WorldWideScience

Sample records for winning symbol combination

  1. Winning Combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscuolo, Paola; Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke

    2018-01-01

    Searching for the most rewarding sources of innovative ideas remains a key challenge in management of technological innovation. Yet, little is known about which combinations of internal and external knowledge sources are triggers for innovation. Extending theories about searching for innovation, we...... examine the effectiveness of different combinations of knowledge sources for achieving innovative performance. We suggest that combinations involving integrative search strategies – combining internal and external knowledge – are the most likely to generate product and process innovation. In this context...

  2. Combining Symbolic Representations for Solving Timed Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Rüdiger; Mattmüller, Robert; Peter, Hans-Jörg

    We present a general approach to combine symbolic state space representations for the discrete and continuous parts in the synthesis of winning strategies for timed reachability games. The combination is based on abstraction refinement where discrete symbolic techniques are used to produce a sequence of abstract timed game automata. After each refinement step, the resulting abstraction is used for computing an under- and an over-approximation of the timed winning states. The key idea is to identify large relevant and irrelevant parts of the precise weakest winning strategy already on coarse, and therefore simple, abstractions. If neither the existence nor nonexistence of a winning strategy can be established in the approximations, we use them to guide the refinement process. Based on a prototype that combines binary decision diagrams[7,9] and difference bound matrices[5], we experimentally evaluate the technique on standard benchmarks from timed controller synthesis. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of the new approach concerning running time and memory consumption compared to the classical on-the-fly algorithm implemented in Uppaal-Tiga [10,4].

  3. 7 CFR 29.1008 - Combination symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combination symbols. 29.1008 Section 29.1008..., 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1008 Combination symbols. A color or group symbol used with another symbol to form the third factor of a grademark to denote a particular side or characteristic of the...

  4. Symbol Stream Combining Versus Baseband Combining for Telemetry Arraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, D.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to investigate and analyze the problem of combining symbol streams from many Deep Space Network stations to enhance bit signal-to-noise ratio and to compare the performance of this combining technique with baseband combining. Symbol stream combining (SSC) has some advantages and some disadvantages over baseband combining (BBC). The SSC suffers almost no loss in combining the digital data and no loss due to the transmission of the digital data by microwave links between the stations. The BBC suffers 0.2 dB loss due to alignment and combining the IF signals and 0.2 dB loss due to transmission of signals by microwave links. On the other hand, the losses in the subcarrier demodulation assembly (SDA) and in the symbol synchronization assembly (SSA) for SSC are more than the losses in the SDA and SSA for BBC. It is shown that SSC outperforms BBC by about 0.35 dB (in terms of the required bit energy-to-noise spectral density for a bit error rate of 1,000) for an array of three DSN antennas, namely 64 m, 34m(T/R) and 34m(R).

  5. Symbol Stream Combining in a Convolutionally Coded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Pollara, F.; Swanson, L.

    1985-01-01

    Symbol stream combining has been proposed as a method for arraying signals received at different antennas. If convolutional coding and Viterbi decoding are used, it is shown that a Viterbi decoder based on the proposed weighted sum of symbol streams yields maximum likelihood decisions.

  6. Symbol-stream Combiner: Description and Demonstration Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Reder, L. J.; Russell, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    A system is described and demonstration plans presented for antenna arraying by symbol stream combining. This system is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of a spacecraft signals by combining the detected symbol streams from two or more receiving stations. Symbol stream combining has both cost and performance advantages over other arraying methods. Demonstrations are planned on Voyager 2 both prior to and during Uranus encounter. Operational use is possible for interagency arraying of non-Deep Space Network stations at Neptune encounter.

  7. Combining geometric matching with SVM to improve symbol spotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayef, Nibal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Symbol spotting is important for automatic interpretation of technical line drawings. Current spotting methods are not reliable enough for such tasks due to low precision rates. In this paper, we combine a geometric matching-based spotting method with an SVM classifier to improve the precision of the spotting. In symbol spotting, a query symbol is to be located within a line drawing. Candidate matches can be found, however, the found matches may be true or false. To distinguish a false match, an SVM classifier is used. The classifier is trained on true and false matches of a query symbol. The matches are represented as vectors that indicate the qualities of how well the query features are matched, those qualities are obtained via geometric matching. Using the classification, the precision of the spotting improved from an average of 76.6% to an average of 97.2% on a database of technical line drawings.

  8. Radiation and Anti-Cancer Vaccines: A Winning Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Alexandra; Cushman, Taylor R; Anderson, Clark; Barsoumian, Hampartsoum B; Welsh, James W; Cortez, Maria Angelica

    2018-01-30

    The emerging combination of radiation therapy with vaccines is a promising new treatment plan in the fight against cancer. While many cancer vaccines such as MUC1, p53 CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, and SOX2 may be great candidates for antitumor vaccination, there still remain many investigations to be done into possible vaccine combinations. One fruitful partnership that has emerged are anti-tumor vaccines in combination with radiation. Radiation therapy was previously thought to be only a tool for directly or indirectly damaging DNA and therefore causing cancer cell death. Now, with much preclinical and clinical data, radiation has taken on the role of an in situ vaccine. With both cancer vaccines and radiation at our disposal, more and more studies are looking to combining vaccine types such as toll-like receptors, viral components, dendritic-cell-based, and subunit vaccines with radiation. While the outcomes of these combinatory efforts are promising, there is still much work to be covered. This review sheds light on the current state of affairs in cancer vaccines and how radiation will bring its story into the future.

  9. Mitigation win-win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.

  10. Teaching graphic symbol combinations to children with limited speech during shared story reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönsing, Kerstin M; Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intervention strategy on the production of graphic symbol combinations in children with limited speech. Four children between the ages of 6;5 and 10;8 (years;months) with limited speech participated in the study. A single-subject, multiple probe design across three different types of semantic relations was used. Generalization to untrained exemplars was also monitored. Results were mixed across the four participants: two participants learned to combine symbols across different types of relations, maintained these skills post intervention, and generalized their skills to untrained combinations; and two participants showed less consistent evidence of learning. The effects, as measured during structured probes, were strong for one participant, moderate for another, and inconclusive for the two others. Responses during shared story reading suggested that the measurement probes might have underestimated participants' ability to combine symbols.

  11. Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa: Winning the War on Terror with Information Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    ...) to win the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Horn of Africa. Because of the mission, the resources available to the task force, and the nature of the conflict, the command chose a COA that uses Information Operations (IO...

  12. Combining metric episodes with semantic event concepts within the Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Troy D.; McGhee, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The Symbolic and Sub-Symbolic Robotics Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS) combines symbolic and sub-symbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control architecture. The new architecture leverages previous work in cognitive architectures, specifically the development of the Adaptive Character of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and Soar. This paper details current work on learning from episodes or events. The use of episodic memory as a learning mechanism has, until recently, been largely ignored by computational cognitive architectures. This paper details work on metric level episodic memory streams and methods for translating episodes into abstract schemas. The presentation will include research on learning through novelty and self generated feedback mechanisms for autonomous systems.

  13. Combining Multifunctionality and Ecosystem Services into a Win-Win Solution. The Case Study of the Serchio River Basin (Tuscany—Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Rovai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-war development—characterized by intensive processes of urbanization, concentration of agriculture on the most fertile lands, and abandonment of mountainous and marginal areas—brought about negative environmental and socio-economic consequences. They have been particularly severe in terms of increase of hydrogeological risk, which is high in most Italian regions. Over time, there has been an increasing awareness of the multiple functions played by agriculture in terms of provision of Ecosystem Services (ES, which contribute fundamentally to human well-being. In particular, some ES provided by farmers may help to reduce the hydrogeological risk of territories prone to landslides and floods. In this framework, the paper presents as a case study the project “Farmers as Custodians of a Territory.” This project was implemented in the Serchio River basin, Tuscany (Italy, and combines a multifunctional farm strategy of diversification with the provision of Ecosystem Services related to the hydraulic and hydrogeological protection of the river-basin territory. Although this case study should be read within the framework of the theories of agricultural multifunctionality and ES provision, it nevertheless took a very pragmatic and innovative approach, which differentiates it from most of the case studies given in the literature. Results of our analysis show that, by involving farmers as custodians of the territory, it is possible to reach a “win-win” solution characterized, on the one hand, by better services for the community at a lower cost for the Land Reclamation Consortia involved with hydrogeological risk prevention, thus improving the effectiveness and efficiency of ES provision; and on the other hand, by improving the economic situation and survival chances of local farms.

  14. Combining the Locator System with WinID3--identifying victims from dental remains in a large disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C; Leventhal, L

    2007-07-01

    Computer software programs are typically used at disaster sites to help identify victims from dental remains. Using a simulated disaster with 300 simulated victims and 105 simulated dental fragments, previous research compared two computer programs, WinID and CAPMI4, to a non-computer identification system--the Locator System (LS). LS performed best. LS requires dental professionals manually to sort antemortem and postmortem files into dental categories and then compare postmortem and antemortem files in the same category to find matches. We combined LS with the better of the two computer programs, WinID, to create a single method. This method was used by two teams of forensic odontologists to identify victims in the same simulated disaster employed in previous research. One team had 8 members and the other had 5 members. The 5-member team performed better than all previous teams and the 8-member team performed better than the 5-member team. The 8-member team was large enough to assign a different member to each category as a specialist. We make practical recommendations on identifying disaster victims from dental remains.

  15. Effects of correlated noise on the full-spectrum combining and complex-symbol combining arraying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, P.

    1995-01-01

    The process of combining telemetry signals received at multiple antennas, commonly referred to as arraying, can be used to improve communication link performance in the Deep Space Network (DSN). By coherently adding telemetry from multiple receiving sites, arraying produces an enhancement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over that achievable with any single antenna in the array. A number of different techniques for arraying have been proposed and their performances analyzed in past literature. These analyses have compared different arraying schemes under the assumption that the signals contain additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and that the noise observed at distinct antennas is independent. In situations where an unwanted background body is visible to multiple antennas in the array, however, the assumption of independent noises is no longer applicable. A planet with significant radiation emissions in the frequency band of interest can be one such source of correlated noise. For example, during much of Galileo's tour of Jupiter, the planet will contribute significantly to the total system noise at various ground stations. This article analyzes the effects of correlated noise on two arraying schemes currently being considered for DSN applications: full-spectrum combining (FSC) and complex-symbol combining (CSC). A framework is presented for characterizing the correlated noise based on physical parameters, and the impact of the noise correlation on the array performance is assessed for each scheme.

  16. Wins, winning and winners: the commercial advertising of lottery gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, John L; Miller, Delthia

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed a sample of 920 lottery ads that were placed or played in Atlantic Canada from January 2005 to December 2006. A content analysis, involving quantitative and qualitative techniques, was conducted to examine the design features, exposure profiles and focal messages of these ads and to explore the connections between lottery advertising and consumer culture. We found that there was an "ethos of winning" in these commercials that provided the embedded words, signs, myths, and symbols surrounding lottery gambling and conveyed a powerful imagery of plentitude and certitude in a world of potential loss where there was little reference to the actual odds of winning. The tangible and emotional qualities in the ads were especially inviting to young people creating a positive orientation to wins, winning and winners, and lottery products that, in turn, reinforced this form of gambling as part of youthful consumption practices. We concluded that enticing people with the prospects of huge jackpots, attractive consumer goods and easy wins, showcasing top prize winners, and providing dubious depictions that winning is life-changing was narrow and misleading and exploited some of the factors associated with at-risk gambling.

  17. Planning uncertainties, market risks and new environmental choices: Winning least cost planning combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, D.; Lang, C.

    1990-01-01

    Utility demand and supply-side planners will face new challenges from environmental regulations. Under current proposals, every ton of pollutant will have a cost to utilities, not just the tons that put them over the allowable limit. Planners will have to account for these new costs. To do this, planners need to start tracking emissions implementation actions today, and begin strategies for future regulatory changes. Current legislative proposals include a tax on the carbon content of fuels to curb emissions of greenhouse gases and substantial reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. The important issue for planners is the flexible compliance requirements within these regulatory changes. The acid rain proposals, for example, include a market-based emissions trading system for emissions allowances. Whenever there is a competitive market, there are market risks, and potential winners and losers. Utilities need to be prepared to analyze and mitigate these risks. Integrated least cost planing is one way a utility will have to meet this challenge. Planning involves uncertainty and risk. The wide array of compliance choices create countless combinations of strategies for utilities to comply with the new emissions regulations. This paper discusses new compliance strategies, demand-side management (DSM) as a compliance strategy, solutions to DSM traps, and the compliance strategy game

  18. Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Biere, Armin; Clarke, Edmund M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we show how to do symbolic model checking using Boolean Expression Diagrams (BEDs), a non-canonical representation for Boolean formulas, instead of Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs), the traditionally used canonical representation. The method is based on standard fixed point algorithms...

  19. Symbolic dynamics marker of heart rate variability combined with clinical variables enhance obstructive sleep apnea screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-García, A. G.; Saavedra-Santana, P.; Juliá-Serdá, G.; Navarro-Mesa, J. L.; Navarro-Esteva, J.; Álvarez-López, X.; Gapelyuk, A.; Penzel, T.; Wessel, N.

    2014-06-01

    Many sleep centres try to perform a reduced portable test in order to decrease the number of overnight polysomnographies that are expensive, time-consuming, and disturbing. With some limitations, heart rate variability (HRV) has been useful in this task. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate if inclusion of symbolic dynamics variables to a logistic regression model integrating clinical and physical variables, can improve the detection of subjects for further polysomnographies. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution that innovates in that strategy. A group of 133 patients has been referred to the sleep center for suspected sleep apnea. Clinical assessment of the patients consisted of a sleep related questionnaire and a physical examination. The clinical variables related to apnea and selected in the statistical model were age (p apnea. In addition, the processing of the HRV is a well established low cost and robust technique.

  20. Contextualizing symbol, symbolizing context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudy, Septiani Yugni; Suryadi, Didi; Mulyana, Endang

    2017-08-01

    When students learn algebra for the first time, inevitably they are experiencing transition from arithmetic to algebraic thinking. Once students could apprehend this essential mathematical knowledge, they are cultivating their ability in solving daily life problems by applying algebra. However, as we dig into this transitional stage, we identified possible students' learning obstacles to be dealt with seriously in order to forestall subsequent hindrance in studying more advance algebra. We come to realize this recurring problem as we undertook the processes of re-personalization and re-contextualization in which we scrutinize the very basic questions: 1) what is variable, linear equation with one variable and their relationship with the arithmetic-algebraic thinking? 2) Why student should learn such concepts? 3) How to teach those concepts to students? By positioning ourselves as a seventh grade student, we address the possibility of children to think arithmetically when confronted with the problems of linear equation with one variable. To help them thinking algebraically, Bruner's modes of representation developed contextually from concrete to abstract were delivered to enhance their interpretation toward the idea of variables. Hence, from the outset we designed the context for student to think symbolically initiated by exploring various symbols that could be contextualized in order to bridge student traversing the arithmetic-algebraic fruitfully.

  1. Combining Decision Diagrams and SAT Procedures for Efficient Symbolic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Biere, Armin; Clarke, Edmund M.

    2000-01-01

    , combined with BDDs and SAT-solvers to perform satisfiability checking. As a result we are able to model check systems for which standard BDD-based methods fail. For example, we model check a liveness property of a 256 bit shift-and-add multiplier and we are able to find a previously undetected bug...

  2. CADMIUM II: combining image processing and symbolic reasoning for computer-aided diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Paul; Alberdi, Eugenio; Lee, Richard; Fox, John; Sordo, Margarita; Todd-Pokropek, Andrew

    2000-06-01

    This paper describes a prototype computer aided diagnosis system to assist in the interpretation of mammograms. The distinctive feature of our work is the combination of image processing and decision support. We wish, in our system, to relate the data in a digital image to a decision contained in a clinical guideline describing a patient's management. Our system is designed to present a user with sets of arguments for each of the possible interpretations of a feature detected on the image and for each of the possible management options that might be followed in handling the patient's care. We have carried out an extensive knowledge elicitation exercise, involving the analysis of 'think out loud' protocols obtained from expert radiologists interpreting mammograms form a carefully selected test set. The results of this analysis reveal which terms capture the most salient characteristics of calcifications. These terms will be used to construct the arguments used in the decision support provided by CADMIUM II. The final element of CADMIUM II is a library of image processing algorithms. A set of different approaches to the detection and characterization of calcifications has been implemented. The image processing is used to provide a quantitative estimate of the evidence that an image contains in support of an argument.

  3. Reciprocity Laws for the Higher Tame Symbol and the Witt Symbol on an Algebraic Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Syder, Kirsty

    2013-01-01

    Parshin's higher Witt pairing on an arithmetic surface can be combined with the higher tame pairing to form a symbol taking values in the absolute abelian Galois group of the function field. We prove reciprocity laws for this symbol using techniques of Morrow for the Witt symbol and Romo for the higher tame symbol.

  4. Animated symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  5. Multiple symbol differential detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  6. Animated Symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  7. Continuous improvement: A win... win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.; Wichert, A.

    1993-01-01

    Implementing a continuous improvement (CI) process within PanCanadian's oil and gas production operations might have been a simple assignment if one were not also trying to capture the hearts and imaginations of the people in a changing work environment. Meeting the challenge is resulting in big payoffs to both the organization and its people. The plan used within the Company's Production Division to successfully introduce the CI process is discussed. A brief insight is provided on the process philosophy, with emphasis placed on planning, training and coaching used to launch the process. Also reviewed at length are the impediments to change and the challenges faced when changing an organization's culture. In a CI work environment, the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing 'win-win' situation for both the Company and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants and enjoying their work more in a team environment. The Company is winning through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to many innovative ideas which the employees have implemented. 4 refs

  8. Successful Undergraduate Research: Creating Win-Win-Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate involvement in research has the potential to advance science, enhance education, strengthen the research community, and raise general awareness of the importance and impact of scientific understanding. Rather than being competing objectives, these goals are synergistic. Effective research experiences are those that create win-win-win situations: benefits to the student, benefits to the project, and benefits to the scientific community. When structured appropriately, undergraduate research fits into a learner-centered paradigm that puts emphasis on student learning, rather than instructor teaching. Under such a paradigm the student and professor learn together, constructing knowledge by integrating information with critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, and use this knowledge to address issues in real-life contexts. Creating such a learning environment requires that the professor be vested in the outcome of the research, that the student take a meta-cognitive approach to the project and work at a level appropriate to her abilities, and that the student understand how her contribution fits into the project and the larger field. All of these factors lead to greater independence, confidence, and productivity on the part of the student. By providing undergraduates with these experiences, we introduce not only future scientists but also non-scientists to the excitement of discovery and the value of scientific research. Currently, we involve undergraduates in our research on the hydrology and geochemistry of a tropical montane cloud forest in Monteverde, Costa Rica. At the start of each student's involvement, we provide her with the big picture: our project goals, the relevant social issues, and the importance of watershed research. Each student then articulates her own educational and project objectives. Together, we choose tasks that match her skills and interests with our scholarly work. Specific activities range from literature review to

  9. Data science and symbolic AI: Synergies, challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-06-02

    Symbolic approaches to artificial intelligence represent things within a domain of knowledge through physical symbols, combine symbols into symbol expressions, and manipulate symbols and symbol expressions through inference processes. While a large part of Data Science relies on statistics and applies statistical approaches to artificial intelligence, there is an increasing potential for successfully applying symbolic approaches as well. Symbolic representations and symbolic inference are close to human cognitive representations and therefore comprehensible and interpretable; they are widely used to represent data and metadata, and their specific semantic content must be taken into account for analysis of such information; and human communication largely relies on symbols, making symbolic representations a crucial part in the analysis of natural language. Here we discuss the role symbolic representations and inference can play in Data Science, highlight the research challenges from the perspective of the data scientist, and argue that symbolic methods should become a crucial component of the data scientists’ toolbox.

  10. SigWinR; the SigWin-detector updated and ported to R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Wim C; Rauwerda, Han; Inda, Márcia A; Bruning, Oskar; Breit, Timo M

    2009-10-06

    Our SigWin-detector discovers significantly enriched windows of (genomic) elements in any sequence of values (genes or other genomic elements in a DNA sequence) in a fast and reproducible way. However, since it is grid based, only (life) scientists with access to the grid can use this tool. Therefore and on request, we have developed the SigWinR package which makes the SigWin-detector available to a much wider audience. At the same time, we have introduced several improvements to its algorithm as well as its functionality, based on the feedback of SigWin-detector end users. To allow usage of the SigWin-detector on a desktop computer, we have rewritten it as a package for R: SigWinR. R is a free and widely used multi platform software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The package can be installed and used on all platforms for which R is available. The improvements involve: a visualization of the input-sequence values supporting the interpretation of Ridgeograms; a visualization allowing for an easy interpretation of enriched or depleted regions in the sequence using windows of pre-defined size; an option that allows the analysis of circular sequences, which results in rectangular Ridgeograms; an application to identify regions of co-altered gene expression (ROCAGEs) with a real-life biological use-case; adaptation of the algorithm to allow analysis of non-regularly sampled data using a constant window size in physical space without resampling the data. To achieve this, support for analysis of windows with an even number of elements was added. By porting the SigWin-detector as an R package, SigWinR, improving its algorithm and functionality combined with adequate performance, we have made SigWin-detector more useful as well as more easily accessible to scientists without a grid infrastructure.

  11. SigWinR; the SigWin-detector updated and ported to R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breit Timo M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our SigWin-detector discovers significantly enriched windows of (genomic elements in any sequence of values (genes or other genomic elements in a DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. However, since it is grid based, only (life scientists with access to the grid can use this tool. Therefore and on request, we have developed the SigWinR package which makes the SigWin-detector available to a much wider audience. At the same time, we have introduced several improvements to its algorithm as well as its functionality, based on the feedback of SigWin-detector end users. Findings To allow usage of the SigWin-detector on a desktop computer, we have rewritten it as a package for R: SigWinR. R is a free and widely used multi platform software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The package can be installed and used on all platforms for which R is available. The improvements involve: a visualization of the input-sequence values supporting the interpretation of Ridgeograms; a visualization allowing for an easy interpretation of enriched or depleted regions in the sequence using windows of pre-defined size; an option that allows the analysis of circular sequences, which results in rectangular Ridgeograms; an application to identify regions of co-altered gene expression (ROCAGEs with a real-life biological use-case; adaptation of the algorithm to allow analysis of non-regularly sampled data using a constant window size in physical space without resampling the data. To achieve this, support for analysis of windows with an even number of elements was added. Conclusion By porting the SigWin-detector as an R package, SigWinR, improving its algorithm and functionality combined with adequate performance, we have made SigWin-detector more useful as well as more easily accessible to scientists without a grid infrastructure.

  12. Continuous improvement: A win-win process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, T.M.; Wichert, A.

    1992-01-01

    The strategies used within PanCanadian Petroleum Limited's production division to successfully introduce the continuous improvement (CI) process are discussed. Continuous improvement is an operating philosophy and management style which allows all employees to participate in and improve the way an organization performs its day-to-day business. In the CI work environment the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling, to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem-solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing win-win situation for both PanCanadian and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants, and enjoying their work in a team environment. The company is benefiting through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to the many innovative ideas introduced by employees. 4 refs

  13. Near Misses in Slot Machine Gambling Developed Through Generalization of Total Wins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, Jordan; Dixon, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the development of the near miss effect in slot machine gambling as a product of stimulus generalization from total wins. The study was conducted across two experiments. Twelve college students participated in the first experiment, which demonstrated that greater post-reinforcement pauses followed losing outcomes that were formally similar to total wins, relative to losing outcomes that were formally dissimilar [F (5, 7) = 5.24, p = .025] along a generalization gradient (R (2) = .96). Additionally, 11 out of 12 participants showed greater response latencies following near-misses than following total wins. Thirteen college students participated in the second experiment, which demonstrated that symbols that more saliently indicated a loss resulted in lower response latencies than functionally equivalent but visually dissimilar losing symbols [F (3, 10) = 15.50, p = .01]. A generalization gradient was observed across winning symbols (R (2) = .98), and an inverse of the gradient observed across winning symbols was observed across symbols that were the least formally similar (R (2) = .69). The present study replicates and extends previous research on near misses in slot machine gambling, and provides discussion around the clinical utility of such findings on the prevention of problem gambling.

  14. The Importance of Teaching a Win-Win Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for…

  15. Award Winning Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Victor M.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    This is a collection of reports of student award winning science projects that have appeared in "The Science Teacher." Grade levels 7-12 are represented with projects categorized as follows: biology, chemistry and physics, earth-space science, and miscellaneous. In each section the abstracts are arranged in order of increasing complexity…

  16. Symbolic PathFinder: Symbolic Execution of Java Bytecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Rungta, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic Pathfinder (SPF) combines symbolic execution with model checking and constraint solving for automated test case generation and error detection in Java programs with unspecified inputs. In this tool, programs are executed on symbolic inputs representing multiple concrete inputs. Values of variables are represented as constraints generated from the analysis of Java bytecode. The constraints are solved using off-the shelf solvers to generate test inputs guaranteed to achieve complex coverage criteria. SPF has been used successfully at NASA, in academia, and in industry.

  17. A win-win strategy for ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Shang, Di; Yue, Hui; Ma, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and must be tackled together. Doing so requires a win-win strategy that both restores the environment and ensures a sustainable livelihood for those who are affected by the restoration project. To understand the importance of combining ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation objectives with a consideration of the livelihoods of residents, we examined a successful project in ecologically fragile Changting County, Fujian Province, China. We attribute the project’s success to the development of a win-win strategy that sustainably improved resident livelihoods, in contrast with traditional strategies that focus exclusively on establishing forests and grassland. To develop this win-win strategy, we performed long-term monitoring (since 1984) under a program designed to permit ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation in the county. For our analysis, we chose a range of natural and socioeconomic indicators that could affect the ecological restoration; we then used a contribution model to identify the relative influence of each social, economic, or environmental factor on the dependent variables (vegetation cover, soil erosion, number of plant species). The results showed that by improving livelihoods and mitigating poverty in the long term, the project also reduced damage to the environment by local residents. Our calculations suggest that accounting for socioeconomic factors played a key role in the successful ecological conservation. This win-win path to escaping the poverty trap during ecological restoration provides an example that can be followed by restoration projects elsewhere in the world with suitable modifications to account for unique local conditions.

  18. An investigation of developmental changes in interpretation and construction of graphic AAC symbol sequences through systematic combination of input and output modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann; Morford, Jill P

    2014-09-01

    While research on spoken language has a long tradition of studying and contrasting language production and comprehension, the study of graphic symbol communication has focused more on production than comprehension. As a result, the relationships between the ability to construct and to interpret graphic symbol sequences are not well understood. This study explored the use of graphic symbol sequences in children without disabilities aged 3;0 to 6;11 (years; months) (n=111). Children took part in nine tasks that systematically varied input and output modalities (speech, action, and graphic symbols). Results show that in 3- and 4-year-olds, attributing meaning to a sequence of symbols was particularly difficult even when the children knew the meaning of each symbol in the sequence. Similarly, while even 3- and 4-year-olds could produce a graphic symbol sequence following a model, transposing a spoken sentence into a graphic sequence was more difficult for them. Representing an action with graphic symbols was difficult even for 5-year-olds. Finally, the ability to comprehend graphic-symbol sequences preceded the ability to produce them. These developmental patterns, as well as memory-related variables, should be taken into account in choosing intervention strategies with young children who use AAC.

  19. Winning hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drulia, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    'The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished' (George Bernard Shaw). Over the past few decades we have seen major shifts in opinion as to what makes a business successful. The 1950's and 1960's saw a production focus whilst the 1970's and 1980's saw progressive change towards quality and 'customer is king' as key business drivers. A popular view now suggests that the next step change will be towards internal marketing, based on the concept that, in the future, winning employee support will be seen as the single biggest contributor to driving business performances. In summary, to win hearts and minds you must understand the needs of your audience, the intent of your communication activity, adopt a suitable style and match your deeds to your words

  20. 2014 WIN3 Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Ling; Pries, Rachel; Stange, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Exploring the interplay between deep theory and intricate computation, this volume is a compilation of research and survey papers in number theory, written by members of the Women In Numbers (WIN) network, principally by the collaborative research groups formed at Women In Numbers 3, a conference at the Banff International Research Station in Banff, Alberta, on April 21-25, 2014. The papers span a wide range of research areas: arithmetic geometry; analytic number theory; algebraic number theory; and applications to coding and cryptography. The WIN conference series began in 2008, with the aim of strengthening the research careers of female number theorists. The series introduced a novel research-mentorship model: women at all career stages, from graduate students to senior members of the community, joined forces to work in focused research groups on cutting-edge projects designed and led by experienced researchers. The goals for Women In Numbers 3 were to establish ambitious new collaborations between women i...

  1. Abstract Expression Grammar Symbolic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korns, Michael F.

    This chapter examines the use of Abstract Expression Grammars to perform the entire Symbolic Regression process without the use of Genetic Programming per se. The techniques explored produce a symbolic regression engine which has absolutely no bloat, which allows total user control of the search space and output formulas, which is faster, and more accurate than the engines produced in our previous papers using Genetic Programming. The genome is an all vector structure with four chromosomes plus additional epigenetic and constraint vectors, allowing total user control of the search space and the final output formulas. A combination of specialized compiler techniques, genetic algorithms, particle swarm, aged layered populations, plus discrete and continuous differential evolution are used to produce an improved symbolic regression sytem. Nine base test cases, from the literature, are used to test the improvement in speed and accuracy. The improved results indicate that these techniques move us a big step closer toward future industrial strength symbolic regression systems.

  2. When winning is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Deepak; Ku, Gillian; Murnighan, J Keith

    2008-05-01

    In the heat of competition, executives can easily become obsessed with beating their rivals. This adrenaline-fueled emotional state, which the authors call competitive arousal, often leads to bad decisions. Managers can minimize the potential for competitive arousal and the harm it can inflict by avoiding certain types of interaction and targeting the causes of a win-at-all-costs approach to decision making. Through an examination of companies such as Boston Scientific and Paramount, and through research on auctions, the authors identified three principal drivers of competitive arousal: intense rivalry, especially in the form of one-on-one competitions; time pressure, found in auctions and other bidding situations, for example; and being in the spotlight--that is, working in the presence of an audience. Individually, these factors can seriously impair managerial decision making; together, their consequences can be dire, as evidenced by many high-profile business disasters. It's not possible to avoid destructive competitions and bidding wars completely. But managers can help prevent competitive arousal by anticipating potentially harmful competitive dynamics and then restructuring the deal-making process. They can also stop irrational competitive behavior from escalating by addressing the causes of competitive arousal. When rivalry is intense, for instance, managers can limit the roles of those who feel it most. They can reduce time pressure by extending or eliminating arbitrary deadlines. And they can deflect the spotlight by spreading the responsibility for critical competitive decisions among team members. Decision makers will be most successful when they focus on winning contests in which they have a real advantage--and take a step back from those in which winning exacts too high a cost.

  3. Win-win Imageries in a Soap Bubble World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the imagery and notions of personhood underlying the willingness to undertake extreme work among creative knowledge workers. The core argument is that extreme work is informed by pervasive win-win fantasies which can be recognized in a number of current organizational trends...

  4. Thesaurus-based disambiguation of gene symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wain Hester M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massive text mining of the biological literature holds great promise of relating disparate information and discovering new knowledge. However, disambiguation of gene symbols is a major bottleneck. Results We developed a simple thesaurus-based disambiguation algorithm that can operate with very little training data. The thesaurus comprises the information from five human genetic databases and MeSH. The extent of the homonym problem for human gene symbols is shown to be substantial (33% of the genes in our combined thesaurus had one or more ambiguous symbols, not only because one symbol can refer to multiple genes, but also because a gene symbol can have many non-gene meanings. A test set of 52,529 Medline abstracts, containing 690 ambiguous human gene symbols taken from OMIM, was automatically generated. Overall accuracy of the disambiguation algorithm was up to 92.7% on the test set. Conclusion The ambiguity of human gene symbols is substantial, not only because one symbol may denote multiple genes but particularly because many symbols have other, non-gene meanings. The proposed disambiguation approach resolves most ambiguities in our test set with high accuracy, including the important gene/not a gene decisions. The algorithm is fast and scalable, enabling gene-symbol disambiguation in massive text mining applications.

  5. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  6. Universal Symbols and Cartography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modley, Rudolf

    The broad use of maps by non-cartographers imposes on the cartographer the burden to make maps not only accurate, but to use symbols which make map-reading easier for the public. The latter requirement implies a need for universal symbols. Although there are no universal symbols today (letters, words, and figures, to a lesser extent, are dependent…

  7. The mathematica guidebook for symbolics

    CERN Document Server

    Trott, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mathematica is today's most advanced technical computing system. It features a rich programming environment, two-and three-dimensional graphics capabilities and hundreds of sophisticated, powerful programming and mathematical functions using state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with a user-friendly interface, and a complete mathematical typesetting system, Mathematica offers an intuitive easy-to-handle environment of great power and utility. "The Mathematica GuideBook for Symbolics" (code and text fully tailored for Mathematica 5.1) deals with Mathematica's symbolic mathematical capabilities. Structural and mathematical operations on single and systems of polynomials are fundamental to many symbolic calculations and they are covered in considerable detail. The solution of equations and differential equations, as well as the classical calculus operations (differentiation, integration, summation, series expansion, limits) are exhaustively treated. Generalized functions and their uses are discussed. In addition...

  8. Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with…

  9. In the winning mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994. In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall disadvantageous. Previous studies have shown that at an early stage in this card-game, players begin to display a tendency towards the advantageous decks. Subsequent research suggested that at this stage, people base their decisions on conscious gut feelings (Wagar and Dixon, 2006. Based on empirical evidence for the relation between mood and cognitive processing-styles, we expected and consistently found that, compared to a negative mood state, reported and induced positive mood states increased this early tendency towards advantageous decks. Our results provide support for the idea that a positive mood causes stronger reliance on affective signals in decision-making than a negative mood.

  10. Specification for symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Malaysia Standard specification specifies a symbol recommended for use only to signify the actual or potential presence of ionizing radiation (#betta#, α, #betta# only) and to identify objects, devices, materials or combinations of materials which emit such radiation. (author)

  11. The symbol grounding problem revisited: a thorough evaluation of the ANS mapping account and the proposal of an alternative account based on symbol-symbol associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Reynvoet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the ‘symbol grounding problem’, i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the ANS mapping account, assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and Approximate Number System (ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1 there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2 non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3 non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4 non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgement tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  12. The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited: A Thorough Evaluation of the ANS Mapping Account and the Proposal of an Alternative Account Based on Symbol-Symbol Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the 'symbol grounding problem,' i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the approximate number system ( ANS ) mapping account , assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1) there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2) non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3) non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4) non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgment tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol-symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning.

  13. Shanahan on symbolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassègue, Jean

    2008-03-01

    In his article 'A New View of Language, Emotion and the Brain,' Dan Shanahan claims that the post-war Cognitive Turn focused mainly on information processing and that little attention was paid to the dramatic role played by emotion in human cognition. One key argument in his defence of a more comprehensive view of human cognition rests upon the idea that the process of symbolization--a unique capacity only developed by humans--combines, right from the start, information processing and feelings. The author argues that any theory ignoring this fact would miss the whole point, just as mainstream cognitive science has done since Noam Chomsky published Syntactic Structures, exactly 50 years ago.

  14. Discrete Symbol Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Demanet, Laurent; Ying, Lexing

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with efficient numerical representation and manipulation of differential and integral operators as symbols in phase-space, i.e., functions of space $x$ and frequency $\\xi$. The symbol smoothness conditions obeyed by many operators in connection to smooth linear partial differential equations allow to write fast-converging, non-asymptotic expansions in adequate systems of rational Chebyshev functions or hierarchical splines. The classical results of closedness of such symbol c...

  15. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  16. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  17. History of international symbol for ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The year 1996 marks the 50th anniversary of the radiation warning symbol as we currently know it. It was (except the colours used) doodled out at the University of California, Berkeley, sometime in 1946 by a small group of people. The key guy responsible was Nelson Garden, then the head of the Health Chemistry Group, at the Radiation Laboratory. The radiation warning symbol should not be confused with the civil defence symbol (circle divided into six equal sections, three of these being black and three yellow), designed to identify fallout shelters. The basic radiation symbol was eventually internationally standardized by ISO code: 361-1975 (E). Variations of this symbol are frequently used in logotypes radiation protection organizations or associations. Particularly nice are those of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) and Croatian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA) that combines traditional Croatian motives with high technology. However, apart from speculations, there is no definite answer why did the Berkeley people chose this particular symbol. Whatever the reason was, it was very good choice because the ionizing radiation symbol is simple, readily identifiable, i.e., not similar to other warning symbols, and discernible at a large distance. (author)

  18. Statistical Symbolic Execution with Informed Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filieri, Antonio; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem; Geldenhuys, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    Symbolic execution techniques have been proposed recently for the probabilistic analysis of programs. These techniques seek to quantify the likelihood of reaching program events of interest, e.g., assert violations. They have many promising applications but have scalability issues due to high computational demand. To address this challenge, we propose a statistical symbolic execution technique that performs Monte Carlo sampling of the symbolic program paths and uses the obtained information for Bayesian estimation and hypothesis testing with respect to the probability of reaching the target events. To speed up the convergence of the statistical analysis, we propose Informed Sampling, an iterative symbolic execution that first explores the paths that have high statistical significance, prunes them from the state space and guides the execution towards less likely paths. The technique combines Bayesian estimation with a partial exact analysis for the pruned paths leading to provably improved convergence of the statistical analysis. We have implemented statistical symbolic execution with in- formed sampling in the Symbolic PathFinder tool. We show experimentally that the informed sampling obtains more precise results and converges faster than a purely statistical analysis and may also be more efficient than an exact symbolic analysis. When the latter does not terminate symbolic execution with informed sampling can give meaningful results under the same time and memory limits.

  19. Win at Work! The Everybody Wins Approach to Conflict Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Proven techniques for resolving workplace conflicts. After years of seeing clients struggling and their businesses suffering with destructive conflicts, Diane Katz developed The Working Circle, a step-by-step process that helps everyone in business resolve conflict in a non-confrontational, creative, collaborative way. Win at Work! provides you with a no-nonsense guide based on real-life examples of people at pivotal points in their careers. Filled with practical wisdom, it reveals how you can move around the roadblocks that, if left unattanded, can stop you in your tracks. Win at Work! also h

  20. Safety and communication, a winning combination

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    Since 2013, in line with its mission to support CERN’s proactive communication policy in matters of safety, the HSE unit has been following an annual plan for disseminating information on occupational health and safety and environmental protection.   Safety information designed to underline the importance of prevention is published through a variety of channels: Announcements in the CERN Bulletin, Safety bulletins, notably outlining lessons to be learned in the wake of accidents/incidents occuring at CERN, Safety alerts calling for immediate action, sent by e-mail to the services concerned, Prevention campaigns on the CERN site, Poster campaigns in well frequented public areas. Photo: Christoph Balle. Please heed all prevention messages and apply them in your everyday life. Also, we will be pleased to receive any information or suggestions you may have on safety matters. If you have questions about the HSE unit’s communication activities, please send us an e...

  1. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  2. Symbol: artefact and model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    In preparation of an analysis of product modelling in terms of communication, this report presents a brief analysis of symbols; that is, the entities by means of which communication takes place. Symbols are defined in such a way as to admit artefacts and models (the latter including linguistic...

  3. Two cultures - one symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Shostak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the question of similarities in the approach to the multilevel symbolism in Slav and Native American cultures. Ambivalent symbol of the snake is analyzed in the frame of mythological thinking. At the end the author comes to the conclusion that elements of mythological thinking are still present in everyday life and influence human behavior levels

  4. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 5-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/08/0005-0005. Author Affiliations.

  5. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  6. Noncoherent Symbol Synchronization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods for establishing symbol synchronization (sync) in digital communication receivers assume that carrier sync has already been established, i.e., the problem is addressed at the baseband level assuming that a 'perfect' estimate of carrier phase is available. We refer to this approach as coherent symbol sync. Since, for NRZ signaling, a suppressed carrier sync loop such as an I-Q Costas loop includes integrate-and-dump (I and D) filters in its in-phase (1) and quadrature (Q) arms, the traditional approach is to first track the carrier in the absence of symbol sync information, then feed back the symbol sync estimate to these filters, and then iterate between the two to a desirable operating level In this paper, we revisit the symbol sync problem by examining methods for obtaining such sync in the absence of carrier phase information, i.e., so-called noncoherent symbol sync loops. We compare the performance of these loops with that of a well-known coherent symbol sync loop and examine the conditions under which one is preferable over the other.

  7. Symbolic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechester, A.B.; White, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamic processes exhibit many complicated patterns of evolution. How can all these patterns be recognized using only output (observational, experimental) data without prior knowledge of the equations of motion? The powerful method for doing this is based on symbolic dynamics: (1) Present output data in symbolic form (trial language). (2) Topological and metric entropies are constructed. (3) Develop algorithms for computer optimization of entropies. (4) By maximizing entropies, find the most appropriate symbolic language for the purpose of pattern recognition. (5) Test this method using a variety of dynamical models from nonlinear science. The authors are in the process of applying this method for analysis of MHD fluctuations in tokamaks

  8. Win, Place, or Show?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Kappen, Philip; Zander, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of technological growth of the multinational corporation. We conceptualize and shed empirical light on whether foreign investment strategies based on advanced greenfield subsidiaries, acquired subsidiaries, or a combination of both increase the likelihood...... strategies based on foreign acquisitions, as opposed to investment strategies based on greenfield establishments only. To the extent that MNC managers seek to enhance technological and strategic renewal through the expansion of foreign operations, the findings suggest that foreign investment strategies...

  9. Symbolic Relationships in Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The advertisements prepare to the products they recommend a rich symbolic life. What symbolic breadth can be bestowed to a product? Do different product categories require differentsymbolic breadths? For some products, creatives want to eliminate every hesitation in the interpretation of the proposed meanings; for others, by the contrary, they propose blurred readings, content-nebulas (U. Eco.Advertising witnesses different symbolizing modes. The advertisements for fragrance prefer modes which, deploying content-nebulas, ask their readers to give several – and complex – interpretations. The paper presents an interpretation of an advertisement for Boucheron’s Jaïpur(the 1990s and proposes another.Keywords: symbolic relationship, positioning, values, icons

  10. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical

  11. Glyph: Symbolic Regression Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Quade, Markus; Gout, Julien; Abel, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We present Glyph - a Python package for genetic programming based symbolic regression. Glyph is designed for usage let by numerical simulations let by real world experiments. For experimentalists, glyph-remote provides a separation of tasks: a ZeroMQ interface splits the genetic programming optimization task from the evaluation of an experimental (or numerical) run. Glyph can be accessed at http://github.com/ambrosys/glyph . Domain experts are be able to employ symbolic regression in their ex...

  12. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  13. Symbol Systems and Pictorial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Joachim; Wright, Susan

    All problem-solvers are subject to the same ultimate constraints -- limitations on space, time, and materials (Minsky, 1985). He introduces two principles: (1) Economics: Every intelligence must develop symbol-systems for representing objects, causes and goals, and (2) Sparseness: Every evolving intelligence will eventually encounter certain very special ideas -- e.g., about arithmetic, causal reasoning, and economics -- because these particular ideas are very much simpler than other ideas with similar uses. An extra-terrestrial intelligence (ETI) would have developed symbol systems to express these ideas and would have the capacity of multi-modal processing. Vakoch (1998) states that ...``ETI may rely significantly on other sensory modalities (than vision). Particularly useful representations would be ones that may be intelligible through more than one sensory modality. For instance, the information used to create a three-dimensional representation of an object might be intelligible to ETI heavily reliant on either visual or tactile sensory processes.'' The cross-modal representations Vakoch (1998) describes and the symbol systems Minsky (1985) proposes are called ``metaphors'' when combined. Metaphors allow for highly efficient communication. Metaphors are compact, condensed ways of expressing an idea: words, sounds, gestures or images are used in novel ways to refer to something they do not literally denote. Due to the importance of Minsky's ``economics'' principle, it is therefore possible that a message heavily relies on metaphors.

  14. 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious phenomena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Religious symbols are part of our world, relating to another world. In order to understand the process by which symbols grow and develop, the particular context of a symbol is important. In this article a particular theory as to what symbols are, is presented. Religion presupposes the existence of two worlds: ...

  15. Symbol generators with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, V.M.; Tomik, J.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of constructing symbol generators are described which ensure a program variation of symbol shape and setup. The symbols are formed on the basis of a point microraster. A symbol description code contains information on a symbol shape, with one digit corresponding to each microraster element. For a microraster discrete by-pass the description code is transformed into succession of illuminating pulses by means of a shift register

  16. Multiple-Symbol, Partially Coherent Detection of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1994-01-01

    Proposed method of reception of multiple-phase-shift-keyed (MPSK) radio signals involves multiple-symbol, partially coherent detection. Instead of attempting to determine phase of transmitted signal during each symbol period as in coherent detection, receiver acquires signal data during multiple-symbol observation interval, then produces maximum-likelihood-sequence estimate of phases transmitted during interval. Combination of coherent-reception and incoherent-reception decision rules are used.

  17. Symbol addition by monkeys provides evidence for normalized quantity coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret S.; Pettine, Warren W.; Srihasam, Krishna; Moore, Brandon; Morocz, Istvan A.; Lee, Daeyeol

    2014-01-01

    Weber’s law can be explained either by a compressive scaling of sensory response with stimulus magnitude or by a proportional scaling of response variability. These two mechanisms can be distinguished by asking how quantities are added or subtracted. We trained Rhesus monkeys to associate 26 distinct symbols with 0–25 drops of reward, and then tested how they combine, or add, symbolically represented reward magnitude. We found that they could combine symbolically represented magnitudes, and they transferred this ability to a novel symbol set, indicating that they were performing a calculation, not just memorizing the value of each combination. The way they combined pairs of symbols indicated neither a linear nor a compressed scale, but rather a dynamically shifting, relative scaling. PMID:24753600

  18. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    - to praxis, and drawing on the concept of symbolic violence, this article contributes to their critique. In order to develop the analysis of difficulties victims may experience, they will be reconceptualised using critical psychological concepts such as 1st person perspectives and participation. The analysis...... seeks to undertake a discussion of personal meanings attributed to 'traumatisation'. It raises questions as to whether concepts of this kind and related practices may constitute symbolic violence and contribute to victimisation through looping-processes. Furthermore it aims at unfolding an understanding...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion. Key Words:...

  19. The symbolism of liminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Pentikäinen

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses different understandings of the symbolism of liminality. According to Van Gennep’s definition, rites de passage are rites which accompany every change of place, state, social position and age. In primitive communities these changes are generally made public and their importance is hallowed by rites which follow a pattern. From the structural point of view, the liminal stage could also be regarded as a crucial phase in the sequence of the ritual drama. When rites of pas-sage are investigated as structured symbolic behaviour, it is also possible to find and isolate smaller units of analysis. Ritual behaviour is always the communication of the symbols which transmit some religious or other messages to the participants aware of their meanings.

  20. Cross-spectrum symbol synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccallister, R. D.; Simon, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    A popular method of symbol synchronization exploits one aspect of generalized harmonic analysis, normally referred to as the cross-spectrum. Utilizing nonlinear techniques, the input symbol energy is effectively concentrated onto multiples of the symbol clock frequency, facilitating application of conventional phase lock synchronization techniques. A general treatment of the cross-spectrum technique is developed and shown to be applicable across a broad class of symbol modulation formats. An important specific symbol synchronization application is then treated, focusing the general development to provide both insight and quantitative measure of the performance impact associated with variation in these key synchronization parameters: symbol modulation format, symbol transition probability, symbol energy to noise density ratio, and symbol rate to filter bandwidth ratio.

  1. WIN Chapters: Milestones and Future Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)

  2. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  3. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  4. Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying: A Win-Win Spectrum Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective spectrum sharing architecture is proposed to enable the legacy noncognitive secondary system to coexist with the primary system. Specifically, we suggest to install a few intermediate nodes, namely, the cognitive relays, to conduct the spectrum sensing and coordinate the spectrum access. To achieve the goal of win-win between primary and secondary systems, the cognitive relay may act as a cooperator for both of them, and an Opportunistic Cognitive Relaying (OCR scheme is specially devised. In this scheme, the cognitive relay opportunistically switches among three different working modes, that is, Relay for Primary Link (RPL, Relay for Secondary Link (RSL, or Relay for Neither of the Links (RNL, respectively, based on the channel-dependent observation of both systems. In addition, the transmit power for cognitive relay and secondary transmitter in each mode are optimally determined by maximizing the transmission rate of secondary system while keeping or even reducing the outage probability of primary system. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed spectrum sharing scheme.

  5. Achieving ecological restoration by working with local people: a Chinese scholar seeks win-win paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao's story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao's 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.

  6. Optical Symbolic Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John A.

    1989-12-01

    Experiments originating from Gestalt psychology have shown that representing information in a symbolic form provides a more effective means to understanding. Computer scientists have been struggling for the last two decades to determine how best to create, manipulate, and store collections of symbolic structures. In the past, much of this struggling led to software innovations because that was the path of least resistance. For example, the development of heuristics for organizing the searching through knowledge bases was much less expensive than building massively parallel machines that could search in parallel. That is now beginning to change with the emergence of parallel architectures which are showing the potential for handling symbolic structures. This paper will review the relationships between symbolic computing and parallel computing architectures, and will identify opportunities for optics to significantly impact the performance of such computing machines. Although neural networks are an exciting subset of massively parallel computing structures, this paper will not touch on this area since it is receiving a great deal of attention in the literature. That is, the concepts presented herein do not consider the distributed representation of knowledge.

  7. Symbolic Multidimensional Scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); Y. Terada

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique that visualizes dissimilarities between pairs of objects as distances between points in a low dimensional space. In symbolic MDS, a dissimilarity is not just a value but can represent an interval or even a histogram. Here,

  8. SYMBOLS IN PHARMACOKINETICS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Malcolm; Tucker, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    To encourage uniformity in the presentation of pharmacokinetic data, a general nomenclature has been developed. The system has wide application. Flexibility is achieved through the use of general variables, constants, qualifying terms and subscripts. Yet, through the use of implied terms, the symbols describing many common variables and constants are simple.

  9. Symbols in pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, M; Tucker, G

    1980-10-01

    To encourage uniformity in the presentation of pharmacokinetic data, a general nomenclature has been developed. The system has wide application. Flexibility is achieved through the use of general variables, constants, qualifying terms, and subscripts. Yet, through the use of implied terms, the symbols describing many common variables and constants are simple.

  10. Symbols presentation modality as a determinant of gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge

    2002-07-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the effects that modality of symbol presentation on video lottery terminals (sequential vs. simultaneous) has on gambling behavior. They predicted that sequential presentation would incite players to prolong their gambling session. Results confirmed this prediction and showed that modality of presentation is a determinant of gambling persistency. The authors discuss the relationship between modality of presentation, hopes of an imminent win, losses, and practical and theoretical issues about other cognitive and emotional elements that may influence gamblers' behaviors.

  11. Can symbols be 'promoted' or 'demoted'?: Symbols as religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two examples are investigated so as to indicate how symbols can over time either be demoted or promoted. In the case of the Asherah and asherah as related in the Old Testament a demotion of a symbol is illustrated. The growth of ancient Egyptian religion is an example of a possible promotion of symbols. The conditions ...

  12. Bruce Springsteen as a symbol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The article explores how Bruce Springsteen and his music function as a symbol. The article first presents the Jungian theory of symbols and of music as symbol. The central argument of the article is that, by functioning symbolically, Springsteen has the potential to influence the psyche of his...... audience and to function as a psychological resource. While no claim is made to cover the entire symbolic potential of Springsteen and his music, three central themes are identified and discussed: a symbol of containment and support, a symbol of a father figure, and symbolic support to an emerging...... masculine self. The evidence is drawn from statements made by his audience in currently available resources and from a series of dreams....

  13. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Numerical and symbolic scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Langer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The book presents the state of the art and results and also includes articles pointing to future developments. Most of the articles center around the theme of linear partial differential equations. Major aspects are fast solvers in elastoplasticity, symbolic analysis for boundary problems, symbolic treatment of operators, computer algebra, and finite element methods, a symbolic approach to finite difference schemes, cylindrical algebraic decomposition and local Fourier analysis, and white noise analysis for stochastic partial differential equations. Further numerical-symbolic topics range from

  15. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  16. Symbolic dynamics of the Lorenz equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hai-ping; Hao Bailin.

    1994-07-01

    The Lorenz equations are investigated in a wide range of parameters by using the method of symbolic dynamics. First, the systematics of stable periodic orbits in the Lorenz equations is compared with that of the one-dimensional cubic map, which shares the same discrete symmetry with the Lorenz model. The systematics is then ''corrected'' in such a way as to encompass all the known periodic windows of the Lorenz equations with only one exception. Second, in order to justify the above approach and to understand the exceptions, another 1D map with a discontinuity is extracted from an extension of the geometric Lorenz attractor and its symbolic dynamics is constructed. All this has to be done in light of symbolic dynamics of two-dimensional maps. Finally, symbolic dynamics for the actual Poincare return map of the Lorenz equations is constructed in a heuristic way. New periodic windows of the Lorenz equations and their parameters can be predicted from this symbolic dynamics in combination with the 1D cubic map. The extended geometric 2D Lorenz map and the 1D antisymmetric map with a discontinuity describe the topological aspects of the Lorenz equations to high accuracy. (author). 44 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Lisbon Symbol Database (LSD): Subjective norms for 600 symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Rodrigues, David; Silva, Rita R; Garrido, Margarida V

    2016-12-01

    This article presents subjective rating norms for a new set of 600 symbols, depicting various contents (e.g., transportation, technology, and leisure activities) that can be used by researchers in different fields. Symbols were evaluated for aesthetic appeal, familiarity, visual complexity, concreteness, valence, arousal, and meaningfulness. The normative data were obtained from 388 participants, and no gender differences were found. Descriptive results (means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals) for each symbol in each dimension are presented. Overall, the dimensions were highly correlated. Additionally, participants were asked to briefly describe the meaning of each symbol. The results indicate that the present symbol set is varied, allowing for the selection of exemplars with different levels on the seven examined dimensions. This set of symbols constitutes a tool with potential for research in different areas. The database with all of the symbols is available as supplemental materials.

  18. HMD symbol stabilization concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1995-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. Symbol stabilization is a key issue for HMDs. In current equipment, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and nap-of-the-earth flight. This high workload translates into excessive training requirements. At the same time, misleading symbology makes interpretation of the height of obstructions impossible. A set of standardized coordinate transformations are necessary for the development of HMD symbology and the control laws. Part of the problem is there is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A candidate set of coordinate definitions is proposed to address this issue.

  19. Symbolic Violence and Victimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2009-01-01

    Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... the ways we understand and classify behavioural, emotional and cognitive processes, such as gendered practices, to social fields of practice, and points to the consequences of not doing so. In order to develop the analysis of concrete difficulties victims experience Bourdieu's concept will be supplemented...... on the personal and social meanings of  "trauma" developed in an empirical research project on the aftermaths of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion...

  20. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  1. Trauma and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of 'reactions to trauma' is dominated by concepts like Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The use of such concepts has been criticised but simultaneously integrated in folk-psychology. Connecting emotional and cognitive processes as well as acts - such as in gendered practices - to...... inclusive of connections between societal practices, aspects of symbolic violence, and the conduct of lives. The analysis is based on an empirical study of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  2. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... the organismic-developmental approach to fields only touched in Symbol formation, such as magical practices, social structures, pictures and gesture....

  3. Formalising Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    de Nooy, W.

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic interactionism is generally known as a theory typically linked with a qualitative methodology. Recent developments in quantitative social network analysis, however, can analyze processes theorized within this theoretical tradition. Thick description can be complemented with statistical analyses of network structure and dynamics, expanding the scope and detail of results. This paper argues that social network analysis can bridge the divide between qualitative and quantitative analysis...

  4. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  5. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  6. Winning a competition predicts dishonest behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana

    2016-02-16

    Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.

  7. Symbolic functions from neural computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Paul

    2012-07-28

    Is thought computation over ideas? Turing, and many cognitive scientists since, have assumed so, and formulated computational systems in which meaningful concepts are encoded by symbols which are the objects of computation. Cognition has been carved into parts, each a function defined over such symbols. This paper reports on a research program aimed at computing these symbolic functions without computing over the symbols. Symbols are encoded as patterns of numerical activation over multiple abstract neurons, each neuron simultaneously contributing to the encoding of multiple symbols. Computation is carried out over the numerical activation values of such neurons, which individually have no conceptual meaning. This is massively parallel numerical computation operating within a continuous computational medium. The paper presents an axiomatic framework for such a computational account of cognition, including a number of formal results. Within the framework, a class of recursive symbolic functions can be computed. Formal languages defined by symbolic rewrite rules can also be specified, the subsymbolic computations producing symbolic outputs that simultaneously display central properties of both facets of human language: universal symbolic grammatical competence and statistical, imperfect performance.

  8. Symbolic Reasoning for Hearthstone

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegler, Andreas; Dahal, Keshav; Maucher, Johannes; Livingstone, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Trading-Card-Games are an interesting problem domain for Game AI, as they feature some challenges, such as highly variable game mechanics, that are not encountered in this intensity in many other genres. We present an expert system forming a player-level AI for the digital Trading-Card-Game Hearthstone. The bot uses a symbolic approach with a semantic structure, acting as an ontology, to represent both static descriptions of the game mechanics and dynamic game-state memories. Methods are intr...

  9. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter improves symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomalaza-Raez, Carlos A.; Hurd, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (SNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  10. Carrier tracking by smoothing filter can improve symbol SNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, W. J.; Pomalaza-Raez, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The potential benefit of using a smoothing filter to estimate carrier phase over use of phase locked loops (PLL) is determined. Numerical results are presented for the performance of three possible configurations of the deep space network advanced receiver. These are residual carrier PLL, sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and finally sideband aiding with a Kalman smoother. The average symbol signal to noise ratio (CNR) after losses due to carrier phase estimation error is computed for different total power SNRs, symbol rates and symbol SNRs. It is found that smoothing is most beneficial for low symbol SNRs and low symbol rates. Smoothing gains up to 0.4 dB over a sideband aided residual carrier PLL, and the combined benefit of smoothing and sideband aiding relative to a residual carrier loop is often in excess of 1 dB.

  11. The Symbol Grounding Problem Revisited: A Thorough Evaluation of the ANS Mapping Account and the Proposal of an Alternative Account Based on Symbol–Symbol Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynvoet, Bert; Sasanguie, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a lot of studies in the domain of numerical cognition have been published demonstrating a robust association between numerical symbol processing and individual differences in mathematics achievement. Because numerical symbols are so important for mathematics achievement, many researchers want to provide an answer on the ‘symbol grounding problem,’ i.e., how does a symbol acquires its numerical meaning? The most popular account, the approximate number system (ANS) mapping account, assumes that a symbol acquires its numerical meaning by being mapped on a non-verbal and ANS. Here, we critically evaluate four arguments that are supposed to support this account, i.e., (1) there is an evolutionary system for approximate number processing, (2) non-symbolic and symbolic number processing show the same behavioral effects, (3) non-symbolic and symbolic numbers activate the same brain regions which are also involved in more advanced calculation and (4) non-symbolic comparison is related to the performance on symbolic mathematics achievement tasks. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that all of these arguments and consequently also the mapping account are questionable. Next we explored less popular alternative, where small numerical symbols are initially mapped on a precise representation and then, in combination with increasing knowledge of the counting list result in an independent and exact symbolic system based on order relations between symbols. We evaluate this account by reviewing evidence on order judgment tasks following the same four arguments. Although further research is necessary, the available evidence so far suggests that this symbol–symbol association account should be considered as a worthy alternative of how symbols acquire their meaning. PMID:27790179

  12. A Win-Win-Win Proposition -- Academia and Industry Working Together for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, J.

    2011-12-01

    geoscience, to include having applied real problem solving via a robust field camp experience. In addition, we look for the maturity and ability to conduct independent research, to integrate broad suites of data, and to work as a team. We look for the ability to communicate results. We do not look for a focus on petroleum. We have many decades of experience in how to best develop that particular discipline quickly, to meet current and future business conditions. There are recurring themes that facilitate successful transition from Academia to a practicing industry geoscientist. These themes include giving students a good grounding in STEM, not just geology; one-on-one mentoring; sharing our passion for the science by sharing our research; and sharing the entire breadth of career opportunities. Similar best practices have been identified to encourage under-represented minority students and women to study STEM. Perhaps this is a suite of habits we should be practicing more broadly. This suite of habits takes extra time, extra effort, and extra money. But if geoscience mentors in Academia, Industry, and professional societies work together, we will be able to create a win for Academia, a win for Industry, and a win for students. (1) Gonzales and Keane, 2011, "Status of the Geoscience Workforce -- 2011," AGI, p. 123.

  13. Mathematical symbol hypothesis recognition with rejection option

    OpenAIRE

    Julca-Aguilar , Frank; Hirata , Nina ,; Viard-Gaudin , Christian; Mouchère , Harold; Medjkoune , Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the context of handwritten mathematical expressions recognition, a first step consist on grouping strokes (segmentation) to form symbol hypotheses: groups of strokes that might represent a symbol. Then, the symbol recognition step needs to cope with the identification of wrong segmented symbols (false hypotheses). However, previous works on symbol recognition consider only correctly segmented symbols. In this work, we focus on the problem of mathematical symbol reco...

  14. Emergent latent symbol systems in recurrent neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monner, Derek; Reggia, James A.

    2012-12-01

    Fodor and Pylyshyn [(1988). Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis. Cognition, 28(1-2), 3-71] famously argued that neural networks cannot behave systematically short of implementing a combinatorial symbol system. A recent response from Frank et al. [(2009). Connectionist semantic systematicity. Cognition, 110(3), 358-379] claimed to have trained a neural network to behave systematically without implementing a symbol system and without any in-built predisposition towards combinatorial representations. We believe systems like theirs may in fact implement a symbol system on a deeper and more interesting level: one where the symbols are latent - not visible at the level of network structure. In order to illustrate this possibility, we demonstrate our own recurrent neural network that learns to understand sentence-level language in terms of a scene. We demonstrate our model's learned understanding by testing it on novel sentences and scenes. By paring down our model into an architecturally minimal version, we demonstrate how it supports combinatorial computation over distributed representations by using the associative memory operations of Vector Symbolic Architectures. Knowledge of the model's memory scheme gives us tools to explain its errors and construct superior future models. We show how the model designs and manipulates a latent symbol system in which the combinatorial symbols are patterns of activation distributed across the layers of a neural network, instantiating a hybrid of classical symbolic and connectionist representations that combines advantages of both.

  15. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat , Sabine; Tabbone , Salvatore; Nourrissier , Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  16. Teaching Win-Win Better Prepares Students for Subsequent Experiences in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Alan J.

    The psychology of competition and winning, especially in relation to learning and motivation, is discussed. The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) approach to coursework is proposed as a means of using the winning philosophy in education. Also suggested is the inclusion into coursework design of a form of rhetoric developed by Carl Rogers…

  17. The Winning Alternative: Solving the Dilemma of the Win/Lose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dorothy L.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests alternatives in solving the dilemma of the win/lose syndrome for young children participating in sports, games, and other competitive educational activities. Rather than reinforcing the "negative" aspects of competition ("winning is all," lack of participation, elimination), teachers should provide environments that help children to…

  18. Scientific applications of symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, A.C.

    1976-02-01

    The use of symbolic computation systems for problem solving in scientific research is reviewed. The nature of the field is described, and particular examples are considered from celestial mechanics, quantum electrodynamics and general relativity. Symbolic integration and some more recent applications of algebra systems are also discussed [fr

  19. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...

  20. Consumers’ perception of symbols and health claims as health-related label messages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrillo, E.; Fiszman, S.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    be a still undiscovered or unquantified gap between the consumers’ perception of some symbols and how much these symbols appeal and convince. The objective of this research was to study the perception of symbols and their relative importance, combined with verbal health claims, in perceptions of the product...... person (a person running towards the sun), and (4) gears. Perceptions of these symbols were studied through word association, free listing and conjoint analysis. Three verbal health claims were presented as either benefits or risks in combination with the images. The results showed that the overall idea...... of the symbols perceived by the participants was similar in both countries but the culture influenced the connotations attached to the symbols. In addition, the symbols on the packaging were found to be more important than the verbal information....

  1. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  2. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  3. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax.

  4. Localisation de symboles dans les documents graphiques

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen , Thi Oanh

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the complex problem of symbol spotting in graphical documents where symbols are not segmented a priori. Many works have been proposed to define good descriptors for isolated symbol representation. However, they cannot be directly used to locate symbols in documents because of the recognition/segmentation paradox : to recognise symbols, documents should be segmented first and vice versa, to well segment documents its content (symbols) should be recognised in advance. In t...

  5. Symbols of Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeshda Komarowa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial arts, including sculpture, exist in the material sphere of culture and model the spatial aspects of the universe by themselves…Dmitri Budazhabe's sculpture appeared to link the epochs of the old oriental cultures to the modern life. His works are decorative objects and at the same time the rite symbols, which contain deep aspects of the Buddhism.The sculptures and vessels for incense bravely model the interior space and simultaneously play a leading part in it. They are maid artistically and first of all evoke peaceful feelings. The small steam of the incense smoke, coming out of special channels, continues to create the environment even beyond the vessel, involving the observer in the rite. The oriental images invite us to make philosophical conclusions and to search for eternal truth…Dmitri Budazhabe's works are performed in bronze moulding.Together with exotic forms, each sculpture has particular meaning. Thus the names sound lyrical and romantic: «The Treasure that Fulfils Wishes», «Sarasvati (The Goddess of the Morning Star», «The Warrior of Shambala» etc. Flexible sculptural bodies, plastic compositional decor and fleshy bulging forms recall melodies of the mysterious East and the eternal secret of the hidden symbols, that one's curious mind aspires to reveal.Dmitri Budazhabe's works are often designed for Buddhist temples, made by special request and used for rites. At the moment the author is finishing the work, which he considers to be of great moral importance: it is a 2 meter sculpture of Buddha for Dazan. When watching his work the sense of time disappears… There is no past; presence merges with future–only Aspiration for perfection moves the author's hands.

  6. America's war on drugs: who's winning

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Mary Lu Anna.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, Congress, the literary community, and the public at large have come to reconsider the war on drugs. There are many opinions regarding alternatives to this pseudo war or new measures to be taken in the war effort, but the ongoing effort itself has escaped evaluation (to determine if the United States is winning this campaign). The intent of this thesis, then, is to explore the objectives of the war on drugs, and to determine if America is winning. This work concludes that the current...

  7. How to win friends and influence people

    CERN Document Server

    Carnegie, Dale

    2010-01-01

    For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!

  8. BMC Ecology image competition: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn’t quite make it to the top prize. PMID:23517630

  9. Social Symbolic Work in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    This paper reports on a research project that explores social symbolic work. The social symbolic work in question seeks to introduce education in entrepreneurship into the school curriculum in a remote part of Greenland – in order to contribute to regional development. The paper investigates how...... ‘the good organisation’ may offer a supportive organisational framework for social symbolic work, thus promoting regional development in peripheral and poorly developed regions. Exploring what qualifies as a ‘good organisation’, the paper identifies three key elements: management, motivation...

  10. Symbolic Time Separation of Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amon, Tod; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    We extend the TSE~\\cite{Hulgaard95} timing analysis algorithm into the symbolic domain, that is, we allow symbolic variables to be used to specify unknown parameters of the model (essentially, unknown delays) and verification algorithms which are capable of identifying not just failure or success...... minimizations and maximizations defined for a given domain. We report experimental results for several asynchronous circuits to demonstrate that symbolic analysis is feasible and that the output provided is what a designer (or perhaps a synthesis tool) would often want to know....

  11. Liturgical singing as ritual symbol

    OpenAIRE

    Coenie Calitz

    2011-01-01

    Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics), but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural cont...

  12. Winning the sustainable development debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, John; Cornish, Emma

    2002-01-01

    on a vast scale Access to energy - and in particular, electricity - will be critical if the world is to achieve these human goals. Access to clean electricity - and on a vast scale - will be necessary if the world is to meet the twin challenges of human need and environmental security. Anti-nuclear forces, which have held sway in the Kyoto process thus far, argue that nuclear energy is a dying technology and assert passionately that it has no place in tomorrow's sustainable development agenda. These ideologically driven arguments ignore underlying realities both as to what is feasible and what is actually occurring. Today, nuclear power plants are operational in countries comprising 64% of the world's population, and new power reactors are in the planning or construction stage in countries representing no less than 50% of the world's population. Among the latter are the world's two largest developing countries, China and India, which alone represent 40% of humankind and about half the developing world. With active nuclear reactor construction under way as we speak, these leading nations have already made nuclear power a part of their sustainable development strategies for the 21st century. Winning the sustainable development debate - This presentation will share information materials about sustainable development. It will describe the work of the World Nuclear Association Sustainable Development Strategy Group, its preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and how participants to PIME can get involved. (author)

  13. An Application to WIN/ISIS Database on Local Network

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lechien; Mohamed Salem Ghonem - Translator

    2005-01-01

    A Translated Article containing an application to how WIN/ISIS database work on local network. It starts with main definitions, and how to install WIN/ISIS on PC, and how to install it on the local network server.

  14. Odor mixture alters neural resources during symbolic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Tyler S; Malin, Emily L; Horwitz, Julie E

    2005-05-01

    The smell of a cup of coffee is produced by many different odor chemicals combined in a mixture, yet the perception of that odor is of a single unified whole. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mixtures of odors share some of the same spatiotemporal features of speech sounds and may use similar brain resources in associating those features with the symbols they represent. This experiment investigated the hypothesis that an odor mixture would interfere with a math task that requires symbolic but not spatial processing. Results indicated the pattern of brain electrical activity was similar for the single odors and the mixture during spatial processing. During solution of the task requiring symbolic processing, the odor mixture produced a pattern of brain electrical activity different from the single odorants. These data suggest that the perception of odor mixtures may use some of the same resources associated with symbolic processing.

  15. Defeating ISIS by Winning the War of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-17

    United States tell if it is winning the war of ideas? Robert Reilly, author of Assessing the War of Ideas during War, explains that the winning the war...AU/ACSC/2017 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY DEFEATING ISIS BY WINNING THE WAR OF IDEAS by Lt Col Lyson Siame...Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Defeating ISIS by Winning the War of Ideas 2 Disclaimer The views expressed in this academic

  16. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  17. Applications of symbolic algebraic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Hearn, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a survey of applications of systems for symbomic algebraic computation. In most successful applications, calculations that can be taken to a given order by hand are then extended one or two more orders by computer. Furthermore, with a few notable exceptins, these applications also involve numerical computation in some way. Therefore the authors emphasize the interface between symbolic and numerical computation, including: 1. Computations with both symbolic and numerical phases. 2. Data involving both the unpredictible size and shape that typify symbolic computation and the (usually inexact) numerical values that characterize numerical computation. 3. Applications of one field to the other. It is concluded that the fields of symbolic and numerical computation can advance most fruitfully in harmony rather than in competition. (Auth.)

  18. Liturgical singing as ritual symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenie Calitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics, but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural context of the worship service; within ritual the music and melody are more important than text and lyrics. Liturgical singing as a ritual symbol is never static, but in a continuous process of change.

  19. PARADIGM FOR CONTEMPORARY SYMBOLIC REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Korableva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Civilization development in its concrete historical specificity is embodied in symbolic forms that require interpretation and understanding of its meaning. Info communication symbolic reality sets new parameters of self-determination rights, creates a new type of information behavior. Adequate entry into the modern social context requires analysis of the basic concepts of symbolic reality of human existence, and its contemporary sound. The dialectical materialist methodology allows us to investigate human immersion in contradictive meanings of the era, the skills of interaction with the increased flow of information, the ability to determine information needs and use this information right way as well as the ability to analyze this information. Scientific novelty is reflected in axiological evolutionary approach to the analysis of reproduction in the sign and symbol of the spiritual and the practical forms of human multidimensional realities of their existence in their specific historical context. Conclusions: 1 Persons' immersion into the space of cultural and historical symbolic processes determines the content of their socialization which is a process of self-identification in the symbolic reality, the process of entering the subject-shaped field of human culture; 2 An adequate model of signs and symbols reflects the diversity of information flows, that is the synthesis of a specific objective and true knowledge, its interpretation and value. Herewith, a lot of interpretations, pluralism and diversity of axiological points of view to understanding objective reality are obvious; 3 The use of signs becomes like a code or the language for communication between people. The interpretation of clip-culture determines the adequacy and efficiency of action based on the identified meanings and values of diverse information and communication symbolic reality.

  20. Symbol Recognition using Spatial Relations

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Santosh; Lamiroy, Bart; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present a method for symbol recognition based on the spatio-structural description of a 'vocabulary' of extracted visual elementary parts. It is applied to symbols in electrical wiring diagrams. The method consists of first identifying vocabulary elements into different groups based on their types (e.g., circle, corner ). We then compute spatial relations between the possible pairs of labelled vocabulary types which are further used as a basis for bui...

  1. Win-win strategies in directing low-carbon resilient development path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Toshihiko; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2015-01-01

    This section explores big win-win strategies in directing low carbon resilient development path. There are lots of “leapfrog” development possibilities in developing countries, which go directly from a status of under-development through to efficient and environmentally benign lifestyle. To achieve low carbon resilient paths, not only technology development but also institutional and behavioral changes are required. Science-policy nexus is also discussed.

  2. Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

  3. 22 CFR 42.11 - Classification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification symbols. 42.11 Section 42.11... NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Classification and Foreign State Chargeability § 42.11 Classification symbols. A... visa symbol to show the classification of the alien. Immigrants Symbol Class Section of law Immediate...

  4. Symbols of a cosmic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid, F. Hadi; Myers, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The world runs on networks over which signals communicate sequences of symbols, e.g. numerals. Examining both engineered and natural communications networks reveals an unsuspected order that depends on contact with an unpredictable entity. This order has three roots. The first is a proof within quantum theory that no evidence can ever determine its explanation, so that an agent choosing an explanation must do so unpredictably. The second root is the showing that clocks that step computers do not "tell time" but serve as self-adjusting symbol-handling agents that regulate "logically synchronized" motion in response to unpredictable disturbances. Such a clock-agent has a certain independence as well as the capacity to communicate via unpredictable symbols with other clock-agents and to adjust its own tick rate in response to that communication. The third root is the noticing of unpredictable symbol exchange in natural systems, including the transmission of symbols found in molecular biology. We introduce a symbol-handling agent as a role played in some cases by a person, for example a physicist who chooses an explanation of given experimental outcomes, and in other cases by some other biological entity, and in still other cases by an inanimate device, such as a computer-based detector used in physical measurements. While we forbear to try to explain the propensity of agents at all levels from cells to civilizations to form and operate networks of logically synchronized symbol-handling agents, we point to this propensity as an overlooked cosmic order, an order structured by the unpredictability ensuing from the proof. Appreciating the cosmic order leads to a conception of agency that replaces volition by unpredictability and reconceives the notion of objectivity in a way that makes a place for agency in the world as described by physics. Some specific implications for physics are outlined.

  5. Symbolic reasoning about myocardial scintigrams in PROLOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.; Itti, R.; Benjelloun, L.

    1986-06-01

    PROLOG (PROgramming in LOGic) is the declarative programming language at the heart of the Japanese fifth-generation computer project. It is proposed that PROLOG is a suitable tool for symbolic image processing, once standard preprocessing has been done. In the present application, the problem of prediction of coronary anatomy from myocardial scintigrams is addressed. Uncertainty is dealt with by a combination of fuzzy-set theoretic and probabilistic reasoning. Heuristic classification rules are based on clinical experience and on a set of 247 myocardial scintigrams with their corresponding coronary angiograms.

  6. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system

    OpenAIRE

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, Giosuè

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of ‘variation’ observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG s...

  7. Win-Win-Win: Reflections from a Work-Integrated Learning Project in a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C MacKrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.

  8. How to Create Shared Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Walker, Bradley; Swoboda, Nik; Garrod, Simon

    2018-02-19

    Human cognition and behavior are dominated by symbol use. This paper examines the social learning strategies that give rise to symbolic communication. Experiment 1 contrasts an individual-level account, based on observational learning and cognitive bias, with an inter-individual account, based on social coordinative learning. Participants played a referential communication game in which they tried to communicate a range of recurring meanings to a partner by drawing, but without using their conventional language. Individual-level learning, via observation and cognitive bias, was sufficient to produce signs that became increasingly effective, efficient, and shared over games. However, breaking a referential precedent eliminated these benefits. The most effective, most efficient, and most shared signs arose when participants could directly interact with their partner, indicating that social coordinative learning is important to the creation of shared symbols. Experiment 2 investigated the contribution of two distinct aspects of social interaction: behavior alignment and concurrent partner feedback. Each played a complementary role in the creation of shared symbols: Behavior alignment primarily drove communication effectiveness, and partner feedback primarily drove the efficiency of the evolved signs. In conclusion, inter-individual social coordinative learning is important to the evolution of effective, efficient, and shared symbols. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. The symbolic economy of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentacker, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority. The notion of a symbolic economy is offered with a threefold intention. First, I introduce it in order to highlight the implications of historical and anthropological work for a broader theory of the economy of drugs, thus suggesting a language for interdisciplinary conversations in the study of pharmaceuticals. Second, I deploy it in an attempt to emphasize the contributions of the recent scholarship on drugs to a critical understanding of our own contemporary ways of organizing access to drugs and information about drugs. Finally, I suggest ways in which it might be of use to scholars of other commodities and technologies.

  10. Symbol-by-symbol maximum likelihood (ML) detection with reduced complexity over multicarrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ho; Yu, Xiaoli; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2004-08-01

    A symbol-by-symbol maximum likelihood (ML) detection scheme for multicarrier (MC) systems is proposed in this work. When the number of subchannels is sufficiently large, the received symbols across all subchannels are approximately uncorrelated. Then, the proposed symbol-by-symbol ML detection, which is obtained by minimizing the symbol error probability, is nearly optimal. Furthermore, we will show how to reduce the complexity of the symbol-by-symbol ML detection when the constellation size is large. Simulation results show that the proposed symbol-by-symbol ML detection scheme outperforms the symbol-by-symbol minimum distance (MD) detection scheme by up to 2 dB in a noisy environment with crosstalk such as the DMT-ADSL system.

  11. Winning public and political support for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)

  12. From chaos to control: winning the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciak, P J

    1994-08-01

    This article illustrates how a small manufacturing facility in the Midwest undertook the process of an MRP II implementation and ultimately gained class A status at a true make-or-break time in its history. The control that was gained throughout the entire process has helped create a winning environment and will continue to strengthen our position as we move toward world-class excellence.

  13. On the Symbolic Verification of Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how to analyze a timed system symbolically. That is, given a symbolic representation of a set of (timed) states (as an expression), we describe how to determine an expression that represents the set of states that can be reached either by firing a discrete transition...... or by advancing time. These operations are used to determine the set of reachable states symbolically. We also show how to symbolically determine the set of states that can reach a given set of states (i.e., a backwards step), thus making it possible to verify TCTL-formulae symbolically. The analysis is fully...... symbolic in the sense that both the discrete and the continuous part of the state space are represented symbolically. Furthermore, both the synchronous and asynchronous concurrent composition of timed systems can be performed symbolically. The symbolic representations are given as formulae expressed...

  14. How winning changes motivation in multiphase competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Szu-Chi; Etkin, Jordan; Jin, Liyin

    2017-06-01

    What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable. In the later phase, however, contestants are instead driven by how much additional effort they believe they need to invest; being ahead decreases motivation by reducing contestants' estimate of the remaining effort needed to win. Temporary standing thus has divergent effects on motivation in multiphase competitions, driven by a shift in contestants' main concern from the early to the later phase and thus the meaning they derive from being ahead of their opponent. By leveraging insights gained from approaching individuals' self-regulation as a dynamic process, this research advances understanding of how motivation evolves in a unique interdependent self-regulatory context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Award Winning Black Suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2018-01-01

    Black Suns: An Astrophysics Adventure is a documentary film focusing on the annular and total solar eclipses of 2012. We made a different kind of astronomy documentary showing the human aspects rather than just focusing on pretty astronomy pictures. The film combines personal stories with science. Our heroes are Hakeem Oluseyi and Alphonse Sterling, who valiantly travel to study the solar corona during total solar eclipses. The goals of the film included presenting three dimensional scientists, to show their paths to becoming astrophysicists, and to show them as they collect data and work as scientists. Drama and tension surround taking data during the small window of time during totality. The Black Suns was filmed in Tokyo, Cairns, Tucson, and Melbourne Florida. Uniquely, the film began through a Kickstarter campaign to fund travel and filming in Tokyo. Many American Astronomical Society members donated to the film! Black Suns won the Jury Prize at the 2017 Art of Brooklyn Film Festival. Black Suns will be screening in full on ???.

  16. A Survey of New Trends in Symbolic Execution for Software Testing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Visser, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Symbolic execution is a well-known program analysis technique which represents values of program inputs with symbolic values instead of concrete (initialized) data and executes the program by manipulating program expressions involving the symbolic values. Symbolic execution has been proposed over three decades ago but recently it has found renewed interest in the research community, due in part to the progress in decision procedures, availability of powerful computers and new algorithmic developments. We provide a survey of some of the new research trends in symbolic execution, with particular emphasis on applications to test generation and program analysis. We first describe an approach that handles complex programming constructs such as input data structures, arrays, as well as multi-threading. We follow with a discussion of abstraction techniques that can be used to limit the (possibly infinite) number of symbolic configurations that need to be analyzed for the symbolic execution of looping programs. Furthermore, we describe recent hybrid techniques that combine concrete and symbolic execution to overcome some of the inherent limitations of symbolic execution, such as handling native code or availability of decision procedures for the application domain. Finally, we give a short survey of interesting new applications, such as predictive testing, invariant inference, program repair, analysis of parallel numerical programs and differential symbolic execution.

  17. WIN Global. 1977/98 Activities at a First Glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising, A.; Lopez CArbonell, M.T.; Perez-Griffo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    WIN is a worldwide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and applications of radiation. The goal of WIN is to contribute to objectively inform the public on nuclear and radiation. WIN's principal objective is to emphasis and support the role that women can and do have in addressing the general public's concerns about nuclear energy and the application of radiation and nuclear technology. WIN is doing this through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. Members of WIN all have one thing in common: they want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matters. Membership status as ao April 21, 1998 was 605 members from 39 countries. During the year 7 new countries have joined to WIN ant two national WIN groups have been formed. Purpose of this paper is to present, to the Spanish Nuclear Society members, the WIN Global activities all over the world for the period 1997/98. The information included herein comes from different sources and WIN members and is, of course, a quick look over those activities. Win Spain activities for the period will be presented in a different paper of this Annual Meeting. (Author) 2 refs

  18. Early understanding and production of graphic symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, T C

    1999-01-01

    Young children's ability to understand and produce graphic symbols within an environment of social communication was investigated in two experiments. Children aged 2, 3, and 4 years produced graphic symbols of simple objects on their own, used them in a social communicative game, and responded to experimenter's symbols. In Experiment 1 (N = 48), 2-year-olds did not effectively produce symbols or use the experimenter's symbols in the choice task, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds improved their drawings following the game and performed above chance with the experimenter's symbols. Ability to produce an effective graphic symbol was correlated with success on a task that measured understanding of the experimenter's symbols, supporting the claim that children's ability to produce a graphic symbol rests on the understanding of the symbolic function of pictures. In Experiment 2, 32 children aged 3 and 4 years improved their third set of drawings when they received feedback that their drawings were not effective communications. The results suggest that production and understanding of graphic symbols can be facilitated by the same social factors that improve verbal symbolic abilities, thereby raising the question of domain specificity in symbolic development.

  19. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  20. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider pr...

  1. Symbolism and violence in art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salmerón

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the issues related to the symbolism and violence in psychoanalytic theories begining with Freudian and Kleinian hypothesis, and also explores how they relate to creative activity. The emphasis is on Kleinian hypothesis regarding aggression toward the mother’s body as engine for repair activity (art.

  2. Dream Symbol or Dream Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelstein, Philip

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of the symbolic content of dreams to the theory of the dream in psychoanalysis and Gestalt therapy. Points out that the utility of the dream depends upon the techniques of the therapist and not on the validity of the underlying theory of the dream. (LLL)

  3. Construction of Graphic Symbol Sequences by Preschool-Aged Children: Learning, Training, and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupart, Annick; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The use of augmentative and alternative communication systems based on graphic symbols requires children to learn to combine symbols to convey utterances. The current study investigated how children without disabilities aged 4 to 6 years (n = 74) performed on a simple sentence (subject-verb and subject-verb-object) transposition task (i.e., spoken…

  4. A Socio-Cognitive Approach to How Children with Deafblindness Understand Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital deafblindness are a population of learners who may need intervention in order to develop symbolic understanding. They experience a combination of vision and hearing impairments that can affect how they make sense of the world, develop relationships, and understand symbols. In this article, the author reviewed a…

  5. Symbolic interactionism and critical perspective: divergent or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Patricia M; Martins, Diane C

    2010-01-01

    Throughout their history, symbolic interactionism and critical perspective have been viewed as divergent theoretical perspectives with different philosophical underpinnings. A review of their historical and philosophical origins reveals both points of divergence and areas of convergence. Their underlying philosophies of science and views of human freedom are different as is their level of focus with symbolic interactionism having a micro perspective and critical perspective using a macro perspective. This micro/macro difference is reflected in the divergence of their major concepts, goals and basic tenets. While their underlying philosophies are different, however, they are not necessarily contradictory and areas of convergence may include the concepts of reference groups and looking glass self within symbolic interactionism and ideological hegemony within critical perspective. By using a pragmatic approach and combining symbolic interactionism and critical perspectives, both micro and macro levels come into focus and strategies for change across individual and societal levels can be developed and applied. Application of both symbolic interactionism and critical perspective to nursing research and scholarship offers exciting new opportunities for theory development and research methodologies. In nursing education, these two perspectives can give students added insight into patients' and families' problems at the micro level while, at the same time, giving them a lens to see and tools to apply to problems at the macro level in health care. In nursing practice, a combined symbolic interactionism/critical perspective approach assists nurses to give high-quality care at the individual level while also working at the macro level to address the manufacturers of illness. New research questions emerge from this combination of perspectives with new possibilities for theory development, a transformation in nursing education, and the potential for new practice strategies that

  6. Symbol signing design for older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  7. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    must believe 14 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 4. 15 Ibid., 7. 16 Ibid...Vietnam. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Infiltrating to Win : The Conduct of Border Denial Operations A Monograph by MAJ Craig A. Broyles United

  8. Quantitative characterisation of audio data by ordinal symbolic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, T.; Monetti, R.; Amigó, J. M.; Bunk, W.

    2013-06-01

    Ordinal symbolic dynamics has developed into a valuable method to describe complex systems. Recently, using the concept of transcripts, the coupling behaviour of systems was assessed, combining the properties of the symmetric group with information theoretic ideas. In this contribution, methods from the field of ordinal symbolic dynamics are applied to the characterisation of audio data. Coupling complexity between frequency bands of solo violin music, as a fingerprint of the instrument, is used for classification purposes within a support vector machine scheme. Our results suggest that coupling complexity is able to capture essential characteristics, sufficient to distinguish among different violins.

  9. A winning combination: the 3Cs of business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Contingency planning is a natural part of business life and is used across identified strategic, financial and operational risks. But is it being done well and is it the right approach all of the time? This paper shows how contingency planning forms one layer of a three-line defence termed 'the 3Cs of business continuity': contingency planning; continuity capability; crisis response. Collectively, 'the 3Cs' help organisations deliver a robust response to the risks that can be seen and those that cannot.

  10. Prevention is better than cure: a winning combination

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    In the 04/05 edition of the Bulletin, we teamed up with the HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service to launch a “Spot the Mistakes” competition based on 7 mistakes.  You had to identify 7 major safety problems in the photo below.   Here are some of the most flagrant security infringements that can be identified in the photo:  - This jumbled mass of heterogeneous objects and equipment impedes movement and evacuation and of course there is a potential hazard of falling objects; - Chemical products should not be stored on the ground. In addition, they should be labelled and if inflammable should be locked away in a clearly marked metal cupboard; - Stored inflammable material represents a fire hazard; - The fire extinguisher in the middle of the photograph is not secured to its support and bears no identification marks. Checks should be carried out to make sure that it is suitable for the hazards concerned and that its periodic inspections are up-to...

  11. Subitizing and Early Mathematics Standards: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Jung, Myoungwhon; Hartman, Paula

    2014-01-01

    In early childhood and primary (PreK-2) grades, subitizing is a critical skill that helps children meet early mathematics standards. Discover ways teachers can infuse this critical skill into their math curriculum.

  12. A winning strategy for 3 x n Cylindrical Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huneke, S. C.; Hayward, R.; Toft, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    For Cylindrical Hex on a board with circumference 3, we give a winning strategy for the end-to-end player. This is the first known winning strategy for odd circumference at least 3, answering a question of David Gale. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......For Cylindrical Hex on a board with circumference 3, we give a winning strategy for the end-to-end player. This is the first known winning strategy for odd circumference at least 3, answering a question of David Gale. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Symbol recognition with kernel density matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Kun

    2006-12-01

    We propose a novel approach to similarity assessment for graphic symbols. Symbols are represented as 2D kernel densities and their similarity is measured by the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Symbol orientation is found by gradient-based angle searching or independent component analysis. Experimental results show the outstanding performance of this approach in various situations.

  14. Electrical Words and Symbols: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Finding an old notice on a canal towpath inspired a consultation with colleagues and search for evidence in an old book to help people look into how the words and symbols used in the teaching of electricity have evolved, including the apparent oddity of the symbol "I" for current. It is easy to explain that people use the symbol "Q" for what is…

  15. 7 CFR 29.3012 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3012 Section 29.3012 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Color symbols. As applied to Burley, single color symbols are as follows: L—buff, F—tan, R—red, D—dark...

  16. 7 CFR 29.1066 - Symbol (S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbol (S). 29.1066 Section 29.1066 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1066 Symbol (S). As applied to Flue-cured tobacco the symbol (S) when used (a) as the...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3510 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.3510 Section 29.3510 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3510 Color symbols. As applied to Dark Air-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—light brown...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2259 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2259 Section 29.2259 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... symbols. As applied to this type, color symbols are: L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed...

  19. 50 CFR 80.26 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Symbols. 80.26 Section 80.26 Wildlife and... RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.26 Symbols. We have prescribed distinctive symbols to identify projects funded by the Pittman-Robertson Wildlife Restoration Act and the Dingell...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1007 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.1007 Section 29.1007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1007 Color symbols. As applied to flue-cured tobacco, color symbols are L—lemon, F—orange...

  1. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  2. Strengthening National Identity through National Symbols and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective is that the onus falls on national leaders to take ownership of the symbols so that these symbols can be internalised and a stronger national identity created. The use of national symbols must transcend issues of ethnicity, race and language. The method utilised assists in developing a conceptual approach to ...

  3. How Universal Are Universal Symbols? An Estimation of Cross-Cultural Adoption of Universal Healthcare Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Lo, Chih-Wei; Yien, Huey-Wen; Chen, I-Ping

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of universal health symbol usage and to analyze the factors influencing the adoption of those symbols in Taiwan. Universal symbols are an important innovative tool for health facility wayfinding systems. Hablamos Juntos, a universal healthcare symbol system developed in the United States, is a thoughtful, well-designed, and thoroughly tested symbol system that facilitates communication across languages and cultures. We designed a questionnaire to test how well the selected graphic symbols were understood by Taiwanese participants and determined factors related to successful symbol decoding, including participant-related factors, stimulation factors, and the interaction between stimulation and participants. Additionally, we further established a design principle for future development of localized healthcare symbols. (1) Eleven symbols were identified as highly comprehensible and effective symbols that can be directly adopted in Taiwanese healthcare settings. Sixteen symbols were deemed incomprehensible or confusing and thus had to be redesigned. Finally, 14 were identified as relatively incomprehensible and could thus be redesigned and then have their effectiveness evaluated again. (2) Three factors were found to influence the participants' differing levels of comprehension of the Hablamos Juntos symbols. In order to prevent the three aforementioned factors from causing difficulty in interpreting symbols, we suggest that the local symbol designers should (1) use more iconic images, (2) carefully evaluate the indexical and symbolic meaning of graphic symbols, and (3) collect the consensus of Taiwanese people with different educational backgrounds. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Associations of non-symbolic and symbolic numerical magnitude processing with mathematical competence: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael; Beeres, Kassandra; Coban, Leyla; Merz, Simon; Susan Schmidt, S; Stricker, Johannes; De Smedt, Bert

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between numerical magnitude processing skills, as assessed by the numerical magnitude comparison task, and broader mathematical competence, e.g. counting, arithmetic, or algebra. Most correlations were positive but varied considerably in their strengths. It remains unclear whether and to what extent the strength of these associations differs systematically between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and whether age, magnitude comparison measures or mathematical competence measures are additional moderators. We investigated these questions by means of a meta-analysis. The literature search yielded 45 articles reporting 284 effect sizes found with 17,201 participants. Effect sizes were combined by means of a two-level random-effects regression model. The effect size was significantly higher for the symbolic (r = .302, 95% CI [.243, .361]) than for the non-symbolic (r = .241, 95% CI [.198, .284]) magnitude comparison task and decreased very slightly with age. The correlation was higher for solution rates and Weber fractions than for alternative measures of comparison proficiency. It was higher for mathematical competencies that rely more heavily on the processing of magnitudes (i.e. mental arithmetic and early mathematical abilities) than for others. The results support the view that magnitude processing is reliably associated with mathematical competence over the lifespan in a wide range of tasks, measures and mathematical subdomains. The association is stronger for symbolic than for non-symbolic numerical magnitude processing. So symbolic magnitude processing might be a more eligible candidate to be targeted by diagnostic screening instruments and interventions for school-aged children and for adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. SigWinR; the SigWin-detector updated and ported to R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, W.C.; Rauwerda, H.; Inda, M.A.; Bruning, O.; Breit, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Our SigWin-detector discovers significantly enriched windows of (genomic) elements in any sequence of values (genes or other genomic elements in a DNA sequence) in a fast and reproducible way. However, since it is grid based, only (life) scientists with access to the grid can use this

  6. Alternate symbol inversion for improved symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.; Smith, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Inverting alternate symbols of the encoder output of a convolutionally coded system provides sufficient density of symbol transitions to guarantee adequate symbol synchronizer performance, a guarantee otherwise lacking. Although alternate symbol inversion may increase or decrease the average transition density, depending on the data source model, it produces a maximum number of contiguous symbols without transition for a particular class of convolutional codes, independent of the data source model. Further, this maximum is sufficiently small to guarantee acceptable symbol synchronizer performance for typical applications. Subsequent inversion of alternate detected symbols permits proper decoding.

  7. The primal scene and symbol formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedecken, Dietmut

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the meaning of the primal scene for symbol formation by exploring its way of processing in a child's play. The author questions the notion that a sadomasochistic way of processing is the only possible one. A model of an alternative mode of processing is being presented. It is suggested that both ways of processing intertwine in the "fabric of life" (D. Laub). Two clinical vignettes, one from an analytic child psychotherapy and the other from the analysis of a 30 year-old female patient, illustrate how the primal scene is being played out in the form of a terzet. The author explores whether the sadomasochistic way of processing actually precedes the "primal scene as a terzet". She discusses if it could even be regarded as a precondition for the formation of the latter or, alternatively, if the "combined parent-figure" gives rise to ways of processing. The question is being left open. Finally, it is shown how both modes of experiencing the primal scene underlie the discoursive and presentative symbol formation, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. Between Agency and Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    of this kind in public policies concerning gendered and gendering violence, it is necessary to develop critiques of aspects of symbolic violence (Beate Krais 1993), that have been conceptualised as ‘genderless gender’ by Suvi Ronkainen (2001). Thus statistic and other forms of research approaches wishing...... to influence policies on gendered violence must be concerned with, and develop research questions, methods and analytical strategies of connections between aspects of society/politics and gendered violence.......The Role of Symbolic Violence in Research and Policy: In Denmark it is a common assumption that gender equality, especially concerning sexual practices and other personal relations, has been fully accomplished. Consequently, public as well as professional discourses and practices concerning rape...

  9. Bioeconomy, Moral Friction and Symbolic Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    several competing agendas are at play and to understand the effects, we therefore need to investigate empirically what emerges through this friction between competing governmental ambitions. My discussion is based on studies of tissue exchange in Europe and seeks to integrate theories of symbolic law...... ‘symbolic’, treaties aimed at protecting the body are symbols with great impact. Similarly, the material preparation of body parts as tradable grafts involves symbolic work and this symbolism is an essential part of making a ‘market’. I argue that instances of ‘symbolic law’ can reflect situations in which...

  10. Symbolic PathFinder v7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Păsăreanu, Corina

    2014-01-01

    We describe Symbolic PathFinder v7 in terms of its updated design addressing the changes of Java PathFinder v7 and of its new optimization when computing path conditions. Furthermore, we describe the Symbolic Execution Tree Extension; a newly added feature that allows for outputting the symbolic...... execution tree that characterizes the execution paths covered during symbolic execution. The new extension can be tailored to the needs of subsequent analyses/processing facilities, and we demonstrate this by presenting SPF-Visualizer, which is a tool for customizable visualization of the symbolic execution...

  11. VULTURES: EXEGESIS OF A SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Andreoni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the different cultures and historical periods, vultures have been considered both impure or sacred. But, since they usually do not prey upon living animals, their symbolic dimension, associated to the idea of purification, is present in many myths, religions, burial praxis of ancient populations and remains in some religions today.In the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, they have been carved in some of the most ancient bas-reliefs of the history by stone age people; were sacred to Egyptians, who even took them as symbol of gods; in the classical times they were supposed to be all feminine and breed by parthenogenesis, and therefore appreciated by some early Christian authors, who came to comparing them even to the Virgin Mary; they have been studied and described by ancient scientists, naturalists, philosophers, playwrights; involved in many of the most enduring Greek and Roman myths and legends; many parts of their body were considered as a medicine or even a talisman for happiness; and they were so proverbial for Romans to become even one of the symbols of the founding of Rome itself.But they were also so fragile that perfumes, myrrh and pomegranates were supposed to be lethal for them ….

  12. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  13. The Relationship between Teachers' and Principals' Decision-Making Power: Is It a Win-Win Situation or a Zero-Sum Game?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jianping; Xia, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Is the power relationship between public school teachers and principals a win-win situation or a zero-sum game? By applying hierarchical linear modeling to the 1999-2000 nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey data, we found that both the win-win and zero-sum-game theories had empirical evidence. The decision-making areas…

  14. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  15. No effect of blue on winning contests in judo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.

    2008-01-01

    A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an

  16. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  17. Setting Win Limits: An Alternative Approach to "Responsible Gambling"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas M; Litvin, Stephen W; Sobel, Russell S; St-Pierre, Renée A

    2015-09-01

    Social scientists, governments, and the casino industry have all emphasized the need for casino patrons to "gamble responsibly." Strategies for responsible gambling include self-imposed time limits and loss limits on gambling. Such strategies help prevent people from losing more than they can afford and may help prevent excessive gambling behavior. Yet, loss limits also make it more likely that casino patrons leave when they are losing. Oddly, the literature makes no mention of "win limits" as a potential approach to responsible gambling. A win limit would be similar to a loss limit, except the gambler would leave the casino upon reaching a pre-set level of winnings. We anticipate that a self-imposed win limit will reduce the gambler's average loss and, by default, also reduce the casino's profit. We test the effect of a self-imposed win limit by running slot machine simulations in which the treatment group of players has self-imposed and self-enforced win and loss limits, while the control group has a self-imposed loss limit or no limit. We find that the results conform to our expectations: the win limit results in improved player performance and reduced casino profits. Additional research is needed, however, to determine whether win limits could be a useful component of a responsible gambling strategy.

  18. An Application to WIN/ISIS Database on Local Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lechien

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A Translated Article containing an application to how WIN/ISIS database work on local network. It starts with main definitions, and how to install WIN/ISIS on PC, and how to install it on the local network server.

  19. Future aircraft cabins and design thinking: optimisation vs. win-win scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With projections indicating an increase in mobility over the next few decades and annual flight departures expected to rise to over 16 billion by 2050, there is a demand for the aviation industry and associated stakeholders to consider new forms of aircraft and technology. Customer requirements are recognized as a key driver in business. The airline is the principal customer for the aircraft manufacture. The passenger is, in turn, the airline's principal customer but they are just one of several stakeholders that include aviation authorities, airport operators, air-traffic control and security agencies. The passenger experience is a key differentiator used by airlines to attract and retain custom and the fuselage that defines the cabin envelope for the in-flight passenger experience and cabin design therefore receives significant attention for new aircraft, service updates and refurbishments. Decision making in design is crucial to arriving at viable and worthwhile cabin formats. Too little innovation will result in an aircraft manufacturer and airlines using its products falling behind its competitors. Too much may result in an over-extension with, for example, use of immature technologies that do not have the necessary reliability for a safety critical industry or sufficient value to justify the development effort. The multiple requirements associated with cabin design, can be viewed as an area for optimisation, accepting trade-offs between the various parameters. Good design, however, is often defined as developing a concept that resolves the contradictions and takes the solution towards a win-win scenario. Indeed our understanding and practice of design allows for behaviors that enhance design thinking through divergence and convergence, the use of abductive reasoning, experimentation and systems thinking. This paper explores and defines the challenges of designing the aircraft cabin of the future that will deliver on the multiple

  20. Children's Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4-7 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yinghe; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Zhijun; Yan, Shijia

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7). These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children's bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7). This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  1. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  2. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-01-01

    Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Th...

  3. The Bamberg Trucking Game: A Paradigm for Assessing the Detection of Win-Win Solutions in a Potential Conflict Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalis, Dario; Schütz, Astrid; Pastukhov, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    In win-win solutions, all parties benefit more from the solution than they would if they each pursued their own individual goals. Such solutions are beneficial at individual and collective levels and thus represent optimal solutions. Win-win solutions are desirable but often difficult to find. To allow the study of individual differences and situational factors that help or hinder the detection of win-win solutions, we created a paradigm that fills a gap in the repertoire of psychological instruments used to assess collaboration, cooperation, negotiation, and prosocial behavior. The new paradigm differs from previous ones in two aspects: (a) In existing paradigms that focus on social motivation, possible strategies are evident, whereas we focused here on the question of whether people can detect the solution and thus disentangle ability from motivation, (b) Paradigms that focus on cooperation typically entail a risk associated with the partner's defection, whereas cooperation in our paradigm is not associated with risk. We adjusted the Trucking Game-a method for assessing bargaining-to include a situation in which two parties can help each other achieve their respective goals and thus benefit over and above the pursuit of individual goals or compromising. We tested scenario-based and interaction-based versions with samples of 154 and 112 participants, respectively. Almost one third of the participants or dyads found the win-win solution. General mental abilities were not related to detecting the win-win solution in either version. The paradigm provides a way to extend research on cooperation and conflict and can thus be useful for research and training.

  4. Symbol-based society; Kigoka shakai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, K. [Chukyo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1999-05-10

    Many believe that the greatest invention in this century is computer. A computer is not a mere `calculation` machine, but a processor of `symbols` as purified languages. In other words, it is a machine exhibiting intelligence with given programs and data, by which man`s intelligence is made objective not as psychology but as symbol-processing mechanism. As a result, a new intellectual continent by the name of cyberspace is created. Symbolization has started to fly high with the wings of internet. The information network is not the sole infrastructure affected by symbolization. The distribution network is already starting intellectualization (symbolization) as ITS, and the energy network will be an ideal target of symbolization. In spite of unceasingly expanding software, however, the computer is still powerless to some intellectual activities (e.g., language learning) easy even for infants, and there are continual fears of bags. (NEDO)

  5. [Rod of Asclepius. Symbol of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; Bruetman, Julio E; Cesaro Gelos, Jorge; Trimarchi, Hernán

    2013-09-01

    Symbolism is one of the most archaic forms of human thoughts. Symbol derives from the Latin word symbolum, and the latter from the Greek symbolon or symballo, which means "I coincide, I make matches". The Medicine symbol represents a whole series of historical and ethical values. Asclepius Rod with one serpent entwined, has traditionally been the symbol of scientific medicine. In a misconception that has lasted 500 years, the Caduceus of Hermes, entwined by two serpents and with two wings, has been considered the symbol of Medicine. However, the Caduceus is the current symbol of Commerce. Asclepius Rod and the Caduceus of Hermes represent two professions, Medicine and Commerce that, in ethical practice, should not be mixed. Physicians should be aware of their real emblem, its historical origin and meaning.

  6. Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata interpretation is infin...

  7. Symbols and Myths in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Manners, Ian James; Søby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The study of symbols and myths in European integration is crucial to our understanding of both how the European Union (EU) becomes constituted as a political reality and how the integration process itself occurs. By drawing on the study of symbols and myths from political science, humanities...... and cultural studies to the analysis of European integration, this paper will set out a project to provide a better understanding of how symbolic and substantial processes interact in European society....

  8. 7 CFR 29.2509 - Color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Color symbols. 29.2509 Section 29.2509 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2509 Color symbols. As applied to these types, color symbols are L—light brown, F—medium brown, D—dark brown, M—mixed or variegated VF—greenish...

  9. Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed

  10. On Modeling Affect in Audio with Non-Linear Symbolic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Mouawad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of semantic information from complex signals is a task concerned with connecting humans’ perceptions and/or intentions with the signals content. In the case of audio signals, complex perceptions are appraised in a listener’s mind, that trigger affective responses that may be relevant for well-being and survival. In this paper we are interested in the broader question of relations between uncertainty in data as measured using various information criteria and emotions, and we propose a novel method that combines nonlinear dynamics analysis with a method of adaptive time series symbolization that finds the meaningful audio structure in terms of symbolized recurrence properties. In a first phase we obtain symbolic recurrence quantification measures from symbolic recurrence plots, without the need to reconstruct the phase space with embedding. Then we estimate symbolic dynamical invariants from symbolized time series, after embedding. The invariants are: correlation dimension, correlation entropy and Lyapunov exponent. Through their application for the logistic map, we show that our measures are in agreement with known methods from literature. We further show that one symbolic recurrence measure, namely the symbolic Shannon entropy, correlates positively with the positive Lyapunov exponents. Finally we evaluate the performance of our measures in emotion recognition through the implementation of classification tasks for different types of audio signals, and show that in some cases, they perform better than state-of-the-art methods that rely on low-level acoustic features.

  11. Symbolic trephinations and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szathmáry

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The sample examined consists of 19 skulls with symbolic trephinations and 86 skulls without trepanations dated from the X century. Skulls were all excavated in the Great Hungarian Plain in the Carpathian Basin, which was occupied by the Hungarian conquerors at the end of the IX century. The variations of 12 cranial dimensions of the trephined skulls were investigated and compared to the skulls without trepanations after performing a discriminant analysis. The classification results evince that the variability of non-trephined skulls shows a more homogeneous and a more characteristic picture of their own group than the trephined samples, which corresponds to the notion, formed by archaeological evidence and written historical sources, of a both ethnically and socially differing population of the Hungarian conquerors. According to historical research, a part of the population was of Finno-Ugric origin, while the military leading layer of society can be brought into connection with Turkic ethnic groups. All the same, individuals dug up with rich grave furniture and supposed to belong to this upper stratum of society are primarily characterized by the custom of symbolic trephination, and, as our results demonstrate, craniologically they seem to be more heterogeneous.

  12. Honorary authorship and symbolic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jozsef

    2017-03-01

    This paper invokes the conceptual framework of Bourdieu to analyse the mechanisms, which help to maintain inappropriate authorship practices and the functions these practices may serve. Bourdieu's social theory with its emphasis on mechanisms of domination can be applied to the academic field, too, where competition is omnipresent, control mechanisms of authorship are loose, and the result of performance assessment can be a matter of symbolic life and death for the researchers. This results in a problem of game-theoretic nature, where researchers' behaviour will be determined more by the logic of competition, than by individual character or motives. From this follows that changing this practice requires institutionalized mechanisms, and change cannot be expected from simply appealing to researchers' individual conscience. The article aims at showing that academic capital (administrative power, seniority) is translated into honorary authorship. With little control, undetected honorary authorship gives the appearance of possessing intellectual capital (scientific merit). In this way a dominant position is made to be seen as natural result of intellectual ability or scientific merit, which makes it more acceptable to those in dominated positions. The final conclusion of this paper is that undemocratic authorship decisions and authorship based performance assessment together are a form of symbolic violence.

  13. [Symbolism on "natural" in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Veiga Soares Carvalho, Maria Claudia; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2011-01-01

    The incorporated senses represent a set of possibilities for future life able to build individual and collective identities. This work deepens the habitus, in Bourdieu's terms, associated with "natural" and fast-food styles, making an interpretative analysis of symbolic exchanges of elements reproduced in feeding practices. We believe that this bricolage arrangement of elements enables bartering and hybridism, marked by a tension that reflects the insecurity of technological innovations. The "natural" style represents an ideal of self-sustainability, non-polluting production, which faces the sanitary and ecologic crisis of the planet, against the large-scale industrialization and fast urbanization, defined as depredation factors of basic living conditions. The exchanges happen in a symbolic game connected with the global economic game, in which social actors make bets, illusio, according to particular intentions in concrete action. There is a chance to reformulate the rules of the game in the "game", although with a precarious balance of forces, in which the weaker side loses, an agent may have the possibility of not reproducing the pressures of globalized feeding, which is far from what might seem supernatural.

  14. A catalog of graphic symbols used at maintenance control centers : toward a symbol standardization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    This document catalogs the symbols presented with the various interfaces used by Federal Aviation Administration Airway Facilities specialists. It includes a high-level overview of each system and the symbols and coding conventions used. These data w...

  15. Quantum Chinos game: winning strategies through quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea, F; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2003-01-01

    We apply several quantization schemes to simple versions of the Chinos game. Classically, for two players with one coin each, there is a symmetric stable strategy that allows each player to win half of the times on average. A partial quantization of the game (semiclassical) allows us to find a winning strategy for the second player, but it is unstable w.r.t. the classical strategy. However, in a fully quantum version of the game we find a winning strategy for the first player that is optimal: the symmetric classical situation is broken at the quantum level. (letter to the editor)

  16. Involvement of dorsal hippocampal and medial septal nicotinic receptors in cross state-dependent memory between WIN55, 212-2 and nicotine or ethanol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijanpour, S; Rezayof, A

    2013-08-15

    The present study examined whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus and medial septum (MS) are involved in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between WIN55, 212-2 (WIN, a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist) and nicotine or ethanol. Memory retrieval was measured in one-trial step-down type passive avoidance apparatus in male adult mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of WIN (0.1-1mg/kg) dose-dependently impaired memory retrieval when it was tested 24h later. Pre-test systemic administration of nicotine (0.6 and 0.7mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) improved WIN-induced memory impairment, suggesting a cross state-dependent memory retrieval between the drugs. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (1 and 2μg/mouse) before systemic administration of an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.25g/kg) significantly reversed WIN-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (1 and 3μg/mouse) inhibited cross state-dependent memory between WIN and nicotine or ethanol. Moreover, pre-test intra-MS microinjection of nicotine (1 and 2μg/mouse) in combination with systemic administration of a lower dose of nicotine (0.5mg/kg), but not ethanol (0.25g/kg), improved memory impairment induced by pre-training administration of WIN. On the other hand, in the animals that received pre-training WIN and pre-test systemic administration of nicotine (0.7mg/kg), but not ethanol (0.5g/kg), pre-test intra-MS microinjection of mecamylamine (1-5μg/mouse) inhibited WIN-nicotine state-dependent memory retrieval. It should be noted that pre-test intra-CA1 or intra-MS microinjection of nicotine or mecamylamine by itself had no effect on memory retrieval and also could not reverse memory impairment induced by pre-training administration of WIN. It can be concluded that WIN and nicotine or WIN and ethanol can induce state-dependent memory retrieval. In

  17. BoR: Bag-of-Relations for Symbol Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent; Lamiroy , Bart

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we address a new scheme for symbol retrieval based on bag-of-relations (BoRs) which are computed between extracted visual primitives (e.g. circle and corner). Our features consist of pairwise spatial relations from all possible combinations of individual visual primitives. The key characteristic of the overall process is to use topological relation information indexed in bags-of-relations and use this for recognition. As a consequence, directional relati...

  18. Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of Dislocated Workers Served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Dava Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…

  19. Logic-Symbolic and Alphabetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dair Aily Franco de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to recoup the ideas and the proposal of H. Furth (1973, pointing it as another option to try to work with the children’s difficulties in the alphabetization process. The author considers the substitution of “schools of the language” for “schools of the thought”, that is, to substitute the option of the teacher in the reading-writing education, in its traditional form, of how to transform graphical signals into sonorous and vice-versa, for that one of the thought consolidation, feeding the intellect in development of the child by exercises of “symbolic logic”. For theoretical basing, we still present some aspects of the psychogenetic theory, as well as other works carried through more recently on the subject, that even so “transvestite” (disguised with new clothing, still find their beddings in the J. Piaget’s basis.

  20. Symbolic walk in regular networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G

    2015-01-01

    We find that a symbolic walk (SW)—performed by a walker with memory given by a Bernoulli shift—is able to distinguish between the random or chaotic topology of a given network. We show this result by means of studying the undirected baker network, which is defined by following the Ulam approach for the baker transformation in order to introduce the effect of deterministic chaos into its structure. The chaotic topology is revealed through the central role played by the nodes associated with the positions corresponding to the shortest periodic orbits of the generating map. They are the overwhelmingly most visited nodes in the limit cycles at which the SW asymptotically arrives. Our findings contribute to linking deterministic chaotic dynamics with the properties of networks constructed using the Ulam approach. (paper)

  1. The Symbolic Independence From Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Muraro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Muraro’s article begins from the philosophical question of the ‘unthought’, and asks how our very image of thought is transformed when the thinking subject is a woman, and her thought is specifically linked to the experience of a body. On the basis of a feminist interrogation of sexual difference which reveals the forms of violence inherent in certain claims to universality, Muraro tries to develop a thinking of politics which would rest on its symbolic distance or independence from power. Through readings of Freud, Macbeth, Saint Paul and women’s narratives, Muraro investigates the dangers borne by the fusion of power and politics and explores the ways in which they could be disjoined.

  2. Leaders in high temperature superconductivity commercialization win superconductor industry award

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider curretn leads project head Amalia Ballarino named superconductor industry person of the year 2006. Former high temperature superconductivity program manager at the US Department of energy James Daley wins lifetime achievement award. (1,5 page)

  3. From the Symbolic Analysis of Virtual Faces to a Smiles Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Magalie; Diday, Edwin; Afonso, Filipe

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present an application of symbolic data processing for the design of virtual character's smiling facial expressions. A collected database of virtual character's smiles directly created by users has been explored using symbolic data analysis methods. An unsupervised analysis has enabled us to identify the morphological and dynamic characteristics of different types of smiles as well as of combinations of smiles. Based on the symbolic data analysis, to generate different smiling faces, we have developed procedures to automatically reconstitute smiling virtual faces from a point in a multidimensional space corresponding to a principal component analysis plane.

  4. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  5. The Rhetoric of Disenchantment through Symbolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyangeyo, Théophile

    2012-01-01

    The symbolism of "flowers" has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an…

  6. Efficient Bit-to-Symbol Likelihood Mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moision, Bruce E.; Nakashima, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is an efficient algorithm designed to perform bit-to-symbol and symbol-to-bit likelihood mappings that represent a significant portion of the complexity of an error-correction code decoder for high-order constellations. Recent implementation of the algorithm in hardware has yielded an 8- percent reduction in overall area relative to the prior design.

  7. NMR-CT image and symbol phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Hiroshi

    1990-01-01

    We have developed Japanese phantoms in two procedures. One is described as a mathematical expression. Another is 'symbol phantoms' in 3 dimensional picture-elements, each of which symbolize an organ name. The concept and the algorithm of the symbol phantom enables us to make a phantom for a individual in terms of all his transversal section images. We got 85 transversal section images of head and trunk parts, and those of 40 legs parts by using NMR-CT. We have made the individual phantom for computation of organ doses. The transversal section images were not so clear to identify all organs needed to dose estimation that we had to do hand-editing the shapes of organs with viewing a typical section images: we could not yet make symbol phantom in a automatic editing. Symbols were coded to be visual cords as ASCII characters. After we got the symbol phantom of the first stage, we can edit it easily using a word-processor. Symbol phantom could describe more freely the shape of organs than mathematical phantom. Symbol phantom has several advantages to be an individual phantom, but the only difficult point is how to determine its end-point as a reference man when we apply the method to build the reference man. (author)

  8. 14 CFR 95.3 - Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Symbols. 95.3 Section 95.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES IFR ALTITUDES General § 95.3 Symbols. For the purposes of this part— (a) COP means...

  9. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  10. Deficient symbol processing in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepper, Max; Steuwe, Carolin; Beblo, Thomas; Bauer, Eva; Boedeker, Sebastian; Thomas, Christine; Markowitsch, Hans J; Driessen, Martin; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to identify impact of different item categories on performance accuracy in both the experimental groups. Moreover, SPT scores were correlated with neuropsychological test scores in a broad range of other cognitive domains. Finally, diagnostic accuracy of the SPT was calculated by a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Results revealed a global symbol processing dysfunction in AD that was associated with semantic memory and executive deficits. Moreover, AD patients showed a disproportional performance decline at SPT items with visual distraction. Finally, the SPT total score showed high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between AD patients and healthy controls. The present findings suggest that specific symbol features impede symbol processing in AD and argue for a diagnostic benefit of the SPT in neuropsychological assessment.

  11. A Symbolic Logic for Representing Linear Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charles E.

    A set of symbols is presented along with logical operators which represent the possible manipulations of the linear model. The use of these symbols and operators is to simplify the representation of analysis of variance models, correlation models and factor analysis models. (Author)

  12. Self-organisation of symbolic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Information is encountered in two different appearances, in native form by arbitrary physical structures, or in symbolic form by coded sequences of letters or the like. The self-organised emergence of symbolic information from structural information is referred to as a ritualisation transition. Occurring at some stage in evolutionary history, ritualisation transitions have in common that after the crossover, arbitrary symbols are issued and recognised by information-processing devices, by transmitters and receivers in the sense of Shannon's communication theory. Symbolic information-processing systems exhibit the fundamental code symmetry whose key features, such as largely lossless copying or persistence under hostile conditions, may elucidate the reasons for the repeated successful occurrence of ritualisation phenomena in evolution history. Ritualisation examples are briefly reviewed such as the origin of life, the appearance of human languages, the establishment of emergent social categories such as money, or the development of digital computers. In addition to their role as carriers of symbolic information, symbols are physical structures which also represent structural information. For a thermodynamic description of symbols and their arrangements, it appears reasonable to distinguish between Boltzmann entropy, Clausius entropy and Pauling entropy. Thermodynamic properties of symbols imply that their lifetimes are limited by the 2nd law.

  13. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally

  14. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; van Knippenberg, A.

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study 1 people drank more of a beverage

  15. Self-symbols as implicit motivators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.W.; Wennekers, A.M.; Bijlstra, G.; Jongenelen, M.M.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The present research explored the nonconscious motivational influence of self-symbols. In line with recent findings on the motivational influence of positive affect, we hypothesized that positive affect associated with self-symbols may boost motivation. In Study I people drank more of a beverage

  16. The Symbolic Meaning of Legal Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessers, D.; van Klink, B.; van Beers, B.; Poort, L.

    2016-01-01

    The legitimacy of the law is not to be found, as is often claimed, in procedural justice, but in the core function of the law: the symbolic insertion of every new generation into the community of legal subjects. This symbolic function is most ambitiously expressed in the Universal Declaration of

  17. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win.

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Palomino and Luca Rigotti.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incentiv...

  18. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...

  19. How Insurgents Win: Examining the Dynamics of Modern Insurgencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Insurgent Loss Uganda (ADF) 1986–2000 Insurgent Loss Papua New Guinea 1988–1998 Insurgent Win Liberia 1989–1997 Insurgent Win Moldova 1990–1992...of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering ... New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012). 2 and more resources to manipulating the perception of the population, which in turn will allow the

  20. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  1. Win a lift to the future!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May.   Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...

  2. CERN repeats last year's running win

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The CERN first team successfully defended the title won last year in the 20th annual Cross Inter-Entreprises held at Collex-Bossy on Saturday 7 October. 101 teams of four runners representing firms from all over the Geneva area finished the 6.2 km race, through forest and over fields. In spite of two members of last year’s winning team being absent through injury this time, the first team was still 38 seconds faster than in 1999. The second and third CERN teams also excelled with places in the first 15 teams. In this race the teams start at one-minute intervals and the time of each team is that of its third runner to finish, so they try to run in a group of three or four all the way. The full results of all teams can be found at: http://www.Club-association.ch/CHP Placings of the CERN teams 1st 21:53 Cornelis, Ecarnot, Ehmele, Nisbet 6th 22:50 Cornet, Eklund, Rick, Ruiz Llamas 13th 24:24 Dunkel, Guillot, Montejo Raez, Zamiatin 35th 28:22 Cameron, Galbraith, Revol, Scalisi

  3. Building a winning electric utility organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, G.; Silverman, L. [McKinsey & Co., Washington, DC (United States); Keough, K. [McKinsey & Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The key factor that will differentiate the winners and losers is the speed with which they build their skills and enhance their performance focus. Setting the {open_quote}right{close_quote} aspirations, then effectively managing the change process, will be critical for winning power companies. Historically, only certain dimensions of organizational performance have been critical to an electric utility`s financial success. As a result, utilities understandably focused on achieving high levels of customer satisfaction and reliability, excellent regulatory relationships, and safe and environmentally acceptable operations. However, as the power industry undergoes fundamental change, obtaining superior organizational performance will become much more crucial and difficult. Given the importance of meeting these organizational challenges head on, the authors believe CEOs can only address them by taking an important step back from day-to-day activities to define what high performance really means in the future competitive world and what steps should be taken to achieve their aspirations. To facilitate this rethink - which senior managers should view as a multiyear process - utilities need to do three things in an iterative way: (1) energize the transformation with the right performance aspirations. (2) Tailor a coherent change program to the company`s unique starting position. (3) Manage the change process to build a skill-based and performance-focused organization.

  4. Exact computation of the 9-j symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shantao; Chiu Jingnan

    1992-01-01

    A useful algebraic formula for the 9-j symbol has been rewritten for convenient use on a computer. A simple FORTRAN program for the exact computation of 9-j symbols has been written for the VAX with VMS version V5,4-1 according to this formula. The results agree with the approximate values in existing literature. Some specific values of 9-j symbols needed for the intensity and alignments of three-photon nonresonant transitions are tabulated. Approximate 9-j symbol values beyond the limitation of the computer can also be computed by this program. The computer code of the exact computation of 3-j, 6-j and 9-j symbols are available through electronic mail upon request. (orig.)

  5. Symbolic math for computation of radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Datta, D.; Sarkar, P.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation transport calculations for shielding studies in the field of accelerator technology often involve intensive numerical computations. Traditionally, radiation transport equation is solved using finite difference scheme or advanced finite element method with respect to specific initial and boundary conditions suitable for the geometry of the problem. All these computations need CPU intensive computer codes for accurate calculation of scalar and angular fluxes. Computation using symbols of the analytical expression representing the transport equation as objects is an enhanced numerical technique in which the computation is completely algorithm and data oriented. Algorithm on the basis of symbolic math architecture is developed using Symbolic math toolbox of MATLAB software. Present paper describes the symbolic math algorithm and its application as a case study in which shielding calculation of rectangular slab geometry is studied for a line source of specific activity. Study of application of symbolic math in this domain evolves a new paradigm compared to the existing computer code such as DORT. (author)

  6. Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: an analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Deans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. Method This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Results Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. Discussion/Conclusions This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.

  7. Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: an analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Gordon, Ross

    2016-03-01

    Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.

  8. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  9. Ombud's Corner: fellows and students – a win-win equation

    CERN Multimedia

    Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill

    2014-01-01

    The hundreds of Fellows and students working at CERN bring precious new blood into the Laboratory. At the same time, CERN offers them invaluable work experience that will have a significant impact on their future careers. It is important that we all work together to make this a win-win situation with lasting positive effects for all concerned over the years to come.   Fellows and students are just setting out on a great professional adventure.  Some of them are very young, others are a bit more experienced … and what happens during this early period can have vast consequences on their approach to work and indeed on their overall careers. They all come here with their hard earned skills and a high degree of motivation, ready to make the most out of an internship at CERN. Sometimes, they are called to integrate into well-established units; at other times, they are asked to join complex collaborations. Almost always they have to deal with new information, new cultures, new t...

  10. International cooperation for nuclear science and energy development- A win win perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: International and regional cooperation is fundamental for the safe and effective introduction and expansion of nuclear power programme (NPP). A win-win situation can be harnessed as experienced countries in NPP are able to offer a myriad of benefits to new comer countries as well as countries planning for NPP whilst new comer countries are able to offer education and training opportunities and business opportunities to advanced countries in NPP. Countries with long experience in nuclear power programme (NPP) are able to offer experience, knowledge, advisory as well as sharing of resources and facilities with new comer countries. As skilled and competent personnel in the entire nuclear value-chain are critical to support NPP, this paper will provide an overview of some of the experience and resources of advanced countries in NPP that could be shared with new comer countries, with a focus in the area of education and training, as well as in industrial development. The paper will conclude by offering some recommendations as a way forward for establishing international cooperation in Nuclear Education and Training, as well as for industrial development. (author)

  11. Cosmic Bubble Image Wins NRAO Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    A striking image of an enormous bubble blown into the dusty gas disk of our own Milky Way galaxy has won first place in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's second annual Radio Astronomy Image Contest. Dr. Jayanne English of the University of Manitoba led the team that made the winning image using data from the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) in New Mexico and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. Cosmic Bubble Image Giant "Bubble" in Milky Way's Gas CREDIT: English et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for large files and full information English and her collaborators Jeroen Stil and Russ Taylor, from the University of Calgary, will share the grand prize of $1,000 from Associated Universities, Inc., the research corporation that operates the observatory for the NSF. "We congratulate Dr. English for producing an outstanding image that beautifully illustrates the power of our radio telescopes," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanding image gallery on the observatory's Web site. English's winning image shows a giant bubble in the Milky Way's dusty gas disk. The bubble has been sculpted by the wind and radiation force from a few dozen hot, massive stars along with the explosive force of supernova explosions from dying stars. The bubble, seen in the faint radio glow of hydrogen gas, is some 30,000 light-years from Earth and measures 1,100 by 520 light-years. If the bubble, in the constellation Vulpecula, were visible to human eyes, it would appear to be eight times the diameter of the full Moon in the sky. The image was made using data collected as part of the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS), a set of systematic observations of the Milky Way. This survey, led by

  12. Symbol synchronization for the TDRSS decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Each 8 bits out of the Viterbi decoder correspond to one symbol of the R/S code. Synchronization must be maintained here so that each 8-bit symbol delivered to the R/S decoder corresponds to an 8-bit symbol from the R/S encoder. Lack of synchronization, would cause an error in almost every R/S symbol since even a - 1-bit sync slip shifts every bit in each 8-bit symbol by one position, therby confusing the mapping betweeen 8-bit sequences and symbols. The error correcting capability of the R/S code would be exceeded. Possible ways to correcting this condition include: (1) designing the R/S decoder to recognize the overload and shifting the output sequence of the inner decoder to establish a different sync state; (2) using the characteristics of the inner decoder to establish symbol synchronization for the outer code, with or without a deinterleaver and an interleaver; and (3) modifying the encoder to alternate periodically between two sets of generators.

  13. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  14. Symbolic-Numeric Integration of the Dynamical Cosserat Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Lyakhov, Dmitry A.

    2017-08-29

    We devise a symbolic-numeric approach to the integration of the dynamical part of the Cosserat equations, a system of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the mechanical behavior of slender structures, like fibers and rods. This is based on our previous results on the construction of a closed form general solution to the kinematic part of the Cosserat system. Our approach combines methods of numerical exponential integration and symbolic integration of the intermediate system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the dynamics of one of the arbitrary vector-functions in the general solution of the kinematic part in terms of the module of the twist vector-function. We present an experimental comparison with the well-established generalized \\\\alpha -method illustrating the computational efficiency of our approach for problems in structural mechanics.

  15. European Languages: Instruments and Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ožbot

    2008-07-01

    Further, the role of Latin as the single most important European language over the centuries and as a unifying feature of European culture is discussed. Parallels are drawn between Latin as the historical European lingua franca on the one hand and English as the modern language of international communication on the other: the importance of both languages started growing after substantial territorial expansion of their speakers and it was especially the political and economic power associated to these languages that played a significant role in their diffusion and long-term influence. Taking into consideration the instrumental as well as the symbolic function of languages, the question about the relationship between English and other European languages in today’s Europe is dealt with; it is suggested that the European languages are in principle not endangered as a result of the spread of English, with the exception of those instances in which English has been taking over the functions they have traditionally performed as national or community languages. It is emphasized that the future of Europe lies in the promotion of biand multilingualism, which have, in actual fact, been present on this continent throughout its history, and which in the cases of some European languages (e.g. Catalan, Basque, Irish, etc. have been successfully enhanced over the past decades.

  16. Designing and evaluating symbols for electronic displays of navigation information : symbol stereotypes and symbol-feature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the electronic display of navigation information. The wide range of display technology and the different functions these displays support makes it difficult to design symbols that are easily recogni...

  17. Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087

  18. Symbolic Representation of Algorithmic Game Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar S. Dimovski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of second-order recursion free Idealized Algol with infinite data types. By using symbolic values instead of concrete ones we generalize the standard notion of regular-language and automata representations to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way terms with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite symbolic-automata although the standard automata interpretation is infinite. Moreover, significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of terms, which is illustrated with several examples.

  19. Social and Symbolic Capital in Firm Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    Based on a relational perspective this paper analyses the case of the “Mechatronics Cluster” in Southern Jutland, Denmark. We found that cluster managers are not aware of the importance of social and symbolic capital. Cluster managers could have access to both but they are not aware...... of this resource and they don´t have any knowledge how to manage social and symbolic capital. Just to integrate social-capital-supporting initiatives in the day to day business would help to develop and to foster social and symbolic capital on a low cost level. And in our example just to integrate successful sub...

  20. Symbols and Emblemata. Peter the First

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrova A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the study of the emergence of the concept of «symbol» in Russian culture of the XVIII century. The idea of introducing symbols into the culture, allowed not only the extollment of the secular over the religious, but also the strengthening of the right to power. Appealing to the book «Symbols and Emblemata» allows us to consider the ideas of Peter the First in the framework of cultural discourse.

  1. [Pierre Bourdieu: sociology as a "symbolic revolution"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaud, Charles

    2014-03-01

    The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.

  2. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  3. Winning and positive affect can lead to reckless gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lori F; Nadorff, Michael R; Kelly, Anita E

    2009-06-01

    Experiments 1 and 2 examined whether winning versus losing led to reckless betting for real prize money. Experiment 2 also assessed whether positive or negative emotions were linked to such reckless betting. College students were randomly assigned to experience primarily either wins or losses during the rigged first round of a computerized card tournament that had 2 independent rounds. For the second round, participants' chip totals were reset and cards were dealt randomly. In Experiment 1 (N=107), participants in the Initial-Winning, as compared with the Initial-Losing, condition bet more recklessly (i.e., bet too many chips when a loss was likely). Experiment 2 (N=72) again showed that Initial-Winning participants bet significantly more recklessly than did Initial-Losing participants. It also revealed that positive affect was significantly positively correlated with such reckless betting. These findings have implications for understanding how college students, those at an age when they are especially vulnerable to problem gambling, can come to lose more money than they can afford. Initially winning and positive affect when gambling could be risk factors. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The Water Symbolism in the Poem “Memento Mori” by Eminescu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Golovanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The item is devoted to the research of a philosophical poem by M. Eminescu “Memento mori” in connection with the related artistic and philosophic phenomena of the national and European literatures. The article analyses the sociohonic poem “Memento mori” which depicts the cyclicity of the human civilizations. The nascence of any civilization has in its origin one of the basic elements, among which Water is paid particularly attention to. These elements (Earth, Water, Fire bearing material genesis combined with the Spirit are giving birt h to the civilization. In the poem “Panorama of Futility” extremely diverse appears the imaging of water symbols. In this case water, river, sea are integral part of Greece genesis. The image of Water stands for the symbol of eternity. As another symbolic embodiment for Water river and stream appear often in the work. A symbol of time flowing into eternity in the poem is the river Danube.

  5. A complex symbol signal-to-noise ratio estimator and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents an algorithm for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of signals that contain data on a downconverted suppressed carrier or the first harmonic of a square-wave subcarrier. This algorithm can be used to determine the performance of the full-spectrum combiner for the Galileo S-band (2.2- to 2.3-GHz) mission by measuring the input and output symbol SNR. A performance analysis of the algorithm shows that the estimator can estimate the complex symbol SNR using 10,000 symbols at a true symbol SNR of -5 dB with a mean of -4.9985 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2454 dB, and these analytical results are checked by simulations of 100 runs with a mean of -5.06 dB and a standard deviation of 0.2506 dB.

  6. Communications in American Politics: Symbols without Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    1980-01-01

    Political campaigns have been more concerned with public relations than with public policy as a result of television domination. Illustrates how political speeches are dominated by symbols without substance. (CK)

  7. Exact and Approximate Probabilistic Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, Kasper; Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Filieri, Antonio; Visser, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic software analysis seeks to quantify the likelihood of reaching a target event under uncertain environments. Recent approaches compute probabilities of execution paths using symbolic execution, but do not support nondeterminism. Nondeterminism arises naturally when no suitable probabilistic model can capture a program behavior, e.g., for multithreading or distributed systems. In this work, we propose a technique, based on symbolic execution, to synthesize schedulers that resolve nondeterminism to maximize the probability of reaching a target event. To scale to large systems, we also introduce approximate algorithms to search for good schedulers, speeding up established random sampling and reinforcement learning results through the quantification of path probabilities based on symbolic execution. We implemented the techniques in Symbolic PathFinder and evaluated them on nondeterministic Java programs. We show that our algorithms significantly improve upon a state-of- the-art statistical model checking algorithm, originally developed for Markov Decision Processes.

  8. Three Alternative Symbol-Lock Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Shah, Biren N.

    1993-01-01

    Three symbol-lock detectors proposed as alternatives in advanced receivers processing non-return-to-zero binary data signals. Two perform operations similar to those of older square-law and absolute-value types. However, integrals computed during nonoverlapping symbol periods and, therefore, only one integrator needed in each such detector. Proposed detectors simpler, but performances worse because noises in overlapping samples correlated, whereas noises in nonoverlapping samples not correlated. Third detector is signal-power-estimator type. Signal integrated during successive half symbol cycles, and therefore only one integrator needed. Half-cycle integrals multiplied to eliminate effect of symbol polarity, and products accumulated during M-cycle observation period to smooth out estimate of signal power. If estimated signal power exceeds threshold, delta, then lock declared.

  9. Matter and symbols of the artificial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-08-01

    The study of complex systems should be based on a systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notion of semiotics is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments, with implications for Artificial Life. Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and matter are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. The problem is thus phrased in terms of the semiotic categories of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. With this semiotic view of matter and symbols the requirements of semiotic closure are expressed in models with both self-organizing and symbolic characteristics. Situated action and recent developments in the evolution of cellular automata rules to solve non-trivial tasks are discussed in this context. Finally, indirect encoding schemes for genetic algorithms are developed which follow the semiotic framework here proposed.

  10. Symbolic Processes in Young Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Mundy, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrates that young autistic children suffer from deficits in social understanding and symbolic representations of other individuals. Data suggest that the core deficit appears to lie at the intersection of representational abilities and social experiences. (RWB)

  11. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages...... of game semantics to that of corresponding symbolic representations. In this way programs with infinite data types, such as integers, can be expressed as finite-state symbolic-automata although the standard automata representation is infinite-state, i.e. the standard regular-language representation has...... infinite summations. Moreover, in this way significant reductions of the state space of game semantics models are obtained. This enables efficient verification of programs by our prototype tool based on symbolic game models, which is illustrated with several examples....

  12. Winning at litigation through decision analysis creating and executing winning strategies in any litigation or dispute

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, John

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first in-depth guide to applying the philosophy, theory, and methods of decision analysis to creating and executing winning legal strategies. With explanations that progress from introductory to advanced and practice problems at the end of each chapter, this is a book the reader will want to use and refer to for years to come. Practicing decision analysts, operations research and management science students, attorneys and law students will find this book an invaluable addition to their knowledge and skills. John Celona has over three decades of experience in teaching and applying decision analysis. John lectures in the School of Engineering at Stanford University and is on faculty at The Stanford Center for Professional Development, the American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences, and the Academy of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management.

  13. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]∞ bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]∞-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]∞-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ∞ error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]∞-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]∞ error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]∞ metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]∞ error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates.

  14. Symbolic and non symbolic numerical representation in adults with and without developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Tamar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question whether Developmental Dyscalculia (DD; a deficit in the ability to process numerical information is the result of deficiencies in the non symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., a group of dots or in the symbolic numerical representation system (e.g., Arabic numerals has been debated in scientific literature. It is accepted that the non symbolic system is divided into two different ranges, the subitizing range (i.e., quantities from 1-4 which is processed automatically and quickly, and the counting range (i.e., quantities larger than 4 which is an attention demanding procedure and is therefore processed serially and slowly. However, so far no study has tested the automaticity of symbolic and non symbolic representation in DD participants separately for the subitizing and the counting ranges. Methods DD and control participants undergo a novel version of the Stroop task, i.e., the Enumeration Stroop. They were presented with a random series of between one and nine written digits, and were asked to name either the relevant written digit (in the symbolic task or the relevant quantity of digits (in the non symbolic task while ignoring the irrelevant aspect. Result DD participants, unlike the control group, didn't show any congruency effect in the subitizing range of the non symbolic task. Conclusion These findings suggest that DD may be impaired in the ability to process symbolic numerical information or in the ability to automatically associate the two systems (i.e., the symbolic vs. the non symbolic. Additionally DD have deficiencies in the non symbolic counting range.

  15. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  16. Program verification using symbolic game semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Dimovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new symbolic representation of algorithmic game semantics, and show how it can be applied for efficient verification of open (incomplete) programs. The focus is on an Algol-like programming language which contains the core ingredients of imperative and functional languages, especially on its second-order recursion-free fragment with infinite data types. We revisit the regular-language representation of game semantics of this language fragment.By using symbolic values instead of...

  17. Active Exploration for Learning Symbolic Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Garrett; Konidaris, George

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an online active exploration algorithm for data-efficiently learning an abstract symbolic model of an environment. Our algorithm is divided into two parts: the first part quickly generates an intermediate Bayesian symbolic model from the data that the agent has collected so far, which the agent can then use along with the second part to guide its future exploration towards regions of the state space that the model is uncertain about. We show that our algorithm outperforms random ...

  18. Symbol Spotting using Full Visibility Graph Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Locteau , Hervé; Adam , Sébastien; Trupin , Eric; Labiche , Jacques; Héroux , Pierre

    2007-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a method for matching symbols in line-drawings is presented. Facing both segmentation and recognition of symbols is a difficult challenge. Starting from the results of a vectorization proce- dure, a visibility graph is built to enhance the main geometric constraints which were specified during the construction of the initial document. The cliques detection, which correspond to a perceptual grouping of primi- tives, is used in the system to detect regions...

  19. Symbolic dynamics and description of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Bailin.

    1992-10-01

    Symbolic dynamics provides a general framework to describe complexity of dynamical behaviour. After a discussion of the state of the filed special emphasis will be made on the role of transfer matrix (the Stefan matrix) both in deriving the grammar from known symbolic dynamics and in extracting the rules from experimental data. The block structure of the Stefan matrix may serve as another indicator of complexity of the associated dynamics. (author). 33 refs, 6 figs

  20. Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance Winning at Pocker and Games of Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Flanders Rebelo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.

  1. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcsi, Attila; Lengyel, Gábor; Kojouharova, Petia

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS We test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems. Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS) working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  2. What’s the problem with symbolic religious establishment? The alienation and symbolic equality accounts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter I examine two possible reasons, which are prominent but often not systematically discussed in the literature, for thinking even purely symbolic establishment problematic. These are considerations of alienation and symbolic equality. I am only concerned with ways in which establish......In this chapter I examine two possible reasons, which are prominent but often not systematically discussed in the literature, for thinking even purely symbolic establishment problematic. These are considerations of alienation and symbolic equality. I am only concerned with ways in which...

  3. The symbolic power of corporate culture organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kubko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to outline the nature of the symbolic block of the corporate culture and its role in the formation and development of the modern organization. In this paper the symbolic part of the corporate culture of the modern organizations has been analyzed. The role of symbols in the development and formation of corporate culture organizations and their values is determined. Corporate culture is characterized as a set of behavioral norms, artifacts, values, ideas and concepts, which are created by the organization. The corporate culture has to help us overcome obstacles, internal and external, on the way to success and prosperity. Corporate culture is a socially created reality which helps us to solve certain problems. The corporate culture serves as the level of formation of knowledge, skills, technology activities to achieve the objectives of a certain organization. The space of corporate culture, in turn, consists of meanings, symbols, myths, ideological directives, behavioral practices, communication links and a set of material objects. Thus, the characters are a common feature of the concept of corporate culture and thanks to them the values of the orientation «are being transmitted» to all members of the organization. The symbolic block of the culture has rituals, symbols, myths, legends, heroic peculiarities of organizations that reflect the most concise strong forms of the company culture, its major landmarks in the laconic and figurative shape.

  4. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-04-21

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge.We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of SemanticWeb based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics.https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl.robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa.Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammad Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Hoehndorf, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph-structured data are becoming available, but have not yet widely been applied and evaluated on structured biological knowledge. Results: We develop a novel method for feature learning on biological knowledge graphs. Our method combines symbolic methods, in particular knowledge representation using symbolic logic and automated reasoning, with neural networks to generate embeddings of nodes that encode for related information within knowledge graphs. Through the use of symbolic logic, these embeddings contain both explicit and implicit information. We apply these embeddings to the prediction of edges in the knowledge graph representing problems of function prediction, finding candidate genes of diseases, protein-protein interactions, or drug target relations, and demonstrate performance that matches and sometimes outperforms traditional approaches based on manually crafted features. Our method can be applied to any biological knowledge graph, and will thereby open up the increasing amount of Semantic Web based knowledge bases in biology to use in machine learning and data analytics. https://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/walking-rdf-and-owl. robert.hoehndorf@kaust.edu.sa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Connes' embedding problem and winning strategies for quantum XOR games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Samuel J.

    2017-12-01

    We consider quantum XOR games, defined in the work of Regev and Vidick [ACM Trans. Comput. Theory 7, 43 (2015)], from the perspective of unitary correlations defined in the work of Harris and Paulsen [Integr. Equations Oper. Theory 89, 125 (2017)]. We show that the winning bias of a quantum XOR game in the tensor product model (respectively, the commuting model) is equal to the norm of its associated linear functional on the unitary correlation set from the appropriate model. We show that Connes' embedding problem has a positive answer if and only if every quantum XOR game has entanglement bias equal to the commuting bias. In particular, the embedding problem is equivalent to determining whether every quantum XOR game G with a winning strategy in the commuting model also has a winning strategy in the approximate finite-dimensional model.

  7. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge | Agbanusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbolism, being the use of symbols to represent ideas, it is generally believed that symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However, recent developments have shown that symbolism can be an interesting companion and, in fact, a necessary complement, of science. This work X-Rays the ...

  8. 36 CFR 264.11 - Use of symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of symbol. 264.11 Section... MANAGEMENT Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument Symbol § 264.11 Use of symbol. Except as provided in § 264.12, use of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument official symbol, including a facsimile...

  9. 7 CFR 97.900 - Form of official identification symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbol. 97.900 Section... symbol. The symbol set forth in Figure 1, containing the words “Plant Variety Protection Office” and “U.S. Department of Agriculture,” shall be the official identification symbol of the Plant Variety Protection...

  10. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class of station symbols. 87.171 Section 87.171... Frequencies § 87.171 Class of station symbols. The two or three letter symbols for the classes of station in the aviation services are: Symbol and class of station AX—Aeronautical fixed AXO—Aeronautical...

  11. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Abstract. Symbolism, being the use of symbols to represent ideas, it is generally believed that symbolism is restricted to the Arts, especially logic and literature. However, recent developments have shown that symbolism can be an interesting companion and, in fact, a necessary complement, of science. This work X-Rays the ...

  12. Winning the jackpot and depression: Money cannot buy happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisslé, Sonja; Bschor, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Life event research examines the effect of life events on the course of psychiatric diseases, but the published literature considers almost only negative events. We describe the cases of two female patients who had to be hospitalized for depression after lottery winnings of over 1M DM. The 4-year follow-up shows a good outcome in both patients. Case analyses suggest that in both patients, winning was a life event relevant to the development of the depressive episode. Desirable life events might influence the course of a psychiatric illness just as negative events do. (Int J Psych Clin Pract 2002; 6: 183-186).

  13. BMC Ecology image competition 2014: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal’s Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn’t let you miss out on. PMID:25178017

  14. Enhanced self-administration of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 in olfactory bulbectomized rats: evaluation of possible serotonergic and dopaminergic underlying mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eAmchova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression has been associated with drug consumption, including heavy or problematic cannabis use. According to an animal model of depression and substance use disorder comorbidity, we combined the olfactory bulbectomy model of depression with intravenous drug self-administration procedure to verify whether depressive-like rats displayed higher voluntary intake of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN, 12.5 µg/kg/infusion. To this aim, olfactory-bulbectomized (OBX and sham-operated (SHAM Lister Hooded rats were allowed to self-administer WIN by lever-pressing under a continuous (FR-1 schedule of reinforcement in 2h daily sessions. Data showed that both OBX and SHAM rats developed stable WIN intake; yet, responses in OBX were constantly higher than in SHAM rats soon after the first week of training. In addition, OBX rats took significantly longer to extinguish the drug-seeking behaviour after vehicle substitution. Acute pre-treatment with serotonin 5HT1B receptor agonist, CGS-12066B (2.5-10 mg/kg, did not significantly modify WIN intake in OBX and SHAM Lister Hooded rats. Furthermore, acute pre-treatment with CGS-12066B (10 and 15 mg/kg did not alter responses in parallel groups of OBX and SHAM Sprague Dawley rats self-administering methamphetamine under higher (FR-2 reinforcement schedule with nose-poking as operandum. Finally, dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of OBX rats did not increase in response to a WIN challenge, as in SHAM rats, indicating a dopaminergic dysfunction in bulbectomized rats. Altogether, our findings suggest that a depressive state may alter cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist-induced brain reward function and that a dopaminergic rather than a 5-HT1B mechanism is likely to underlie enhanced WIN self-administration in OBX rats.

  15. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-01-01

    The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, l...

  16. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  17. Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Equivalence Tasks: The Influence of Symbols on Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2015-01-01

    Students often experience difficulty with attaching meaning to mathematics symbols. Many students react to symbols, such as the equal sign, as a command to "do something" or "write an answer" without reflecting upon the proper relational meaning of the equal sign. One method for assessing equal-sign understanding is through…

  18. [The importance of symbolic interactionism in nursing practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, G; de Oliveira, I; Costa, T N

    1997-08-01

    The nurse should combine, in their daily practice, technical abilities with a profound comprehension of the main object oh their work, the human being. Symbolic Interactionism is an approach which enables the nursery professional to understand patients by the meaning they value their living experiences. The use of qualitative methods in nursery research is essential because it studies the humans beings and their relationship with the environment, allowing the understanding of the living experiences. These kind of approaches should be even more applied in nursery practice as they open new ways for professional knowledge and enrich practical skills.

  19. The Sport League's Dilemma : Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either

  20. Winning the pressing down game but not Banach Mazur

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, Jakob; Pauna, Matti; Shelah, Saharon

    2006-01-01

    Let $S$ be the set of those $\\alpha\\in\\omega_2$ that have cofinality $\\omega_1$. It is consistent relative to a measurable that the nonempty player wins the pressing down game of length $\\omega_1$, but not the Banach Mazur game of length $\\omega+1$ (both games starting with $S$).

  1. Winning Strategies: A Case Study of Oyo State Lottery, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 3.1 Simulation of Lottery Strategies. The data used for this research work consisted of the year 2011 lottery winning numbers of the Daily draw type of game as collected from the Oyo State Lottery. Commission. The data was used to simulate the random, low frequency and high frequency game strategies.

  2. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  3. In the winning mood: Affect in the Iowa gambling task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Holland, R.W.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present research aimed to test the role of mood in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara et al., 1994). In the IGT, participants can win or lose money by picking cards from four different decks. They have to learn by experience that two decks are overall advantageous and two decks are overall

  4. Interior design students win two IDEC Student Design Competition awards

    OpenAIRE

    Watson-Bloch, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.

  5. Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Are we winning? Improving perinatal outcomes at a deeply rural district hospital in South Africa. CB Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAMJ.3699 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  6. Winning in straight sets helps in Grand Slam tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dries R.; Kempeneers, Jurgen; Koning, Ruud H.; Spieksma, Frits C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we study whether fatigue resulting from the previous match affects a player's chances of winning his (or her) next match in Grand Slum tennis. We measure relative fatigue levels of two opponents by looking at the difference in number of sets played in their previous match. We

  7. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3013 - Combination color symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER... follows: FL—tannish buff, FR—tannish red, VF—greenish tan, VR—greenish red, GF—green tan, and GR—green red...

  9. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  10. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) program computer software design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertzborn, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation

  11. Sacred Symbols in Dimitrie Gavrilean’s Paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Adrian Gavrilean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This year, on the 12th of July, there are four years since the passing away of the painter Dimitrie Gavrilean who, ,”through the unique impresion of his originality, early became an emblem of the school of painting of Iasi.” Born in Voroneţ, in 1942, Dimitrie Gavrilean attended ”Nicolae Grigorescu” Academy of Arts of Bucharest, being an eminent disciple of the master Corneliu Baba. The work in the creation workshop was combined with the vocation of teacher at the Faculty of Visual Arts and Design within ”G. Enescu” University of Arts of Iaşi, being a rector of this institution in the period 2000-2004. In the contemporary plastic landscape, the artistic work of the painter Dimitrie Gavrilean (1942-2012 from Iaşi occupies a special place. It mirrors the utmost of the autochthonous rural imaginary, the Romanian fundamental myths, the ancestral myths as well as the recently Christianized ones. His vision is specific to the Romanian Christianity and the Byzantine iconography. The language of Gavrilean’s paintings is one of symbols, by excellence. As Emil Staco rightfully observed, the entire work of art of master Gavrilean is ”a work of art of the symbols, of the metaphors rooted in the spirituality of the Romanian village of Bukovina, in the frescoes of Voroneţ and Humor Monasteries.” On the one hand, the painter did not content himself with illustrating only the ancestral mythical world by means of symbols with universal valences, but he got actively involved in the Christian valorization of mythical symbols. On the other hand, by integrating sacred symbols (the dove, the cock, winged characters, the wise old man, the architecture-church, the sun, Voroneţ blue of the Christian iconography of Byzantine tradition in paintings not necessarily religious, Dimitrie Gavrilean pushed his work of art to the border between sacred and profane, proving an extraordinary capacity of spiritualizing matter as well as of materializing the

  12. Anomalous diffusion in a symbolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; Mendes, R S; Santoro, P A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate some statistical properties of symbolic sequences generated by a numerical procedure in which the symbols are repeated following the power-law probability density. In this analysis, we consider that the sum of n symbols represents the position of a particle in erratic movement. This approach reveals a rich diffusive scenario characterized by non-Gaussian distribution and, depending on the power-law exponent or the procedure used to build the walker, we may have superdiffusion, subdiffusion or usual diffusion. Additionally, we use the continuous-time random walk framework to compare the analytic results with the numerical data, thereby finding good agreement. Because of its simplicity and flexibility, this model can be a candidate for describing real systems governed by power-law probability densities.

  13. Symbolic Substitution Methods For Optical Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdocca, M. J.; Huang, A.

    1989-02-01

    Symbolic substitution is a method of computing based on parallel binary pattern replacement, that can be implemented with simple optical components and regular free-space interconnection schemes. A two-dimensional pattern is searched for in parallel in an array and is replaced with another pattern. Pattern transformation rules can be applied sequentially or in parallel to realize complex functions. When the substitution space is modified to be loge SIT connected for N binary spots, and masks are allowed to customize the system, then optical digital circuits using symbolic substitution for network interconnects can be made nearly as efficient in terms of gate count and circuit depth as conventional arbitrary interconnection schemes allow. We describe an optical setup that requires no more than a fanin and fanout of two using optically nonlinear logic devices and a free space interconnection scheme based on symbolic substitution.

  14. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols....... Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic...

  15. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  16. Identifying the performance characteristics of a winning outcome in elite mixed martial arts competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Robertson, Sam; Haff, G Gregory; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-03-01

    To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. Cross-sectional observational. Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Personalized Map Symbol Design Mechanism Based on Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The personalization and intelligence of map service ultimately reflects in their symbol design. By establishing conceptual models of personalized map symbols, a theoretical discussion of the symbols is launched from a perspective which both human perceptions and logistic comprehension are considered in this paper, thus to help analyzing the relationship among geographic objects, map symbols and the interpretation of users and exploring the design basis of personalized map symbol. According to some key points such as relevant linguistic theories, the interpretation of the symbol contexts and symbolic statement syntax, design strategies of personalized map symbols is parsed. Thus, methods and processes of personalized map symbol design are proposed accordingly, following by experiments which could verify the hypothesis.

  18. Influence of alexithymia on symbolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers-Desrosiers, L

    1982-01-01

    The archetypal test with nine elements (AT9), specifically designed as a tracer of symbolic function, and the psychosomatic questionnaire of Sifneos et al., for assessment of alexithymia, were both proposed within the context of a psychosomatic consultation to 49 hospitalized patients being investigated for physical symptoms representative of psychosomatic problems at large. The AT9 test enables the utilization of G. Durand's theory of the Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary, and was our theoretical support to engage upon an empirical study in the hope of contributing to the debate about the influence of alexithymia on symbolic function. Faced with the AT9 aim of having to create a mythical micro-universe through three tasks: a drawing, a story, and answers to a questionnaire, the patients exhibited different behaviors. 13 of 49 patients were found not to be alexithymic, and their symbolic function was totally comparable to a normal population. The other 36 patients were found to be alexithymic in increasing degrees, and the symbolic function was found to be abnormal in all the protocols studied. The greatest abnormality was seen in patients who scored 7-8 on the alexithymia scale where 12 of the 18 protocols showed no evidence whatsoever of a mythical micro-universe. We suggest that alexithymia does influence the symbolic function and disorganizes it the more one is alexithymic. Also depending on the type of symbolic function put forth, we would like to propose graphic documents to illustrate Freyberger's intuition about a distinction to be made within the alexithymic population between a primary and secondary form.

  19. Efficient Symmetry Reduction and the Use of State Symmetries for Symbolic Model Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Appold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One technique to reduce the state-space explosion problem in temporal logic model checking is symmetry reduction. The combination of symmetry reduction and symbolic model checking by using BDDs suffered a long time from the prohibitively large BDD for the orbit relation. Dynamic symmetry reduction calculates representatives of equivalence classes of states dynamically and thus avoids the construction of the orbit relation. In this paper, we present a new efficient model checking algorithm based on dynamic symmetry reduction. Our experiments show that the algorithm is very fast and allows the verification of larger systems. We additionally implemented the use of state symmetries for symbolic symmetry reduction. To our knowledge we are the first who investigated state symmetries in combination with BDD based symbolic model checking.

  20. Carrier and symbol synchronization system performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Results pertinent to predicting the performance of convolutionally encoded binary phase-shift keyed communication links were presented. The details of the development are provided in four sections. These sections are concerned with developing the bit error probability performance degradations due to PN despreading by a time-shared delay locked loop, the Costas demodulation process, symbol synchronization effects and cycle slipping phenomena in the Costas loop. In addition, Costas cycle slipping probabilities are studied as functions of Doppler count time and signal-to-noise conditions. The effect of cycle slipping in the symbol synchronizer is also studied as a function of channel Doppler and other frequency uncertainties.

  1. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7. These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7. This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system.

  2. Children’s Non-symbolic, Symbolic Addition and Their Mapping Capacity at 4–7 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Yinghe; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Zhijun; Yan, Shijia

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the developmental trajectories of non-symbolic and symbolic addition capacities in children and the mapping ability between these two. We assessed 106 4- to 7-year-old children and found that 4-year-olds were able to do non-symbolic addition but not symbolic addition. Five-year-olds and older were able to do symbolic addition and their performance in symbolic addition exceeded non-symbolic addition in grade 1 (approximate age 7). These results suggested non-symbolic addition ability emerges earlier and is less affected by formal mathematical education than symbolic addition. Meanwhile, we tested children’s bi-directional mapping ability using a novel task and found that children were able to map between symbolic and non-symbolic representations of number at age 5. Their ability in mapping non-symbolic to symbolic number became more proficient in grade 1 (approximate age 7). This suggests children at age 7 have developed a relatively mature symbolic representation system. PMID:28769845

  3. Pseudodifferential operators with automorphic symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, André

    2015-01-01

    The main results of this book combine pseudodifferential analysis with modular form and L-function theory, with the help of explicit spectral-theoretic calculations. The starting point is a notion of modular distribution in the plane, which will be new to most readers and which, under the Radon transformation, relates to the classical notion of non-holomorphic modular form. Holomorphic modular forms are also briefly considered, within a general scheme that addresses quantization theory and elementary but novel representation-theoretic concepts.

  4. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.; Papafragou, A.; Grodner, D.; Mirman, D.; Trueswell, J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from

  5. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Kant

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We improved the translation from specification to PBES to preserve the structure of the specification in the PBES, we extended LTSmin to instantiate PBESs to symbolic parity games, and implemented the recursive parity game solving algorithm by Zielonka for symbolic parity games. We use Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDDs to represent sets and relations, thus enabling the tools to deal with very large systems. The transition relation is partitioned based on the structure of the specification, which allows for efficient manipulation of the MDDs. We performed two case studies on modular specifications, that demonstrate that the new method has better time and memory performance than existing PBES based tools and can be faster (but slightly less memory efficient than the symbolic model checker NuSMV.

  6. Symbolic approximate time-optimal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazo, Manuel; Tabuada, Paulo

    There is an increasing demand for controller design techniques capable of addressing the complex requirements of today's embedded applications. This demand has sparked the interest in symbolic control where lower complexity models of control systems are used to cater for complex specifications given

  7. Generating and Solving Symbolic Parity Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    We present a new tool for verification of modal mu-calculus formulae for process specifications, based on symbolic parity games. It enhances an existing method, that first encodes the problem to a Parameterised Boolean Equation System (PBES) and then instantiates the PBES to a parity game. We

  8. 169 DIFFERENT RITUAL SYMBOLS IN IGBO TRADITIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Moslem) fixed feasts in relation to the appearance of the moon. It is very important because it was the moon that guided Mohammed to carry out his job. Without the history and full knowledge of Traditional religion, all the objects of worship such as 'ofo', Amadioha etc will become meaningless. b. Symbols are meaningful ...

  9. Symbols for cockpit displays of traffic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-25

    A web-based study assessed pilots ability to learn and remember traffic symbols that may be shown on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). These displays convey data obtained from Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS B) and rela...

  10. Symbolic Computing in Probabilistic and Stochastic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim is to present recent developments in applications of symbolic computing in probabilistic and stochastic analysis, and this is done using the example of the well-known MAPLE system. The key theoretical methods discussed are (i analytical derivations, (ii the classical Monte-Carlo simulation approach, (iii the stochastic perturbation technique, as well as (iv some semi-analytical approaches. It is demonstrated in particular how to engage the basic symbolic tools implemented in any system to derive the basic equations for the stochastic perturbation technique and how to make an efficient implementation of the semi-analytical methods using an automatic differentiation and integration provided by the computer algebra program itself. The second important illustration is probabilistic extension of the finite element and finite difference methods coded in MAPLE, showing how to solve boundary value problems with random parameters in the environment of symbolic computing. The response function method belongs to the third group, where interference of classical deterministic software with the non-linear fitting numerical techniques available in various symbolic environments is displayed. We recover in this context the probabilistic structural response in engineering systems and show how to solve partial differential equations including Gaussian randomness in their coefficients.

  11. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  12. Basic symbol for ionizing radiations (second revision)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Includes a detailed description of basic symbol for ionizing radiations to be used to prevent about the presence, or possibility of presence, of ionizing radiations (X-ray, gamma radiation, particles, electrons, neutrons and protons), as well as to identify radioactive devices and materials

  13. Driving Symbolic Consumption through Imagined Vertical Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostinelli, Massimiliano; Ringberg, Torsten; Luna, David

    Drawing on theories of embodied cognition and compensatory consumption, we provide evidence that merely imagining oneself moving upward or downward affects preference for symbolic products. Altogether, two studies show that magining taking an elevator down, as opposed to up, decreases self-worth ...

  14. Symbolic generation of finite difference formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Pereyra, V.

    1978-01-01

    Tables of coefficients for high order accurate, compact approximations to the first ten derivatives on and at the midpoints of uniform nets are presented. The exact rational weights are generated and tested by means of symbolic manipulation implemented through MACSYMA. These weights are required in the application of deferred corrections to new methods for solving higher order two point boundary value problems

  15. Mythology, Weltanschauung , symbolic universe and states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, ...

  16. Reflection in psychoanalysis: on symbols and metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enckell, Henrik

    2010-10-01

    Psychoanalysis is an art of reflection, i.e. it tries to facilitate the subject's retrieval of his own self. The 'material' to be reflected upon consists of the products of human symbolization. But there are two views of reflection. In one, the self is searched in a temporal, structural and procedural 'anterior' (the model of archaeology). In the other the self is to be found in a still evolving meaning process, i.e. it resides in a 'future' (the model of teleology). Both these pictures are common in psychoanalysis. The aim of this paper is to study the figures of symbolization through the archaeology/teleology reflection model. The author tries to show that 'symbol' leans on archaeology while 'metaphor' comprises a teleological conception. In order to show the relevance of this finding, the author draws the outlines of both an archaeological and a teleological model in psychoanalysis. It is stated that the former builds on an inherent symbol model while the figure for the latter is metaphor. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  17. Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection Of MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple-symbol differential detection proposed for reception of radio-frequency signals modulated by mutliple-phase-shift keying (MPSK). Offers advantage of less complexity in not requiring equipment to acquire and track carrier signal. Performance approaches that of ideal coherent detection. Applicable to coded as well as uncoded MPSK, and to other forms of modulation.

  18. Berezin symbols and Borel summability | Garayev | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We prove in terms of so-called Berezin symbols some theorems for Borel summability method for sequences and series of complex numbers. Namely, we characterize the Borel convergent sequences and series; prove regularity of Borel summability method, and prove a new Tauberian type theorem for Borel summability.

  19. A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-16

    EID Managing Editor, Byron Breedlove, reads his cover art story, A Simple Sketch Symbolizing Self-Reliance.  Created: 2/16/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/16/2017.

  20. There Is More to Mathematics than Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    When teachers provide students with every opportunity to visually understand a mathematical concept, process, definition, or notation, they allow them to construct and manipulate relevant and useful images in their minds. Visual understanding has a dynamic character that they do not easily develop with alphanumeric symbols alone despite the…

  1. Symbolic Interactionism and Social Action Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrione, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    An explanation and elaboration of existing theory on interaction, this article describes a point of convergence between Parsons' Voluntaristic Theory of Action and Blumer's conceptualization of Symbolic Interactionism and develops specific problems of divergence in these normative and interpretive models of interaction. (JC)

  2. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  3. Understanding teacher identity from a symbolic interactionist ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leaving, and multitasking are theorised from a symbolic interactionist framework, using constructs such as situational, social and personal identity. The major finding of this inquiry speaks to the power of the working context, the educational landscape, which appears to be a much stronger force in the development of teacher ...

  4. SYMBOLISM IN THE SAMARIA IVORIES AND ARCHITECTURE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Theology, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloem fontein. 9300. e-mail: daanpienaar@telkomsa.net. D.N. Pienaar. SYMBOLISM IN THE SAMARIA. IVORIES AND ARCHITECTURE. ABSTRACT. Situated at the crossroads of great nations, the Land of Israel was exposed to numerous ex- ternal influences.

  5. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  6. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism’s overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  7. THE ICONOGRAPHIC COLOUR SYMBOLISM IN BIBLICAL POEMS BY SERGEI YESENIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Vladimirovna Mikhalenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Biblical poems by Sergei Yesenin are full of pathos of theurgic reforms and creation of a new world. All components of these poems (images, spatial-temporal organization, colour symbolics stressed the importance of ongoing changes. The colours in small poems not only correspond to normal natural colours, but also bear a symbolic meaning, drawing the reader to the iconographic mysticism. The colourful preferences correspond to the tradition (of the Old or New Testaments, iconography or liturgy, as well as scenic tradition, which Yesenin follows in his poetry. Creating images of cosmic transformation, the poet turns to the traditional icon colour combinations and reinterprets the Old and New Testaments images. It puts the cases of prophet Sergei Yesenin in line with the acts of the biblical prophets. All poems in their colour scheme are consistent with iconographic tradition. In these poems three basic colours are used which repeat the colours of thematically close icons. So, Th e Coming is coloristically associated with the icon of the Nativity, The Transfiguration corresponds to the eponymous icon of Christ. The colours show the relationship and the parallelism of the processes occurring in earthly and heavenly worlds. It emphasizes the unity of the poetic world, the engagement of the Earth and the Heaven in the conversion process. The consideration of Yesenin’s revolutionary epic in line with biblical and iconographic symbolism allows analyzing in a more detailed and deep way originality of poetic recreation of the World and enables to reveal philosophical and esoteric content of the works.

  8. Formats of Winning Strategies for Six Types of Pushdown Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Fridman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The solution of parity games over pushdown graphs (Walukiewicz '96 was the first step towards an effective theory of infinite-state games. It was shown that winning strategies for pushdown games can be implemented again as pushdown automata. We continue this study and investigate the connection between game presentations and winning strategies in altogether six cases of game arenas, among them realtime pushdown systems, visibly pushdown systems, and counter systems. In four cases we show by a uniform proof method that we obtain strategies implementable by the same type of pushdown machine as given in the game arena. We prove that for the two remaining cases this correspondence fails. In the conclusion we address the question of an abstract criterion that explains the results.

  9. 46 CFR 50.10-25 - Coast Guard Symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard Symbol. 50.10-25 Section 50.10-25 Shipping... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 50.10-25 Coast Guard Symbol. (a) The term Coast Guard Symbol... impression of the Coast Guard Symbol for stamping nameplates and specimens is shown in Figure 50.10-25(b...

  10. Intuitiveness of Symbol Features for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Thorpe, Elaine; Battiste, Vernol; Strybel, Thomas Z.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of two online surveys asking participants to indicate what type of air traffic information might be conveyed by a number of symbols and symbol features (color, fill, text, and shape). The results of this initial study suggest that the well-developed concepts of ownership, altitude, and trajectory are readily associated with certain symbol features, while the relatively novel concept of equipage was not clearly associated with any specific symbol feature.

  11. Examining the Nexus between Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

    OpenAIRE

    P. Jane Milliken RN, PhD; Rita Schreiber RN, DNS

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is inherently symbolic interactionist; however, not all grounded theory researchers appreciate its importance or benefit from its influence. Elsewhere, we have written about the intrinsic relationship between grounded theory and symbolic interactionism, highlighting the silent, fundamental contribution of symbolic interactionism to the methodology. At the same time, there are significant insights to be had by bringing a conscious awareness of the philosophy of symbolic interac...

  12. Optimizing Distribution Problems using WinQSB Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihai Amariei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we are presenting a problem of distribution using the Network Modeling Module of the WinQSB software, were we have 5 athletes which we must assign the optimal sample, function of the obtained time, so as to obtain the maximum output of the athletes. Also we analyzed the case of an accident of 2 athletes, the coupling of 3 athletes with 5 various athletic events causing the maximum coupling, done using the Hungarian algorithm.

  13. Insurgent Safe Havens: Can We Win the Fight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    factory, a clothing factory, an arms factory, a ~ bakery , hospitals, possible a radio transmitter, a printing press, etc." 17 Che viewed sanctuary as...to beat and proved that an inferior force when properly hidden, striking the weak points of the enemy at the time and place of their choosing can...Record, Jeffery, Beating Goliath, Why Insurgencies Win, (Washington, DC: Potomac Books Inc.). Pg X 5 Clausewitz, Carl Von, On War, Edited by Michael

  14. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  15. Arming USAF Senior Leaders With Words To Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    AU/ACSC/CORBIN, R/AY16 2 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ARMING USAF SENIOR LEADERS WITH WORDS TO WIN by...this toolset for leaders (or its viable utility as an option for implementation) this research looks at the current training provided to both senior ...accurately, as well as the current training provided to both senior leaders in the USAF and to the personnel that support them in their communication

  16. Doubling Your Payoff: Winning Pain Relief Engages Endogenous Pain Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Susanne; Gandhi, Wiebke; Kwan, Saskia; Ahmed, Alysha-Karima; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2015-01-01

    When in pain, pain relief is much sought after, particularly for individuals with chronic pain. In analogy to augmentation of the hedonic experience ("liking") of a reward by the motivation to obtain a reward ("wanting"), the seeking of pain relief in a motivated state might increase the experience of pain relief when obtained. We tested this hypothesis in a psychophysical experiment in healthy human subjects, by assessing potential pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief "won" in a wheel of fortune game compared with pain relief without winning, exploiting the fact that the mere chance of winning induces a motivated state. The results show pain-inhibitory effects of pain relief obtained by winning in behaviorally assessed pain perception and ratings of pain intensity. Further, the higher participants scored on the personality trait novelty seeking, the more pain inhibition was induced. These results provide evidence that pain relief, when obtained in a motivated state, engages endogenous pain-inhibitory systems beyond the pain reduction that underlies the relief in the first place. Consequently, such pain relief might be used to improve behavioral pain therapy, inducing a positive, perhaps self-amplifying feedback loop of reduced pain and improved functionality.

  17. Cognitive Deficits and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace; Yeung, Siu-sze Susanna

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than…

  18. 7 CFR 91.102 - Form of official identification symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form of official identification symbols. 91.102... LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Designation of Approved Symbols for Identification of Commodities Officially Tested By AMS § 91.102 Form of official identification symbols. Two...

  19. 21 CFR 1302.03 - Symbol required; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Symbol required; exceptions. 1302.03 Section 1302... REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.03 Symbol required; exceptions. (a) Each commercial container of... § 1308.31 of this chapter) shall have printed on the label the symbol designating the schedule in which...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 172 - Trefoil Symbol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trefoil Symbol B Appendix B to Part 172... SECURITY PLANS Pt. 172, App. B Appendix B to Part 172—Trefoil Symbol 1. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this appendix, the trefoil symbol required for RADIOACTIVE labels and placards and required to be...

  1. 17 CFR 232.306 - Foreign language documents and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... symbols. 232.306 Section 232.306 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... § 232.306 Foreign language documents and symbols. (a) All electronic filings and submissions must be in... words or letters in the English language rather than representative symbols, except that HTML documents...

  2. Different ritual symbols in Igbo traditional religion and their functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbols change in their value and functions and as a result of the changes in cultural appreciation. The change in the emphasis on the role of symbolism in general is partly consequence of cultural intellectual, social and economic transformation. All our actions are symbolic and we cannot do without interacting with each ...

  3. 40 CFR 60.311 - Definitions and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.311 Section... Furniture § 60.311 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart not defined below are given... applied coating solids, emitted from a metal furniture surface coating operation. (b) All symbols used in...

  4. 40 CFR 60.581 - Definitions and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.581 Section... Coating and Printing § 60.581 Definitions and symbols. (a) All terms used in this subpart, not defined... solvent vapors emitted from the flexible vinyl or urethane rotogravure printing line. (b) All symbols used...

  5. Visual Symbolism in Contemporary Theatre Directing in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This difference is cropped from the director's perception, conception, imaginative and creative impetus. Visual symbolism in the theatre as a medium traverse forms, textures, symbols, lines, lighting, circles and balance in creating an everlasting theatre experience. Visual symbolism is influenced by style, concept, forms, ...

  6. 40 CFR 60.441 - Definitions and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions and symbols. 60.441 Section... Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.441 Definitions and symbols. (a) Except as otherwise required by... volatile organic compound. (b) All symbols used in this subpart not defined below are given meaning in the...

  7. 32 CFR 310.42 - Reports control symbol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports control symbol. 310.42 Section 310.42... PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Reports § 310.42 Reports control symbol. Any report established by this subpart in support of the Privacy Program shall be assigned Report Control Symbol DD-COMP(A)1379. ...

  8. 50 CFR 85.43 - Signs and symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signs and symbols. 85.43 Section 85.43... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.43 Signs and symbols. (a) Signs. Facilities must display appropriate... for boaters to get additional information or to report an inoperable facility. (b) Pumpout symbol. (1...

  9. 40 CFR 90.403 - Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.403 Symbols, acronyms, and abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table 1 in Appendix A to Subpart D apply to...

  10. 40 CFR 91.403 - Symbols and abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols and abbreviations. 91.403 Section 91.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Symbols and abbreviations. (a) The abbreviations in § 91.5 apply to this subpart. (b) The symbols in Table...

  11. The Symbolic Order of School: Waldorf and College Prep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Mary E.

    Schools embody a "symbolic order" communicated through school rituals and social and symbolic relationships. Schools possess a moral vision, a system of values and norms that they wish to develop in students. This paper compares the symbolic order of two independent schools, one a traditional college preparatory school (preschool-grade 12), the…

  12. 78 FR 23508 - Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... recognition process. FDA will consider recognizing symbols contained in standards developed by SDOs that... FDA, used within any parameters of such recognition, and be explained in a symbols glossary that... 809 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0125] RIN 0910-AG74 Use of Certain Symbols in Labeling AGENCY: Food and...

  13. SYNERGY OF ULI SYMBOLS AND TEXTILES: AN EXPLORATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NKEM

    signs and symbols are merely objects of communal enjoyment rather than signs and symbols of .... ethno-aesthetics to contemporary crafts and products not only bares new frontiers of creativity, but assumes a new way ... piece is highly symbolic which borders on global issues where hunger and starvation, natural deserter ...

  14. Graphical user interfaces for symbol-oriented database visualization and interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Siormanolakis, Marios; Vogelsang, Holger

    1997-04-01

    In this approach, two basic services designed for the engineering of computer based systems are combined: a symbol-oriented man-machine-service and a high speed database-service. The man-machine service is used to build graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for the database service; these interfaces are stored using the database service. The idea is to create a GUI-builder and a GUI-manager for the database service based upon the man-machine service using the concept of symbols. With user-definable and predefined symbols, database contents can be visualized and manipulated in a very flexible and intuitive way. Using the GUI-builder and GUI-manager, a user can build and operate its own graphical user interface for a given database according to its needs without writing a single line of code.

  15. How traditional symbols can be used as inspiration source in shaping the urban architecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. khakzand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the developing of how designers can search for inspiration source which provided in the form of traditional elements and archetypes and also their role on idea generation in design from building to urban measure. In order to clarify of this, current study focuses on the Far-East region as an ancient part of the world in which there is a huge number of symbols like well known, Yin-Yang. To understanding of how designers inspired by the symbols and forming the character of place via those, the case study method is used to an in-depth evaluation. The result is presented in a table involving cases which selected in divers rang of Far-East countries. Based on result, historical symbols, as a rich source of ideas and stimulation can play a significant in meaning-making and also forming the identity of city. In addition, these symbols help highly to revival the exiting values which ignored in contemporary urbanization particularly in developing countries like Iran. Accordingly, evaluation of cases observed that the symbol-inspired design can prove the durability of the urban character. Finally, inspiration source divided in two main types including: visual and verbal. Based on results of exist study, most of designers inspired visually (i.e. visual analogy, external and a low percent of them inspired verbally (i.e. abstract, internal. Moreover, minority of designer inspired mediocre by combination of these (i.e. visual/verbal.

  16. Substituting sugar confectionery with fruit and healthy snacks at checkout - a win-win strategy for consumers and food stores?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Lise L.; Christensen, Ulla; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    a 'responsible' branding opportunity for supermarkets, thus representing a win-win strategy for store managers and consumers in the short term. However, the intervention was too modest to draw conclusions on long-term sales and health implications of this initiative. More research is needed to assess whether......BACKGROUND: The widespread use of in-store marketing strategies to induce unhealthy impulsive purchases has implications for shopping experience, food choice and possibly adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine consumer attitudes and evaluate sales effects of a healthy...... in four stores for 4 weeks. The intervention was evaluated by 48 short exit interviews on consumer perceptions of the intervention and by linear mixed model analyses of supermarket sales data from the intervention area and a matched control area. RESULTS: The qualitative pre-intervention study identified...

  17. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  18. Is Hosting the Games Enough to Win? A predictive economic model of medal wins at 2014 Winter Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2012-01-01

    An econometric model which has first been estimated on medal wins at Summer Olympics and has predicted 88% of medal distribution at Beijing Games 2008, is revisited for Winter Olympics. After changing some variables to take into account the winter sports specificity, the model is estimated again on all Winter Games since 1964.Then it is used to predict (forecast) the medal distribution per country at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics.

  19. Symbolic Computation Using Cellular Automata-Based Hyperdimensional Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur

    2015-12-01

    This letter introduces a novel framework of reservoir computing that is capable of both connectionist machine intelligence and symbolic computation. A cellular automaton is used as the reservoir of dynamical systems. Input is randomly projected onto the initial conditions of automaton cells, and nonlinear computation is performed on the input via application of a rule in the automaton for a period of time. The evolution of the automaton creates a space-time volume of the automaton state space, and it is used as the reservoir. The proposed framework is shown to be capable of long-term memory, and it requires orders of magnitude less computation compared to echo state networks. As the focus of the letter, we suggest that binary reservoir feature vectors can be combined using Boolean operations as in hyperdimensional computing, paving a direct way for concept building and symbolic processing. To demonstrate the capability of the proposed system, we make analogies directly on image data by asking, What is the automobile of air?

  20. In vivo labeling of cocaine receptors with 3H-(-) cocaine, 3H-WIN 35,065-2 and 3H-WIN 35,428

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, U.; Boja, J.W.; Stathis, M.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    11 C-(-)cocaine (-COC) has recently been employed to image -COC binding sites in vivo using PET. Two analogs of -COC, WIN 35,065-2 (WIN-2) and WIN 35,428 (CFT), have been shown in vitro to exhibit higher affinity for the -COC receptor than -COC. The present study evaluates 3 H-WIN-2 and 3 H-CFT as in vivo receptor labels in mice with a view towards the use of these compounds as PET ligands for -COC receptors in the living human brain. 3 H-labeled -COC, WIN-2 and CFT were injected i.v. into mice and their specific binding in the CNS determined. Peak striatal/cerebellar (S/C) ratios were reached at 5 minutes post injection with -COC (1.56), at 45 minutes with 3 H-WIN-2 (3.30) and 60 minutes with 3 H-CFT (4.0). The specificity of in vivo binding of 3 H-WIN-2 and 3 H-CFT was tested by pre-injection of various drugs. Binding of 3 H-WIN-2 and 3 H-CFT was dose-dependently blocked by cold WIN-2 and CFT, and by dopamine uptake site inhibitors (mazindol, GBR 12,909, nomifensine), but not by (+)COC, paroxetine and desipramine. The data indicate that 3 H-WIN-2 and 3 H-CFT exhibit improved in vivo binding (higher S/C ratios, longer retention time at the -COC receptor/dopamine transporter) compared to -COC and support their testing in PET studies

  1. Victimisation and Relations of Symbolic Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Nay (1999). It also undertakes a critical discussion of symbolic violence in the meanings given to victimisation and its aftermaths, as when conceptualised with the help of PTSD (e.g. may the use of concepts of this kind and the practices developed in relation to it constitute symbolic violence...... the ways we understand and classify behavioural, emotional and cognitive processes, such as gendered practices, to social fields of practice, and points to the consequences of not doing so. In order to develop the analysis of concrete difficulties victims experience Bourdieu’s concept will be supplemented...... on the personal and social meanings of “trauma” developed in an empirical research project on the aftermaths of victimisation through rape and other forms of sexualised coercion....

  2. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  3. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1985-01-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race

  4. Scalable hardware verification with symbolic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bertacco, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    An innovative presentation of the theory of disjoint support decomposition, presenting novel results and algorithms, plus original and up-to-date techniques in formal verificationProvides an overview of current verification techniques, and unveils the inner workings of symbolic simulationFocuses on new techniques that narrow the performance gap between the complexity of digital systems and the limited ability to verify themAddresses key topics in need of future research.

  5. Blue Flag: a Symbol of Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Blue Flag is a high standard symbol of environmental protection and it is awarded to the beaches and agreement ports by the Foundation of Education for the Environment. The beaches having been awarded this distinction warrant particular protection for their visitors, which is a particular point of tourism attractiveness: the result, they are preferred by tourists and, therefore, by tour operators selling tourism packages for the littoral. In 2009, Romanian beaches were not awarded any Blue Flags.

  6. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, E.

    1985-10-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

  7. DYNAMICS OF SYMBOLS AS TRANSCULTURAL POETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Vagner de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reflecting on the poetic possibilities of productions that take the encounter of cultures as compositional element to discuss issues beyond the limits of literature and culture. Thus, we sought to demonstrate the dynamics of cross-cultural symbolic systems through the political play A Revolta da Casa dos Ídolos (1978 by Pepetela in order to propose new understandings of the social reality in contemporary Angola.

  8. Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2017-08-24

    Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization. Sound symbolism also provides a mechanism by which words' forms can have nonarbitrary, iconic relationships with their meanings. Although various proposals have been put forth for how phonetic features (both acoustic and articulatory) come to be associated with stimuli, there is as yet no generally agreed-upon explanation. We review five proposals: statistical co-occurrence between phonetic features and associated stimuli in the environment, a shared property among phonetic features and stimuli; neural factors; species-general, evolved associations; and patterns extracted from language. We identify a number of outstanding questions that need to be addressed on this topic and suggest next steps for the field.

  9. Grounding compositional symbols: no composition without discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Alberto; Carrea, Elena

    2012-05-01

    The classical computational conception of meaning has been challenged by the idea that symbols must be grounded on sensorimotor processes. A difficult question arises from the fact that grounding representations cannot be symbolic themselves but, in order to support compositionality, should work as primitives. This implies that they should be precisely identifiable and strictly connected with discriminable perceptual features. Ideally, each representation should correspond to a single discriminable feature. The present study was aimed at exploring whether feature discrimination is a fundamental requisite for grounding compositional symbols. We studied this problem by using Integral stimuli, composed of two interacting and not separable features. Such stimuli were selected in Experiment 1 as pictures whose component features are easily or barely discriminable (Separable or Integral) on the basis of psychological distance metrics (City-block or Euclidean) computed from similarity judgments. In Experiment 2, either each feature was associated with one word of a two-word expression, or the whole stimulus with a single word. In Experiment 3, the procedure was reversed and words or expressions were associated with whole pictures or separate features. Results support the hypothesis that single words are best grounded by Integral stimuli and composite expressions by Separable stimuli, where a strict association of single words with discriminated features is possible.

  10. Multiple symbol differential detection of uncoded and trellis coded MPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1989-01-01

    A differential detection for MPSK, which uses a multiple symbol observation interval, is presented and its performance analyzed and simulated. The technique makes use of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of the transmitted phases rather than symbol-by-symbol detection as in conventional differential detection. As such the performance of this multiple symbol detection scheme fills the gap between conventional (two-symbol observation) differentially coherent detection of MPSK and ideal coherent of MPSK with differential encoding. The amount of improvement gained over conventional differential detection depends on the number of phases, M, and the number of additional symbol intervals added to the observation. What is particularly interesting is that substantial performance improvement can be obtained for only one or two additional symbol intervals of observation. The analysis and simulation results presented are for uncoded and trellis coded MPSK.

  11. Expressing determination: From ENS programme 'Women and nuclear energy' to WIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininen-Ojanperae, Marke

    1993-01-01

    WIN is an international association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application and willing to devote time to public information. It is established as non-profit making. WIN'S working language is English. WIN aims to contribute to objectively informing the public, especially women, on nuclear energy and radiation, in particular by: meeting regularly to exchange ideas and experiences between countries' WIN information groups, establishing country WIN groups in nuclear countries as widely as practical, supporting each other across borders, working out shared information techniques and information materials for international use. WIN is open to female nuclear and radiation professionals and academics as well as communications specialists, from all over the world, pledged to adhere to the goals of this Charter. The first WINFO Quarterly Newsletter of Women in Nuclear has been published

  12. Winning the Battle of Ideas in the War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    campaign, which symbolized all U.S. women who worked in manufacturing jobs to support the World War II effort. This single advertising campaign increased...Jack Valenti, Cinema and War: Hollywood’s response to September 11, Harvard International Review, Volume: 24. Issue: 2; 2002, 78. 43 George J. Siegel

  13. The Air Campaign vs. Ballistic Missiles: Seeking the Strategic Win in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Adapted from the Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996), 357–58; Eliot...audible 4 Robert A. Pape, Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University...Cass Series--Studies in Air Power 12. London ; Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 2003. Pape, Robert A. Bombing to Win : Air Power and Coercion in War

  14. Cyberspace Human Capital: Building a Cadre Today to Win Tomorrows War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    James Kaplan, Naufal Khan and Roger Roberts . Winning the Battle for Technology Talent, Business Technology Office, 2012. 41 Recommendation R8...Building a Cadre Today to Win Tomorrow’s War by Erica Fountain, Brian Viola & Michael Williams, Major United States Air Force A...Schwartz, kick-started the transformation of the USAF’s foundational mission imperatives with a new mission statement: “to fly, fight and win in air

  15. Understanding a Complex World: Why an Emphasis on Empathy Could Better Enable Army Leaders to Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    the problem of how to win in a complex world. 1 Brig. Gen. Oscar W. Koch and Robert G. Hayes, G-2: Intelligence for Patton (Atglen, PA: Schiffer...UNDERSTANDING A COMPLEX WORLD: WHY AN EMPHASIS ON EMPATHY COULD BETTER ENABLE ARMY LEADERS TO WIN A thesis presented to the...Leaders to Win 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew J. Fontaine, MAJ 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  16. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically. PMID:27057558

  17. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran MinhHai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1 estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2 symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  18. An Acoustic OFDM System with Symbol-by-Symbol Doppler Compensation for Underwater Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MinhHai, Tran; Rie, Saotome; Suzuki, Taisaku; Wada, Tomohisa

    2016-01-01

    We propose an acoustic OFDM system for underwater communication, specifically for vertical link communications such as between a robot in the sea bottom and a mother ship in the surface. The main contributions are (1) estimation of time varying Doppler shift using continual pilots in conjunction with monitoring the drift of Power Delay Profile and (2) symbol-by-symbol Doppler compensation in frequency domain by an ICI matrix representing nonuniform Doppler. In addition, we compare our proposal against a resampling method. Simulation and experimental results confirm that our system outperforms the resampling method when the velocity changes roughly over OFDM symbols. Overall, experimental results taken in Shizuoka, Japan, show our system using 16QAM, and 64QAM achieved a data throughput of 7.5 Kbit/sec with a transmitter moving at maximum 2 m/s, in a complicated trajectory, over 30 m vertically.

  19. Key performance indicators for government and non profit agencies: implementing winning KPIs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parmenter, David

    2012-01-01

    "Winning techniques and strategies for nonprofits and government agencies in creating successful and critical key performance indicatorsBy exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David...

  20. Planning chemical syntheses with deep neural networks and symbolic AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H. S.; Preuss, Mike; Waller, Mark P.

    2018-03-01

    To plan the syntheses of small organic molecules, chemists use retrosynthesis, a problem-solving technique in which target molecules are recursively transformed into increasingly simpler precursors. Computer-aided retrosynthesis would be a valuable tool but at present it is slow and provides results of unsatisfactory quality. Here we use Monte Carlo tree search and symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) to discover retrosynthetic routes. We combined Monte Carlo tree search with an expansion policy network that guides the search, and a filter network to pre-select the most promising retrosynthetic steps. These deep neural networks were trained on essentially all reactions ever published in organic chemistry. Our system solves for almost twice as many molecules, thirty times faster than the traditional computer-aided search method, which is based on extracted rules and hand-designed heuristics. In a double-blind AB test, chemists on average considered our computer-generated routes to be equivalent to reported literature routes.

  1. Planning chemical syntheses with deep neural networks and symbolic AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H S; Preuss, Mike; Waller, Mark P

    2018-03-28

    To plan the syntheses of small organic molecules, chemists use retrosynthesis, a problem-solving technique in which target molecules are recursively transformed into increasingly simpler precursors. Computer-aided retrosynthesis would be a valuable tool but at present it is slow and provides results of unsatisfactory quality. Here we use Monte Carlo tree search and symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) to discover retrosynthetic routes. We combined Monte Carlo tree search with an expansion policy network that guides the search, and a filter network to pre-select the most promising retrosynthetic steps. These deep neural networks were trained on essentially all reactions ever published in organic chemistry. Our system solves for almost twice as many molecules, thirty times faster than the traditional computer-aided search method, which is based on extracted rules and hand-designed heuristics. In a double-blind AB test, chemists on average considered our computer-generated routes to be equivalent to reported literature routes.

  2. Forms of vitality play and symbolic play during the third year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Bordoni, Mariana; Martínez, Mauricio; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    This article focuses on the development of forms of vitality play, a recently described type of play, and links it to the development of symbolic play, one of the most studied types of play in developmental psychology. Two adult-infant dyads were videotaped longitudinally during in-house free play meetings every 15 days during the third year of life. Convergence technique was applied in order to accelerate the longitudinal study. A total of 17h 48min were registered in 28 sessions. An observational code with categories of forms of vitality play (a non-figurative play frame in which child and adult play together with the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form), symbolic play, and categories of combined patterns of both types of play was applied. The rate of each play was calculated for different age periods. Forms of vitality play is present at a constant rate during the third year of life. Symbolic play flourishes during this period. Combined play patterns are not the most frequent but are present from the beginning to the end of the third year. We suggest that FoVP favours intimate and intersubjective experiences essential to the understanding and the development of the interpersonal world; that it can be thought of as a good runway for the development of symbolic play; and that it prepares the child to participate in the temporal arts that belong to his culture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM IN FYODOR DOSTOEVSKY'S NOVEL "THE POSSESSED" ("DEMONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Leonidovich Sharakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article raises a question of Christian symbolism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s novel The Possessed (Demons. The introductory part identifies the purpose of a symbol in Christian poetics through the parallel with ancient symbolism. The author makes a conclusion that the functional role of a symbol in the ancient world and Christian tradition is different. Therefore, the ancient symbol involves a number of interrelated categories, such as fate, intuition or conjecture, inspiration, and predictions. Christian symbolism is based on the idea of redemption and moral innocence. Methodologically, the article is based on a cultural and historical approach, as well as on the comparative academic tradition. The overview of Dostoyevsky’s pre-materials for The Possessed (Demons enables us to suggest the use of Christian symbolism in this novel. Hence, the objective of the study is to investigate a composition of images and symbols in this piece of writing, with a special focus on the image of a chronicler since the storyline of the novel is developed through his perception. We make a supposition that there are several levels of Gospel perception in the artistic vision or consciousness of the chronicler, that form the basis of the symbolical composition of the novel. The article sequentially examines the examples of Christian symbolism, including the connection of ideas, characters and storylines of the novel with the Gospel. Then it gives evidence and reasons for the thesis that the Gospel gives the characters of the novel the grounds for shaping their destiny.

  4. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  5. On the Symbolism of Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Tolmatchoff

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay discusses Thomas Mann’s symbolism and its parameters as well as Mann’s interpretation of the crisis of European spiritual values. Тhe author examines the role of Nietzsche in Mann’s heritage as well as interconnections between Mann and Wilde, Mann and Gide. Buddenbrooks is interpreted as a novel about the end of the German Renaissance; duality of the modern artist is shown on the example of “Tonio Kröger” while the paradoxes of his eroticism are analyzed on the example of “Der Tod in Venedig.”

  6. Information measures and uncertainty of particular symbols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 144-163 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0572; GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Information source * Information measure * Uncertainty modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/mares-information measure s and uncertainty of particular symbols.pdf

  7. [Symbolic meanings of patients with chronic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luz Angélica; Price, Yocelyn; Gambini, Liliana; Stefanelli, Maguida Costa

    2003-12-01

    The investigation presents three cultural universes of those suffering from arterial hypertension, diabetes and arthrosis, describing the different dimensions and interpreting their meaning. The ethnographic method was utilized, using the ethnographic interview and participant observation and for the interpretation, the symbolic interactionism and other authors. Convergences in the dimensions arise in which the three diseases are perceived: the loss of well-being and social support, fear of disability and death. perception of the family and accepting the chronicity, interest in alternative medicine. The informants of this study perceive nursing care with ambiguity.

  8. Symbolic forms can be mnemonics for recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C H; Kennedy, J M

    1994-12-01

    Form symbolism using squares and circles can aid recall. In Experiment 1, subjects saw 20 words, each presented in a circle or a square. Words like SOFT and MOTHER were presented in circles in the "congruent" condition, whereas the same words were presented in squares in the "incongruent" condition. Two experiments revealed that words in the congruent condition were more likely to be recalled. A comparison of the conditions with a baseline condition, in which 20 listed words were not closely related to either of the shapes, suggests that the effect was more likely due to facilitation produced by the congruent condition than to inhibition from the incongruent condition.

  9. MIMESIS OR THE FRUITION OF SYMBOLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Feron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mimesis seems to be coextensive to history of philosophy, and its re-visitation – from the perspective of a critical anthropology – should lead to the deconstruction of certain myths that structure metaphysics since Plato; among others, the stigma of the reproduction of a legitimate origin. Considering the work of Hans Blumenberg, this paper considers the possibility of an anthropology developed from the perspective of a symbolical dynamics that, from organic to imaginary, from unconscious to analytics of intellect, allows modern reason to understand its own exercise as a play, beyond any kind of anguish.

  10. Symbol interval optimization for molecular communication with drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Eckford, Andrew W; Chae, Chan-Byoung

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a symbol interval optimization algorithm in molecular communication with drift. Proper symbol intervals are important in practical communication systems since information needs to be sent as fast as possible with low error rates. There is a trade-off, however, between symbol intervals and inter-symbol interference (ISI) from Brownian motion. Thus, we find proper symbol interval values considering the ISI inside two kinds of blood vessels, and also suggest no ISI system for strong drift models. Finally, an isomer-based molecule shift keying (IMoSK) is applied to calculate achievable data transmission rates (achievable rates, hereafter). Normalized achievable rates are also obtained and compared in one-symbol ISI and no ISI systems.

  11. Football league win prediction based on online and league table data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Prateek; Gupt, Ankit Kumar; Singh, Samarth; Khare, Neelu; Bhattachrya, Sweta

    2017-11-01

    As we are proceeding towards an internet driven world, the impact of internet is increasing in our day to lives. This not only gives impact on the virtual world but also leave a mark in the real world. The social media sites contains huge amount of information, the only thing is to collect the relevant data and analyse the data to form a real world prediction and it can do far more than that. In this paper we study the relationship between the twitter data and the normal data analysis to predict the winning team in the NFL (National Football League).The prediction is based on the data collected on the on-going league which includes performance of each player and their previous statistics. Alongside with the data available online we are combining the twitter data which we extracted by the tweets pertaining to specific teams and games in the NFL season and use them alongside statistical game data to build predictive models for future or the outcome of the game i.e. which team will lose or win depending upon the statistical data available. Specifically the tweets within the 24 hours of match will be considered and the main focus of twitter data will be upon the last hours of tweets i.e. pre-match twitter data and post-match twitter data. We are experimenting on the data and using twitter data we are trying to increase the performance of the existing predictive models that uses only the game stats to predict the future.

  12. Symbolic Estrangement: Evidence against a Strong Association between Numerical Symbols and the Quantities They Represent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Ansari, Daniel; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Are numerals estranged from a sense of the actual quantities they represent? We demonstrate that, irrespective of numerical size or distance, direct comparison of the relative quantities represented by symbolic and nonsymbolic formats leads to performance markedly worse than when comparing 2 nonsymbolic quantities (Experiment 1). Experiment 2…

  13. The name of the son. Fatherhood, motherhood and symbolic competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tania Zittoun conceptions on uses of cultural elements as symbolic resources for psychological development are presented. Such uses of symbolic resources are examined through a study of the procedure of choosing first names during the transition to parenthood. The notion of symbolic competencies, as the abilities to use cultural elements as resources for thinking, action and a healthy development, is discussed. 

  14. Inter-Symbol Guard Time for Synchronizing Optical PPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far, William; Gin, Jonathan; Srinivasan, Meera; Quirk, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    An inter-symbol guard time has been proposed as a means of synchronizing the symbol and slot clocks of an optical pulse-position modulation (PPM) receiver with the symbol and slot periods of an incoming optical PPM signal.The proposal is applicable to the low-flux case in which the receiver photodetector operates in a photon-counting mode and the count can include contributions from incidental light sources and dark current.

  15. From mythology to psychology: Identifying archetypal symbols in movies

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Boladeras, Marta; Català Mallofré, Andreu; Chen, Wei; Rauterberg, Mattias; Ivonin, Leonid; Huang-Ming, Chang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the theory of archetype, which explains the connection between ancient myths and the human mind. Based on the assumption that archetypes are in the deepest level of human mind, we propose that archetypal symbolism is a kind of knowledge that supports the cognitive process for creating subjective world-view towards the physical world we live in. According to archetypal symbolism, we conducted an empirical study to identify archetypal symbols in modern movies. A ne...

  16. Optical symbolic processor for expert system execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Aloke

    1987-11-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a concept for an optical computer architecture for symbolic computing by defining a computation model of a high level language, examining the possible devices for the ultimate construction of a processor, and by defining required optical operations. This quarter we investigated the implementation alternatives for an optical shuffle exchange network (SEN). Work in previous quarter had led to the conclusion that the SEN was most appropriate optical interconnection network topology for the symbolic processing architecture (SPARO). A more detailed analysis was therefore conducted to examine implementation possibilities. It was determined that while the shuffle connection of the SEN was very feasible in optics using passive devices, a full-scale exchange switch which handles conflict resolution among competing messages is much more difficult. More emphasis was therefore given to the exchange switch design. The functionalities required for the exchange switch and its controls were analyzed. These functionalities were then assessed for optical implementation. It is clear that even the basic exchange switch, that is, an exchange without the controls for conflict resolution, delivery, etc..., is quite a difficult problem in optics. We have proposed a number of optical techniques that appear to be good candidates for realizing the basic exchange switch. A reasonable approach appears to be to evaluate these techniques.

  17. Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Hannah; Bowern, Claire; LaPalombara, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies. PMID:24752356

  18. Symbolic interactionism and the concept of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alex; Martin, Peter J

    2005-06-01

    Symbolic interactionism is often represented as a perspective which is limited by its restriction to 'micro' aspects of social organization. As such, it is allegedly unable to adequately conceptualize 'macro' phenomena such as social structure, patterns of inequality, and power. Such a view is routinely presented in undergraduate textbooks. This paper contests such a view through a consideration of the concept of power. We argue that the interactionist research tradition does show a fundamental concern with power phenomena, and that a reconsideration of the concept is timely in light of theoretical developments in sociology more generally. An increasing concern with the analysis of culture, the continuing influence of Foucault, the development of feminist perspectives, and the emerging consensus around neo-Weberian thought have all contributed to a renewal of interest in themes long ago explored by interactionists. As examples we suggest that interactionist studies in the fields of deviance and education have been concerned above all with the authoritative imposition of consequential identities, i.e., with the social processes through which power is enacted and institutionalized in real situations. Such developments have led some to argue that interactionism has now been incorporated into the mainstream of sociology. We conclude, however, by arguing that such a view runs the risk of granting to orthodox sociological thought a legitimacy which is analytically unwarranted, and which fails to recognize the alternative theoretical and philosophical foundations of symbolic interactionist thought.

  19. Challenging convention: symbolic interactionism and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Not very much is written in the literature about decisions made by researchers and the justifications on method as a result of a particular clinical problem, together with an appropriate and congruent theoretical perspective, particularly for Glaserian grounded theory. I contend the utilisation of symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective to inform and guide the evolving research process and analysis of data when using classic or Glaserian grounded theory (GT) method, is not always appropriate. Within this article I offer an analysis of the key issues to be addressed when contemplating the use of Glaserian GT and the utilisation of an appropriate theoretical perspective, rather than accepting convention of symbolic interactionism (SI). The analysis became imperative in a study I conducted that sought to explore the concerns, adaptive behaviours, psychosocial processes and relevant interactions over a 12-month period, among newly diagnosed persons with end stage renal disease, dependent on haemodialysis in the home environment for survival. The reality of perception was central to the end product in the study. Human ethics approval was granted by six committees within New South Wales Health Department and one from a university.

  20. Symbolic convergence and the hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brossmann, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This article documents that the hydrogen economy continues to attract significant attention among politicians, the media, and some academics. We believe that an explanation lies in the way that the hydrogen economy fulfills psychological and cultural needs related to a future world where energy is abundant, cheap, and pollution-free, a 'fantasy' that manifests itself with the idea that society can continue to operate without limits imposed by population growth and the destruction of the environment. The article begins by explaining its research methodology consisting of two literature reviews, research interviews of energy experts, and the application of symbolic convergence theory, a general communications theory about the construction of rhetorical fantasies. We then identify a host of socio-technical challenges to explain why the creation of a hydrogen economy would present immense (and possibly intractable) obstacles, an argument supplemented by our research interviews. Next, we employ symbolic convergence theory to identify five prevalent fantasy themes and rhetorical visions-independence, patriotism, progress, democratization, and inevitability-in academic and public discussions in favor of the hydrogen economy. We conclude by offering implications for scholarship relating to energy policy more broadly.

  1. Winning the War and Winning the Peace: Reconciling Occupation Law and the Small Wars Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    the twentieth century . Comprising the combined expe- rience of a generation of Marine Corps leaders, the Small Wars Manual derives those lessons...lessons learned from the Marine Corps’ involvement in small-scale conflicts during the first half of the twentieth century . Comprising the...by using the early stages of Operation Iraqi Freedom to expose the tensions between occupation law and the American policies for promoting stability

  2. Resiliency in American Library Association Award Winning Juvenile Fiction: A Correlational Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Michelle T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative content analysis was to determine whether there was a relationship between the age, gender, or race of protagonists in contemporary American Library Association award-winning juvenile literature and the representation of resilience by those characters. Award-winning juvenile fiction and biography books were…

  3. Striatal connectivity changes following gambling wins and near-misses: Associations with gambling severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, R.J. van; Chase, H.W.; Clark, L.

    2014-01-01

    Frontostriatal circuitry is implicated in the cognitive distortions associated with gambling behaviour. 'Near-miss' events, where unsuccessful outcomes are proximal to a jackpot win, recruit overlapping neural circuitry with actual monetary wins. Personal control over a gamble (e.g., via choice) is

  4. 26 CFR 31.3402(q)-1 - Extension of withholding to certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the statement demanded by each cashier the amount of winnings from identical wagers. Although the... actuarially determined that, on January 3, 1977, D's life expectancy is 5 years. Based on that determination... winning ticket is entitled to proceeds of $100,000 payable either as a lump sum upon demand or $10,000 a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.6011-3 - Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. 1.6011-3 Section 1.6011-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... of statement from payees of certain gambling winnings. (a) General rule. Except as provided in...

  6. If Winning Isn't Everything--How Can It Be the Only Thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    There is more to a successful school athletic program than a winning record. Winning becomes meaningless when youthful victories subvert personal growth, shallow goals shatter dreams, personality is elevated over principle, and athletics are compromised by economic and social forces. To balance academics and athletics, we must consider our…

  7. 78 FR 52802 - Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Tin T. Win, M.D. (hereinafter, Registrant), of Lake... precludes a finding of mootness, see Robert Charles Ley, 76 FR 20033, 20034 (2011), I directed the...

  8. Advanced Planning and Thorough Documentation--the Basis for Winning Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    States that advanced planning and thorough documentation is required to prepare winning proposals. Shares suggestions for preparing better proposal documentation from the foundation, to the Capture Plan, to the final proposal product--all with a goal of increasing the number of contract wins. (PA)

  9. The number and its symbolism in ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doc. dr Milena Bogdanović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbols are of particular importance. They are the heart of the creative life; rather they are its core. They reveal the secrets of the unconscious mind open to the unknown and the infinite. While talking or gestures while express, we use the symbols, noting it or not. All spiritual science, all art and all art techniques encounter on their way symbols. History confirms that the symbols of each object can be obtained symbolic value, whether natural (rocks, trees, animals, planets, fire, lightning, etc... or abstract (geometrical shape, number, pace, ideas, etc.... The use of numbers as symbols is as old as language itself, but one that precedes writing, which symbolize numbers (that is, where the reality behind the external characters. The sheer numbers and their symbolism in ancient Greece and is closely associated with the philosophy and mathematics (namely arithmetic. They summarize their view of the world and everything around them. This paper draws attention to the symbolism of the numbers that were in ancient Greece.

  10. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  11. Handwriting generates variable visual output to facilitate symbol learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Julia X; James, Karin H

    2016-03-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing 2 hypotheses: that handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5-year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: 3 involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and 3 involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the 6 conditions (N = 72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Exploring the Development of Symbolic Function of Consciousness: A Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakov A.M.,

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article describes studying method which developed the symbolic function mind. It is defined as a functional unit providing the solution of problems by understanding and expression of the reality of the subject-subject relationship using symbols. The symbol understood as a cultural form of presen- tation of subjective reality, mediating the relationship and interaction between two or more subjects. The symbol consists of sense-perception of form and meaning, expressing a subjective reality. The structure of the symbolic function includes the following components: generation and implementation plan, the transformation of symbolic forms, the awareness of the antinomic character, character interpretation. Investigation techiques was developed in accordance with the principles of construction of experimental-genetic method. Empirical criteria for evaluating the level of its development was based on the structure of the symbolic function, and developed a system of assistance for the realization of symbolic meaning. The method allows determine the dynamics and conditions for the development of the symbolic function, its genetic makeup, as well as the form and content of cooperation with con- temporaries.

  13. The effects of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design using the stereotype production method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie W Y; Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Chan, Chetwyn C H

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of user factors and symbol referents on public symbol design among older people, using the stereotype production method for collecting user ideas during the symbol design process. Thirty-one older adults were asked to draw images based on 28 public symbol referents and to indicate their familiarity with and ease with which they visualised each referent. Differences were found between the pictorial solutions generated by males and females. However, symbol design was not influenced by participants' education level, vividness of visual imagery, object imagery preference or spatial imagery preference. Both familiar and unfamiliar referents were illustrated pictorially without much difficulty by users. The more visual the referent, the less difficulty the users had in illustrating it. The findings of this study should aid the optimisation of the stereotype production method for user-involved symbol design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, Giosuè

    2016-12-01

    It has recently been argued that symbolic systems evolve while they are being transmitted across generations of learners, gradually adapting to the relevant brain structures and processes. In the context of this hypothesis, little is known on whether individual differences in neural processing capacity account for aspects of 'variation' observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing. We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences: as in previous oddball studies, an mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by deviant tones. On day 2, participants learned an artificial signaling system from a trained confederate of the experimenters in a coordination game in which five-tone sequences were associated to affective meanings (emotion-laden pictures of human faces). In a subsequent game with identical structure, participants transmitted and occasionally changed the signaling system learned during the first game. The MMN latency from day 1 predicted learning, transmission and structural modification of signaling systems on day 2. Our study introduces neurophysiological methods into research on cultural transmission and evolution, and relates aspects of variation in symbolic systems to individual differences in neural information processing. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A prototype symbolic model of canonical functional neuroanatomy of the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talos, Ion-Florin; Rubin, Daniel L; Halle, Michael; Musen, Mark; Kikinis, Ron

    2008-04-01

    Recent advances in bioinformatics have opened entire new avenues for organizing, integrating and retrieving neuroscientific data, in a digital, machine-processable format, which can be at the same time understood by humans, using ontological, symbolic data representations. Declarative information stored in ontological format can be perused and maintained by domain experts, interpreted by machines, and serve as basis for a multitude of decision support, computerized simulation, data mining, and teaching applications. We have developed a prototype symbolic model of canonical neuroanatomy of the motor system. Our symbolic model is intended to support symbolic look up, logical inference and mathematical modeling by integrating descriptive, qualitative and quantitative functional neuroanatomical knowledge. Furthermore, we show how our approach can be extended to modeling impaired brain connectivity in disease states, such as common movement disorders. In developing our ontology, we adopted a disciplined modeling approach, relying on a set of declared principles, a high-level schema, Aristotelian definitions, and a frame-based authoring system. These features, along with the use of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) vocabulary, enable the alignment of our functional ontology with an existing comprehensive ontology of human anatomy, and thus allow for combining the structural and functional views of neuroanatomy for clinical decision support and neuroanatomy teaching applications. Although the scope of our current prototype ontology is limited to a particular functional system in the brain, it may be possible to adapt this approach for modeling other brain functional systems as well.

  16. Usefulness of Forensic Dental Symbols© and Dental Encoder© database in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chicón, Jesús; Valenzuela, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    A new universal graphic dental system, Forensic Dental Symbols(©), has been created to provide precision in the construction of dental records, improve standardization, and increase efficiency in dental identification procedures. Two hundred and thirty-four different graphic symbols representing the most frequent clinical status for each tooth were designed. Symbols can be then converted to a typographic font and then are ready to use in any computer. For the appropriate use, manipulation, and storage of dental information generated by the Forensic Dental Symbols(©), Dental Encoder(©) database has been created. The database contains all the information required by INTERPOL Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)-dental-forms. To explore the possibilities that Dental Encoder(©) offers, an antemortem dental database from a Spanish population of 3920 military personnel had been constructed. Data generated by Dental Encoder(©) were classified into sex and age groups. The program can perform an automatic search of the database for cases that match a selected clinical status presented in a single tooth or a combination of situations for several teeth. Moreover, Dental Encoder(©) allows information to be printed on INTERPOL DVI-dental-forms, or the inclusion of any completed form into any document, technical report, or identification of dental report. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Performance of the split-symbol moments SNR estimator in the presence of inter-symbol interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, B.; Hinedi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The Split-Symbol Moments Estimator (SSME) is an algorithm that is designed to estimate symbol signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). The performance of the SSME algorithm in band-limited channels is examined. The effects of the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI) are quantified. All results obtained are in closed form and can be easily evaluated numerically for performance prediction purposes. Furthermore, they are validated through digital simulations.

  18. Science learning and graphic symbols : an exploration of early years teachers’ views and use of graphic symbols when teaching science

    OpenAIRE

    Kambouri, Maria; Allen, Michael; Pampoulou, Eliada; Pieridou, Myria

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated early years teachers’ understanding and use of graphic symbols, defined as the visual representation(s) used to communicate one or more “linguistic” concepts, which can be used to facilitate science learning. The study was conducted in Cyprus where six early years teachers were observed and interviewed. The results indicate that the teachers had a good understanding of the role of symbols, but demonstrated a lack of understanding in regards to graphic symbols specifical...

  19. Survey of electrochemical metal winning processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaaler, L.E.

    1979-03-01

    The subject program was undertaken to find electrometallurgical technology that could be developed into energy saving commercial metal winning processes. Metals whose current production processes consume significant energy (excepting copper and aluminum) are magnesium, zinc, lead, chromium, manganese, sodium, and titanium. The technology of these metals, with the exception of titanium, was reviewed. Growth of titanium demand has been too small to justify the installation of an electrolyte process that has been developed. This fact and the uncertainty of estimates of future demand dissuaded us from reviewing titanium technology. Opportunities for developing energy saving processes were found for magnesium, zinc, lead, and sodium. Costs for R and D and demonstration plants have been estimated. It appeared that electrolytic methods for chromium and manganese cannot compete energywise or economically with the pyrometallurgical methods of producing the ferroalloys, which are satisfactory for most uses of chromium and manganese.

  20. Proceedings of the WIN-Global 2008 conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    WiN-France hosted the 16. WIN-Global conference May 26-30, 2008, in Marseille, France. The conference was attended by over 150 delegates, representing 30 countries. Canadian participants, from many diverse backgrounds, attended the annual conference from AECL, Bruce Power, CNSC, NB Power and OPG. The theme: Maintaining Key Competencies, Arising Key Competencies for Nuclear Energy: A Challenge and Opportunity for Diversity Development, emphasized the challenges ahead in providing a skilled workforce for the nuclear renaissance, as new build projects and a vast number of retirements are expected around the world within the next 5 years. The conference addressed such questions as 'How will nuclear, attract, develop and retain staff?' A technical tour of Marcoule invited conference attendees to visit one of: Atalante, a high level nuclear chemistry laboratory; Phenix, a fast breeding research reactor; or AVM, a vitrification plant. A subsequent technical tour visited Cadarache providing the opportunity to view ITER, the international fusion research project

  1. Process for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for winning uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by means of liquid-liquid extraction with organic phosphoric acid esters. The process is optimised by keeping the sulphate percentage in the phosphoric acid below 2% by weight, and preferably below 0.6% by weight, as compared to P 2 O 5 in the phosphoric acid. This is achieved by adding an excess of Ba and/or Ca carbonate or sulfide solution and filtering off the formed calcium and/or barium sulphate precipitates. Solid KClO 3 is then added to the filtrate to oxidise U 4+ to U 6+ . The normal extraction procedure using organic phosphoric esters as extraction liquid, can then be applied. (Th.P.)

  2. Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed; Huso, Manuela

    2011-10-31

    Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.

  3. Symbolic feature detection for image understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sinem; Akgül, Ceyhun Burak; Sankur, Bülent

    2014-03-01

    In this study we propose a model-driven codebook generation method used to assign probability scores to pixels in order to represent underlying local shapes they reside in. In the first version of the symbol library we limited ourselves to photometric and similarity transformations applied on eight prototypical shapes of flat plateau , ramp, valley, ridge, circular and elliptic respectively pit and hill and used randomized decision forest as the statistical classifier to compute shape class ambiguity of each pixel. We achieved90% accuracy in identification of known objects from alternate views, however, we could not outperform texture, global and local shape methods, but only color-based method in recognition of unknown objects. We present a progress plan to be accomplished as a future work to improve the proposed approach further.

  4. Proximity measures in symbolic data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Nieddu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Authors consider the general problem of similarity and dissimilarity measures in Symbolic Data Analysis. First of all they examine the classical definitions of elementary event, assertion object, hierarchical dependences and logical dependences. Then they consider some well-known measures of similarity and dissimilarity between two objects (Sokal-Michener, Roger-Tanimoto, Sokal-Sneath, Dice-Czekanowski-Sorenson, Russel-Rao. For resemblance measures based on aggregation functions, the authors consider the proposal of Gowda-Diday, De Baets et al., Malerba et al., Vladutu et al., and Ichino-Iyaghuchi. A paragraph is dedicated to the general algebraic structure; particularly to intervals and vector lattices in Banach space.

  5. Survival in Academy Award-winning actors and actresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, D A; Singh, S M

    2001-05-15

    Social status is an important predictor of poor health. Most studies of this issue have focused on the lower echelons of society. To determine whether the increase in status from winning an academy award is associated with long-term mortality among actors and actresses. Retrospective cohort analysis. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. All actors and actresses ever nominated for an academy award in a leading or a supporting role were identified (n = 762). For each, another cast member of the same sex who was in the same film and was born in the same era was identified (n = 887). Life expectancy and all-cause mortality rates. All 1649 performers were analyzed; the median duration of follow-up time from birth was 66 years, and 772 deaths occurred (primarily from ischemic heart disease and malignant disease). Life expectancy was 3.9 years longer for Academy Award winners than for other, less recognized performers (79.7 vs. 75.8 years; P = 0.003). This difference was equal to a 28% relative reduction in death rates (95% CI, 10% to 42%). Adjustment for birth year, sex, and ethnicity yielded similar results, as did adjustments for birth country, possible name change, age at release of first film, and total films in career. Additional wins were associated with a 22% relative reduction in death rates (CI, 5% to 35%), whereas additional films and additional nominations were not associated with a significant reduction in death rates. The association of high status with increased longevity that prevails in the public also extends to celebrities, contributes to a large survival advantage, and is partially explained by factors related to success.

  6. The Interpretation of Symbol Schemes in a Computational Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael; Frederickson, Ann; Martin, Lori

    This study investigated the variation of meaning that may be assigned by students to instructional symbol systems. Toward this end, student interpretations of symbols employed to represent free fall in Boxer, a computational environment designed for innovative instructional activities in math and science, were analyzed. Four classes of…

  7. Meta-Modeling by Symbolic Regression and Pareto Simulated Annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stinstra, E.; Rennen, G.; Teeuwen, G.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a new approach to Symbolic Regression.Other publications on Symbolic Regression use Genetic Programming.This paper describes an alternative method based on Pareto Simulated Annealing.Our method is based on linear regression for the estimation of constants.Interval

  8. Symbolic processing methods for 3D visual processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Maurice; Hall, Ernest L.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a theory that defines an open method for solving 3D visual data processing and artificial intelligence problems that is independent of hardware or software implementation. The goal of the theory is to generalize and abstract the process of 3D visual processing so that the method can be applied to a wide variety of 3D visual processing problems. Once the theory is described a heuristic derivation is given. Symbolic processing methods can be generalized into an abstract model composed of eight basic components. The symbolic processing model components are: input data; input data interface; symbolic data library; symbolic data environment space; relationship matrix; symbolic logic driver; output data interface and output data. An obstacle detection and avoidance experiment was constructed to demonstrate the symbolic processing method. The results of the robot obstacle avoidance experiment demonstrated that the mobile robot could successfully navigate the obstacle course using symbolic processing methods for the control software. The significance of the symbolic processing approach is that the method arrived at a solution by using a more formal quantifiable process. Some of the practical applications for this theory are: 3D object recognition, obstacle avoidance, and intelligent robot control.

  9. 281 Igbo Symbols: Developing Aesthetic Values on the Igbo Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ndi Igbo are known by their symbols. Aesthetic relates to the principles of beauty and taste of an art. Aesthetics and Ethics often overlap to the degree that this impression is embodied in a moral ethical code. The symbols in Igbo land are of the ethical codes of the society that project its aesthetic values as such they ...

  10. Sound symbolism in Iraqw literature | Mous | Kioo cha Lugha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the importance of conventionalised sound symbolism such as ideophones in Iraqw oral literature. It is argued that the meaning of ideophones is not referential but rather that they evoke an image. The study of the literary effect of sound symbolism in Iraqw riddles shows that emotive associations are not ...

  11. Scene understanding based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2005-05-01

    New generations of smart weapons and unmanned vehicles must have reliable perceptual systems that are similar to human vision. Instead of precise computations of 3-dimensional models, a network-symbolic system converts image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. Logic of visual scenes can be captured in the Network-Symbolic models and used for the disambiguation of visual information. It is hard to use geometric operations for processing of natural images. Instead, the brain builds a relational network-symbolic structure of visual scene, using different clues to set up the relational order of surfaces and objects. Feature, symbol, and predicate are equivalent in the biologically inspired Network-Symbolic systems. A linking mechanism binds these features/symbols into coherent structures, and image converts from a "raster" into a "vector" representation that can be better interpreted by higher-level knowledge structures. View-based object recognition is a hard problem for traditional algorithms that directly match a primary view of an object to a model. In Network-Symbolic Models, the derived structure, not the primary view, is a subject for recognition. Such recognition is not affected by local changes and appearances of the object as seen from a set of similar views.

  12. Symbolic universes between present and future of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvatore, Sergio; Fini, Viviana; Mannarini, Terri

    2018-01-01

    social and civic development. Moreover, the distribution of the symbolic universes, and therefore social and civic engagement, is demonstrated to be variable across the 4 countries in the analysis. Finally, we develop a retrospective reconstruction of the distribution of symbolic universes as well...

  13. Chemical Nomenclature, Symbols and Terminology for Use in School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; And Others

    This report contains recommendations on chemical nomenclature, guidance on symbols, and terminology and units for physiochemical quantities. This report, intended to provide guidance to science teachers, consists of eleven sections: (1) general introduction; (2) introduction to symbols, terminology, and units for physiochemical quantities; (3)…

  14. Symbolic Form in the Pedagogical Implications of Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolic, Mirela

    2011-01-01

    The author with the help of analysis of symbolic forms and sociolinguistics explains the transformation of "homo communicans in conscious homo symbolicum." He points out the importance of etymological analysis Cassierer's philosophy of symbolic forms and its effects in the modern understanding of sociolinguistics. It is necessary their…

  15. Igbo Symbols: Developing Aesthetic Values on the Igbo Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of this work are that a lot of Igbo symbols abound and not much of them are transmitted to the younger generations. As a result, Igbo children do not use them or understand them as symbols rather they see them as ordinary words, expressions and objects. Therefore, the writers suggest that the Igbo child of ...

  16. A clash of symbolic universes: Judeanism vs Hellenism | Cromhout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates how Judeans responded to Hellenism in order to maintain the integrity of their ethnic identity. Judeanism and Hellenism are regarded as alternative “symbolic universes”. It is shown that Judeans used various approaches to maintain their symbolic universe. This included Berger and Luckmann's ...

  17. Battering ram, ivory wall – phallic symbols and aggression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines how symbolism is used to suggest sexual aggression in Shakespeare's The Rape of Lucrece. Symbols such as a Roman blade, a battering ram and other seemingly innocent objects in the poem are examined for implicit evidence of sexual conquest. The study argues that Shakespeare employs ...

  18. Hyperbolic lattice-point counting and modular symbols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Petridis, Yiannis; Risager, Morten S.

    2009-01-01

    For a cocompact group $\\G$ of $\\slr$ we fix a real non-zero harmonic 1-form $\\alpha$. We study the asymptotics of the hyperbolic lattice-counting problem for $\\G$ under restrictions imposed by the modular symbols $\\modsym{\\gamma}{\\a}$. We prove that the normalized values of the modular symbols...

  19. Adapting the Jukun Traditional Symbols for Textile Design and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uniqueness of Africa is not because of its geographical location, but because of its diverse rich cultural heritage, symbolic operation and adages that surround the entire spectrum of human learning, reasoning, and communication. This research work on adaptation of the Jukun cultural symbols for textile design gives a ...

  20. Different Grade Students' Use and Interpretation of Literal Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Gunes, Gonul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare 7th, 8th, and 9th grades students' level of use and interpret the literal symbols. In addition, students' responses to questions that require use of different roles of literal symbol were examined to identify the errors. For this purpose, Chelsea Diagnostics Algebra test developed by The Concepts…

  1. Symbols and definitions of quantities and units in isotope stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, P.; Krumbiegel, P.; Faust, H.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the International System of Units and recent recommendations of the IUPAC on 'Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units' a system is proposed of uniform and unambiguous symbols and definitions of quantities and units used in the isotope dilution technique. The close relationship between isotope stoichiometry and common stoichiometry is demonstrated. (author)

  2. Multiple-Symbol Detection Of Multiple-Trellis-Coded MDPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Simon, Marvin K.; Shahshahani, Mehrdad M.

    1991-01-01

    In proposed scheme for detection and decoding of multiple-trellis-coded multilevel differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signals, observation time for differential detection extended from conventional 2 to larger number of symbol periods. Decreases rate of error in differential detection of uncoded MDPSK by increasing number of symbol periods.

  3. Experimental targeting of chaos via controlled symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corron, Ned J.; Pethel, Shawn D.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we report experimental targeting in a chaotic system by controlling symbolic dynamics. We acquire and control an electronic circuit using small perturbations to elicit a desired objective state starting from an arbitrary, uncontrolled state. The control perturbations are calculated using a symbolic targeting sequence and applied using dynamic limiting control

  4. Influence of Colour on Acquisition and Generalisation of Graphic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, O. E.; Ne'eman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with autism may benefit from using graphic symbols for their communication, language and literacy development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of colour versus grey-scale displays on the identification of graphic symbols using a computer-based intervention. Method: An alternating treatment design was…

  5. A Symbolic Approach to Permission Accounting for Concurrent Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Mostowski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Permission accounting is fundamental to modular, thread-local reasoning about concurrent programs. This paper presents a new, symbolic system for permission accounting. In existing systems, permissions are numeric value-based and refer to the current thread only. Our system is based on symbolic

  6. 40 CFR 90.303 - Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. 90.303 Section 90.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 90.303 Symbols, acronyms, abbreviations. (a) The acronyms and abbreviations in § 90.5...

  7. Symbols of leadership and conceptions of power in Hausa literature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symbols of leadership and conceptions of power in Hausa literature: an intertextual reading of a Dodo folktale and a popular song. ... It reposes on an analysis of the manipulation of certain images and animal symbols of leadership and power borrowed from the world of tales used with a certain degree of innovation in order ...

  8. Meanings Given to Algebraic Symbolism in Problem-Posing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, María C.; Molina, Marta; del Río, Aurora

    2018-01-01

    Some errors in the learning of algebra suggest that students might have difficulties giving meaning to algebraic symbolism. In this paper, we use problem posing to analyze the students' capacity to assign meaning to algebraic symbolism and the difficulties that students encounter in this process, depending on the characteristics of the algebraic…

  9. Signal- and Symbol-based Representations in Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Felsberg, Michael

    We discuss problems of signal-- and symbol based representations in terms of three dilemmas which are faced in the design of each vision system. Signal- and symbol-based representations are opposite ends of a spectrum of conceivable design decisions caught at opposite sides of the dilemmas. We make...

  10. Aging and the number sense: preserved basic non-symbolic numerical processing and enhanced basic symbolic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Eloise eNorris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging often leads to general cognitive decline in domains such as memory and attention. The effect of aging on numerical cognition, particularly on foundational numerical skills known as the Number Sense, is not well known. Early research focused on the effect of aging on arithmetic. Recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of healthy aging on basic numerical skills, but focused on non-symbolic quantity discrimination alone. Moreover, contradictory findings have emerged. The current study aimed to further investigate the impact of aging on basic non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills. A group of 25 younger (18-25 and 25 older adults (60-77 participated in non-symbolic and symbolic numerical comparison tasks. Mathematical and spelling abilities were also measured. Results showed that aging had no effect on foundational non-symbolic numerical skills, as both groups performed similarly (RTs, accuracy and Weber fractions (w. All participants showed decreased non-symbolic acuity (accuracy and w in trials requiring inhibition. However, aging appears to be associated with a greater decline in discrimination speed in such trials. Furthermore, aging seems to have a positive impact on mathematical ability and basic symbolic numerical processing, as older participants attained significantly higher mathematical achievement scores, and performed significantly better on the symbolic comparison task than younger participants. The findings suggest that aging and its lifetime exposure to numbers may lead to better mathematical achievement and stronger basic symbolic numerical skills. Our results further support the observation that basic non-symbolic numerical skills are resilient to aging, but that aging may exacerbate poorer performance on trials requiring inhibitory processes. These findings lend further support to the notion that preserved basic numerical skills in aging may reflect the preservation of an innate, primitive and embedded Number

  11. An approach to first principles electronic structure calculation by symbolic-numeric computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Kikuchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide variety of electronic structure calculation cooperating with symbolic computation. The main purpose of the latter is to play an auxiliary role (but not without importance to the former. In the field of quantum physics [1-9], researchers sometimes have to handle complicated mathematical expressions, whose derivation seems almost beyond human power. Thus one resorts to the intensive use of computers, namely, symbolic computation [10-16]. Examples of this can be seen in various topics: atomic energy levels, molecular dynamics, molecular energy and spectra, collision and scattering, lattice spin models and so on [16]. How to obtain molecular integrals analytically or how to manipulate complex formulas in many body interactions, is one such problem. In the former, when one uses special atomic basis for a specific purpose, to express the integrals by the combination of already known analytic functions, may sometimes be very difficult. In the latter, one must rearrange a number of creation and annihilation operators in a suitable order and calculate the analytical expectation value. It is usual that a quantitative and massive computation follows a symbolic one; for the convenience of the numerical computation, it is necessary to reduce a complicated analytic expression into a tractable and computable form. This is the main motive for the introduction of the symbolic computation as a forerunner of the numerical one and their collaboration has won considerable successes. The present work should be classified as one such trial. Meanwhile, the use of symbolic computation in the present work is not limited to indirect and auxiliary part to the numerical computation. The present work can be applicable to a direct and quantitative estimation of the electronic structure, skipping conventional computational methods.

  12. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse. Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  13. Symbol lock detection implemented with nonoverlapping integration intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Mazen M. (Inventor); Hinedi, Sami M. (Inventor); Shah, Biren N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A symbol lock detector is introduced for an incoming coherent digital communication signal which utilizes a subcarrier modulated with binary symbol data, d(sub k), and known symbol interval T by integrating binary values of the signal over nonoverlapping first and second intervals selected to be T/2, delaying the first integral an interval T/2, and either summing or multiplying the second integral with the first one that preceded it to form a value X(sub k). That value is then averaged over a number M of symbol intervals to produce a static value Y. A symbol lock decision can then be made when the static value Y exceeds a threshold level delta.

  14. SYMBOL LEVEL DECODING FOR DUO-BINARY TURBO CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Beeharry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of three different symbol level decoding algorithms for Duo-Binary Turbo codes. Explicit details of the computations involved in the three decoding techniques, and a computational complexity analysis are given. Simulation results with different couple lengths, code-rates, and QPSK modulation reveal that the symbol level decoding with bit-level information outperforms the symbol level decoding by 0.1 dB on average in the error floor region. Moreover, a complexity analysis reveals that symbol level decoding with bit-level information reduces the decoding complexity by 19.6 % in terms of the total number of computations required for each half-iteration as compared to symbol level decoding.

  15. Symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, K M; Allen, M N

    2001-02-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research rely on different epistemological assumptions about the nature of knowledge. However, the majority of nurse researchers who use multiple method designs do not address the problem of differing theoretical perspectives. Traditionally, symbolic interactionism has been viewed as one perspective underpinning qualitative research, but it is also the basis for quantitative studies. Rooted in social psychology, symbolic interactionism has a rich intellectual heritage that spans more than a century. Underlying symbolic interactionism is the major assumption that individuals act on the basis of the meaning that things have for them. The purpose of this paper is to present symbolic interactionism as a theoretical perspective for multiple method designs with the aim of expanding the dialogue about new methodologies. Symbolic interactionism can serve as a theoretical perspective for conceptually clear and soundly implemented multiple method research that will expand the understanding of human health behaviour.

  16. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  17. Graphic Symbols as "The Mind on Paper": Links between Children's Interpretive Theory of Mind and Symbol Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Lauren J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    Children gradually develop interpretive theory of mind (iToM)--the understanding that different people may interpret identical events or stimuli differently. The present study tested whether more advanced iToM underlies children's recognition that map symbols' meanings must be communicated to others when symbols are iconic (resemble their…

  18. Matching Element Symbols with State Abbreviations: A Fun Activity for Browsing the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A classroom activity is presented in which students are challenged to find matches between the United States two-letter postal abbreviations for states and chemical element symbols. The activity aims to lessen negative apprehensions students might have when the periodic table of the elements with its more than 100 combinations of letters is first…

  19. Bringing the Best of Two Worlds Together for Social Capital Research in Education: Social Network Analysis and Symbolic Interactionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an analytical consideration for social capital research in education by exploring a pragmatic combination of social network analysis (SNA) and symbolic interactionism (SI) as a research method. The article first delineates the theoretical linkages of social capital theory with SNA and SI. The article then discusses how SNA…

  20. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  1. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  2. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  3. New symbol launched to warn public about radiation dangers. Supplementary symbol aims to help reduce needless deaths and injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: With radiating waves, a skull and crossbones and a running person, a new ionizing radiation warning symbol is being introduced to supplement the traditional international symbol for radiation, the three cornered trefoil. The new symbol is being launched today by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to help reduce needless deaths and serious injuries from accidental exposure to large radioactive sources. It will serve as a supplementary warning to the trefoil, which has no intuitive meaning and little recognition beyond those educated in its significance. 'I believe the international recognition of the specific expertise of both organizations will ensure that the new standard will be accepted and applied by governments and industry to improve the safety of nuclear applications, protection of people and the environment', said Ms. Eliana Amaral, Director, Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, IAEA. The new symbol is aimed at alerting anyone, anywhere to the potential dangers of being close to a large source of ionizing radiation, the result of a five-year project conducted in 11 countries around the world. The symbol was tested with different population groups - mixed ages, varying educational backgrounds, male and female - to ensure that its message of 'danger- stay away' was crystal clear and understood by all. 'We can't teach the world about radiation,' said Carolyn Mac Kenzie, an IAEA radiation specialist who helped develop the symbol, 'but we can warn people about dangerous sources for the price of sticker.' The new symbol, developed by human factor experts, graphic artists, and radiation protection experts, was tested by the Gallup Institute on a total of 1 650 individuals in Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, China, India, Thailand, Poland, Ukraine and the United States. The symbol is intended for IAEA Category 1, 2 and 3 sources defined as dangerous sources capable of death or serious injury

  4. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system configuration control board (SCCB) operating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedure for the System Configuration Control Board (SCCB) performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. This board will consist of representatives from Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company Babcock and Wilcox Protec, Inc.; and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. In accordance with agreements for the joint use of the Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company calorimeters located in the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nondestructive Assay Laboratory, concurrence regarding changes to the WinCal system will be obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Further, changes to the WinCal software will be communicated to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  5. Military Engagement and Forward Presence: Down But Not Out as Tools to Shape and Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Summer 2000, p. 36; Robert J. Art, “Geopolitics Updated: The Strategy of Selective Engagement,” International Security, Vol. 23, No. 3, Win - ter 1998-99...MILITARY ENGAGEMENT AND FORWARD PRESENCE: DOWN BUT NOT OUT AS TOOLS TO SHAPE AND WIN John R. Deni USAWC WebsiteSSI WebsiteThis Publication U.S...OUT AS TOOLS TO SHAPE AND WIN John R. Deni January 2016 The views expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect

  6. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  7. Developing a Psychologically Inspired Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Control: The Symbolic and Subsymbolic Robotic Intelligence Control System (SS-RICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Dale Kelley

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the ongoing development of a robotic control architecture that was inspired by computational cognitive architectures from the discipline of cognitive psychology. The robotic control architecture combines symbolic and subsymbolic representations of knowledge into a unified control structure. The architecture is organized as a goal driven, serially executing, production system at the highest symbolic level; and a multiple algorithm, parallel executing, simple collection of algorithms at the lowest subsymbolic level. The goal is to create a system that will progress through the same cognitive developmental milestones as do human infants. Common robotics problems of localization, object recognition, and object permanence are addressed within the specified framework.

  8. Graphic Symbol Recognition using Graph Based Signature and Bayesian Network Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Luqman, Muhammad Muzzamil; Brouard, Thierry; Ramel, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach for recognition of complex graphic symbols in technical documents. Graphic symbol recognition is a well known challenge in the field of document image analysis and is at heart of most graphic recognition systems. Our method uses structural approach for symbol representation and statistical classifier for symbol recognition. In our system we represent symbols by their graph based signatures: a graphic symbol is vectorized and is converted to an attributed relational g...

  9. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  10. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  11. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, G.

    2016-01-01

    capacity account for aspects of ‘variation’ observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing.We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences......: as in previous oddball studies, an mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by deviant tones. On day 2, participants learned an artificial signaling system from a trained confederate of the experimenters in a coordination game in which five-tone sequences were associated to affective meanings (emotion......-laden pictures of human faces). In a subsequent game with identical structure, participants transmitted and occasionally changed the signaling system learned during the first game. TheMMNlatency from day 1 predicted learning, transmission and structural modification of signaling systems on day 2. Our study...

  12. Creating a common symbol classification for a new historical geoportal of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panecki Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The crowd-sourcing approach should be implemented into a new historical geoportal of Poland due to its increasing potential in WebGIS. Registered users will be able to acquire spatial data from various map series. As it requires feature class harmonization, a common symbol classification should be proposed. It will be based on chosen topographic maps of Polish land from the 19th and 20th centuries. Feature classes derived from archival maps will be standardized and reclassified, but with no information lost. This will be done in four steps which require: data acquisition, map content harmonization, feature class typification and attribute table elaboration. In addition, four methods of data harmonization can be distinguished: symbol sequence, semantic analogies, spatial relations and a combined method. The paper covers the elaboration of two thematic layers - roads and railways based on three topographic maps (Austrian 1:75 000, German 1:100 000, Russian 1: 126 000.

  13. The use of symbolic computation in radiative, energy, and neutron transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, J. I.

    This investigation uses symbolic computation in developing analytical methods and general computational strategies for solving both linear and nonlinear, regular and singular, integral and integro-differential equations which appear in radiative and combined mode energy transport. This technical report summarizes the research conducted during the first nine months of the present investigation. The use of Chebyshev polynomials augmented with symbolic computation has clearly been demonstrated in problems involving radiative (or neutron) transport, and mixed-mode energy transport. Theoretical issues related to convergence, errors, and accuracy have also been pursued. Three manuscripts have resulted from the funded research. These manuscripts have been submitted to archival journals. At the present time, an investigation involving a conductive and radiative medium is underway. The mathematical formulation leads to a system of nonlinear, weakly-singular integral equations involving the unknown temperature and various Legendre moments of the radiative intensity in a participating medium. Some preliminary results are presented illustrating the direction of the proposed research.

  14. Marketing the "radical": symbolic communication and persuasive technologies in jihadist websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Ibrahim, Yasmin

    2013-04-01

    This paper reviews the persuasion techniques employed by jihadist websites with particular reference to the patterns of rhetoric, image, and symbolism manifested in text, videos, and interactive formats. Beyond symbolic communication, the online media needs to be also understood through its persuasive tendencies as a medium which elicits social response through its design architecture. This double articulation of new media technologies, as a medium for information and as a form of persuasive technology, has provided new means to market the radical. The marketing techniques of jihadist websites through multimedia formats have consequences for the formation of identities, both collective and individual. As a marketing tool it combines established forms of rhetoric and propaganda with new ways to reach audiences through both popular culture and religious ideologies. The paper analyses the implications for further research and counterterrorism strategies.

  15. Pilot-symbols-aided cycle slip mitigation for DP-16QAM optical communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Haiquan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Fangzheng; Wu, Jian; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Guoyi; Xu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-23

    A pilot-symbols-aided phase unwrapping (PAPU), which utilizes the time-division multiplexed pilot symbols that are transmitted with data, is proposed to do cycle slip detection and correction with the carrier phase estimation (CPE). Numerical simulations for 10 Gbaud dual-polarization 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM) systems show that the block averaging quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) partitioning with PAPU greatly eliminates the performance degradation caused by cycle slips, maintains a low CS probability with less influence of filter length, and achieves a bit-error-rate (BER) performance below soft-decision forward error correction (FEC) limit 2 × 10⁻² at 15 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio with only 1.56% overhead and 6 MHz combined laser linewidth.

  16. Brute force meets Bruno force in parameter optimisation: introduction of novel constraints for parameter accuracy improvement by symbolic computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsui, M; Horimoto, K; Lemaire, F; Ürgüplü, A; Sedoglavic, A; Boulier, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent remarkable advances in computer performance have enabled us to estimate parameter values by the huge power of numerical computation, the so-called 'Brute force', resulting in the high-speed simultaneous estimation of a large number of parameter values. However, these advancements have not been fully utilised to improve the accuracy of parameter estimation. Here the authors review a novel method for parameter estimation using symbolic computation power, 'Bruno force', named after Bruno Buchberger, who found the Gröbner base. In the method, the objective functions combining the symbolic computation techniques are formulated. First, the authors utilise a symbolic computation technique, differential elimination, which symbolically reduces an equivalent system of differential equations to a system in a given model. Second, since its equivalent system is frequently composed of large equations, the system is further simplified by another symbolic computation. The performance of the authors' method for parameter accuracy improvement is illustrated by two representative models in biology, a simple cascade model and a negative feedback model in comparison with the previous numerical methods. Finally, the limits and extensions of the authors' method are discussed, in terms of the possible power of 'Bruno force' for the development of a new horizon in parameter estimation.

  17. Symbolic analysis of spatio-temporal systems: The measurement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Tang, Xianzhu; Tracy, E.R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring physical quantities using time-series observations. The approach taken is to validate theoretical models which are derived heuristically or from first principles. The fitting of parameters in such models constitutes the measurement. This is a basic problem in measurement science and a wide array of tools are available. However, an important gap in the present toolkit exists when the system of interest, and hence the models used, exhibit chaotic or turbulent behavior. The development of reliable schemes for analyzing such signals is necessary before one can claim to have a quantitative understanding of the underlying physics. In experimental situations, the number of independently measured time-series is limited, but the number of dynamical degrees of freedom can be large. In addition, the signals of interest will typically be embedded in a noisy background. In the symbol statistics approach, the time-series is coarse-grained and converted into a long, symbol stream. The probability of occurrence of various symbol sequences of fixed length constitutes the symbol statistics. These statistics contain a wealth of information about the underlying dynamics and, as we shall discuss, can be used to validate models. Previously, we have applied this symbolic approach to low dimensional systems with great success. The symbol statistics are robust up to noise/signal ∼20%. At higher noise levels the symbol statistics are biased, but in a relatively simple manner. By including the noise characteristics into the model, we were able to use the symbol statistics to measure parameters even when signal/noise is ∼ O(1). More recently, we have extended the symbolic approach to spatio-temporal systems. We have considered both coupled-map lattices and the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. This equation arises generically near the onset of instabilities

  18. Sandplay in Jungian analysis: matter and symbolic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellana, Franco; Donfrancesco, Antonietta

    2005-06-01

    Jung described a way of thinking, tied to sensations and feelings, that is a thought connected to the body. Again in The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Jung (1954) speaks of the symbol as a 'live body', corpus et anima. If the mind cannot credit itself with the discomfort that manifests through the body, this is a sign of a separation between mind and body. A consequence of all this is the literalization of the discomfort which makes it impossible to have a symbolic dimension. Therapy activates a process in which the patient can move from a stage of separation to a possible connection between mind and body, resulting in changes in the level of communication and of awareness. The mind opens itself to symbolization and the body becomes a field for a common language. From our reflections we have come to ascertain that we can speak of analysis only when an imaginary space is achieved, an intermediate space between the patient and the analyst, a space that is created from the intertwining of the symbolic capability of the patient with that of the analyst. Focusing our attention on the use of sandplay in analytic therapy, we know that one puts in the sand box objects that are marks of our psyche, visible traits that contain actions, corporeal movements and feelings. When one focuses on the overall representation built, one can go beyond the literal image and the analyst, keeping alive the image through his symbolic capability, opens the possibility of a dialogue with the symbolic dimension. The imagination as a symbolic thought is the humus that allows the analyst to maintain the intermediate symbolic level open by activating a symbolic process within the dialectic of the analysis.

  19. The need of a win-win regulation regarding the harmonization of advantages for the renewable energy sector and the concerns about the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraru Dan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of this paper is the evolution of theories and suppositions regarding environment and growth. The sustainable green growth and the sustainable green capitalism concepts have attracted the interest and imagination of policy makers and industry, and also stimulated many exciting new ideas and practical actions such as the “triple bottom line” which refers to harmonizing and balancing out the three interests that are linked with sustainable business: economic, environmental and social ones. The policy has to create a workable association between what the government can ensure and not tax and what it cannot ensure and must tax. In this manner we get a win-win regulation meaning that both sides win. National and supranational policies are part of the macro-level governance and very relevant for the sustainable development of the EU Member States and for the stability of the EU itself.

  20. Sarawak Bamboo Craft: Symbolism and Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Mohd Zaihidee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between human beings and their environment has stirred reactions between nature and the development of mind and actions that can be discussed using interdisciplinary approaches such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and history, in understanding human thinking and behavior. A psychological approach is intended to evaluate the individual choices and needs in society. A sociological approach details the various patterns in the social organization. An anthropological approach is tied with culture and belief to fulfil human needs which are based on their habitat, while a historical approach looks at the development which is related to the past. Dimensions of experiences, order and logic, selective elaboration and expressions are used to analyze the bamboo craft of Iban, Melanau and Bidayuh societies in Sarawak long-houses. The existence of constitutive, moral, expressive and cognitive symbols has been interpreted based on a theoretical framework that has been developed by Langer Art Theory, Parsons Social Theory and Kaplan Culture Theory. The values and meaning formed are interpreted to understand matters related to the lives of villagers and the finding suggests that bamboo craft expresses the multi-ethnic mind and character in the socio-culture of long- houses in Sarawak.