds. (author)

  2. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  3. Control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and other dicotyledonous weeds with GF-145, a new cereal herbicide product containing isoxaben and florasulam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker, Jörg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available GF-145 contains the active ingredients isoxaben (610 g ai/kg and florasulam (40 g ai/kg and is formulated as a Wettable Granule (WG. The active ingredients are found in commercial products such as Primus™2 (florasulam, Starane XL™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam, Ariane C™ (fluroxypyr + florasulam + clopyralid or Flexidor™ (isoxaben. While florasulam has been widely used in cereal crops in recent years, isoxaben offers a new mode of action (MOA for use in German cereal herbicides even when considering that Flexidor™ has had regulatory approval in 1988 to 1991. The MOA of isoxaben is inhibition of cellulose synthesis (HRAC class L, while florasulam inhibits Acetolactate Synthase (ALS and is a representative of the HRAC class B. It is known that florasulam works through uptake by green leaves. Isoxaben is a herbicide with soil activity and with a very low activity when foliar applied, except on some species in the cruciferae family. GF-145 is intended to be applied in the autumn in cereals (wheat, barley, rye, triticale for the control of ALS resistant volunteer oil seed rape and annual dicotyledonous weeds including Matricaria spp., Stellaria media, Papaver rhoeas, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Myosotis arvensis, Lamium spp., Galium aparine, Veronica spp. and others when applied at early post-emergence from BBCH 10 to 13 of the crop. The use rate in winter cereals is 95 g product/ha (58 g ai/ha isoxaben plus 3.75 g ai/ha florasulam. Field trials conducted in previous years confirmed excellent selectivity in all cereal crops and efficacy trials initiated in autumn 2012 show that GF-145 provides excellent and superior control to ALS resistant oil seed rape that was better than straight florasulam and other ALS active ingredients. GF-145 adds a new MOA to the cereal herbicide portfolio and controls volunteer oil seed rape, cruciferous weeds and broad-leaved weeds and is more robust than florasulam based products that do not contain isoxaben.

  4. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  5. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A.; Nowak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  6. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  7. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  8. Species of Heterodera cysts in cereal fields in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Zeliha Colak; Deeren, Anne-Marie; De Sutter, Nancy; Viaene, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Heterodera is a genus of cyst-forming nematodes, including the cereal cysts which can provoke yield reductions in grain crops. As little is known about the occurrence of these cysts in Belgian grain fields, a survey was organized, starting in Flanders. Soil samples were taken from 50 fields where cereals are grown in rotation with mainly beet, potato and vegetables. Cysts were extracted from the 112 samples and 10 individuals per sample were identified up to species level by morphometrical and morphological observations. The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, was found in 34 fields (56%) at infestation levels varying from 0.6 to 1322 cysts/kg soil. Other Heterodera species (e.g. H. trifolii, H. mani) were found in low numbers and sometimes in mixtures with H. schachtii, but no cereal cysts were detected. This survey confirms that beet cyst nematodes are a problem in Flanders. The few cereal cysts that might be present were perhaps not detected due to the few individuals that were identified. For this reason, molecular identification tools which allow fast and accurate identification of Heterodera species would be very useful. It could be interesting to find out why cereal cysts are suppressed in our regions and to expand the survey to the Walloon region where more cereals are grown.

  9. Cover crop frequency and compost effects on a legume-rye cover crop during 8 years of organic vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic matter inputs from compost or cover crops (CC) are important to maintain or improve soil quality, but their impact in high-value vegetable production systems are not well understood. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of CC frequency (every winter versus every 4th winter) and yard-waste co...

  10. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  11. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  12. Concentrations and allelopathic effects of benzoxazinoid compounds in soil treated with rye (Secale cereale) cover crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clifford P; Cai, Guimei; Teasdale, John R

    2012-05-09

    The concentration of benzoxazinoids (BX) was measured in field soils at selected intervals after rye residue was either incorporated or left on the soil surface. The spectrum of compounds arising in the soil persisted approximately two weeks and was dominated by methoxy containing BX compounds, which were only minor components of the rye foliage. Growth assays with lettuce and smooth pigweed species showed inhibition when treated soils were tested during the first two weeks after rye applications; however, there were no sufficient concentrations of any one BX compound in the soil to explain these affects. Solution applications of two pure BX compounds, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), to the surface of soils revealed that movement into the soil column was minimal (greater than 70% BOA and 97% MBOA remained in the top 1-cm of soil profiles) and that the time course for their complete dissipation was less than 24 h.

  13. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  14. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  15. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  16. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  18. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  19. Evaluation of the protein quality of cereal mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, B.O.

    1984-01-01

    Protein content, true protein digestibility, biological value, net protein utilization, and utilizable protein in several varieties of barley, wheat and rice were determined in nitrogen-balance trials with rats. It appeared that protein quality varied significantly between these three cereal grains, with the lowest values for wheat. However, the protein content was markedly higher in wheat; consequently, utilizable protein was highest in this cereal grain. The different varieties within barley, wheat and rice varied considerably in protein quality. This demonstrates a large variation in the potential for protein synthesis. The main problem with rice and barley is the low protein concentration, whereas with wheat the biggest problem seems to be the quality of the protein. As the lysine level in all cereal grains, expressed in percentage of the protein, cannot meet the requirements for either man or domestic animals efforts should be made to increase the lysine concentration in these food sources. (author)

  20. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  1. Quality and Safety Aspects of Cereals (Wheat) and Their Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzakas, Theo

    2016-11-17

    Cereals and, most specifically, wheat are described in this chapter highlighting on their safety and quality aspects. Moreover, wheat quality aspects are adequately addressed since they are used to characterize dough properties and baking quality. Determination of dough properties is also mentioned and pasta quality is also described in this chapter. Chemometrics-multivariate analysis is one of the analyses carried out. Regarding production weighing/mixing of flours, kneading, extruded wheat flours, and sodium chloride are important processing steps/raw materials used in the manufacturing of pastry products. Staling of cereal-based products is also taken into account. Finally, safety aspects of cereal-based products are well documented with special emphasis on mycotoxins, acrylamide, and near infrared methodology.

  2. Breakfast cereal consumption and subjective reports of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to attempt to replicate and extend a recent result which showed that breakfast cereal consumption was associated with better mental health. The general population sample studied here (262 volunteers aged between 21 and 85 years, mean age: 60.9 years) was older than the sample in the previous study. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal every day reported better mental and physical health than those who consumed it less frequently. This association was still present when demographic factors, indicators of lifestyle, such as smoking, or other aspects of diet were covaried. Further research is now required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this robust association between daily breakfast cereal consumption and well-being.

  3. Prediction of cereal feed value using spectroscopy and chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René

    2009-01-01

    of EDOM, EDOMi, FEso and FEsv. The outcome of a successful NIRS calibration will be a relatively cheap tool to monitor, diversify and evaluate the quality of cereals for animal feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool...... for cereal breeders. A collection of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established. The samples originate from available field trials over a three-year period. The chemical reference analyses are dry matter...... value, the prediction error has to be compared with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value is above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it is possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply...

  4. Travel in adverse winter weather conditions by blind pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Winter weather creates many orientation and mobility (O&M) challenges for people who are visually impaired. Getting the cane tip stuck is one of the noticeable challenges when traveling in snow, particularly when the walking surface is covered in dee...

  5. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin (CoO) for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka...

  6. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    of several cues and dimensions in their evaluation of the perceived quality of bread, cookies, breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka. Portuguese and Lithuanians consistently gave a significantly higher average importance to all the cues and quality dimensions considered, for all products, than their Danish...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were...

  7. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  8. Monitoring Food Security Indicators from Remote Sensing and Predicting Cereal Production in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, M. S.; Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.

    2015-12-01

    We extract percent of basin snow covered areas above 2500m elevation from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-meter 8-day snow cover composites to monitor accumulation and depletion of snow in the basin. While the accumulation and depletion of snow cover extent provides an indication of the temporal progression of the snow pack, it does not provide insight into available water for irrigation. Therefore, we use snow model results from the National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center to quantify snow water equivalent and volume of water available within the snowpack for irrigation. In an effort to understand how water availability, along with its inter-annual variability, relates to the food security of the country, we develop a simple, effective, and easy-to-implement model to identify irrigated areas across the country on both annual and mid-season basis. The model is based on applying thresholds to peak growing season vegetation indices—derived from 250-meter MODIS images—in a decision-tree classifier to separate irrigated crops from non-irrigated vegetation. The spatial distribution and areal estimates of irrigated areas from these maps compare well with irrigated areas classified from multiple snap shots of the landscape from Landsat 5 optical and thermal images over selected locations. We observed that the extents of irrigated areas varied depending on the availability of snowmelt and can be between 1.35 million hectares in a year with significant water deficit and 2.4 million hectares in a year with significant water surplus. The changes in the amount of available water generally can contribute up to a 30% change in irrigated areas. We also observed that the strong correlation between inter-annual variability of irrigated areas and the variability in the country's cereal production could be utilized to predict an annual estimate of cereal production, providing early indication of food security scenarios for the country.

  9. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    Early seeding of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been proposed as a means to reduce N leaching as an alternative to growing cover crops like fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of winter wheat, seeded early and normally, and of fodder...

  10. Sum Insured Determination for Cereal, Citrus and Vineyards in the Spanish Agricultural Insurance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gómez-Barona, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    In general, insurance is a form of risk management used to hedge against a contingent loss. The conventional definition is the equitable transfer of a risk of loss from one entity to another in exchange for a premium or a guaranteed and quantifiable small loss to prevent a large and possibly devastating loss being agricultural insurance a special line of property insurance. Agriculture insurance, as actually are designed in the Spanish scenario, were established in 1978. At the macroeconomic insurance studies scale, it is necessary to know a basic element for the insurance actuarial components: sum insured. When a new risk assessment has to be evaluated in the insurance framework, it is essential to determinate venture capital in the total Spanish agriculture. In this study, three different crops (cereal, citrus and vineyards) cases are showed to determinate sum insured as they are representative of the cases found in the Spanish agriculture. Crop sum insured is calculated by the product of crop surface, unit surface production and crop price insured. In the cereal case, winter as spring cereal sowing, represents the highest Spanish crop surface, above to 6 millions of hectares (ha). Meanwhile, the four citrus species (oranges, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits) occupied an extension just over 275.000 ha. On the other hand, vineyard target to wine process shows almost one million of ha in Spain. A new method has been applied to estimate crop sum insured in these three cases. Under the maximum economic impact assumption, the maximum market price has been used to insurance each species. Depending on crop and reliability of the data base available, the insured area or insured production has been used in this estimation. When for a certain crop varieties or type of varieties show different insurance prices a geometric average was used as average insurance price for that particular crop. One extreme difficult case was vineyards, where differentiate prices based on

  11. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  12. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CEREAL DEMAND IN MOROCCO USING THE ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Essaten

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Following up the agricultural policy in Morocco and enforcing it, the new strategy Green Morocco Plan (GMP launched in 2008 also stressed on the cereals’ supply. Meantime, despite their significant nutritional role, little attention has been paid to the demand side. This paper intends to perform an econometric analysis of the demand of five main cereals - Common wheat, Durum wheat, Barley, Corn and Rice- using a linear version of the flexible Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS model. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR approach has been applied to the demand system equations with annual data covering the period from 1980 to 2015. At the overall, regular econometric restrictions (stability, structural separability, validity, etc. have been respected our results suggest that the relations of complementarity or substitution are not determining in the cereal bundle in Morocco. Also, the Moroccan consumer behavior is characterized by a strong sensibility towards common wheat price’s changes and by a difficult access for the durum wheat as it is considered as luxury good.

  13. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  14. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  15. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  16. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  17. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in–store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Methods Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. Results 29.8% (n = 67 of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158 were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = −4.28 (280.8, p < .001. Conclusions Breakfast cereal manufacturers need to consider reformulation of their breakfast cereals to improve their healthfulness and supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  18. Projecting meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of income elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David; Chen, Danhong

    2014-01-01

    There are many projections for China’s food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, ...

  19. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  20. Mineral Retention Values for Blends of Cereal Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    household diets can be manipulated to enhance the micronutrients content or alter the levels of ... (2007) reported that fermentation for 72h increased most of the minerals in cereal based ... Production of Amylase Rich Flour (ARF): Amylase rich flour was produced by the method of Odumodu ..... Practical chemistry (3rd Ed).

  1. Bioactive small molecules in commercially available cereal food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine K.; Adhikari, Khem B.; Laursen, Bente B.

    2017-01-01

    processes. The concentrations of 11 BX compounds were determined by liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in 25 supermarket-available cereal food products. The total BX content varied from below the limit of detection to >500 μg/g dry matter (DM) with some degree of variation...

  2. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  3. Rhizobium as a crop enhancer and biofertilizer for increased cereal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OHWESIRI IBUJE

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization ... new insights into recent development of rhizobia-cereal interaction. .... which caused changes in root morphology and physiology that resulted in .... Andrews M, James EK, Cummings SP, Zavalin AA, Vinogradova LV,. McKenzie BA ...

  4. Prevention of ochratoxin A in cereals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Monica; Jonsson, Nils; Magan, Naresh

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes objectives and activities of a major European Community project (OTA PREV) aimed at understanding sources of contamination of ochratoxin A in European cereals and related food-stuffs, and the development of strategies to minimise ochratoxin A in the food supply. The project ran...

  5. Cultivation with deliberation: cereals and their growing conditions in prehistory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreslerová, Dagmar; Kočár, Petr; Chuman, T.; Pokorná, Adéla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 513-526 ISSN 0939-6314 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : prehistory * arable farming * soils * archaeobotany * cereals Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 1.908, year: 2016

  6. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Morales, Francisco J

    2006-09-01

    During the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction (MR) in food processing and cooking, Amadori rearrangement products undergo dehydration and fission and fluorescent substances are formed. Free and total (free + linked to the protein backbone) fluorescence (FIC) due to Maillard compounds in 60 commercial breakfast cereals was evaluated. Pronase was used for efficient release of linked fluorescent Maillard compounds from the protein backbone. Results were correlated with some heat-induced markers of the extent of the MR or sugar caramelisation during cereal processing, such as hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, glucosilisomaltol and furosine. The effect of sample composition (dietary-fibre added, protein, etc.) on levels of FIC, expressed as fluorescence intensity (FI) per milligram of sample, is discussed. FIC is significantly correlated to the protein content of the sample and fluorescent Maillard compounds are mainly linked to the protein backbone. The ratio of total-FIC to free-FIC was 10.4-fold for corn-based, wheat-based and multicereal-based breakfast cereals but significantly higher in rice-based samples. Addition of dietary fibre or honey increased the FIC values. Data support the usefulness of FIC measurement as an unspecific heat-induced marker in breakfast cereals.

  8. Cereal based functional food of Indian subcontinent: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arpita; Raychaudhuri, Utpal; Chakraborty, Runu

    2012-12-01

    Due to constant health awareness and readily available information on usefulness of different diet and their direct link with health, the demand of functional food is increasing day by day. The concept of functional foods includes foods or food ingredients that exert a beneficial effect on host health and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions. Increasing awareness of consumer health and interest in functional foods to achieve a healthy lifestyle has resulted in the need for food products with versatile health-benefiting properties. Cereal- and cereal component-based food products offer opportunities to include probiotics, prebiotics, and fibers in the human diet. Various growth studies using probiotic Lactic acid bacteria on cereal-based substrates and utilization of whole grain or components as high-fiber foods in developing novel food products lend support to the idea that cereal-based media may well be good probiotic carriers. It is essential that science and traditional knowledge should go together to find mutually beneficial results. In the Indian subcontinent, making use of fermented food and beverages using local food crops and other biological resources are very common. But the nature of the products and the base material vary from region to region.

  9. Resilience of cereal crops to abiotic stress: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... Key words: Cereal crops, abiotic stresses, food insecurity, molecular breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTLs), salinity, water stress. ... production of genetically modified (GM) crops, exo- genous use of osmo protectants etc. ... stressful environments is important to fulfill food demand of the ever-increasing world ...

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  11. Behavior of cereal's varieties in the presence of Heterodera avenae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of cereals varieties (Ofanto, Waha and Vitron for durum wheat; Anza and HD1120 for bread wheat and Saida with Acsad for barly) were tested towards Heterodera avenae. The analysis of the variance reveals that the nematode has an effect on the development of durum wheat for the number of ear per ...

  12. Determinants of rural household marketed surplus for cereal crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supply of cereal crops to the market (market surplus). The study utilized cross sectional data obtained through multistage random sampling method. Ordinary least square method was used for the analysis. Finding revealed that the quantity of food crops reserved for home consumption by households increased their ...

  13. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  14. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  15. Copper content in cereals grown in the model condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cereals in Slovakia but also worldwide is increasing by every year. From 30000 to 50000 tons of mercury circulates thought the biosphere that gets into the atmosphere degassing of the earth's crust and world oceans. Trace element as copper is one of the most efficient antioxidants in the body, often referred to as an element of beauty. It acts as a powerful catalyst for many enzymes and vitamins, through which already small amounts affects many activities in the body (strengthens immunity, reduces levels of histamine. It accumulates in the barley, beans, cucumber, nuts or milk and so on. The aim of our work was the evaluation of transfer of mercury from sludge to edible part of chosen cereals. The objectives were achieved in simulated conditions of growing pot experiment. We used agricultural soil from the location of Výčapy - Opatovce for the realization of the experiment. The sludge, which was added at various doses, was taken from Central Spiš area from locality of Rudňany near the village where minedironore that contains mainly cooper and mercury during last few decades was. We used three types of cereals: barley (Hordeum sativum L. variety PRESTIGE, spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. variety ISJARISSA and oat (Avena sativa L. variety TATRAN. The length of growing season was 90 days. From the obtained results of two years can be concluded that the accumulation of cooper by seed follows barley ˂ oat ˂ wheat. Even though that the barley is characterized by the highest accumulation of cooper in the seeds, the content did not exceed the maximum level specified by The Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic (CA SR. The results shows that the suitable cultivation of the cereals in localities, which are contaminated with heavy metals, especially by cooper, that the high content of cooper in soil do not pose a risk of accumulation of the metal into the cereal grain.

  16. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the

  17. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  18. Carbon supply and storage in tilled and nontilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Singh, Bharat P; Whitehead, Wayne F; Wang, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) sequestration in tilled and nontilled areas can be influenced by crop management practices due to differences in plant C inputs and their rate of mineralization. We examined the influence of four cover crops {legume [hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)], nonlegume [rye (Secale cereale L.)], biculture of legume and nonlegume (vetch and rye), and no cover crops (or winter weeds)} and three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 60 to 65, and 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1)) on C inputs from cover crops, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)], and soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 0- to 120-cm depth in tilled and nontilled areas. A field experiment was conducted on Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Paleudults) from 1999 to 2002 in central Georgia. Total C inputs to the soil from cover crops, cotton, and sorghum from 2000 to 2002 ranged from 6.8 to 22.8 Mg ha(-1). The SOC at 0 to 10 cm fluctuated with C input from October 1999 to November 2002 and was greater from cover crops than from weeds in no-tilled plots. In contrast, SOC values at 10 to 30 cm in no-tilled and at 0 to 60 cm in chisel-tilled plots were greater for biculture than for weeds. As a result, C at 0 to 30 cm was sequestered at rates of 267, 33, -133, and -967 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) for biculture, rye, vetch, and weeds, respectively, in the no-tilled plot. In strip-tilled and chisel-tilled plots, SOC at 0 to 30 cm decreased at rates of 233 to 1233 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1). The SOC at 0 to 30 cm increased more in cover crops with 120 to 130 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) than in weeds with 0 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), regardless of tillage. In the subtropical humid region of the southeastern United States, cover crops and N fertilization can increase the amount of C input and storage in tilled and nontilled soils, and hairy vetch and rye biculture was more effective in sequestering C than monocultures or no cover crop.

  19. Nutrient cycling in a cropping system with potato, spring wheat, sugar beet, oats and nitrogen catch crops. II. Effect of catch crops on nitrate leaching in autumn and winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Nitrate Directive of the European Union (EU) forces agriculture to reduce nitrate emission. The current study addressed nitrate emission and nitrate-N concentrations in leachate from cropping systems with and without the cultivation of catch crops (winter rye: Secale cereale L. and forage rape:

  20. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals – Implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long...... knowledge on their structure, function, and implication in cereal processing, agriculture and nutrition. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry...

  1. Technologies for enhancement of bioactive components and potential health benefits of cereal and cereal-based foods: Research advances and application challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed S M; Wang, Peng; Wang, Na; Yang, Shu; Xiao, Zhigang

    2017-08-28

    Cereal grains are a major source of human food and their production has steadily been increased during the last several decades to meet the demand of our increasing world population. The modernized society and the expansion of the cereal food industry created a need for highly efficient processing technologies, especially flour production. Earlier scientific research efforts have led to the invention of the modern steel roller mill, and the refined flour of wheat has become a basic component in most of cereal-based foods such as breads and pastries because of the unique functionality of wheat protein. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have found that consumption of whole cereal grains was health beneficial. The health benefit of whole cereal grain is attributed to the combined effects of micronutrients, phytochemicals, and dietary fibre, which are mainly located in the outer bran layer and the germ. However, the removal of bran and germ from cereal grains during polishing and milling results in refined flour and food products with lower bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents than those from whole grain. Also, the level of bioactive compounds in cereal food is influenced by other food preparation procedures such as baking, cooking, extrusion, and puffing. Therefore, food scientists and nutritionists are searching for strategies and processing technologies to enhance the content and bioavailability of nutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibre of cereal foods. The objective of this article was to review the research advances on technologies for the enhancement of bioactive compounds and dietary fibre contents of cereal and cereal-based foods. Bioactivities or biological effects of enhanced cereal and cereal-based foods are presented. Challenges facing the application of the proposed technologies in the food industry are also discussed.

  2. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  3. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  4. Benefits of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under No-Tillage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Avila, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Alves, B.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Leguminous cover crops (CCs) may reduce N fertilizer requirements by fixing N biologically and storing leftover N-fertilizer applied in the previous year. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of CCs [rye (Secale cereal L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)] on plant N

  5. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  6. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies showed that if mixed populations of annual weeds grow with the sunflower, for every 10% increase in weed biomass, seed yield would decrease by 13% (Van Gessel & Renner, 2000. In addition to control weeds using herbicides multi-stage spraying is required. In organic farming systems mulch is used to control weeds, protection, fertility and improve soil quality (Glab & Kulig, 2008; Kuchaki et al., 2001. Surface mulches from cover crops suppress weed growth by reducing light levels at the soil surface, thereby slowing photosynthesis. In return, these conditions reduce seed germination and act as a physical barrier to seedling emergence and growth (Teasdale et al., 2007. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in Ardabil Agricultural Research Station, as a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications during 1390-1391. The first factor was considered four types of cover crops including winter rye (Secale cereal, spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and control (no cover crop, no weeding.The second factor was mulch management at two levels (living mulch and dead mulch and the third factor was two planting dates for cover crops (synchronous with sunflower planting and 45 days after sunflower planting. Sunflower seeding performed manually on 23 May on the ridges with 50 cm row distance and spacing between plants was 25 cm in depth of 5 cm. Cover crops seeds, rye, barley and wheat, were planted between rows of sunflower. Due to the low density of weeds in study field, complete weeding and sampling of weeds in one session was performed (60 days after planting date sunflower. Statistical analysis of data performed using SAS software and mean comparison performed using Duncan's test with probability level of 5% and 1%. Diagrams drawn using Excel (Version 8.2. Results and Discussion\t: Density and dry weight of Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L

  7. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  8. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature. Keywords: seeds, disease, infection

  9. Exploring new alleles for frost tolerance in winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Wiltrud; Bauer, Eva; Fowler, D Brian; Gordillo, Andres; Korzun, Viktor; Ponomareva, Mira; Schmidt, Malthe; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157. Lines per se and their testcrosses were phenotyped in a controlled freeze test and in multi-location field trials in Russia and Canada. Three QTL on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R were consistently detected across environments. The QTL on 5R is congruent with the genomic region harboring the Frost resistance locus 2 (Fr-2) in Triticeae. The Puma allele at the Fr-R2 locus was found to significantly increase frost tolerance. A comparison of predictive ability obtained from the QTL-based model with different whole-genome prediction models revealed that besides a few large, also small QTL effects contribute to the genomic variance of frost tolerance in rye. Genomic prediction models assigning a high weight to the Fr-R2 locus allow increasing the selection intensity for frost tolerance by genome-based pre-selection of promising candidates.

  10. Quantifying the Limitation to World Cereal Production Due To Soil Phosphorus Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvakić, Marko; Pellerin, Sylvain; Ciais, Philippe; Achat, David L.; Augusto, Laurent; Denoroy, Pascal; Gerber, James S.; Goll, Daniel; Mollier, Alain; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Wang, Xuhui; Ringeval, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for plant growth. Low P availability in soils is likely to limit crop yields in many parts of the world, but this effect has never been quantified at the global scale by process-based models. Here we attempt to estimate P limitation in three major cereals worldwide for the year 2000 by combining information on soil P distribution in croplands and a generic crop model, while accounting for the nature of soil-plant P transport. As a global average, the diffusion-limited soil P supply meets the crop's P demand corresponding to the climatic yield potential, due to the legacy soil P in highly fertilized areas. However, when focusing on the spatial distribution of P supply versus demand, we found strong limitation in regions like North and South America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. Averaged over grid cells where P supply is lower than demand, the global yield gap due to soil P is estimated at 22, 55, and 26% in winter wheat, maize, and rice. Assuming that a fraction (20%) of the annual P applied in fertilizers is directly available to the plant, the global P yield gap lowers by only 5-10%, underlying the importance of the existing soil P supply in sustaining crop yields. The study offers a base for exploring P limitation in crops worldwide but with certain limitations remaining. These could be better accounted for by describing the agricultural P cycle with a fully coupled and mechanistic soil-crop model.

  11. Persistent reduction of segment growth and photosynthesis in a widespread and important sub-Arctic moss species after cessation of three years of experimental winter warming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerke, J.W.; Bokhorst, S.F.; Callaghan, T.V.; Phoenix, G.K.

    2017-01-01

    Winter is a period of dormancy for plants of cold environments. However, winter climate is changing, leading to an increasing frequency of stochastic warm periods (winter warming events) and concomitant reductions in snow cover. These conditions can break dormancy for some plants and expose them to

  12. The healthfulness and prominence of sugar in child-targeted breakfast cereals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Cameron, Cher; Philippe, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional content and healthfulness of child-targeted and "not child-targeted" breakfast cereals and to assess the predominance of added sugar in these products. We collected data on the nutritional content of 262 unique breakfast cereals found in the five largest grocery store chains in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec). We noted the first five ingredients and the number of added sugars present in each cereal from the ingredients list. The various cereal brands were then classified as either "healthier" or "less healthy" using the UK Nutrient Profile Model. We assessed each cereal to determine if it was child-targeted or not, based on set criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between child and not child-targeted cereals. 19.8% of all breakfast cereals were child-targeted, and these were significantly lower in total and saturated fat. Child-targeted cereals were significantly higher in sodium and sugar and lower in fibre and protein, and were three times more likely to be classified as "less healthy" compared to not child-targeted cereals. No child-targeted cereals were sugar-free, and sugar was the second most common ingredient in 75% of cereals. Six breakfast cereal companies had child-targeted product lines that consisted entirely of "less healthy" cereals. There is a need for regulations that restrict food marketing to children and youth under the age of 17 on packaging to reduce their appeal to this age group. Children's breakfast cereals also need to be reformulated through government-set targets, or through regulation should compliance be deemed unacceptable.

  13. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  14. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  15. White grubs (Cyclocephala flavipennis damaging perennial winter pastures in the South Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gonçalves Duchini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, popularly known as white grub, is an insect widely disseminated in the South Region of Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence of this white grub in areas cultivated with winter cereals, it is generally not considered a pest, since it feeds on straw and dead plant material. However, in 2015 and 2016, this insect has been identified as the damage-causing agent in the perennial winter pastures in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Damage was observed in patches and caused reduction in root depth and mass, resulting in loss of vigor, accelerated senescence in aerial parts, and death of tillers in Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Dactylis glomerata L. plants.

  16. Genetics of cereal adaptation to the man-made habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wet, J.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The wild progenitor species of all cereals are known with various degrees of certainty. Wild and cultivated taxa of the same species cross and their hybrids are generally fertile. This allows for a study of the genetics of domestication. A survey of the literature, however, reveals few such studies. The adaptation to disturbed habitats is genetically complex, and colonizing ability seems to have been a prerequisite for successful domestication. Natural seed dispersal is controlled by one to several linked genes, and behaves genetically as an overall dominant over loss of efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. Apical dominance, synchronized tillering, and increase in fecundity are complex, recessive genetic traits associated with cereal domestication. Racial evolution resulted from conscious selection by man and involves numerous loci. (author). 43 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Prediction of cereal feed value by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    . NIRS is therefore appropriate as a quick method for the determination of FEsv and FEso, since it is rapid (approximately 1 minute per measurement of a ground test) and cheap. The aim is to develop a rapid method to analyse grain feed value. This will contribute to highlight the opportunities...... feed, a possible tool to assess the feed value of new varieties in the variety testing and a useful, cheap and rapid tool for cereal breeders. A bank of 1213 grain samples of wheat, triticale, barley and rye, and related chemical reference analyses to describe the feed value have been established...... with the error in the chemical analysis. Prediction error by NIRS prediction of feed value has been shown to be above the error of the chemical measurement. The conclusion is that it has proved possible to predict the feed value in cereals with NIRS quickly and cheaply, but prediction error with this method...

  18. Adjustment of Weed Hoeing to Narrowly Spaced Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Machleb

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Weed hoeing can be successfully performed in wide row crops, such as sugar beet, maize, soybean and wide spaced cereals. However, little experience is available for hoeing in narrow cereal row spaces below 200 mm. Yet, mechanical weed control can pose an alternative to herbicide applications by reducing the herbicide resistant populations present in the field. In this experiment, it was investigated whether hoeing is feasible in cereals with 150 and 125 mm row spacings. The trial was set up at two locations (Ihinger Hof and Kleinhohenheim in southwest Germany. Three different conventional hoeing sweeps, a goosefoot sweep, a no-till sweep and a down-cut side knife were adjusted to the small row widths, and hoeing was performed once with a tractor and a standard hoeing frame which was guided by a second human operator. The average grain yield, crop and weed biomass, and weed control efficacy of each treatment were recorded. The goosefoot and no-till sweep were tested at driving speeds of 4 and 6 km·h−1. The down-cut side knife was applied at 4 km·h−1. The results indicate that hoeing caused no yield decrease in comparison to a conventional herbicide application or manual weeding. The highest yield with a mechanical treatment was recorded for the no-till sweeps at both trial locations. Hoeing was performed successfully in narrowly spaced cereals of 150 and 125 mm, and the weed control efficacy of the mechanical treatments ranged from 50.9% at Kleinhohenheim to 89.1% at Ihinger Hof. Future experiments are going to focus on more distinct driving speeds ranging from 2 to 10 km·h−1 and performing more than one pass with the hoe. Additionally, combining the mechanical weeding tools with a camera-steered hoeing frame could increase accuracy, allow for higher working speeds and substitute the second human operator guiding the hoe.

  19. Impacts of cereal ergot in food animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.

  20. BEHAVIOR OF CEREAL'S VARIETIES IN THE PRESENCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... ... of this nematode. Key words: Nematode; Heterodera; cereals; varieties; behaviour. .... L'essai est mené à l'air libre en conditions extérieures à raison de 08 répétitions pour les témoins et 08 ..... cyst nematode populations from north Africa and Asia . Nematology ... Research 2008, 6 (Special issue), 81-87.

  1. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Trematerra

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (or IPM is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal chain are reported.

  2. Plant protection and food safety: notes on cereal chain

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Trematerra; Maria Lodovica Gullino

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (or IPM) is a decision-making process that prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term solutions. Components of an IPM program may include education, proper waste management, structural repair, maintenance, biological and mechanical control techniques, and pesticide application. These tactics should meet economic, public health and environmental goals. In this paper new methods and strategies of pest control in cereal ...

  3. Wheat bran cereal, human gut bacteria and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Deaville, Eddie; Gibson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that consumption of high fiber breakfast cereal is associated with improved subjective well-being, especially increased energy. One possible explanation of these results is through metabolism by gut bacteria and concomitant production of metabolites that influence psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) welfare. This was examined in the present study to determine whether consumption of wheat bran could modulate the composition of the GI microbiota. This human volunteer stud...

  4. Vegetable and cereal protein exploitation for fish feed

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available cultivated fish (Naylor et al., 2000). Therefore, considerable amounts of resources are currently being used worldwide to evaluate the nutritional quality and possible health implications of alternative plant-based feed- stuffs with the potential... and storage. All of this needs to be implemented without excessive costs, as the feed costs usually make up around 40–75% of the total running cost of rearing fish (Young and Muir, 2000). As the challenges for utilising legume and cereal protein sources...

  5. Optimization of the composition of the powdered cereal sprouts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas-Šaponjac Vesna T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sprouts of cereals have received significant attention as functional food due to their nutritional and functional value. Consumption of sprouts has become increasingly popular among people interested in improving and maintaining their health status by changing dietary habits. Cereal grains contain several classes of phytochemicals, i.e. phenolics, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. However, their nutritional and chemical profile is altered and improved during germination. The purpose of this study was to find the best ratio of the powdered wheat (WS, oat (OS and barley (BS sprouts for designing the cereal sprout mixture (CSM with the highest total phenolic content (TPh and antioxidant capacity (AC, using Simplex-Centroid experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM. Single- and multi-response optimizations showed that OS did not contribute to TPh or AC values of CSM and, therefore, was not included in any of the compositions of the optimized CSM. Single-response optimizations showed that the highest TPh was found for CSM containing 82% BS and 18% WS, while the best AC was found for pure BS. The predicted ratio of cereal sprout powders in CSM obtained by multi-response optimization was: 96% BS and 4% WS. This mixture possessed the highest predicted TPh and AC (372.32 mg GAE/100 g, 549.99 μmol TE/100 g, respectively, which was confirmed to be in accordance with the experimental values. Based on the results obtained in this study, a designed CSM is proposed as a convenient ingredient of functional food products, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.

  6. Preventive and therapeutic potential of peptides from cereals against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martinez, Margarita; Winkler, Robert; García-Lara, Silverio

    2014-12-05

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of food based on whole-grain cereals and their products is associated with reduced risks of various types of degenerative chronic diseases. Food proteins are considered an important source of nutraceutical peptides and amino acids that can exert biological functions to promote health and prevent disease, including cancer. There have been several reports on peptides with anti-tumour activity in recent years. Plant-derived peptides, such as rapeseed, amaranth and soybean lunasin have received main attention. In this review, we extend this vision to analyse the evidence of current advances in peptides in cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, barley, rye and pseudocereals compared with soybean. We also show evidence of several mechanisms through which bioactive peptide exerts anti-tumour activity. Finally, we report the current status of major strategies for the fractionation, isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides in cereals. In recent reports, it has been shown that peptides are an interesting alternative in the search for new treatments for cancer. One of the most studied sources of these peptides is food proteins; however, a review that includes more recent findings for cereals as a potential source of bioactive peptides in the treatment of cancer, the techniques for their isolation and characterisation and the assays used to prove their bioactivity is not available. This review can be used as a tool in the search for new sources of anti-cancer peptides. The authors have no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative futures for world cereal and meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosegrant, M W; Leach, N; Gerpacio, R V

    1999-05-01

    Fundamental changes in the global structure of food demand will lead to an extraordinary increase in the importance of developing countries in global food markets. Economic growth in developing countries is changing consumption patterns, with slower growth (and in many countries actual declines) in per capita food consumption of grains and rapidly growing per capita and total meat consumption, combined with induced growth in cereal feed consumption. The present paper examines the hypothesis, suggested by some researchers, that high-meat diets in developed countries limit improvement in food security in developing countries. These analysts argue that reduced meat consumption in developed countries would release cereals from livestock feed to food for poorer populations, thus improving food security in developing countries. Using the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA) global food projections model, the international model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (see Rosegrant et al. 1995), we first analyse the implications for future global cereal and meat supply and demand resulting from changes in global income, population growth and other structural changes, then simulate alternative scenarios to examine the effect of large reductions in meat consumption in developed countries on food consumption and food security in developing countries. The paper shows that while the long-term prospects for food supply, demand and trade indicate a strengthening of world cereal and livestock markets, the improvement in food security in the developing world will be slow, and changes in the dietary patterns in developed countries are not an effective route to improvement in food security in developing countries.

  8. Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.

  9. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  10. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  11. Phenolic Compounds of Cereals and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hung, Pham

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in health benefits because of their highly antioxidant capacity. In this review, total phenolic contents (TPCs), phenolic acid profile and antioxidant capacity of the extracted from wheat, corn, rice, barley, sorghum, rye, oat, and millet, which have been recently reported, are summarized. The review shows clearly that cereals contain a number of phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. The phytochemicals of cereals significantly exhibit antioxidant activity as measured by trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence (PCL), and iron(II) chelation activity. Thus, the consumption of whole grains is considered to have significantly health benefits in prevention from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer because of the contribution of phenolic compounds existed. In addition, the extracts from cereal brans are considered to be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  12. A need for determination of arsenic species at low levels in cereal-based food and infant cereals. Validation of a method by IC-ICPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Calderón, Josep; Centrich, Francesc; Rubio, Roser; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2014-03-15

    The present study arose from the need to determine inorganic arsenic (iAs) at low levels in cereal-based food. Validated methods with a low limit of detection (LOD) are required to analyse these kinds of food. An analytical method for the determination of iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in cereal-based food and infant cereals is reported. The method was optimised and validated to achieve low LODs. Ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICPMS) was used for arsenic speciation. The main quality parameters were established. To expand the applicability of the method, different cereal products were analysed: bread, biscuits, breakfast cereals, wheat flour, corn snacks, pasta and infant cereals. The total and inorganic arsenic content of 29 cereal-based food samples ranged between 3.7-35.6 and 3.1-26.0 μg As kg(-1), respectively. The present method could be considered a valuable tool for assessing inorganic arsenic contents in cereal-based foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brassinosteroids increase winter survival of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) by affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbohydrate metabolism during the cold acclimation process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pociecha, E.; Dziurka, M.; Oklešťková, Jana; Janeczko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2016), s. 127-135 ISSN 0167-6903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Cold acclimation * Frost tolerance Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.646, year: 2016

  14. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  15. Impacts of projected maximum temperature extremes for C21 by an ensemble of regional climate models on cereal cropping systems in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ruiz-Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops growing in the Iberian Peninsula may be subjected to damagingly high temperatures during the sensitive development periods of flowering and grain filling. Such episodes are considered important hazards and farmers may take insurance to offset their impact. Increases in value and frequency of maximum temperature have been observed in the Iberian Peninsula during the 20th century, and studies on climate change indicate the possibility of further increase by the end of the 21st century. Here, impacts of current and future high temperatures on cereal cropping systems of the Iberian Peninsula are evaluated, focusing on vulnerable development periods of winter and summer crops. Climate change scenarios obtained from an ensemble of ten Regional Climate Models (multimodel ensemble combined with crop simulation models were used for this purpose and related uncertainty was estimated. Results reveal that higher extremes of maximum temperature represent a threat to summer-grown but not to winter-grown crops in the Iberian Peninsula. The study highlights the different vulnerability of crops in the two growing seasons and the need to account for changes in extreme temperatures in developing adaptations in cereal cropping systems. Finally, this work contributes to clarifying the causes of high-uncertainty impact projections from previous studies.

  16. Nutritional quality and child-oriented marketing of breakfast cereals in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, J; Letona, P; Chacon, V; Barnoya, J; Roberto, C A

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing has been implicated as an important driver of obesity. However, few studies have examined food marketing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study documents the prevalence of advertising on cereal boxes in Guatemala and examines associations between various marketing strategies and nutritional quality. One box from all available cereals was purchased from a supermarket located in an urban area in Guatemala City, Guatemala. A content analysis was performed to document child-oriented marketing practices, product claims and health-evoking images. The Nutrient Profile Model (NPM) was used to calculate an overall nutrition score for each cereal (the higher the score, the lower the nutritional quality). In all, 106 cereals were purchased, and half of the cereals featured child-oriented marketing (54, 50.9%). Cereals had a mean (±s.d.) of 5.10±2.83 product claims per cereal, and most cereals (102, 96.2%) contained health-evoking images. Child-oriented cereals had, on average, higher NPM scores (13.0±0.55 versus 7.90±0.74, Ptargeting children were generally of poor nutritional quality. Cereals displaying health claims were also not healthier than those without such claims. Our findings support the need for regulations restricting the use of child-oriented marketing and health claims for certain products.

  17. The contribution of breakfast cereals to the nutritional intake of the materially deprived UK population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B A; Kaffa, N; Campbell, K; Sanders, T A B

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast is an important source of micronutrients in the diet and its consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes. The present analysis investigated the contribution that breakfast cereals make to the nutrient intakes of the materially deprived (low income) UK population. Data for 3728 respondents aged 2 years and over from the UK Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003-2005) were analysed. Nutrient intakes of consumers and non-consumers of breakfast cereal were compared. Breakfast cereals were consumed by 49% of men, 58% of women, 80% of boys and 80% of girls, and median intakes were: 35, 25, 29 and 21 g/d, respectively. Consumers of breakfast cereals had higher intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), iron and zinc than non-consumers. Breakfast cereal consumption was also related to higher intakes of calcium, attributable to higher milk consumption. The intake of wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals was associated with a higher intake of non-starch polysaccharides. Intakes of niacin, biotin, calcium and zinc were higher but that of vitamin B(6) was lower among consumers of exclusively wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals compared with consumers of other breakfast cereals. There were no significant differences observed in intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars according to type of breakfast cereal consumed. Breakfast cereals make a significant contribution to the micronutrient intake of the low-income UK population.

  18. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  19. Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles - Abstracts and slides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, T.S.; Thompson, R.C.; Madsen, N.; Champenois, C.; Anderegg, F.; Fajans, J.; Knoop, M.; Scott Hangst, J.; Hilico, L.; Ulmer, S.; Blaum, K.; Drewsen, M.; Roos, C.; Schmidt, P.

    2016-01-01

    This winter school covered various topics of the physics of trapped charged particles. Lectures covered basic trap physics and recent developments in Penning traps, Paul traps..., collective behavior and non-neutral plasmas, as well as applications for fundamental physics, laser cooling, precision spectroscopy and quantum information. This document gathers a booklet of abstracts and the available slides of the presentations

  20. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  1. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  2. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  3. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  4. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Ustjanauskas, Amy; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    To test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk. Using an experimental design, we randomly assigned children (n = 91) who were attending summer day camp to receive a breakfast that included either the choice of 1 of 3 high-sugar cereals (high-sugar condition) or low-sugar cereals (low-sugar condition), as well as low-fat milk, orange juice, bananas, strawberries, and sugar packets. Participants served themselves and completed a background questionnaire after eating. Researchers measured the amount and calories consumed of each food. In both conditions, children reported "liking" or "loving" the cereal they chose. Children in the low-sugar cereal condition consumed, on average, slightly more than 1 serving of cereal (35 g), whereas children in the high-sugar condition consumed significantly more (61 g) and almost twice the amount of refined sugar in total (24.4 vs 12.5 g). Milk and total calories consumed did not differ significantly between conditions, but children in the low-sugar condition were more likely to put fruit on their cereal (54% vs 8%) and consumed a greater portion of total calories from fresh fruit (20% vs 13%). Compared with serving low-sugar cereals, high-sugar cereals increase children's total sugar consumption and reduce the overall nutritional quality of their breakfast. Children will consume low-sugar cereals when offered, and they provide a superior breakfast option.

  5. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón

    2017-08-16

    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium ( p < 0.001). Most of the claims were displayed in the "less healthy" cereals ( n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  6. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Rolls, Barbara J.; Meengs, Jennifer S.; Roe, Liane S.

    2014-01-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for four weeks during 2011-2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or th...

  7. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Carotenoids in staple cereals: Metabolism, regulation, and genetic manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shengnan zhai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids play a critical role in animal and human health. Animals and humans are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo, and therefore rely upon diet as sources of these compounds. However, major staple cereals often contain only small amounts of carotenoids in their grain. Consequently, there is considerable interest in genetic manipulation of carotenoid content in cereal grain. In this review, we focus on carotenoid metabolism and regulation in non-green plant tissues, as well as genetic manipulation in staple cereals such as rice, maize, and wheat. Significant progress has been made in three aspects: (1 seven carotenogenes play vital roles in carotenoid regulation in non-green plant tissues, including DXS (1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase influencing isoprenoid precursor supply, PSY (phytoene synthase, LCYB (β-cyclase and LCYE (ε-cyclase controlling biosynthesis, HYDB (1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase and CCDs (carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases responsible for degradation, and OR (orange conditioning sequestration sink; (2 pro-vitamin A-biofortified crops, such as rice and maize, were developed by either metabolic engineering or marker-assisted breeding; (3 QTLs for carotenoid content on chromosomes 3B, 7A, and 7B were consistently identified, eight carotenogenes including 23 loci were detected, and ten gene-specific markers for carotenoid accumulation were developed and applied in wheat improvement. A comprehensive and deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism in crops will be benefitical in improving our precision in improving carotenoid contents. Genomic selection and gene editing are emerging as transformative technologies for vitamin A biofortification.

  9. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail: mracuciu@yahoo.com; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)

    2007-04-15

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  10. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  11. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  12. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racuciu, Mihaela; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia

    2007-01-01

    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 μL/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species

  13. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

  14. Frost-covered dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MOC image of dunes in Chasma Boreale, a giant trough in the north polar cap. This September 1998 view shows dark sand emergent from beneath a veneer of bright frost left over from the northern winter that ended in July 1998.

  15. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  16. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  17. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  19. Indicators of soil quality in the implantation of no-till system with winter crops.

    OpenAIRE

    NOGUEIRA, M. A.; TELLES, T. S.; FAGOTTI, D. dos S. L.; BRITO, O. R.; PRETE, C. E. C.; GUIMARÃES, M. de F.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the effect of different winter crops on indicators of soil quality related to C and N cycling and C fractions in a Rhodic Kandiudult under no-till system at implantation, during two growing seasons, in Londrina PR Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split-plot in time arrangement, with four replications. The parcels were the winter crops: multicropping of cover crops with black oat (Avena strigosa), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and fodder radish (Raphanus sat...

  20. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  1. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  2. CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Šturdík

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

  3. Detection genetic variability of secale cereale L. by scot markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is our traditional cereal used for baking. The genetic variability of grown rye has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which subsequently prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a gene pool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect genetic variability among the set of 45 rye genotypes using 8 SCoT markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 45 genotypes, using SCoT analysis, yielded 114 fragments, with an average of 14.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. The most polymorphic primer was SCoT 36, where 21 polymorphic amplification products were detected. In contract the lowest polymorphic primer was SCoT 45 with 5 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the rye genotypes were divided into 2 main clusters. One rye genotype Motto, origin from Poland formed a separate subcluster (1b. Subscluster 2a included only genotype Valtické (CSK. In this experiment, SCoT proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  4. Distribution of Ds-like sequences in genomes of cereals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinin, A.V.; Salina, E.A.; Shumnii, V.K.; Svitashev, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that insertions of Ds-elements may alter the effectiveness of transcription or translation of the genetic loci and the normal processing of introns and exons, and that they may impair coding frames, etc. The object of the present study was to determine the frequency of occurence of DNA sequences similar to the Ds-controlling elements of mazie (Ds-like sequences) among other representatives of cereals. The conservative feature of the primary structure of transposons from different eukaryotic species served as a basis in this investigation. By means of the ''nick-translation'' reaction with the aid of DNA-polymerase I (alpha- 32 P) dCTP or TTP was introduced into the Ds-element. The specific radioactivity of the preparations obtained was 5 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 8 cpm/gamma. From the results obtained, it is suggested that the genomes of cereals examined contain a collection of Ds-like sequences. The Ds-element may have a significant effect on gene expression in the presence of Ac-like or other sequences, which undergo transposition

  5. Heavy metals in cereals and pulses: health implications in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md

    2014-11-05

    This research was conducted to evaluate the concentration of seven common heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in cereals and pulses and associated health implications in Bangladesh. USEPA deterministic approaches were followed to assess the carcinogenic risk (CR) and noncarcinogenic risk which was measured by target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI). Total THQ values for As and Pb were higher than 1, suggesting that people would experience significant health risks if they ingest As and Pb from cereals and pulses. However, the estimated HI value of 1.7 × 10(1) (>1) elucidates a potential noncarcinogenic risk to the consumers. Also, the estimation showed that the carcinogenic risk of As (5.8 × 10(-3)) and Pb (4.9 × 10(-5)) exceeded the USEPA accepted risk level of 1 × 10(-6). Thus, the carcinogenic risk of As and Pb with nutritional deficiency of essential elements for Bangladeshi people is a matter of concern.

  6. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  8. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  9. Expression of allelopathy in the soil environment: Soil concentration and activity of benzoxazinoid compounds released by rye cover crop residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    The activity of allelopathic compounds is often reduced in the soil environment where processes involving release from donor plant material, soil adsorption and degradation, and uptake by receptor plants naturally result in complex interactions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crops are known to supp...

  10. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  11. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  12. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  13. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are

  14. Changes in time of sowing, flowering and maturity of cereals in Europe under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Elsgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The phenological development of cereal crops from emergence through flowering to maturity is largely controlled by temperature, but also affected by day length and potential physiological stresses. Responses may vary between species and varieties. Climate change will affect the timing of cereal...

  15. Effect of infant cereals on zinc and copper absorption during weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.; Loennerdal, B.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc and copper absorption from five infant cereal products mixed with water, human milk, or cow's milk was measured using an in vivo absorption model (rat pup) involving gastric intubation of extrinsically radiolabeled diets. Whole-body copper 64 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 14% to 31% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. The resultant bioavailability of copper from human milk-cereal combinations (23% to 26%) was significantly lower than that from human milk alone (38%). Whole-body zinc 65 uptake, nine hours after intubation, ranged from 13% to 54% of the dose given for the different cereal combinations. These values were significantly lower than the whole-body zinc 65 uptake from milk alone (61%). Zinc availability was lower (13% to 25%) from dry cereal combinations that contained phytic acid (oatmeal and high-protein varieties) compared with the ready-to-serve cereal-fruit combinations (24% to 54%). The highest zinc uptake (37% to 54%) was from rice-fruit combinations that do not contain phytic acid. We estimated the amounts of zinc and copper that would be absorbed from these cereal products and speculated on the potential impact of these foods on the weaning infant's zinc and copper nutriture. Depending on the feeding practices employed during the weaning period, it is apparent that infant cereals may compromise utilization of zinc and copper from milk diets during weaning

  16. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  17. Digesta characteristiscs and performance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed cereal grains that differ in viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Veld, ter M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Inclusion of cereal grains in fish diets may induce changes in digesta characteristics with possible consequences for fish performance. Especially viscosity characteristics of the dietary ingredients may induce these changes. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of dietary cereal grains

  18. Online detection and quatification of ergot bodies in cereals using near infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ph.; Fernandez - Pierna, J.A.; Egmond, van H.P.; Dardenne, P.; Baeten, V.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of ergot bodies (sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea) in cereals presents a high toxicity risk for animals and humans due to the alkaloid content. To reduce this risk, the European Commission fixed an ergot concentration limit of 0.1% in all feedstuffs containing unground cereals, and a

  19. Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Angel; Ortega, Rosa M; Maldonado, José

    2011-12-01

    The promotion of healthy lifestyles is one of the major goals of governments and international agencies all over the world. Wholegrain cereals are rich in nutrients and many phytochemical compounds, with recognised benefits for health, including dietary fibre, a number of phenolic compounds, lignans, vitamins and minerals and other bioactive components. The aim of the present work is to review the fundamental studies that support the consumption of wholegrain cereals and bread to prevent chronic diseases. Descriptive review considering human studies. Subjects included in randomised intervention trials and cohort studies from different countries published up to 2010. Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products. The regular intake of wholegrain cereals can contribute to reduction of risk factors related to non-communicable chronic diseases.

  20. Cereal Foods and Health : New results and science-based nutrition guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, S.; Ashwell, M.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies, in populations with higher intakes of whole grain, have extended and confirmed the evidence from previous findings showing an association between whole grain cereal or cereal fibre consumption and prevention of several non-communicable diseases. Although the results

  1. Radioactivity of milk, meat, cereals and other agricultural products in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Haukka, S.

    1987-06-01

    The paper describes the surveillance of radioactive substances in agricultural products in Finland after the end of April 1986. The main objective was to assess the dietary intake of fallout radionuclides via milk, meat, cereals and eggs in Finland during the period May-December 1986. In spring 1986 the sampling programmes were extended on the basis of the continuous surveys carried out earlier. The sampling of different types of produce covered a considerable part of the main production areas. The frequency of the sampling was greatly increased from that in previous years, specially in spring and summer, in order to follow the temporal variation in the contents of radionuclides in milk and meat. Gamma-emitting radionuclides, especially ''1''3''1I, ''1''3''4Cs and ''1''3''7Cs, were measured on all samples. ''8''9Sr and ''9''0Sr were determined on the milk and cereal samples used for nationwide assessments. The mean dietary intakes of radionuclides in May-December 1986, calculated from the average consumption of foodstuffs in Finland and the nationwide production-weighted mean mean contents of radionuclides. Contamination of agricultural products due to fallout radionuclides did not cause any restrictions for their use in Finland

  2. Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Derived Food Products: Public Health Perspectives of Their Co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2017-08-23

    Cereal grains and their processed food products are frequently contaminated with mycotoxins. Among many, five major mycotoxins of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause adverse effects in humans. Being airborne or soilborne, the cosmopolitan nature of mycotoxigenic fungi contribute to the worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins. On the basis of the global occurrence data reported during the past 10 years, the incidences and maximum levels in raw cereal grains were 55% and 1642 μg/kg for aflatoxins, 29% and 1164 μg/kg for ochratoxin A, 61% and 71,121 μg/kg for fumonisins, 58% and 41,157 μg/kg, for deoxynivalenol, and 46% and 3049 μg/kg for zearalenone. The concentrations of mycotoxins tend to be lower in processed food products; the incidences varied depending on the individual mycotoxins, possibly due to the varying stability during processing and distribution of mycotoxins. It should be noted that more than one mycotoxin, produced by a single or several fungal species, may occur in various combinations in a given sample or food. Most studies reported additive or synergistic effects, suggesting that these mixtures may pose a significant threat to public health, particularly to infants and young children. Therefore, information on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins and their interactive toxicity is summarized in this paper.

  3. Analysis of winter climate simulations performed with ARPEGE-Climat (T63) in the framework of PROVOST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parey, S.; Dichampt-Martineu, Ch.; Caneill, J.Y. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Research Branch, Environment

    1997-12-01

    The interest of EDF for seasonal forecasting is a consequence of the high sensitivity of electricity consumption to temperature, especially during the winter season. That is why the Research branch of EDF is involved in the PROVOST project (PRediction Of climate Variations On Seasonal and inter-annual Timescales). Two sets of simulations are studied. The first one was calculated apart from the PROVOST experiments with the LMD model covering the 1970 to 1992 winters with eleven simulations per winter. The second one was calculated at EDF in the framework of PROVOST with ARPEGE-Climat model, covering the 1979 to 1994 winters (nine simulations per winter). The probabilistic formulation of climatic scenarios in function of the seasonal simulations with ARPEGE-Climat gives good results if the monthly mean temperature is taken into account. (R.P.) 3 refs.

  4. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  5. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...... wheat, barley and rye whereas non-Triticeae cereals such as maize and rice have very little MGPA. Recent studies have determined the evolutionary relationships of phytases in Triticeae and non-Triticeae and highlighted the importance of the purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhys). In the Triticeae...

  6. Can Bangladesh produce enough cereals to meet future demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsina, J; Wolf, J; Guilpart, N; van Bussel, L G J; Grassini, P; van Wart, J; Hossain, A; Rashid, H; Islam, S; van Ittersum, M K

    2018-06-01

    Bangladesh faces huge challenges in achieving food security due to its high population, diet changes, and limited room for expanding cropland and cropping intensity. The objective of this study is to assess the degree to which Bangladesh can be self-sufficient in terms of domestic maize, rice and wheat production by the years 2030 and 2050 by closing the existing gap (Yg) between yield potential (Yp) and actual farm yield (Ya), accounting for possible changes in cropland area. Yield potential and yield gaps were calculated for the three crops using well-validated crop models and site-specific weather, management and soil data, and upscaled to the whole country. We assessed potential grain production in the years 2030 and 2050 for six land use change scenarios (general decrease in arable land; declining ground water tables in the north; cropping of fallow areas in the south; effect of sea level rise; increased cropping intensity; and larger share of cash crops) and three levels of Yg closure (1: no yield increase; 2: Yg closure at a level equivalent to 50% (50% Yg closure); 3: Yg closure to a level of 85% of Yp (irrigated crops) and 80% of water-limited yield potential or Yw (rainfed crops) (full Yg closure)). In addition, changes in demand with low and high population growth rates, and substitution of rice by maize in future diets were also examined. Total aggregated demand of the three cereals (in milled rice equivalents) in 2030 and 2050, based on the UN median population variant, is projected to be 21 and 24% higher than in 2010. Current Yg represent 50% (irrigated rice), 48-63% (rainfed rice), 49% (irrigated wheat), 40% (rainfed wheat), 46% (irrigated maize), and 44% (rainfed maize) of their Yp or Yw. With 50% Yg closure and for various land use changes, self-sufficiency ratio will be > 1 for rice in 2030 and about one in 2050 but well below one for maize and wheat in both 2030 and 2050. With full Yg closure, self-sufficiency ratios will be well above one for

  7. Co-60 uptake in some young cereal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    The measure of Co-60 uptake by young cereal plants is dependent on the type of soil, plant and growth conditions. Depending on the size of the uptake, a plant can be used for industrial purposes, fodder, foodstuff or for possible decontamination of the soil. Although the requirement for cobalt in higher plants is little, their contamination with Co-60 can be of interest because this radionuclide belongs to the class of the radionuclides with a great radiotoxicity. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is a measure of the radionuclide uptake in the plant. In this paper the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 were determined for the whole aerial part of some young plants in the cereal class that, in this stage of the development, may be used as fodder. To determine soil-to-plant TFs, plants cultivated in pots in laboratory conditions were used. The method used is similar with the plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. We have determined some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the studied soil, a brown-reddish forest type soil. The soil-to-plant TFs were calculated on the basis of the Co-60 activities determined in plant and soil dried samples. For the vegetal samples the whole aerial part of the plants was measured in millet, wheat, barley and triticale. At harvest, only a few millet plants where flowered. The results of the measurements of soil-to-plant TFs of Co-60 are the following: 0.0315±0.0017 for millet, 0.0260±0.0014 for barley, 0.0140±0.0008 for wheat and 0.0491±0.0022 for triticale. These TFs were corrected for standard conditions and were compared with data from literature. The soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 found in the aerial part of young cereals are close to those recommended for the fodder. The obtained values prove the strong dependence of the soil-to-plant TFs for Co-60 on the type of soil and plant. (author)

  8. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Comparison of seasonal soil microbial process in snow-covered temperate ecosystems of northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Zhang

    Full Text Available More than half of the earth's terrestrial surface currently experiences seasonal snow cover and soil frost. Winter compositional and functional investigations in soil microbial community are frequently conducted in alpine tundra and boreal forest ecosystems. However, little information on winter microbial biogeochemistry is known from seasonally snow-covered temperate ecosystems. As decomposer microbes may differ in their ability/strategy to efficiently use soil organic carbon (SOC within different phases of the year, understanding seasonal microbial process will increase our knowledge of biogeochemical cycling from the aspect of decomposition rates and corresponding nutrient dynamics. In this study, we measured soil microbial biomass, community composition and potential SOC mineralization rates in winter and summer, from six temperate ecosystems in northern China. Our results showed a clear pattern of increased microbial biomass C to nitrogen (N ratio in most winter soils. Concurrently, a shift in soil microbial community composition occurred with higher fungal to bacterial biomass ratio and gram negative (G- to gram positive (G+ bacterial biomass ratio in winter than in summer. Furthermore, potential SOC mineralization rate was higher in winter than in summer. Our study demonstrated a distinct transition of microbial community structure and function from winter to summer in temperate snow-covered ecosystems. Microbial N immobilization in winter may not be the major contributor for plant growth in the following spring.

  12. Characterization of bioactive compounds from monascus purpureus fermented different cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermenting of cereals by Monascus is interesting strategy to produce cereals with more beneficial components.  The objective of this study was to determine selected primary and secondary metabolites in cereals (rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, corn, buckwheat fermented by Monascus purpreus and subsequently compare amount of these compounds with control sample (cereals without Monascus. In fermented cereals was determined higher protein, fat, reducing sugars, crude fiber and ash content with compare to non-fermented cereals. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay as well as reducing power assay was also higher in fermented Monascus cereals with the best results in rice (3.09 ±0.02; 62.9 ±2.24; 43.19 ±2.07 mg TEAC per g of dry weight. Sample of fermented rice contained the highest level of total polyphenols (15.31 ±3.62 mg GAE per g of dry weight, total flavonoids (1.65 mg QE per g of dry weight and total phenolic acids (9.47 ±0.56 mg CAE per g of dry weight. In fermented cereals was also determined higher contact of reducing sugars (highest value in rice 246.97 ±7.96 mg GE per g, proteins (highest value in buckwheat 28.47 ±1.24%, ash (highest value in sorghum 2.74 ±0.08% and fat (highest value in corn 4.89 ±0.03% with compare to non-fermented samples. Results of crude fiber content of both - fermented and non-fermented cereals were balanced with similar values. Results of this study shown that Monascus purpureus fermented cereal substrates might be a potential sources of several bioactive compounds in food products.

  13. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  14. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  15. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  16. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  17. Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. II. Adjustment of photosynthetic capacity in winter wheat and winter rye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.R.; Savitch, L.V.; Ivanov, A.G.; Huner, N.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Monopol), spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Katepwa), and winter rye (Secale cereale L. cv Musketeer) grown at 5 degrees C and moderate irradiance (250 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (5/250) exhibit an increased tolerance to photoinhibition at low temperature in comparison to plants grown at 20 degrees C and 250 micromoles m -2 s -1 (20/250). However, 5/250 plants exhibited a higher photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure (0.32-0.63) than 20/250 plants (0.18-0.21), measured as 1 - q p , the coefficient of photochemical quenching. Plants grown at 20 degrees C and a high irradiance (800 micromoles m -2 s -1 ) (20/800) also exhibited a high PSII excitation pressure (0.32-0.48). Similarly, plants grown at 20/800 exhibited a comparable tolerance to photoinhibition relative to plants grown at 5/250. In contrast to a recent report for Chlorella vulgaris (D.P. Maxwell, S. Falk, N.P.A. Huner [1995] Plant Physiol 107: 687-694), this tolerance to photoinhibition occurs in winter rye with minimal adjustment to polypeptides of the PSII light-harvesting complex, chlorophyll a/b ratios, or xanthophyll cycle carotenoids. However, Monopol winter wheat exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase activity upon growth at 5/250, in comparison to Katepwa spring wheat. We demonstrate that low-temperature-induced tolerance to photoinhibition is not a low-temperature-growth effect per se but, instead, reflects increased photosynthetic capacity in response to elevated PSII excitation pressure, which may be modulated by either temperature or irradiance

  18. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  19. 9 CFR 318.15 - Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., cereals, spices, etc., âU.S. retained.â 318.15 Section 318.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...; REINSPECTION AND PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS General § 318.15 Tagging chemicals, preservatives, cereals, spices, etc., “U.S. retained.” When any chemical, preservative, cereal, spice, or other substance is intended...

  20. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop Resíduos da cultura de amendoim como fonte de nitrogênio para uma cultura de cobertura de centeio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling Shane Balkcom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults at Headland, AL USA during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 34, 67 and 101 kg ha-1 applied in the fall. Peanut residue had minimal to no effect on rye biomass yields, N content, carbon (C /N ratio, or N, P, K, Ca and Zn uptake. Additional N increased rye biomass yield, and N, P, K, Ca, and Zn uptakes. Peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a rye cover crop grown as part of a conservation system, but retaining peanut residue on the soil surface could protect the soil from erosion early in the fall and winter before a rye cover crop grows sufficiently to protect the typically degraded southeastern USA soils.Culturas leguminosas de inverno tem sido utilizadas em sistemas conservacionistas para suprimento parcial das necessidades de nitrogênio (N de culturas subseqüentes de verão, mas o potencial destas culturas leguminosas de verão no sentido de reduzir as necessidades de N de gramíneas anuais de inverno, utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, ainda não foi extensivamente estudado. Este trabalho avaliou a contribuição dos resíduos de uma cultura de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. sobre as necessidades de N de uma cultura subsequente de centeio (Secale cereale L. como cobertura desenvolvida dentro de um sistema conservacionista, em um

  1. Simulating and Predicting Cereal Crop Yields in Ethiopia: Model Calibration and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Wang, G.; Ahmed, K. F.; Eggen, M.; Adugna, B.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture in developing countries are extremely vulnerable to climate variability and changes. In East Africa, most people live in the rural areas with outdated agriculture techniques and infrastructure. Smallholder agriculture continues to play a key role in this area, and the rate of irrigation is among the lowest of the world. As a result, seasonal and inter-annual weather patterns play an important role in the spatiotemporal variability of crop yields. This study investigates how various climate variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, sunshine) and agricultural practice (e.g., fertilization, irrigation, planting date) influence cereal crop yields using a process-based model (DSSAT) and statistical analysis, and focuses on the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The DSSAT model is driven with meteorological forcing from the ECMWF's latest reanalysis product that cover the past 35 years; the statistical model will be developed by linking the same meteorological reanalysis data with harvest data at the woreda level from the Ethiopian national dataset. Results from this study will set the stage for the development of a seasonal prediction system for weather and crop yields in Ethiopia, which will serve multiple sectors in coping with the agricultural impact of climate variability.

  2. Analytical Aspects of Total Starch Polarimetric Determination in Some Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Caprita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Starch is the most important digestible polysaccharide present in foods and feeds. The starch concentration in cereals cannot be determined directly, because the starch is contained within a structurally and chemically complex matrix. Fine grinding and boiling in dilute HCl are preparative steps necessary for complete release of the starch granules from the protein matrix. Starch can be determined using simple and inexpensive physical methods, such as density, refractive index or optical rotation assessment. The polarimetric method allows the determination even of small starch contents due to its extremely high specific rotation. For more accurate results, the contribution of free sugars is eliminated by dissolution in 40% (V/V ethanol. The influence of other optically active substances, which might interfere, is removed by filtration/clarification prior to the optical rotation measurement.

  3. Thorium contents in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frindik, O.

    1989-01-01

    Thorium contents (α-activities of the naturally occurring isotopes Th-228, Th-230, and Th-232) were detrmined in soils, vegetables, cereals, and fruits. The thorium content of plants depends on the degree of contamination by soil resuspension and thus on the specific surface of the plants. The activity of the isotope Th-230 is almost the same as that of the main isotope Th-232. Th-228, with about the same activity as Th-232 in soil, increases to about 10-fold the activity in vegetables, 29-fold in sweet chestnuts and 740-fold in Brazil nuts. Thorium concentration factors from the soil to these vegetable products are calculated; they include the total concentration, not only the soluble portion of thorium. (orig.) [de

  4. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  5. Valorization of cereal based biorefinery byproducts: reality and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed; Diels, Ludo; De Wever, Heleen; Pant, Deepak

    2013-08-20

    The growth of the biobased economy will lead to an increase in new biorefinery activities. All biorefineries face the regular challenges of efficiently and economically treating their effluent to be compatible with local discharge requirements and to minimize net water consumption. The amount of wastes resulting from biorefineries industry is exponentially growing. The valorization of such wastes has drawn considerable attention with respect to resources with an observable economic and environmental concern. This has been a promising field which shows great prospective toward byproduct usage and increasing value obtained from the biorefinery. However, full-scale realization of biorefinery wastes valorization is not straightforward because several microbiological, technological and economic challenges need to be resolved. In this review we considered valorization options for cereals based biorefineries wastes while identifying their challenges and exploring the opportunities for future process.

  6. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  7. ANALYSIS OF FREE AND BOUND CHLOROPHENOXY ACIDS IN CEREALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of the chlorophenoxy acids 2,4-D and dichlorprop in cereals has been examined by analyzing barley from spraying experiments. A procedure has been set up by combination of acid hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation followed by extraction and clean up on either silica gel or basic aluminum...... oxide. The final determination is based on reaction with diazomethane and subsequently GLC with ECD. This procedure was compared with two different extraction procedures previously described in the literature. The one comparative procedure uses a mixture of 50% diethyl ether/hexane in presence...... of sulphuric acid and resulted in residues up to ten times lower than found after the combined acid hydrolysis/enzymatic degradation procedure. In the second comparison a direct extraction was made with a mixture of 65% (v/v) acetonitrile in water. No differences were found between this and the combined acid...

  8. Conservation and improvement of native pseudo cereals of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, J.M.; Cruz T, E.; Mapes S, C.; Laguna C, A.

    2007-01-01

    With the purpose of preserving the genetic resources of the local races of pseudo cereals 'red Chia' (Chenopodium berlandieri subspecies nuttalliae), Chia blanca or alegria and Chia negra (belonging to Amaranths hypochondriacus), its were carried out exploration, characterization in situ, collects and conservation activities in the Opopeo and Santa Maria Huiramangaro communities, Michoacan. Field journeys were made and collections were carried out. The morphological typification and of physical and bromatologic characters of the seed were carried out. Parcels for the In situ conservation and the collections have also settled down in two towns of the Toluca Valley for multiplication and ex situ characterization. Seed has been redistributed among the in study area producers to foment the interest of the cultivation. (Author)

  9. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...

  10. New radiocarbon dates on the cereals from Wadi Kubbaniya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendorf, F.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978, three carbonized grains of barley and a carbonized grain of einkorn wheat were found in a buried hearth at a Late Paleolithic site at Wadi Kubbaniya in Egypt. In 1981, two large clusters of barley seeds, which were identified as six-row barley and thus domestic, were found at a nearby site of comparable age. Numerous grinding stones, presumed to have been used for processing the cereals, were found in these and other sites, often deeply buried, and 30 radiocarbon dates placed the occupations between 18,500 and 17,000 radiocarbon years ago. These finds led us to suggest an early origin of food production, with implications for the initial development of complex societies. Several barley seeds were analyzed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy to determine the maximal temperature to which they had been subjected before burial. Six barley seeds and three small pieces of wood charcoal were dated directly by using a tandem accelerator mass spectrometer

  11. Manuring and stable nitrogen isotope ratios in cereals and pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Rebecca A; Bogaard, Amy; Heaton, Tim

    2011-01-01

    experiments and areas where ‘traditional’ farming is practised. Our aim is to ground-truth interpretation of δ15N values in archaeobotanical crop remains as evidence of past growing conditions and husbandry practices. The results confirm the potentially radical impact of manuring on δ15N values in cereals......, depending on manuring level, but indicate only a slight effect on pulses, which can fix atmospheric nitrogen. The expected geographical trend towards greater δ15N with increasing climatic aridity is not apparent, probably because the growing conditions for crops are ‘buffered’ through crop management. Each...... of these observations has fundamental implications for archaeobotanical interpretation of δ15N values as evidence of land use practices and (together with analysis of bone collagen/tooth enamel in potential consumers) palaeodiet....

  12. Analysis of radicals induced in irradiated cereal flour using ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Shoei; Kishita, Keigo; Ukai, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed radicals induced in cereal flour irradiated with gamma-ray or electron beam. Sample was wheat and rice. We detected a broad singlet signal at g = 2.0. It consists of a singlet signal and a triplet signal. It suggested that the singlet signal is originated from organic free radicals and the triplet signal is from 14 N. There were no differences of ESR spectra between irradiated wheat flour and rice flour. The signal intensity of radiation induced radical was tend to increase following with the increase of radiation dose level. After radiation treatment, relaxation time of radiation induced radical was changed during storage. T 1 was decreased and T 2 was increased. In this study, the relaxation time is calculated using the parameters obtained from the ESR signal. It is necessary to analyze the relaxation time directly with pulsed ESR spectroscopy in future. (author)

  13. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  14. Aspergillus ficuum phytase activity is inhibited by cereal grain components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Zelalem Eshetu; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we report for the first time that grain components of barley, rice, wheat and maize can inhibit the activity of Aspergillus ficuum phytase. The phytase inhibition is dose dependent and varies significantly between cereal species, between cultivars of barley and cultivars of wheat and between Fusarium graminearum infected and non-infected wheat grains. The highest endpoint level of phytase activity inhibition was 90%, observed with grain protein extracts (GPE) from F. graminearum infected wheat. Wheat GPE from grains infected with F. graminearum inhibits phytase activity significantly more than GPE from non-infected grains. For four barley cultivars studied, the IC50 value ranged from 0.978 ± 0.271 to 3.616 ± 0.087 mg×ml-1. For two non-infected wheat cultivars investigated, the IC50 values were varying from 2.478 ± 0.114 to 3.038 ± 0.097 mg×ml-1. The maize and rice cultivars tested gaveIC50 values on 0.983 ± 0.205 and 1.972 ± 0.019 mg×ml-1, respectively. After purifying the inhibitor from barley grains via Superdex G200, an approximately 30-35 kDa protein was identified. No clear trend for the mechanism of inhibition could be identified via Michaelis-Menten kinetics and Lineweaver-Burk plots. However, testing of the purified phytase inhibitor together with the A. ficuum phytase and the specific protease inhibitors pepstatin A, E64, EDTA and PMSF revealed that pepstatin A repealed the phytase inhibition. This indicates that the observed inhibition of A. ficuum phytase by cereal grain extracts is caused by protease activity of the aspartic proteinase type.

  15. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  16. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  17. Topography Mediates the Influence of Cover Crops on Soil Nitrate Levels in Row Crop Agricultural Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladoni, Moslem; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Robertson, G. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Supplying adequate amounts of soil N for plant growth during the growing season and across large agricultural fields is a challenge for conservational agricultural systems with cover crops. Knowledge about cover crop effects on N comes mostly from small, flat research plots and performance of cover crops across topographically diverse agricultural land is poorly understood. Our objective was to assess effects of both leguminous (red clover) and non-leguminous (winter rye) cover crops on poten...

  18. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  19. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  20. Variations in cereal volume affect the amount selected and eaten for breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Barbara J; Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S

    2014-09-01

    Food volume could influence both the portions that people take and the amount that they eat, but these effects have had little investigation. The influence of food volume was tested by systematically reducing the flake size of a breakfast cereal so that the cereal was more compact and the same weight filled a smaller volume. In a crossover design, 41 adults ate cereal for breakfast once a week for 4 weeks during 2011 and 2012. The cereal was either standard wheat flakes or the same cereal crushed to reduce the volume to 80%, 60%, or 40% of the standard. A constant weight of cereal was provided in an opaque container and participants poured the amount they wanted into a bowl, added fat-free milk and noncalorie sweetener as desired, and consumed as much as they wanted. Results from a mixed linear model showed that as flake size was reduced, subjects poured a smaller volume of cereal, but still took a greater amount by weight and energy content (both P values breakfast energy intake increased from a mean±standard error of the mean of 286±18 kcal to 358±19 kcal, an increase of a mean±standard error of the mean 34%±7% (Pportion served, which in turn affects energy intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  2. Eco-functional intensification by cereal-grain legume intercropping in organic farming systems for increased yields, reduced weeds and improved grain protein concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Étienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Intercropping, i.e., simultaneously growing two (or more) species in the same field for a significant period of time but without necessarily concomitant sowing or harvest, is a practice aimed at eco-functional intensification. This chapter integrates a comprehensive amount of original data from...... field experiments conducted since 2001 on spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops in experimental and farm contexts in France and Denmark, in an attempt to generalise the findings and draw up common guidelines. We have shown that intercrops appear to be a useful agronomic solution for organic......, structure and manuring strategies. Consequently, it should be emphasized that: (i) the species and varietal traits suited to intercropping and organic farming will make it necessary to reconsider the varietal selection criteria; (ii) further mechanistic understanding of the behaviour of intercropping...

  3. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  4. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  6. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  7. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  8. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...... of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....

  9. Cereals Market in Romania under the Impact of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina CONSTANTIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyses the cereals market after Romania accession to European Union. Thus, I considered necessary and appropriate to achieve the dynamic analysis of production, prices, trade, consumption, and self-sufficiency that provides an overview on the evolution of the cereals market in Romania, in the European context, starting from resources representing the demand, to the uses that represent the supply. I also point out the main mechanisms and support instruments for the cereals market under the Common Agriculture Policy, in the period 2007-2013 and towards 2014-2020.

  10. Exploring the potential of symbiotic fungal endophytes in cereal disease suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Hanlon, Karen; Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental and health concerns surrounding the use of chemical treatments. There is currently a demand for new disease control strategies, and one such strategy involves the use of symbiotic fungal endophytes as biological control agents against fungal pathogens in cereals. Despite the fact that biological...... control by symbiotic fungal endophytes has been documented, particularly with respect to clavicipitaceous endophytes in C3 cool-season grasses, this area remains relatively underexplored in cereals. We highlight for the first time the potential in using symbiotic fungal endophytes to control foliar cereal...

  11. Semi-dwarf cereal mutants and their use in cross-breeding III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme on the ''Evaluation of semi-dwarf mutants as cross-breeding material in cereals'' was initiated in 1980, with the main objective to provide cereal breeders with new, alternative sources of genes for semi-dwarf, lodging resistant plant types. The present publication includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. Papers presented by participants in the Co-ordinated Research Programme demonstrate that these objectives were successfully achieved. As an additional result of this programme more improved genotypes of cereals with other desirable characters as earliness, better harvest index and improved plant architecture have become available for practical breeding. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  13. Winter carbon dioxide effluxes from Arctic ecosystems: An overview and comparison of methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, M.P.; Morgner, E.; Cooper, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    removal, (3) diffusion measurements, F2-point, within the snowpack, and (4) a trace gas technique, FSF6, with multiple gas sampling within the snowpack. According to measurements collected from shallow and deep snow cover in High Arctic Svalbard and subarctic Sweden during the winter of 2007......The winter CO2 efflux from subnivean environments is an important component of annual C budgets in Arctic ecosystems and consequently makes prediction and estimations of winter processes as well as incorporations of these processes into existing models important. Several methods have been used......, Fsoil is assumed to measure soil production, whereas FSF6, Fsnow, and F2-point are considered better approaches for quantifying exchange processes between the soil, snow, and the atmosphere. This study indicates that estimates of winter CO2 emissions may vary more as a result of the method used than...

  14. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  15. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  16. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  17. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  18. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  19. Impact of broadcasting a cereal rye or oat cover crop before corn and soybean harvest on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn and soybean rotation in Iowa has no living plants taking up water and nutrients from crop maturity until planting, a period of over six months in most years. In many fields, this results in losses of nitrate in effluent from artificial drainage systems during this time. In a long-term fiel...

  20. Impacts of Cover Crops on Water and Nutrient Dynamics in Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williard, K.; Swanberg, S.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-05-01

    Intensive cropping systems of corn (Zea Mays L.) and soybeans (Glycine max) are commonly leaky systems with respect to nitrogen (N). Reactive N outputs from agroecosystems can contribute to eutrophication and hypoxic zones in downstream water bodies and greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions. Incorporating cover crops into temperate agroecosystem rotations has been promoted as a tool to increase nitrogen use efficiency and thus limit reactive N outputs to the environment. Our objective was determine how cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) cover crops impact nutrient and soil water dynamics in an intensive corn and soybean cropping rotation in central Illinois. Cover crops were planted in mid to late October and terminated in early April prior to corn or soybean planting. In the spring just prior to cover crop termination, soil moisture levels were lower in the cover crop plots compared to no cover plots. This can be a concern for the subsequent crop in relatively dry years, which the Midwestern United States experienced in 2012. No cover plots had greater nutrient leaching below the rooting zone compared to cover crop areas, as expected. The cover crops were likely scavenging nutrients during the fall and early spring and should provide nutrients to the subsequent crop via decomposition and mineralization of the cover crop residue. Over the long term, cover crop systems should produce greater inputs and cycling of carbon and N, increasing the productivity of crops due to the long-term accumulation of soil organic matter. This study demonstrates that there may be short term trade-offs in reduced soil moisture levels that should be considered alongside the long term nutrient scavenging and recycling benefits of cover crops.

  1. Adaptation of barley to mild winters: A role for PPDH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casao M Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the adaptation of cereals to environmental conditions is one of the key areas in which plant science can contribute to tackling challenges presented by climate change. Temperature and day length are the main environmental regulators of flowering and drivers of adaptation in temperate cereals. The major genes that control flowering time in barley in response to environmental cues are VRNH1, VRNH2, VRNH3, PPDH1, and PPDH2 (candidate gene HvFT3. These genes from the vernalization and photoperiod pathways show complex interactions to promote flowering that are still not understood fully. In particular, PPDH2 function is assumed to be limited to the ability of a short photoperiod to promote flowering. Evidence from the fields of biodiversity, ecogeography, agronomy, and molecular genetics was combined to obtain a more complete overview of the potential role of PPDH2 in environmental adaptation in barley. Results The dominant PPDH2 allele is represented widely in spring barley cultivars but is found only occasionally in modern winter cultivars that have strong vernalization requirements. However, old landraces from the Iberian Peninsula, which also have a vernalization requirement, possess this allele at a much higher frequency than modern winter barley cultivars. Under field conditions in which the vernalization requirement of winter cultivars is not satisfied, the dominant PPDH2 allele promotes flowering, even under increasing photoperiods above 12 h. This hypothesis was supported by expression analysis of vernalization-responsive genotypes. When the dominant allele of PPDH2 was expressed, this was associated with enhanced levels of VRNH1 and VRNH3 expression. Expression of these two genes is needed for the induction of flowering. Therefore, both in the field and under controlled conditions, PPDH2 has an effect of promotion of flowering. Conclusions The dominant, ancestral, allele of PPDH2 is prevalent in southern

  2. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  3. Winter activity of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis on the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal activity budgets of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis in winter (June) at the Postberg Nature Reserve, West Coast National Park, were analysed to determine the influence of environmental factors on their activity. Abiotic factors such as effective temperature, wind speed, cloud cover and rainfall have an effect on ...

  4. On the potential for abrupt Arctic winter sea-ice loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathiany, S.; Notz, Dirk; Mauritsen, T.; Raedel, G.; Brovkin, V.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the transition from a seasonally ice-covered Arctic to an Arctic Ocean that is sea ice free all year round under increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. It is shown that in comprehensive climate models, such loss of Arctic winter sea ice area is faster than the preceding loss of

  5. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryning, S.E.; Batchvarova, E.; DeBruin, H.A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements carried out in Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse, sub-arctic boreal forest with snow covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent late winter conditions characterised by low solar elevation angles. During the experiment (12-24 March 1997) day

  6. Short- and full-season soybean in stale seedbeds versus rolled-crimped winter rye mulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late seedbed preparations (also known as stale or false seedbeds) are used by organic growers to reduce weed populations prior to crop planting. Rye mulches, derived from mechanically killed (rolled and crimped) winter rye cover crops, can serve the same purpose for spring-planted organic crops. Bot...

  7. Improving automated disturbance maps using snow-covered landsat time series stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Snow-covered winter Landsat time series stacks are used to develop a nonforest mask to enhance automated disturbance maps produced by the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). This method exploits the enhanced spectral separability between forested and nonforested areas that occurs with sufficient snow cover. This method resulted in significant improvements in Vegetation...

  8. Rich nutrition from the poorest - Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal fermentations in Africa and Asia involve mainly the processing of maize, rice, sorghum and the millets. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus), Enterobacter spp., yeasts (Candida, Debaryomyces, Endomycopsis, Hansenula, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Trichosporon spp.) and filamentous

  9. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional quality and functional property of complementary food. ... Ethiopian Journal of Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  10. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  11. Regional diversity on the timing for the origins of cereal cultivation and domestication in southwest Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Colledge, Sue; Zapata, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    in regions such as the southern-central Levant and the Upper Euphrates area, but the plant-based subsistence in the eastern Fertile Crescent (southeast Turkey, Iran, and Iraq) focused on the exploitation of plants such as legumes, goatgrass, fruits, and nuts. Around 10.7–10.2 ka Cal BP (early Pre......-Pottery Neolithic B), the predominant exploitation of cereals continued in the southern-central Levant and is correlated with the appearance of significant proportions (∼30%) of domesticated-type cereal chaff in the archaeobotanical record. In the eastern Fertile Crescent exploitation of legumes, fruits, nuts......, and grasses continued, and in the Euphrates legumes predominated. In these two regions domesticated-type cereal chaff (>10%) is not identified until the middle and late Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (10.2–8.3 ka Cal BP). We propose that the cultivation of wild and domesticated cereals developed at different times...

  12. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional quality and functional ... The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance using SPSS ... Mean separation result showed that protein, fat, energy, crude fibre and ash ...

  13. Dietary fibre fractions in cereal foods measured by a new integrated AOAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Juergen; Themeier, Heinz; Neese, Ursula; Lindhauer, Meinolf G

    2013-10-01

    The reliable determination of soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre in baked goods and cereal flours is an important issue for research, nutritional labelling and marketing. We compared total dietary fibre (TDF) contents of selected cereal based foods determined by AOAC Method 991.43 and the new AOAC Method 2009.01. Fifteen bread and bakery products were included in the study. Our results showed that TDF values of cereal products determined by AOAC Method 2009.01 were always significantly higher than those determined by AOAC Method 991.43. This was explained by the inclusion of low molecular weight soluble fibre fractions and resistant starch fractions in the TDF measurement by AOAC 2009.01. This documents that nutritional labelling of cereal products poses the challenge how to update TDF data in nutrient databases in a reasonable time with an acceptable expenditure. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  15. The nutritional quality of South African ready-to-eat breakfast cereals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Children's cereals formed 21% (n = 28) of the sample and were significantly more likely to have .... on the package; a television or movie theme promotion; a licensed ..... suggest that children may learn to accept a low sugar version of.

  16. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  17. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  18. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  19. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  20. Weed infestation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of application of some retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Harasim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in the period 2004–2007 on grey-brown podzolic soil (sandy. This study analysed the relationship between the use of stem shortening in cereals by means of retardants with the following active substances: chlormequat chloride (Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL, trinexapac-ethyl (Moddus 250 EC, chlormequat chloride + ethephon (Cecefon 465 SL, and weed infestation. The retardants were applied at the 1st node stage (BBCH 31 – Antywylegacz Płynny 675 SL and the 2nd node stage of winter wheat (BBCH 32 – Moddus 250 EC and Cecefon 465 SL, together with the adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC (75% of SN 200 mineral oil or without the adjuvant. Winter wheat, cv. 'Muza', was grown after vetch grown for seed. The whole experiment was sprayed with the herbicides Apyros 75 WG and Starane 250 EC at the full tillering stage (BBCH 29–30. Plots where no growth regulators were used were the control treatment. Weed density and biomass showed great variation between years. In the winter wheat crop, Veronica persica, Viola arvensis, Veronica arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris,and Chenopodium album dominated in the dicotyledonous class, whereas Apera spica-venti, Echinochloa crus-galli,and Elymus repens were predominant among monocotyledonous plants. The level of weed infestation of the winter wheat crop, as measured by the number and air-dry weight of weeds, was significantly differentiated by years and retardants used as well as by interactions of these factors. The adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC did not have a significant effect on the above-mentioned weed infestation parameters. .

  1. Diurnal Freeze-Thaw Cycles Modify Winter Soil Respiration in a Desert Shrub-Land Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter soil respiration (Rs is becoming a significant component of annual carbon budgets with more warming in winter than summer. However, little is known about the controlling mechanisms of winter Rs in dryland. We made continuous measurements of Rs in four microsites (non-crust (BS, lichen (LC, moss (MC, and a mixture of moss and lichen (ML in a desert shrub-land ecosystem northern China, to investigate the causes of Rs dynamics in winter. The mean winter Rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.17 µmol CO2 m−2·s−1 across microsites, with the highest value in BS. Winter Q10 (known as the increase in respiration rate per 10 °C increase in temperature values (2.8–19 were much higher than those from the growing season (1.5. Rs and Q10 were greatly enhanced in freeze-thaw cycles compared to frozen days. Diurnal patterns of Rs between freeze-thaw and frozen days differed. Although the freeze-thaw period was relatively short, its cumulative Rs contributed significantly to winter Rs. The presence of biocrust might induce lower temperature, thus having fewer freeze-thaw cycles relative to bare soil, leading to the lower Rs for microsites with biocrusts. In conclusion, winter Rs in drylands was sensitive to soil temperature (Ts and Ts-induced freeze-thaw cycles. The temperature impact on Rs varied among soil cover types. Winter Rs in drylands may become more important as the climate is continuously getting warmer.

  2. Simultaneous determination of nitrogen and phosphorus in cereals using 14 MeV Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, R.

    1992-01-01

    A method using 14 MeV neutron activation analysis was developed form non-destructive simultaneous determination of N and P in cereals. The samples were irradiated 5 min. after 0,5 min. decay time. The induced activities were measured using gamma spectrometry with Nal(Tl) well type detector. The accuracy, precision and detection limits obtained are discussed as well as the analytical results for different types of cereals. (Author) 10 refs., 8 tab., 1 fig

  3. Influence of Higher Wheat Prices on Ready-to-Eat Cereal Companies in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    HERNANDEZ LOERA CHAVEZ, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, sever droughts and fires destroyed 20 percent of Russia’s wheat crop. This incident increased dramatically the prices of wheat worldwide. This paper studies the financial consequences that these higher wheat prices brought to companies that use wheat to manufacture ready-to-eat cereal and wheat-related products. The international cereal companies selected for this study were Kellogg Company, Nestlé Group and Ralcorp Holdings, Inc., owner of Post Foods Company. Keywords: Wheat, ce...

  4. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians' Health Study I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians' Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. The average age of study participants was 52.4 ± 8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤1, 2-6, and ≥7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians’ Health Study I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Jinesh; Gaziano, J. Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Hypertension is a major public health problem. While many dietary factors affect the risk of developing hypertension, limited data are available on the association between consumption of breakfast cereal and incident hypertension. We examined the association between breakfast cereal consumption and the risk of hypertension. Methods We prospectively analyzed data from 13,368 male participants of the Physicians’ Health Study I. Consumption of breakfast cereals was estimated using an abbreviated food frequency questionnaire and incident hypertension was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires. Results The average age of study participants was 52.4 ±8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7,267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1,000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤ 1, 2-6, and ≥ 7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants. Conclusions The results of this longitudinal cohort study suggest that whole grain breakfast cereal consumption confers a lower risk of hypertension in middle-aged adult males PMID:21868140

  6. IMPACTS OF SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES ON THE IMPLICIT VALUES OF BREAKFAST CEREAL CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Hongqi; Price, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The implicit values of nutrient and nonnutrient characteristics of breakfast cereal were estimated using the 1987-88 household portion of the USDAÂ’'s Nationwide Food Consumption Survey data. The effects of sociodemographic variables on cereal characteristic values were also estimated. The conceptual framework of the hedonic price model, used for food products, has traditionally focused on the nutritional characteristics of these products. This framework was extended to incorporate nonnutriti...

  7. Analysis of the Warmest Arctic Winter, 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Boisvert, Linette N.; Brucker, Ludovic; Lee, Jae N.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2016-01-01

    December through February 2015-2016 defines the warmest winter season over the Arctic in the observational record. Positive 2m temperature anomalies were focused over regions of reduced sea ice cover in the Kara and Barents Seas and southwestern Alaska. A third region is found over the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. The period is marked by a strong synoptic pattern which produced melting temperatures in close proximity to the North Pole in late December and anomalous high pressure near the Taymyr Peninsula. Atmospheric teleconnections from the Atlantic contributed to warming over Eurasian high-latitude land surfaces, and El Niño-related teleconnections explain warming over southwestern Alaska and British Columbia, while warm anomalies over the central Arctic are associated with physical processes including the presence of enhanced atmospheric water vapor and an increased downwelling longwave radiative flux. Preconditioning of sea ice conditions by warm temperatures affected the ensuing spring extent.

  8. Weeds in spring cereal fields in Finland - a third survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring cereal fields was conducted in 16 regions of southern and central Finland in 1997-1999. Data were collected from conventional and organic farms, both of which applied their normal cropping practices. A total of 690 fields were investigated by counting and weighing the weed species from ten sample quadrats 0.1 m2 in size in late July - early August. Altogether 160 weed species were found, of which 134 were broad-leaved and 26 grass species. The total number of weed species ranged from 41 to 84 between regions. In organically farmed fields, the average species number was 24 and in conventionally farmed fields 16. The most frequent weed species were Viola arvensis 84%, Stellaria media 76% and Galeopsis spp. 70%. Only 18 species exceeded the frequency level of 33%. The average density of weeds was 136 m-2 (median= 91 in sprayed conventional fields, 420 m-2 (374 in unsprayed conventional fields and 469 m-2 (395 in organic fields. The average air-dry above-ground biomass of weeds was 163 kg ha-1 (median=63, 605 kg ha-1 (413 and 678 kg ha-1 (567, respectively. Weed biomass accounted for 3% of the total biomass of the crop stand in sprayed conventional fields and for 17% in organic fields. Elymus repens, the most frequent grass species, produced the highest proportion of weed biomass.

  9. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  10. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, V.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 , to the public exposure. (authors)

  11. The landscape context of cereal aphid–parasitoid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Carsten; Roschewitz, Indra; Tscharntke, Teja

    2005-01-01

    Analyses at multiple spatial scales may show how important ecosystem services such as biological control are determined by processes acting on the landscape scale. We examined cereal aphid–parasitoid interactions in wheat fields in agricultural landscapes differing in structural complexity (32–100% arable land). Complex landscapes were associated with increased aphid mortality resulting from parasitism, but also with higher aphid colonization, thereby counterbalancing possible biological control by parasitoids and lastly resulting in similar aphid densities across landscapes. Thus, undisturbed perennial habitats appeared to enhance both pests and natural enemies. Analyses at multiple spatial scales (landscape sectors of 0.5–6 km diameter) showed that correlations between parasitism and percentage of arable land were significant at scales of 0.5–2 km, whereas aphid densities responded to percentage of arable land at scales of 1–6 km diameter. Hence, the higher trophic level populations appeared to be determined by smaller landscape sectors owing to dispersal limitation, showing the ‘functional spatial scale’ for species-specific landscape management. PMID:15695212

  12. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan George Thomas Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterise the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviours. An orbitrap MS/MS proteomics technique defined the extracellular proteases secreted by Fusarium graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases.

  13. Irradiation on cereal bars incorporated with pineapple skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques; Silva, Yasmini Portes Abraham; Costa, Naiane Vieira; Almeida, Thatyana Lacerda; Damiani, Clarissa; Arthur, Valter; Lage, Moacir Evandro; Asquieri, Eduardo Ramirez

    2011-01-01

    One of the major current concerns to the food industry is the management of residues generated in its production processes. Thus, several studies have been developed, seeking alternative uses for these residues, in order to minimize environmental impacts and add value to products previously discarded. Combining this idea with the increasingly search for healthy and practical products, by consumers, this study aimed the characterization of cereal bars irradiated with doses of 0 kGy, 1 kGy, and 2 kGy, incorporated with dried pineapple skin. The following analyses were carried out: moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, carbohydrates, energetic value, antioxidant potential, phenolic content, organic acids, and fatty acids profile. The results observed for the centesimal composition did not vary as a function of the radiation doses used, reducing only the levels of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and organic acids. The product showed potential for becoming an effective way of reusing a food industry residue and the irradiation interfered on the nutritional characteristics of the final product. (author)

  14. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  15. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  16. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  17. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  18. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  19. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bryła

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice, triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006 was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN, DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05 any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B, enniatin B1 (Enn-B1, enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1, 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A, 70

  20. Occurrence of 26 Mycotoxins in the Grain of Cereals Cultivated in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryła, Marcin; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podolska, Grażyna; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Sułek, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The levels of 26 mycotoxins were determined in 147 samples of the grain of cereals cultivated in five regions of Poland during the 2014 growing season. The HPLC-HRMS (time-of-flight) analytical technique was used. An analytical procedure to simultaneously determine 26 mycotoxins in grain was developed, tested and verified. Samples from eastern and southern Poland were more contaminated with mycotoxins than the samples from northern and western Poland. Toxins produced by Fusarium fungi were the main contaminants found. Some deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in 100% of the tested samples of wheat (Osiny, Borusowa, Werbkowice), triticale, winter barley and oats, while the maximum permissible DON level (as defined in the EU Commission Regulation No. 1881/2006) was exceeded in 10 samples. Zearalenone (ZEN), DON metabolites and enniatins were also commonly found. The presence of mycotoxins in grain reflected the prevailing weather conditions during the plant flowering/earing stages, which were favorable for the development of blight. Among all investigated wheat genotypes, cv. Fidelius was the least contaminated, while Bamberka, Forkida and Kampana were the most contaminated. However, the single-factor ANOVA analysis of variance did not reveal (at a statistical significance level α = 0.05) any differences between levels of mycotoxins in individual genotypes. Triticale was the most contaminated grain among all of the tested varieties. ZEN, DON and the sum of 3-acetyldexynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3- and 15-ADON) were found in 100% of the tested triticale samples at concentrations within the 4–86, 196–1326 and 36–374 µg·kg−1 range, respectively. Of particular concern was the fact that some “emerging mycotoxins” (enniatins) (in addition to commonly-known and legally-regulated mycotoxins) were also found in the tested triticale samples (enniatin B (Enn-B), enniatin B1 (Enn-B1), enniatin A-1 (Enn-A1), 100% of samples, and enniatin A (Enn-A), 70% of