Melnick, M J
Using research methodology for analysis of secondary data, statistical data for five National Basketball Association (NBA) seasons (1993-1994 to 1997-1998) were examined to test for a relationship between team assists (a behavioral measure of teamwork) and win-loss record. Rank-difference correlation indicated a significant relationship between the two variables, the coefficients ranging from .42 to .71. Team assist totals produced higher correlations with win-loss record than assist totals for the five players receiving the most playing time ("the starters"). A comparison of "assisted team points" and "unassisted team points" in relationship to win-loss record favored the former and strongly suggested that how a basketball team scores points is more important than the number of points it scores. These findings provide circumstantial support for the popular dictum in competitive team sports that "Teamwork Means Success-Work Together, Win Together."
Walker, A. L.; Donohue, Jack
This reference book for basketball coaches provides a total program of both offensive and defensive strategies and tactics. The emphasis is upon an innovative offensive system with an accompanying defensive plan. The initial chapters deal with the installation of the three series of the New Option Offensive: "Red,""White," and "Blue." A drills…
Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J
Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful.
This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among female basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50) female inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this st...
Full Text Available This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among female basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50 female inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. Summarizing the findings we can say that significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-awareness, Empathy, Self-development, Value orientation and Altruistic behaviour. However no-significant no significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-motivation, Emotional stability, Managing relations, Integrity and Commitment. Conculdingly from the above findings that insignificant differences were present among female basketball players on the sub-variables of will to win.
Lorenzo, Alberto; Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Ortega, Enrique; Ibáñez, Sergio José; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics which discriminate between winning and losing teams in under-16 years old male basketball games. The sample gathered all 122 games in the 2004 and 2005 Under-16 European Championships. The game-related statistics analysed were the free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), 2- and 3-points field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful) offensive and defensive rebounds, blocks, assists, fouls, turnovers and steals. The winning teams exhibited lower ball possessions per game and better offensive and defensive efficacy coefficients than the losing teams. Results from discriminant analysis were statistically significant and allowed to emphasize several structure coefficients (SC). In close games (final score differences below 9 points), the discriminant variables were the turnovers (SC = -0.47) and the assists (SC = 0.33). In balanced games (final score differences between 10 and 29 points), the variables that discriminated between the groups were the successful 2-point field-goals (SC = -0.34) and defensive rebounds (SC = -0. 36); and in unbalanced games (final score differences above 30 points) the variables that best discriminated both groups were the successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.37). These results allowed understanding that these players' specific characteristics result in a different game-related statistical profile and helped to point out the importance of the perceptive and decision making process in practice and in competition. Key points The players' game-related statistical profile varied according to game type, game outcome and in formative categories in basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player's performance described in U-16 men's basketball teams compared with senior and professional men's basketball teams. The results obtained enhance the importance of the perceptive and decision making process in practice and in competition. PMID
Full Text Available In elite basketball, the high demands of competition and training require a detailed follow-up of the effects on the player's performance and health. Controlling these effects could improve the knowledge about the players' recovery process and allow a better design of their individual workloads. Aim: To describe the behavior of the total testosterone serum levels (T, cortisol (C and T/C ratio. Methodology: 8 blood samples were collected during the whole season of an elite basketball team (n=8 of the First Spanish Division (ACB. The samples were taken every 4-6 weeks, at 8:00 AM, after 24-36 hours of post-game recovery. Results: T increases after 4 after 3.5 days of rest (6th vs. 1st, p=0.039; 6th vs. 5th, p=0.041 and decreases significantly at the end of the season (8th vs. 7th, p=0.003. C does not show significant variation along the season. T/C ratio shows a significant decrease at the end of the season (8th vs. 1st , p=0.021; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.017 and in VarT/C (8th vs. 1st, p=0.005; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.036. Conclusions: Concentration values as well as percentages of variation are useful indicators to describe the studied parameters. T/C ratio and/or T could be used as recovery state indicators and could even induce, in conjunction with other indicators, necessary actions to optimize individual workloads. Future investigations should compare these variations to objective workload parameters and/or other hormonal modulators.
Gómez, Miguel A; Lorenzo, Alberto; Barakat, Rubén; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M
The aim of the present study was to identify game-related statistics that differentiate winning and losing teams according to game location. The sample included 306 games of the 2004-2005 regular season of the Spanish professional men's league (ACB League). The independent variables were game location (home or away) and game result (win or loss). The game-related statistics registered were free throws (successful and unsuccessful), 2- and 3-point field goals (successful and unsuccessful), offensive and defensive rebounds, blocks, assists, fouls, steals, and turnovers. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (one-way analysis of variance and discriminate analysis). The multivariate analysis showed that winning teams differ from losing teams in defensive rebounds (SC = .42) and in assists (SC = .38). Similarly, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play at home in defensive rebounds (SC = .40) and in assists (SC = .41). On the other hand, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play away in defensive rebounds (SC = .44), assists (SC = .30), successful 2-point field goals (SC = .31), and unsuccessful 3-point field goals (SC = -.35). Defensive rebounds and assists were the only game-related statistics common to all three analyses.
Hannam, Sue; And Others
Women athletes have been successful in maintaining and/or increasing their conditioning and vertical jump levels when they participate in the in-season circuit training program described in this article. An exercise guide, sample individual score card, and photos of women practicing the exercises are included. (IAH)
Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Rodrigues, Ariel; Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Bonganha, Valéria; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina
The objective of the present study was to monitor the immunological and hormonal responses and the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent basketball athletes during the different stages of a sports season. Anthropometric measures, biochemical analyses (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, testosterone and cortisol), neuromuscular evaluations (standing vertical jumping ability, agility and estimated VO2max) and leukocyte counts were performed at four moments: 72 h before the season (-72 h); before the season (Pre-season); after six weeks, at the end of the preparatory period (Preparatory); and after 20 weeks, at the end of the competitive period (Competitive). Also, the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms was collected weekly during all stages of the season. There were significant increases in monocytes, cortisol, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. In addition, interleukin-10 decreased at the Competitive moment as compared to the Pre-season. Occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms demonstrated increases (38%) during the competitive period as compared to the preparatory. These results suggest that periods of training and competition could increase the occurrence of upper respiratory symptoms in adolescent athletes and this may be due to the unwanted effects of an inflammatory process in response to the excessive stress of training and competition.
Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A
Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise. PMID:27601776
Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A; Ziemann, E
Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players' response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes' performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players' performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players' performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.
Pappas, George P; Vogelsong, Melissa A; Staroswiecki, Ernesto; Gold, Garry E; Safran, Marc R
To determine the prevalence of abnormal structural findings using 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the asymptomatic knees of male and female collegiate basketball players before and after a season of high-intensity basketball. Institutional review board-approved prospective case series. Asymptomatic knees of 24 NCAA Division I collegiate basketball players (12 male, 12 female) were imaged using a 3.0-T MRI scanner before and after the end of the competitive season. Three subjects did not undergo scanning after the season. Images were evaluated for prepatellar bursitis, fat pad edema, patellar and quadriceps tendinopathy, bone marrow edema, and articular cartilage and meniscal injury. Every knee imaged had at least 1 structural abnormality both preseason and postseason. A high preseason and postseason prevalence of fat pad edema (75% and 81%), patellar tendinopathy (83% and 90%), and quadriceps tendinopathy (75% and 90%) was seen. Intrameniscal signal change was observed in 50% preseason knees and 62% of postseason knees, but no discrete tears were found. Bone marrow edema was seen in 75% and 86% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. Cartilage findings were observed in 71% and 81% of knees in the preseason and postseason, respectively. The cartilage injury score increased significantly in the postseason compared with the preseason (P = 0.0009). A high prevalence of abnormal knee MRI findings was observed in a population of asymptomatic young elite athletes. These preliminary data suggest that high-intensity basketball may have potentially deleterious effects on articular cartilage.
Crockett, Nathan J; Sandrey, Michelle A
Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a sport season. To determine the effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a high school basketball season on dynamic postural control and functional tests. Prospective repeated-measures design. High school athletic facility. 21 healthy high school basketball athletes (13 girls, 8 boys). The order of testing was randomized using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions and 3 functional tests (FT) consisting of the single-leg crossover hop, single-leg vertical jump, and the single-leg 6-m hop for time at pre-, mid-, and postseason. After pretesting, the ankle brace was worn on both limbs during the entire 16-wk competitive basketball season. SEBT for PM, M, and AM and 3 single-leg FTs. Dynamic postural control using the SEBT and the 3 FTs improved over time, notably from pretest to posttest. The left limb was different from the right limb during the single-leg vertical jump. Effect sizes were large for pretest to posttest for the 3 SEBT directions and 2 of the 3 FTs. The 16-wk basketball prophylactic ankle-brace intervention significantly improved dynamic postural control and single-limb FTs over time.
Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Scallin-Perez, Jennifer R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S
The effects of playing time on performance changes were examined in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women basketball players. Twelve basketball players (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years; height = 178.0 ± 8.2 cm; weight = 74.1 ± 8.1 kg) were assessed before (PRE) and at the end of the regular basketball season (POST). Assessments included squat power; vertical jump (VJ) power; 20-second lower-body reaction test; 3 line drills; and subjective measures of energy, focus, fatigue, and alertness. Pre- to postseason comparisons were made between starters (28.3 ± 5.2 minutes per game) and nonstarters (NSs) (8.3 ± 5.3 minutes per game). Data were analyzed for clinical significance using an approach based on the magnitude of change. Results revealed that starters were likely to have greater increases in absolute VJ peak power and relative VJ peak power (87.9 and 90.7%, respectively) and they were likely (81.6%) to have a greater average squat power than NSs. Subjective measures of energy, focus, and alertness were possibly (72.9%), very likely (97.3%), and likely (79.2%) to be lower in starters compared with NSs, respectively. Other performance measures showed unclear differences between starters and NSs. Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis revealed significant (p basketball season.
Full Text Available This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0 of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1 per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34 accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR and Odds Ratio (OR with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent's foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]. Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day. Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]. This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research.
Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey
The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence.
Belk, John W; Marshall, Hayden A; McCarty, Eric C; Kraeutler, Matthew J
There has been speculation that rest during the regular season for players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) improves player performance in the postseason. To determine whether there is a correlation between the amount of regular-season rest among NBA players and playoff performance and injury risk in the same season. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The Basketball Reference and Pro Sports Transactions archives were searched from the 2005 to 2015 seasons. Data were collected on players who missed fewer than 5 regular-season games because of rest (group A) and 5 to 9 regular-season games because of rest (group B) during each season. Inclusion criteria consisted of players who played a minimum of 20 minutes per game and made the playoffs that season. Players were excluded if they missed ≥10 games because of rest or suspension or missed ≥20 games in a season for any reason. Matched pairs were formed between the groups based on the following criteria: position, mean age at the start of the season within 2 years, regular-season minutes per game within 5 minutes, same playoff seeding, and player efficiency rating (PER) within 2 points. The following data from the playoffs were collected and compared between matched pairs at each position (point guard, shooting guard, forward/center): points per game, assists per game, PER, true shooting percentage, blocks, steals, and number of playoff games missed because of injury. A total of 811 players met the inclusion and exclusion criteria (group A: n = 744 players; group B: n = 67 players). Among all eligible players, 27 matched pairs were formed. Within these matched pairs, players in group B missed significantly more regular-season games because of rest than players in group A (6.0 games vs 1.3 games, respectively; P NBA regular season does not improve playoff performance or affect the injury risk during the playoffs in the same season.
Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Rogowski, Joseph P; Burgos, William; Manalo, Edwin; Weise, Keon; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to compare starters (S) with nonstarters (NS), on their ability to maintain strength, power, and quickness during a competitive National Basketball Association (NBA) season. Twelve NBA players were assessed at the beginning and end of the competitive season. However, because of trades and injury, only 7 (S = 4, NS = 3) players (28.2 ± 3.4 years; 200.9 ± 9.4 cm; 104.7 ± 13.9 kg; 7.2 ± 1.9% body fat) participated in both testing sessions and underwent analysis. Anthropometric performance (repetitive vertical jump power [VJP], squat power [SQT power], and reaction time) and subjective feelings of energy, focus, alertness, and fatigue were recorded during each testing session. Results were interpreted using magnitude-based statistics to make inferences on true differences between starters and nonstarters using the unequal variances t-statistic. Starters played an average of 27.8 ± 6.9 minutes per game and nonstarters played an average of 11.3 ± 7.0 minutes per game. During the course of the season, changes in VJP indicated that starters were likely to increase VJP (Δ = 77.3 ± 78.1 W) compared to nonstarters (Δ= -160.0 ± 151.0 W). There also appeared to be a possible beneficial effect on maintaining reaction time in starters (Δ = 0.005 ± 0.074 seconds) compared with nonstarters (Δ = 0.047 ± 0.073 seconds). In addition, no clear differences in ΔSQT power were seen between starters (Δ = 110.8 ± 141.4 W) and nonstarters (Δ = 143.5 ± 24.7 W). Changes in subjective feelings of energy indicated that starters were very likely to maintain their energy over the course of a season. It also appeared possible that starters were able to have a more positive response to subjective measures of fatigue and alertness than nonstarters, with only trivial differences between starters and nonstarters in regards to maintaining focus. Results of this study suggest that NBA players may enhance lower-body power, repetitive jump ability, and
Conte, Daniele; Kolb, Nicholas; Scanlan, Aaron T; Santolamazza, Fabrizio
this study aimed to characterize the weekly training load (TL) and well-being in college basketball players during the in-season phase. Ten (6 guards and 4 forwards) male basketball players (age: 20.9 ± 0.9 years; stature: 195.0 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 91.3 ± 11.3 kg) from the same Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association team were recruited to participate in this study. Individualized training and game loads were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) at the end of each training and game session, while well-being status was collected before each session. Weekly changes (%) in TL, acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and well-being were determined. Differences in TL and well-being between starting and bench players and between 1-game and 2-game weeks were calculated using magnitude-based statistics. Total weekly TL and ACWR demonstrated high week-to-week variation with spikes up to 226% and 220%, respectively. Starting players experienced a higher (most likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (unclear) well-being status compared to bench players. Game scheduling influenced TL with 1-game weeks demonstrating a higher (likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (most likely trivial) well-being status compared to 2-game weeks. These findings provide college basketball coaches information to optimize training strategies during the in-season phase. Basketball coaches should concurrently consider the number of weekly games and player status (starting vs. bench player) when creating individualized periodization plans, with increases in TL potentially needed in bench players, especially in 2-game weeks.
João Henrique Gomes
Full Text Available Abstract AIMS This study aimed to verify th erelation ship between of anthropometric and physical performance variables with game-related statistics in professional elite basketball players during a competition. METHODS Eleven male basketball players were evaluated during 10 weeks in two distinct moments (regular season and playoffs. Overall, 11 variables of physical fitness and 13 variables of game-related statistics were analysed. RESULTS The following significant Pearson’scorrelations were found in regular season: percentage of fat mass with assists (r = -0.62 and steals (r = -0.63; height (r = 0.68, lean mass (r = 0.64, and maximum strength (r = 0.67 with blocks; squat jump with steals (r = 0.63; and time in the T-test with success ful two-point field-goals (r = -0.65, success ful free-throws (r = -0.61, and steals (r = -0.62. However, in playoffs, only stature and lean mass maintained these correlations (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS The anthropometric and physical characteristics of the players showed few correlations with the game-related statistics in regular season, and these correlations are even lower in the playoff games of a professional elite Champion ship, wherefore, not being good predictors of technical performance.
Full Text Available Background: Poor balance ability is a predictor of injuries of the lower extremity. Multi-intervention proprioception preventive programs, comprising balance training, strength, plyometric, agility, running, and stretching exercises, are effective in improving balance ability and reducing the risk of lower extremity injuries in athletes.Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 20-week in-season multi-intervention proprioceptive neuromuscular training program on postural stability in male youth basketball players.Methods: Twenty-one elite male youth basketball players were divided into an intervention group (n = 10, age 17.3 ± 1.3 years and a control group (n = 11, age 16.5 ± 1.8 years. During the in-season period (20 weeks, the intervention group followed a proprioceptive and neuromuscular training program, three times per week and 20 minutes per session. Balance was tested in a quiet unipedal stance (on both the dominant and non-dominant leg on a foam mat with eyes open, before and after a 20-week period in both groups. The mean velocities in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions and the mean total velocity of the centre of pressure (COP displacement were obtained with a force platform.Results: The combined effect (pre-post test × group showed that intervention resulted in significant improvement in the mean COP velocity for both the dominant and non-dominant limb in the anterior-posterior direction (p = .013 and p < .001, respectively and in the medial-lateral direction (p = .007 and p < .001, respectively as well as in the total COP velocity (p = .009 and p < .001, respectively. Conclusions: The specific proprioceptive and neuromuscular training had a positive effect on postural stability for both the dominant and non-dominant limb in basketball players.
Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.
Moran, Dominic; Lucas, Amanda; Barnes, Andrew
Win-win messages regarding climate change mitigation policies in agriculture tend to oversimplify farmer motivation. Contributions from psychology, cultural evolution and behavioural economics should help to design more effective policy.
Carling, Christopher; Le Gall, Franck; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dupont, Gregory
Squad management, injury and physical, tactical and technical match performance were investigated in a professional soccer team across five consecutive league seasons (2008-2013, 190 league games) with specific focus on a championship-winning season (2010/11). For each player, match participation and time-loss injuries were recorded, the latter prospectively diagnosed by the team's physician. Defending and attacking tactical and technical performance indicators investigated included ball possession and possession in opponents' half, passes, forward passes, completed passes and forward passes, crosses and completed crosses, goal attempts and goal attempts on target, successful final third entries, free-kicks and 50/50 duels won/lost. Physical performance measures included total distance and distance covered at high-speeds (≥19.1 km/h). Results showed that during the 2010/11 season, squad utilisation was lowest potentially owing to the observed lower match injury occurrence and working days lost to injury thereby increasing player availability. In 2010/11, the team won both its highest number of points and conceded its lowest number of goals especially over the second half of this season. The team also won its highest number of games directly via a goal from a substitute and scored and conceded a goal first on the highest and lowest number of occasions, respectively. While multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) detected a significant difference in some attacking and defensive performance indicators across the five seasons, these were generally not distinguishing factors in 2010/11. Similarly, univariate ANOVAs showed a significant difference in running distances covered across seasons, but the trend was for less activity in 2010/11.
Full Text Available Several articles have looked at factors that affect the adjustments of point spreads, based on hot hands or streaks, for smaller durations of time. This study examines these effects for 34 regular seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA. Estimating a Seemingly Unrelated Regression model using all 34 seasons, all streaks significantly impacted point spreads and difference in actual points. When estimating each season individually, differences emerged particularly examining winning and losing streaks of six games or more. The results indicate both the presence of momentum effects and the gambler’s fallacy.
Podlog, Leslie; Buhler, Craig F; Pollack, Harvey; Hopkins, Paul N; Burgess, Paul R
To survey injury/illness in the National Basketball Association over a 25-year period and examine the relationship of injury/illness to team performance. A retrospective correlational design. Trends were examined in reported numbers of players injured/ill during a season and games missed due to injury/illness from seasons ending in 1986 through 2005. This period was compared to years 2006-2010, when NBA teams were allowed to increase the total number of players on the team from 12 to 15. There was a highly significant trend (pBasketball Association up until the expansion of team size in 2006. Following 2006, team expansion was positively associated with decreased injury/illness rates. The latter finding suggests the importance of maintaining a healthy roster with respect to winning outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delextrat, A; Trochym, E; Calleja-González, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a typical in-season week including four practice sessions and one competitive game on strength, jump and sprint performances in national-level female basketball players. Nine female basketball players (24.3±4.1 years old, 173.0±7.9 cm, 65.1±10.9 kg, 21.1±3.8% body fat) participated in ten testing sessions, before and immediately after practices and game (five pre- and five post-tests). Each session involved isokinetic peak torque measurements of the quadriceps and hamstrings of the dominant leg at 60º.s-1, countermovement jump (CMJ) and 20-m sprint. Fluid loss and subjective training load were measured during each practice session, while the frequencies of the main movements performed during the game were recorded. A two-way ANOVA was used to asses the effect of each practice/game and the effect of the day of the week on performances, and the relationship between performance variations and variables recorded during practices/game were analyzed by a Pearson correlation coefficient. Individual sessions induced significant decreases in lower limb strength (from 4.6 to 10.9%, Pjump ability, and monitor the recovery of their players' strength, sprint and jump capacities following specific sessions.
Full Text Available The sport of basketball exposes athletes to frequent high intensity movements including sprinting, jumping, accelerations, decelerations and changes of direction during training and competition which can lead to acute and accumulated chronic fatigue. Fatigue may affect the ability of the athlete to perform over the course of a lengthy season. The ability of practitioners to quantify the workload and subsequent fatigue in basketball athletes in order to monitor and manage fatigue levels may be beneficial in maintaining high levels of performance and preventing unfavorable physical and physiological training adaptations. There is currently limited research quantifying training or competition workload outside of time motion analysis in basketball. In addition, systematic research investigating methods to monitor and manage athlete fatigue in basketball throughout a season is scarce. To effectively optimize and maintain peak training and playing performance throughout a basketball season, potential workload and fatigue monitoring strategies need to be discussed.
Benzidane, Houcine; Mokrani, Djamel; Zerf, Mohammed
The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players) for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite...
José Vicente García Tormo
The aim of this study is to describe the incident of the free throw on the final results of the basketball match, and see how other factors may influence the final average of successful free throws, comparing national leagues with European competition. A total of 59,364 free throws have been analyzed, corresponding to 1722 matches from two seasons of the Spanish professional basketball league (ACB and LFB and European league (Euroleague Euroleague and women. Has been made descriptive analysis, an analysis of synchrony and an analysis of the residuals corrected. The results demonstrate the importance of free throws for the final score, especially in male and when is a close match. Likewise, the home court advantage is related to higher efficiency in free throws and win the match.
Roy, Jonathan; Forest, Geneviève
We investigated the effects of a circadian disadvantage (i.e. playing in a different time zone) on the winning percentages in three major sport leagues in North America: the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and the National Football League. We reviewed 5 years of regular season games in the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League and National Football League, and noted the winning percentage of the visiting team depending on the direction of travel (west, east, and same time zone) and game time (day and evening games). T-tests and analysis of variance were performed to evaluate the effects of the circadian disadvantage, its direction, the number of time zones travelled, and the game time on winning percentages in each major league. The results showed an association between the winning percentages and the number of time zones traveled for the away evening games, with a clear disadvantage for the teams travelling westward. There was a significant difference in the teams' winning percentages depending on the travelling direction in the National Basketball Association (F 2,5908 = 16.12, P < 0.0001) and the National Hockey League (F 2,5639 = 4.48, P = 0.011), and a trend was found in the National Football League (F 2,1279 = 2.86, P = 0.058). The effect of the circadian disadvantage transcends the type of sport and needs to be addressed for greater equity among the western and eastern teams in professional sports. These results also highlight the importance of circadian rhythms in sport performance and athletic competitions. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Safety Tips: Basketball KidsHealth / For Parents / Safety Tips: Basketball ... make sure they follow these tips. Why Basketball Safety Is Important Fortunately, very few basketball injuries are ...
Full Text Available The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite of control group which used the same program with real weight basketball. All the tests practised (pre or post test were conducted with the same team and in the same condition based on endurance test (1000 m, speed test (30 m, push the medical ball and dribbling to test the agility. After statistically processing, it was clear that weighted basketball balls as ingrate tool led to the increase of physical performance intended to study. In the opposite of traditional method.
Podmenik, Nadja; Leskošek, Bojan; Erčulj, Frane
Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players’ shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women’s European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased. PMID:23486286
te Wierike, Simon; Lemmink, Koen; de Jong, M.C.; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; P.J. Vuijk; S.C. te Wierike; C. Visscher; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; E.J. Tromp
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were
Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538
The win-win approach to solving conflicts, which has become popular in the business world, should be a natural for the school environment. Win-win thinking can foster a cooperative school climate by meeting educators' and students' needs for dignity, belonging, and respect. Yet win-win thinking faces a number of obstacles in schools, writes…
Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A
Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.
Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B
Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.
Title: The quantitative analysis of e team game performance made by men basketball teams at Olympis games 2008 Aims: Find reason successes and failures of teams in Olympis game play-off using quantitative (numerical) observation of selected game statistics. Method: The thesis was made on the basic a quantitative (numerical) observation of videorecordings using KVANTÝM. Results: Obtained selected statistic desribed the most essentials events for team winning or loss. Keywords: basketball, team...
Zimmermann , Albrecht
International audience; Most work on predicting the outcome of basketball matches so far has focused on NCAAB games. Since NCAAB and professional (NBA) basketball have a number of differences, it is not clear to what degree these results can be transferred. We explore a number of different representations, training settings, and classifiers, and contrast their results on NCAAB and NBA data. We find that adjusted efficiencies work well for the NBA, that the NCAAB regular season is not ideal fo...
The objective of this project is to help basketball players to become better players by improving their athletic appearance, and to provide players and coaches with the teaching video that will include the technique points and lifts that are useful for basketball players. The video consists of three main chapters: written part, introduction, and exercises. Each chapter is divided in subcategories. Written part includes information about safety procedures, learning and teaching the lifts, a...
Kayhan, Varol Onur; Watkins, Alison
This article proposes a novel approach, called data snapshots, to generate real-time probabilities of winning for National Basketball Association (NBA) teams while games are being played. The approach takes a snapshot from a live game, identifies historical games that have the same snapshot, and uses the outcomes of these games to calculate the winning probabilities of the teams in this game as the game is underway. Using data obtained from 20 seasons worth of NBA games, we build three models and compare their accuracies to a baseline accuracy. In Model 1, each snapshot includes the point difference between the home and away teams at a given second of the game. In Model 2, each snapshot includes the net team strength in addition to the point difference at a given second. In Model 3, each snapshot includes the rate of score change in addition to the point difference at a given second. The results show that all models perform better than the baseline accuracy, with Model 1 being the best model.
Basketball players are traditionally grouped into five distinct positions, but these designationsare quickly becoming outdated. We attempt to reclassify players into new groupsbased on personal performance in the 2016-2017 NBA regular season. Two dimensionalityreduction techniques, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) and principalcomponent analysis (PCA), were employed to reduce 18 classic metrics down to two dimensionsfor visualization. k-means clustering discovered four grou...
Ibáñez, Sergio J.; García, Javier; Feu, Sebastian; Lorenzo, Alberto; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that discriminated basketball winning and losing teams in each of the three consecutive games played in a condensed tournament format. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Federation and included game-related statistics from the Under-20 league (2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons). A total of 223 games were analyzed with the following game-related statistics: two and three-point field goal (made and missed), free-throws (made and missed), offensive and defensive rebounds, assists, steals, turnovers, blocks (made and received), fouls committed, ball possessions and offensive rating. Results showed that winning teams in this competition had better values in all game-related statistics, with the exception of three point field goals made, free-throws missed and turnovers (p ≥ 0.05). The main effect of game number was only identified in turnovers, with a statistical significant decrease between the second and third game. No interaction was found in the analysed variables. A discriminant analysis allowed identifying the two-point field goals made, the defensive rebounds and the assists as discriminators between winning and losing teams in all three games. Additionally to these, only the three-point field goals made contributed to discriminate teams in game three, suggesting a moderate effect of fatigue. Coaches may benefit from being aware of this variation in game determinant related statistics and, also, from using offensive and defensive strategies in the third game, allowing to explore or hide the three point field-goals performance. Key points Overall team performances along the three consecutive games were very similar, not confirming an accumulated fatigue effect. The results from the three-point field goals in the third game suggested that winning teams were able to shoot better from longer distances and this could be the result of exhibiting higher conditioning status and
Jan Legg; David B. Pyne; Stuart Semple; Nick Ball
The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height,...
Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.
Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo
The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.
Er?ulj, Frane; ?trumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague,...
Gaca, Ana Maria
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the characteristics of the game (applied technical and tactical activity for attack realisation, shooting performance, position of players in team, the segment of the field where the ball is received and where the shot is made from in the final matches of top three club competitions. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in observed characteristics of the basketball game between teams separated by the winner/loser criteria. The sample consisted of all matches of the final games of three league competitions (American professional (NBA league, the Euro-league and the Serbian Super-league played in the season 2011/12. By applying multivariate statistical procedures in the monitored segment application of technical and tactical activities of players, it was observed that the winning team, unlike the defeated team, significantly featured a technical - tactical element of shooting, while in the defeated teams (as opposed to the winners elements of action were dominant: dribbling, penetration, shot and dribbling, jump stop, fake, shot. Higher percentage of using only shooting (without the requirement for other elements of attack used to create an opportunity for the eventual shot realization can point primarily to the successful organization of the attacks (in this case - the winning team. As for the position of players in the team, with the teams that won in the monitored matches, statistically significant was the dominance of the forwards in relation to the defeated teams, which featured more centers in the offense attempts.
Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B
To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.
Veeger, Thom T.J.; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. DESIGN: Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.
Palmer, Mary E.
This study investigated the direct impact of team cohesiveness and student-athletes' perceptions of coaching behavior/leadership functions on the success of NCAA Division I Women's basketball, based on the teams' win/loss records. The research collection was quantitative in nature. Statistical design and analysis provided justification for the use…
Lawrence, T.; Wichert, A.
Implementing a continuous improvement (CI) process within PanCanadian's oil and gas production operations might have been a simple assignment if one were not also trying to capture the hearts and imaginations of the people in a changing work environment. Meeting the challenge is resulting in big payoffs to both the organization and its people. The plan used within the Company's Production Division to successfully introduce the CI process is discussed. A brief insight is provided on the process philosophy, with emphasis placed on planning, training and coaching used to launch the process. Also reviewed at length are the impediments to change and the challenges faced when changing an organization's culture. In a CI work environment, the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing 'win-win' situation for both the Company and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants and enjoying their work more in a team environment. The Company is winning through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to many innovative ideas which the employees have implemented. 4 refs
Leicht, Anthony S.; Gómez, Miguel A.; Woods, Carl T.
In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156). Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI) classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC winning (93.2%). Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success. Key points A unique combination of team performance indicators explained 93.2% of winning observations in men’s basketball at the Olympics. Monitoring of these team performance indicators may provide coaches with the capability to devise multiple game plans or strategies to enhance their likelihood of winning. Incorporation of machine learning techniques with team performance indicators may provide a valuable and strategic approach to explain patterns within multivariate datasets in sport science. PMID:29238245
Kumamoto, David; Maeda, Yoshinobu
This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to a specific sport--basketball. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports, but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist, such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling, should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages and genders who participate in basketball may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma.
Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel
The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.
The aim of the study was to determine changes in motor and functional skills of women basketball players caused by the influence of six-week training process. Six-week training process (pre-season period of the junior female national basketball team of Serbia for European Championship) lasted 43 days, involved 53 workouts and 8 matches. The subjects sample included 13 basketball players, average age 17.76 (±0.43). The first testing was conducted at the beginning of the training program and th...
Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p basketball players. PMID:28925969
Guswa, A. J.; Rhodes, A. L.
Undergraduate involvement in research has the potential to advance science, enhance education, strengthen the research community, and raise general awareness of the importance and impact of scientific understanding. Rather than being competing objectives, these goals are synergistic. Effective research experiences are those that create win-win-win situations: benefits to the student, benefits to the project, and benefits to the scientific community. When structured appropriately, undergraduate research fits into a learner-centered paradigm that puts emphasis on student learning, rather than instructor teaching. Under such a paradigm the student and professor learn together, constructing knowledge by integrating information with critical-thinking and problem-solving skills, and use this knowledge to address issues in real-life contexts. Creating such a learning environment requires that the professor be vested in the outcome of the research, that the student take a meta-cognitive approach to the project and work at a level appropriate to her abilities, and that the student understand how her contribution fits into the project and the larger field. All of these factors lead to greater independence, confidence, and productivity on the part of the student. By providing undergraduates with these experiences, we introduce not only future scientists but also non-scientists to the excitement of discovery and the value of scientific research. Currently, we involve undergraduates in our research on the hydrology and geochemistry of a tropical montane cloud forest in Monteverde, Costa Rica. At the start of each student's involvement, we provide her with the big picture: our project goals, the relevant social issues, and the importance of watershed research. Each student then articulates her own educational and project objectives. Together, we choose tasks that match her skills and interests with our scholarly work. Specific activities range from literature review to
We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...
Kuzuhara, Kenji; Shibata, Masashi; Uchida, Ryo
Context: Mini-basketball is one of the most popular junior sports in Japan. Mini-basketball–related injuries may increase because of early specialization. However, no reports have been published to date concerning basketball injuries in children younger than 12 years of age. Objective: To prospectively study the incidence, sites, types, and mechanisms of injuries in mini-basketball teams. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Mini-basketball teams in Kobe, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 95 players in 7 community-based mini-basketball club teams (age range, 9 through 12 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Data on all practice and game injuries for the 2013–2014 season were collected using an injury report form. Injury rates were calculated according to site, type, and mechanism. Results: The overall injury rate was 3.83 per 1000 athlete-hours (AHs). The game injury rate (12.92/1000 AHs) was higher than the practice injury rate (3.13/1000 AHs; P basketball players. The high practice injury rate in this study may be due to specific factors related to growth, such as individual differences in height, or to skills, such as inexperience in ball handling. PMID:27922287
Michal Lehnert; Karel Hůlka; Tomáš Malý; Jaroslav Fohler; František Zahálka
BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball p...
Van Buren, Mark E; Safferstone, Todd
Many leaders taking on new roles try to prove themselves early on by going after quick wins--fresh, visible contributions to the business. But in the pursuit of early results, those leaders often fall into traps that prevent them from benefiting from their achievements. To succeed in their new positions, leaders must realize that the teams they have inherited are also experiencing change. Instead of focusing on an individual accomplishment, leaders need to work with team members on a collective quick win. In a study of more than 5,400 new leaders, the authors found that those who were struggling tended to exhibit five behaviors characteristic of people overly intent on securing a quick win. They focused too much on details, reacted negatively to criticism, intimidated others, jumped to conclusions, and micromanaged their direct reports. Some managed to eke out a win anyway, but the fallout was often toxic. The leaders who were thriving in their new roles, by contrast, shared not only a strong focus on results--necessary for early successes--but also excellent change-management skills. They communicated a clear vision, developed constructive relationships, and built team capabilities. They seemed to realize that the lasting value of their accomplishment would be the way they managed their teams through the transition. Collective quick wins established credibility and prepared them to lead their teams to harder-won victories. The authors provide a diagnostic tool for identifying opportunities for collective quick wins, and they share some advice for organizations: When grooming new leaders, don't just shore up their domain knowledge and technical skills; help them develop the change-management skills they will need as they settle in with their new teams.
Lawrence, T.M.; Wichert, A.
The strategies used within PanCanadian Petroleum Limited's production division to successfully introduce the continuous improvement (CI) process are discussed. Continuous improvement is an operating philosophy and management style which allows all employees to participate in and improve the way an organization performs its day-to-day business. In the CI work environment the supervisor's traditional role changes from one of monitoring and controlling, to one of inspiring, motivating and leading people by communicating a clear vision. Employees at all levels in the work environment are organized into teams and armed with a good working knowledge of the problem-solving tools which allow them to pursue and implement improvement initiatives. The outcome of the process is an ongoing win-win situation for both PanCanadian and its people. Employees are gaining more trust, eliminating job irritants, and enjoying their work in a team environment. The company is benefiting through increased production, improved safety and reduced operating expenses, thanks to the many innovative ideas introduced by employees. 4 refs
Brainard, Alan J.
Most people are raised in a traditional environment which teaches that someone-winning implies that someone-loses. However, psychology and the examples provided in the Watergate scandal demonstrate that such a philosophy is neither productive nor beneficial. A "win-win" philosophy of cooperation, not competition, is needed for…
Major, Nancy M; Helms, Clyde A
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic high-level collegiate basketball players before the beginning of the basketball season to gain an understanding of nonclinical findings in this patient population. Bilateral knee MR imaging examinations of 17 varsity basketball players (12 men and five women) were performed before basketball season began. All of the subjects were imaged on a 1.5-T magnet. The MR imaging studies were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Structures analyzed were the menisci, ligaments, cartilage, plicae, and bone marrow. The presence of a joint effusion was also noted. Fourteen (41%) of the 34 knees had bone marrow edema, eight (24%) showed signal in the patellar tendon, and 14 (41%) had abnormal cartilage signal or a focal abnormality. Twelve (35%) of the 34 knees showed a joint effusion. Two knees (6%) showed abnormal signal along the infrapatellar plica. Four knees (12%) were noted to have a discoid meniscus. An MR examination of the knees of high-level collegiate basketball players may show changes unique to this population. The changes seen on MR imaging in these athletes may be asymptomatic abnormalities. For instance, changes suggestive of patellar tendinopathy were identified in these asymptomatic subjects.
Legg, Jan; Pyne, David B; Semple, Stuart; Ball, Nick
The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players ( n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6⁻8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season), the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2⁻4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size) increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8⁻22%CV) in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10 aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post. Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5.6–8.9%. In the period of the highest training load (mid-season, the variability of within-subject performance was reduced by approximately 2–4% in all measures except for jump height. Altered jump mechanics through a small (0.26 effect size increase in dip were evident at mid-season, suggesting that CMJ analysis is useful for coaches to use as an in-season monitoring tool. The highest coefficient of variation (8–22%CV in inter-set scores in all measures except eccentric peak velocity also occurred mid-season. It appears that in-season load not only impairs jump performance, but also movement variability in basketball players.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012, but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001 without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037 during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041 after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.
Evans, Brent A; Roush, Justin; Pitts, Joshua D; Hornby, Adam
Using hand-collected data from DraftKings.com, a major daily fantasy sports website, we analyze draft selections of thousands of participants in daily fantasy basketball (DFB). In our study, the first thorough examination of DFB, we show that DFB is a game in which skill is necessary for success. Using econometric analysis, we find that winning participants utilize different strategies than losing participants; for example, winning participants more frequently select NBA rookies and international players. We also find that participants paying to enter more lineups in a given contest earn profits far more often than those entering few lineups, indicating that the number of lineups entered can serve as a proxy for skill. Additionally, we provide a thorough discussion of industry characteristics, prior literature, and gameplay, which should help readers familiarize themselves with this burgeoning fantasy sports variant. This study should further the literature on the contentious activity, which has been outlawed in many U.S. states and continues to elicit controversy.
Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael
To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Engel, David J; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi
The incidence of sudden cardiac death is higher in US basketball players compared with other athlete groups. However, the recognition of the risk for sudden cardiac death among basketball players is challenging because little is known regarding athletic cardiac remodeling in these athletes or athletes of similarly increased size. To perform a comprehensive cardiac structural analysis of National Basketball Association (NBA) professional athletes. Echocardiographic observational study of NBA players on the active rosters for the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons was performed from December 16, 2013, to December 12, 2014. The policy of the NBA mandates annual preseason stress echocardiograms for each player. The NBA has sanctioned Columbia University Medical Center to conduct annual health and safety reviews of these echocardiograms. Data were analyzed from January to May 2015. Cardiac variables assessed included left ventricular (LV) size, mass, wall thickness, and hypertrophy patterns and function; left atrial volume; and aortic root diameter. All dimensions were biometrically scaled. Of the 526 athletes included in the study, 406 (77.2%) were African American and 107 (20.3%) were white, with a mean (SD) age of 25.7 (4.3) years. Mean (SD) athlete height was 200.2 (8.8) cm; mean body surface area, 2.38 (0.19) m2. Left ventricular size and mass in NBA athletes were proportional to body size, extending to the uppermost biometrics of the cohort. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 144 athletes (27.4%). African American athletes had increased LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 11.2 mm; 95% CI, 11.1-11.3 mm) and LV mass (unadjusted mean, 106.3 g/m2; 95% CI, 104.6-108.0 g/m2) compared with LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 10.5 mm; 95% CI, 10.3-10.7 mm; P basketball players and the athletic community at large.
te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.
Full Text Available This article presents part of the research performed within the scope of the national project “Conceptual Metaphors in Public Discourse,”1 financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the present paper is to analyze conceptual metaphors in the discourse of the European Basketball Championship which took place in Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011, as well as to determine the source concepts. The analysis allows certain features of the images which are used while conceptualizing the entities related to basketball to be described. The metaphorical collocations drawn from the Lithuanian language corpora and web portals (www.delfi.lt and www.lrytas.lt were selected and analyzed from 31 August 2011 to 18 September 2011. A conceptual metaphor is defined as an interaction of two conceptual fields (source and target concepts. On the basis of the analyzed conceptual sayings, the reconstructed conceptual metaphors proved that the most prolific metaphors are of war, ontology, and scale. In basketball discourse, the war metaphor is characterized by the fact that the image of sport is war is supplemented by other source concepts (e.g.,a person, a building, a thing, a material, a scale. The features of two or sometimes even three source concepts are ascribed to the target concept.
'The greatest problem in communication is the illusion that it has been accomplished' (George Bernard Shaw). Over the past few decades we have seen major shifts in opinion as to what makes a business successful. The 1950's and 1960's saw a production focus whilst the 1970's and 1980's saw progressive change towards quality and 'customer is king' as key business drivers. A popular view now suggests that the next step change will be towards internal marketing, based on the concept that, in the future, winning employee support will be seen as the single biggest contributor to driving business performances. In summary, to win hearts and minds you must understand the needs of your audience, the intent of your communication activity, adopt a suitable style and match your deeds to your words
Long, Ling; Pries, Rachel; Stange, Katherine
Exploring the interplay between deep theory and intricate computation, this volume is a compilation of research and survey papers in number theory, written by members of the Women In Numbers (WIN) network, principally by the collaborative research groups formed at Women In Numbers 3, a conference at the Banff International Research Station in Banff, Alberta, on April 21-25, 2014. The papers span a wide range of research areas: arithmetic geometry; analytic number theory; algebraic number theory; and applications to coding and cryptography. The WIN conference series began in 2008, with the aim of strengthening the research careers of female number theorists. The series introduced a novel research-mentorship model: women at all career stages, from graduate students to senior members of the community, joined forces to work in focused research groups on cutting-edge projects designed and led by experienced researchers. The goals for Women In Numbers 3 were to establish ambitious new collaborations between women i...
Maennig, Wolfgang; Vierhaus, Christopher
The prospect of hosting the Olympic Games is attractive to many cities around the world. This article examines 147 variables’ potential to discriminate successful from unsuccessful Olympic bids. Our stepwise, rank-ordered logistic regression model includes 10 determinants supporting the contention that economic, political and sports/Olympic factors are important for winning the host city election. IOC members favor cities if more than 2/3 of the population support the bid, but disfavor biddin...
Bogdanis, Gregory C; Ziagos, Vaghelis; Anastasiadis, Michalis; Maridaki, Maria
This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two different off-season, short-term basketball training programs on physical and technical abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-seven adolescent basketball players (14.7+/-0.5 years; Tanner stage: 3.5+/-0.5) were randomly divided into a specialized basketball training group (SP, n=10), a mixed basketball plus conditioning training group (MX, n=10) and a control group (n=7). Training included five sessions per week (100-120 min each) and was performed for 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was similarly improved after SP (4.9+/-1.8%) and MX (4.9+/-1.4%), but there was no effect on ventilatory threshold. Peak and mean power output measured during the Wingate test were also improved by a similar magnitude after SP (21+/-5%) and MX (15+/-6%). Trunk muscle endurance was equally increased (SP: 23+/-4%, MX: 25+/-5%), but arms endurance was improved significantly more after MX (50+/-11%) compared to SP (11+/-14%, pbasketball technical skills was similarly increased (by 17-27%) in both groups, with a tendency for greater improvement of the SP groups in the technical skills of shooting and passing. These results indicate that a SP basketball training program, performed exclusively on-court was as effective as a MX training program in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness improvement. Furthermore, the decrease of the total on-court training time in the MX group resulted in a tendency for a smaller improvement of basketball technical skills. In conclusion, both SP and MX training are equally effective in order to limit and/or reverse the detraining effects that occur during the off-season in basketball.
Saavedra, Serguei; Mukherjee, Satyam; Bagrow, James P.
Experience is an important asset in almost any professional activity. In basketball, there is believed to be a positive association between coaching experience and effective use of team timeouts. Here, we analyze both the extent to which a team's change in scoring margin per possession after timeouts deviate from the team's average scoring margin per possession--what we called timeout factor, and the extent to which this performance measure is associated with coaching experience across all teams in the National Basketball Association over the 2009-2012 seasons. We find that timeout factor plays a minor role in the scoring dynamics of basketball. Surprisingly, we find that timeout factor is negatively associated with coaching experience. Our findings support empirical studies showing that, under certain conditions, mentors early in their careers can have a stronger positive impact on their teams than later in their careers.
Metaxas, Thomas I; Koutlianos, Nikos; Sendelides, Thomas; Mandroukas, Athanasios
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the cardiorespiratory performance and isokinetic muscle strength between Greek soccer and basketball players of different divisions before starting the training season. Study participants included 100 soccer players and 61 basketball players, who were assigned according to the kind of sport and division. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and performed an exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Peak torque for quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured on isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocity of 60 degrees/s(-1), 180 degrees/s(-1), and 300 degrees/s(-1). The statistical p value was set at p duration of the maintenance period and to the effect of the training session on each sport, respectively. Finally, a higher level of muscle strength would be preferable in soccer and basketball and would reduce the risk for injuries in the maintenance and rebuilding training periods.
Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use
Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the adaptation of basketball players of student teams to training loads during the preparatory period of the annual cycle of training on the parameters of motor qualities and functional readiness. Material & Methods: conducted a survey of 12 basketball players on the team (Sumy, the highest league of the Ukrainian Basketball Championship. The following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, methods of mathematical statistics, anthropometry and pedagogical control. Result: dynamics of changes at the stage of preparation for the season is shown. It is established and observed that under the influence of training sessions in the examined basketball players, not only the optimization of the functional systems of their organism, but also the level of the functional state of the organism as a whole. Conclusion: assessment of the functional condition of the athlete's body should play an important role in the overall system of medical and biological control in connection with significant additional information on the state of their body and the possibility of timely correction of physical activity and the provision of preventive measures. It is determined that during the preparatory period the level of motor qualities and functional readiness of the basketball players increased.
Bouteraa, Ichrak; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks combined balance and plyometric training on the physical fitness of female adolescent basketball players. Twenty six healthy regional-level players were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E; n = 16, age = 16.4 ± 0.5) or a control group (C; n = 10, age = 16.5 ± 0.5). C maintained their normal basketball training schedule, whereas for 8 weeks E replaced a part of their standard regimen by biweekly combined training sessions. Testing before and after training included the Squat Jump (SJ), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Drop Jump (DJ), 5, 10 and 20-m sprints, Stork Balance Test (SBT), Y-Balance Test (YBT) and Modified Illinois Change of Direction Test (MICODT). Results indicated no significant inter-group differences in SJ and CMJ height; however, E increased their DJ height (ptraining to regular in-season basketball training proved a safe and feasible intervention that enhanced DJ height, balance, and agility for female adolescent basketball players relative to the standard basketball training regimen.
Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu
Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.
Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios
Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The aims of this study were to determine the effects of (a) plyometric training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent male basketball players and (b) detraining and reduced training on previously achieved explosive strength gains. Two groups were formed: an experimental and a control group. The former was submitted to a 10-week in-season plyometric training program, twice weekly, along with regular basketball practice. Simultaneously, the control group participated in regular basketball practice only. At the end of this period, the experimental group was subdivided into 2 groups: a reduced training group and a detraining group. All participants were assessed on squat jump, countermovement jump, Abalakov test, depth jump, mechanical power, and medicine ball throw at the beginning and at the end of the 10-week in-season plyometric training and on weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the in-season detraining and reduced training periods. In the first phase of the study, the experimental group significantly increased all the assessed indicators (p training showed positive effects on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. Moreover, we can state that both detraining and a reduced training program indistinctly contribute to maintenance of strength levels. These results highlight the unique power that basketball-specific training seems to have on the sustainability and maintenance of sport performance.
Brand is symbol of product quality and strength of enterprise. As a typical culture in market economy, it has great influences in everyday life. Famous brands attract purchasing, which prospers enterprise. After China' s entry to WTO, Chinese economy has turned into a new page.As the world manufacturing base, China is to win international market with its own brands. Chunsheng Refractory Ltd., which specialized in quality silica bricks, has grown in size and strength. And our experiences proved how important the brand is for an enterprise.
Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh
Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury
This article explores the imagery and notions of personhood underlying the willingness to undertake extreme work among creative knowledge workers. The core argument is that extreme work is informed by pervasive win-win fantasies which can be recognized in a number of current organizational trends...
Waase, Marc P; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Whang, William; DiTullio, Marco R; DiFiori, John P; Callahan, Lisa; Mancell, Jimmie; Phelan, Dermot; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi; Engel, David J
While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population. The NBA has partnered with Columbia University Medical Center to annually perform a review of policy-mandated annual preseason ECGs and stress echocardiograms for all players and predraft participants. This observational study includes the preseason ECG examinations of NBA athletes who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons, plus all participants in the 2014 and 2015 NBA predraft combines. Examinations were performed from July 2013 to May 2015. Data analysis was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Active roster or draft status in the NBA and routine preseason ECGs and echocardiograms. Baseline quantitative ECG variables were measured and ECG data qualitatively analyzed using 3 existing, athlete-specific interpretation criteria: Seattle (2012), refined (2014), and international (2017). Abnormal ECG findings were compared with matched echocardiographic data. Of 519 male athletes, 409 (78.8%) were African American, 96 (18.5%) were white, and the remaining 14 (2.7%) were of other races/ethnicities; 115 were predraft combine participants, and the remaining 404 were on active rosters of NBA teams. The mean (SD) age was 24.8 (4.3) years. Physiologic, training-related changes were present in 462 (89.0%) athletes in the study. Under Seattle criteria, 131 (25.2%) had abnormal findings, compared with 108 (20.8%) and 81 (15.6%) under refined and international criteria, respectively
Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Castagna, Carlo
The aim of this study was to examine the training load (TL) profile of professional elite level basketball players during the crucial parts of the competitive season (pre-play-off finals). Subjects were 8 full-time professional basketball players (age 28 +/- 3.6 years, height 199 +/-7.2 cm, body mass 102 +/- 11.5 kg, and body fat 10.4 +/- 1.5%) whose heart rate (HR) was recorded during each training session and their individual response to TL monitored using the session-rate of perceived exertion (RPE) method (200 training sessions). The association between the session-RPE method and training HR was used to assess the population validity of the session-RPE method. Significant relationships were observed between individual session-RPE and all individual HR-based TL (r values from 0.69 to 0.85; p 0.05). Elite male professional basketball imposes great physiological and psychological stress on players through training sessions and official competitions (1-2 per week). Consequently, the importance of a practical and valid method to assess individual TL is warranted. In this research, we demonstrated that session-RPE may be considered as a viable method to asses TL without the use of more sophisticated tools (i.e., HR monitors). The session-RPE method enabled the detection of periodization patterns in weekly planning in elite professional basketball during the crucial part of the competitive season (1 vs. 2 weekly fixtures model).
Full Text Available Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04 and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01 participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes
Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in, some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …, and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA, Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions. Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition. Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
This work explores disability in the cultural context of contemporary Japanese comics. In contrast to Western comics, Japanese manga have permeated the social fabric of Japan to the extent that vast numbers of people read manga on a daily basis. It has, in fact, become such a popular medium for visual communication that the Japanese government and education systems utilize manga as a social acculturation and teaching tool. This multibillion dollar industry is incredibly diverse, and one particularly popular genre is sports manga. However, Inoue Takehiko's award-winning manga series REAL departs from more conventional sports manga, which typically focus on able-bodied characters with sometimes exaggerated superhuman physical abilities, by adopting a more realistic approach to the world of wheelchair basketball and the people who play it. At the same time REAL explores cultural attitudes toward disability in Japanese culture-where disability is at times rendered "invisible" either through accessibility problems or lingering associations of disability and shame. It is therefore extremely significant that manga, a visual medium, is rendering disability visible-the ultimate movement from margin to center. REAL devotes considerable attention to realistically illustrating the lived experiences of its characters both on and off the court. Consequently, the series not only educates readers about wheelchair basketball but also provides compelling insight into Japanese cultural notions about masculinity, family, responsibility, and identity. The basketball players-at first marginalized by their disability-join together in the unity of a sport typically characterized by its "abledness."
Anthony S. Leicht
Full Text Available The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women’s basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women’s basketball matches during the 2004–2016 Olympic Games (n = 156 and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression and non-linear (conditional interference (CI classification tree statistical techniques. The most parsimonious linear model retained “defensive rebounds”, “field-goal percentage”, “offensive rebounds”, “fouls”, “steals”, and “turnovers” with a classification accuracy of 85.6%. The CI classification tree retained four performance indicators with a classification accuracy of 86.2%. The combination of “field-goal percentage”, “defensive rebounds”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of winning (91.1%, while a combination of “field-goal percentage”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of losing (96.7%. Shooting proficiency and defensive actions were identified as key team performance indicators for Olympic female basketball success. The development of key defensive strategies and/or the selection of athletes highly proficient in defensive actions may strengthen Olympic match success. Incorporation of non-linear analyses may provide teams with superior/practical approaches for elite sporting success.
Full Text Available Considered the leading position of the preparation of basketball teams in high schools. The system includes the following: reliance on top-quality players in the structure of preparedness, widespread use of visual aids, teaching movies and cartoons with a record of technology implementation of various methods by professional basketball players, the application of the methods of autogenic and ideomotor training according to our methodology. The study involved 63 students 1.5 courses from various universities of Kharkov 1.2 digits: 32 experimental group and 31 - control. The developed system of training students, basketball players used within 1 year. The efficiency of the developed system in the training process of students, basketball players.
Harris, Joshua D; Walton, David M; Erickson, Brandon J; Verma, Nikhil N; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J
Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison with an age-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NBA players undergoing microfracture were evaluated. Age-, body mass index-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched controls were selected from the NBA during the same years as those undergoing microfracture. An index year was selected (controls) to match the number of seasons of NBA experience in microfracture cases. RTS and performance were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 41 NBA players underwent microfracture and were compared with 41 demographic- and performance-matched controls. Rate of RTS after microfracture was 73% in the NBA and 83% in professional basketball (NBA, D-league, and International Basketball Federation [FIBA]). Time to RTS in NBA was 9.20 ± 4.88 months. Seventy-one percent (29/41) of players RTS the season following microfracture. Length of NBA career following microfracture (4.10 ± 3.91 years) was not significantly different from controls. After microfracture, case athletes played fewer games per season and with fewer points and steals per game (relative to premicrofracture; P NBA players undergoing microfracture returned to professional basketball. Career length was not significantly different between players undergoing microfracture and controls. However, following microfracture, players competed in fewer games per season with fewer points
Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Rieger, Randall H; Maak, Travis G; Willick, Stuart E
Teramoto, M, Cross, CL, Rieger, RH, Maak, TG, and Willick, SE. Predictive validity of national basketball association draft combine on future performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 396-408, 2018-The National Basketball Association (NBA) Draft Combine is an annual event where prospective players are evaluated in terms of their athletic abilities and basketball skills. Data collected at the Combine should help NBA teams select right the players for the upcoming NBA draft; however, its value for predicting future performance of players has not been examined. This study investigated predictive validity of the NBA Draft Combine on future performance of basketball players. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on the 2010-2015 Combine data to reduce correlated variables (N = 234), a correlation analysis on the Combine data and future on-court performance to examine relationships (maximum pairwise N = 217), and a robust principal component regression (PCR) analysis to predict first-year and 3-year on-court performance from the Combine measures (N = 148 and 127, respectively). Three components were identified within the Combine data through PCA (= Combine subscales): length-size, power-quickness, and upper-body strength. As per the correlation analysis, the individual Combine items for anthropometrics, including height without shoes, standing reach, weight, wingspan, and hand length, as well as the Combine subscale of length-size, had positive, medium-to-large-sized correlations (r = 0.313-0.545) with defensive performance quantified by Defensive Box Plus/Minus. The robust PCR analysis showed that the Combine subscale of length-size was a predictor most significantly associated with future on-court performance (p ≤ 0.05), including Win Shares, Box Plus/Minus, and Value Over Replacement Player, followed by upper-body strength. In conclusion, the NBA Draft Combine has value for predicting future performance of players.
Fewell, Jennifer H.; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S.
We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as “uphill/downhill” flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness. PMID:23139744
Fewell, Jennifer H; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S
We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.
Jennifer H Fewell
Full Text Available We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1 whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2 whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.
Reform strategies in the transportation market, such as the Win-Win Transportation Solutions, can provide several economic, social and environmental benefits. The strategies are cost effective, technically feasible reforms based on market principles which help create a more equitable and efficient transportation system that supports sustainable economic development. The benefits they provide include reduced traffic congestion, road and parking facility savings, consumer savings, equity, safety and environmental protection. They also increase economic productivity. If fully implemented, they could reduce motor vehicle impacts by 15 to 30 per cent and could help achieve the Kyoto emission reduction targets. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the federal level include: (1) removal of subsidies to oil production and internalized costs, and (2) tax exempt employer provided transfer benefits. Examples of Win-Win strategies at the state/provincial level include: (1) distance-based vehicle insurance and registration fees, (2) least-coast transportation planning and funding, (3) revenue-neutral tax shifting, (4) road pricing, (5) reform motor carrier regulations for competition and efficiency, (6) local and regional transportation demand management programs, (7) more efficient land use, (8) more flexible zoning requirements, (9) parking cash out, (10) transportation management associations, (11) location-efficient housing and mortgages, (12) school and campus trip management, (13) car sharing, (14) non-motorized transport improvements, and (15) traffic calming. It was noted that any market reform that leads to more efficient use of existing transportation systems can provide better economic development benefits. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig
Harris, Joshua D.; Walton, David M.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.
Background: Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. Hypotheses: (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison wit...
Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Case-control study. Level 4. Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transaction records, and public sports archives. A 1:2 case-control study was performed in which LDH players and players without LDH were matched for player variables. Statistical analysis was employed to compare pre- and postindex season performance (games played and player efficiency rating [PER]) and career longevity between test subjects and controls in the operatively treated (OT) and nonoperatively treated (NOT) cohorts. A total of 61 NBA players with LDH were included, of whom 34 underwent discectomy and 27 were managed nonoperatively. Return-to-play (RTP) rates did not differ between NOT and OT players (77.8% vs. 79.4%). When compared with controls, OT players played significantly fewer games and had a lower PER than controls during the first postoperative season, but no difference was seen 2 and 3 years after surgery, with no difference in postoperative career length. In contrast, no difference in games played or PER was seen between NOT players and controls, although NOT players played significantly fewer postindex seasons. NBA players have a high RTP rate regardless of type of treatment for LDH; however, postindex performance differs between surgically and nonoperatively managed patients when compared with players without an LDH. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required for more definitive recommendations. There is a high RTP rate after LDH in the NBA, although postindex performance may differ based on operative versus nonoperative treatment. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth
Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S
Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.
This bachelor thesis deals with the use TRX in basketball. The theoretical part focuses on the creation, development, description, and what it is not TRX. Why is this new and modern way to fit exercise in basketball training. This bachelor thesis acquaints us with basketball in general, with movements that are performed in basketball and the muscles that are involved in these movements. Conclusion The theoretical part contains exercises for each muscle group, their strengthening and stretchin...
Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T
Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.
Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Zhu, Weimo
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player's offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a…
Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.
Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua
Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.
Fletcher, Erica N; McKenzie, Lara B; Comstock, R Dawn
Basketball is a popular US high school sport with more than 1 million participants annually. To compare patterns of athletes with basketball-related injuries presenting to US emergency departments from 2005 through 2010 and the high school athletic training setting from the 2005-2011 seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission and the High School Reporting Information Online database. Complex sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of basketball-related injuries for comparison. Adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age treated in US emergency departments for basketball-related injuries and athletes from 13 to 19 years of age from schools participating in High School Reporting Information Online who were injured while playing basketball. Nationally, an estimated 1,514,957 (95% confidence interval = 1,337,441, 1,692,474) athletes with basketball-related injuries reported to the emergency department and 1,064,551 (95% confidence interval = 1,055,482, 1,073,620) presented to the athletic training setting. Overall, the most frequent injuries seen in the emergency department were lacerations and fractures (injury proportion ratios [IPRs] = 3.45 and 1.72, respectively), whereas those seen in the athletic training setting were more commonly concussions and strains/sprains (IPRs = 2.23 and 1.19, respectively; all P values training setting (IPR = 1.18; all P values basketball players presenting for treatment in the emergency department and the athletic training setting. Understanding differences specific to clinical settings is crucial to grasping the full epidemiologic and clinical picture of sport-related injuries. Certified athletic trainers play an important role in identifying, assessing, and treating athletes with sport-related injuries who might otherwise present to clinical settings with higher costs, such as the emergency department.
Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael
Previous research has shown that changes in shot difficulty may have rendered the hot-hand effect in basketball unobservable and are potentially a result of defensive adjustments. However, it has not been directly analysed whether strategic changes indeed take place in response to streakiness and whether they are effective with respect to winning games. The current work consists of an experimental study with 18 professional coaches and 20 players based on video sequences from National Basketball Association games, where the shown player displayed a streaky performance in half of the sequences. While coaches were asked to devise a defensive strategy after each viewed sequence, players had to assume the role of the shown player and decide whether to shoot or pass the ball. We find that coaches tended to increase the defensive pressure significantly more often on presumably hot players and thus make use of the hot-hand heuristic. Meanwhile, players chose to shoot more frequently in low-pressure and streaky situations but selected "pass" regardless of the previous performance when they faced increased defensive pressure. Assuming that a streaky player's performance is indeed elevated during hot phases, hot-hand behaviour can be considered adaptive in certain situations as it led hot players to pass instead of shoot.
Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N
The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and (c) additional variables that influence shooting.
Campbell, Robert James
This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture.
Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field
Proven techniques for resolving workplace conflicts. After years of seeing clients struggling and their businesses suffering with destructive conflicts, Diane Katz developed The Working Circle, a step-by-step process that helps everyone in business resolve conflict in a non-confrontational, creative, collaborative way. Win at Work! provides you with a no-nonsense guide based on real-life examples of people at pivotal points in their careers. Filled with practical wisdom, it reveals how you can move around the roadblocks that, if left unattanded, can stop you in your tracks. Win at Work! also h
Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka
In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours
Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.
Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412
Matković, Andro; Rupčić, Tomislav; Knjaz, Damir
The objective of this study was to establish physiological loads elite basketball referees sustain during competitive games. Thirty-one referees (age: 33.35±5.17 years, body mass: 88.04±7.47 kg, height: 186.37±5.40 cm), all classified as A-list referees of the 1st Croatian Basketball League, were subjected to progressive spiroergometric testing on the treadmill in order to determine the anaerobic threshold (V-slope method). The referees were monitored electrocardiographically for the estab...
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.
Manojlović Vladimir; Erčulj Frane
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance expressed through a jump height. Thirteen basketball players (body mass = 73,4 kg, height = 186,58 cm, age = 15.12 ± 0.61 y) volunteered as participants. All the subject represented a club which participated in the Croatian cadets 1. league in season 2008/09, and were tested during the season. The subjects performed two experiments. In both experiments, they performed 15 repetitions of c...
Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath
There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pagility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.
Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.
Montalvo, Alicia; Latinjak, Alexander; Unnithan, Viswanath
Abstract There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16) and under-18 (U18) female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years) participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (pjump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005). These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players. PMID:28149421
Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Ric, Angel; Llabres-Torres, Ivan; de Las Heras, Bernat; Schelling I Del Alcazar, Xavi
The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the cardiovascular workload (heart rate [HR]) and time-motion demands between positional groups, during numerous basketball training drills, and compare the results with in-game competition demands. A convenience sample of 14 top-level professional basketball players from the same club (Spanish First Division, ACB) participated in the study. A total of 146 basketball exercises per player (performed over an 8-week period in 32 team training sessions throughout the competitive season) and 7 friendly matches (FM) played during the preparatory phase were analyzed. The results reveal that HRavg and HRpeak were the highest in FM (158 ± 10; 198 ± 9 b · min(-1), respectively). Time-motion analysis showed 1v1 to be the most demanding drill (53 ± 8 and 46 ± 12 movements per minute for full and half court, respectively). During FM, players performed 33 ± 7 movements per minute. Positional differences exist for both HR and time-motion demands, ranging from moderate to very large for all basketball drills compared with FM. Constraints such as number of players, court size, work-to-rest ratios, and coach intervention are key factors influencing cardiovascular responses and time-motion demands during basketball training sessions. These results demonstrate that systematic monitoring of the physical demands and physiological responses during training and competition can inform and potentially improve coaching strategy, basketball-specific training drills, and ultimately, match performance.
Ongeveer vier jaar geleden is de Basisvorming ingevoerd. Na vier jaar zijn er allerlei schitterende lesinhouden, kijkwijzers, lesmethoden e.d. geïntroduceerd. Hier zou ik graag een bijdrage aan leveren d.m.v. een Basketball Carnival. Het woord carnival zal wel verbazing wekken. Carnival is niets
In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…
In deregulated energy markets, power supply companies change from commodity suppliers to service providers. The core of the process of change is a change in attitude, from producer to customer-oriented marketer; the means applied in the process are a diversified and integrated marketing strategy, targeting both external and internal conditions, which fits into a comprehensive concept of an integrated communications strategy. An international conference held in mid-June in Lisbon, organised by the associations Unipede and EURELECTRIC as well as the International Energy Agency (IEA), supplied a wealth of information on this topical issue spanning a broad range of interesting aspects, as eg. approaches to identify customer needs and correspondingly develop new services, or the quest for new business segments and possibilities of finding win-win relations for both customers and power producers. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Auf liberalisierten Strommaerkten entwickeln sich die Energieversorger zu Dienstleistern. Kern des Wandels ist der Weg von der Produktions- zur Kundenorientierung, Mittel eine differenzierte und integrierte Marketingstrategie, die nach aussen wie nach innen gerichtet ist und in ein umfassendes Konzept einer integrierten Kommunikationsstrategie eingepasst ist. Eine von den Verbaenden Unipede und EURELECTRIC sowie der Internationalen Energie-Agentur (IEA) Mitte Juni in Lissabon ausgerichtete internationale Konferenz lieferte hierzu eine Fuelle an Material. Es wurde thematisch ein weiter Bogen gespannt. Von der Ermittlung unterschiedlicher Kundenbeduerfnisse ueber Methoden, sich danach auszurichten sowie speziell entwickelte Marketingstrategien, bis hin zu neuen Betaetigungsfeldern wurde nach Moeglichkeiten gesucht, Win-Win-Relationen fuer Kunden und EVU darzustellen. (orig.)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Frances Allen Wins Turing Award. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...
Anthony S. Leicht, Miguel A. Gómez, Carl T. Woods
Full Text Available In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156. Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC <0.01; Akaike weight = 0.28 with a classification accuracy of 85.5%. Conversely, four performance indicators were retained with the CI classification tree with an average classification accuracy of 81.4%. However, it was the combination of ‘field-goal percentage’ and ‘defensive rebounds’ that provided the greatest probability of winning (93.2%. Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success.
Amin, Nirav H; Old, Andrew B; Tabb, Loni P; Garg, Rohit; Toossi, Nader; Cerynik, Douglas L
A complete rupture of the Achilles tendon is a devastating injury. Variables affecting return to competition and performance changes for National Basketball Association (NBA) players are not readily evident. Players in the NBA who ruptured their Achilles tendons and who underwent surgical repair would have more experience in the league, and the performance of those who were able to return to competition would be decreased when compared with their performance before injury and with their control-matched peers. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data for 18 basketball players with Achilles tendon repair over a 23-year period (1988-2011) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, and number of years playing in the league. Individual season statistics were obtained, and the NBA player efficiency rating (PER) was calculated for 2 seasons before and after injury. Controls were matched by playing position, number of seasons played, and performance statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of each factor. At the time of injury, the average age was 29.7 years, average BMI was 25.6, and average playing experience was 7.6 years. Seven players never returned to play an NBA game, whereas 11 players returned to play 1 season, with 8 of those players returning for ≥2 seasons. Players who returned missed an average of 55.9 games. The PER was reduced by 4.57 (P = .003) in the first season and by 4.38 (P = .010) in the second season. When compared with controls, players demonstrated a significant decline in the PER the first season (P = .038) and second season (P = .081) after their return. The NBA players who returned to play after repair of complete Achilles tendon ruptures showed a significant decrease in playing time and performance. Thirty-nine percent of players never returned to play.
The diploma thesis comparing the level of physical abilities and basketball skills of girls in basketball and basketball outfits in Prague and abroad outlines a short history of both world and Czech basketball, the current organization of basketball in the Czech Republic, age specificities of children aged 11, stage of sports training in basketball, Ability. The practical part deals with the question of the level of motor skills of girls at the age of 11, the question of the level of basketba...
Full Text Available Subjects present in the market tend to achieve synergetic effect by well-established partnerships more often. Cause related marketing based on the direct partnership between companies and nonprofit organizations and indirect partnership between the company and the customer, in order to support a social cause, is as such the subject of this analysis. Cause-related marketing is a manifestation of social-cause marketing and the adaptation of commercial marketing tailored for the programs that influence the voluntary behavior of customers, which will enhance well-being of society. The aim of this analysis is to present cause-related marketing as a win-win situation for all participants in the exchange and in the community. The outcome of the analysis are benefits realized by means of Liste Read phonetically cause-related marketing campaigns. .
Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
Full Text Available The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.
Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H
Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...
Wen, Neal; Dalbo, Vincent J; Burgos, Bill; Pyne, David B; Scanlan, Aaron T
Numerous foundational movements performed during basketball are predicated on underlying power-related attributes, including speed, change-of-direction, and jumping. Accordingly, fitness testing batteries for basketball have incorporated an assortment of linear speed tests, change-of-direction tests, and jump tests. However, due to the wide variety of testing options it is difficult for basketball practitioners to select appropriate testing protocols for the assessment of power-related attributes. As a result, there is a need to review the relevant literature to identify game-specific, power-related attributes important in basketball and the most appropriate tests available to assess power-related attributes for basketball practitioners. Therefore, the aims of this review were to: (1) identify essential power-related attributes important in basketball; (2) discuss the suitability of common and novel power-related tests; and (3) provide recommendations for future research and best practice approaches for basketball coaching staff. In this review, we propose a series of novel tests that are more targeted and specific to basketball movements including: (1) 5-m and 10-m linear sprints, (2) Modified Agility T-Test, (3) Change-of-Direction Deficit, (4) lateral bound, (5) Sargent jump, (6) one-step jump, and (7) isometric midthigh pull test. Improved testing of power-related attributes should enable basketball practitioners to develop targeted training plans for enhancing player performance.
Boccolini, Gabriele; Brazzit, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n = 11) and isotonic training (ISO, n = 12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive season and at the end of 12 weeks of specific training programme. All of the tests were performed in sustained bipodalic and monopodalic (both right and left) positions. The results showed that players who participated in balance training for 12 weeks, compared to players who trained with isotonic machines, exhibited a significantly increase in balance (bipodalic 28.3 %; right 41.4 %; left 45.8 %; p training using unstable boards was an effective training method for improving balance and the vertical jump, which is a basketball-specific action that frequently occurs in this sport.
Hamta Hadian; Mohamad Reza Boroumand; Saeed Amirnejad; Masoud Najafi
This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner) to state internal and exter...
Kahn, Lawrence M.
This Chapter reviews evidence on discrimination in basketball, primarily examining studies on race but with some discussion of gender as well. I focus on discrimination in pay, hiring, and retention against black NBA players and coaches and pay disparities by gender among college coaches. There was much evidence for each of these forms of discrimination against black NBA players in the 1980s. However, there appears to be less evidence of racial compensation, hiring and retention discriminatio...
Gabel, Alan; Redner, Sidney
We analyze NBA basketball play-by-play data and found that scoring is well described by a weakly-biased, anti-persistent, continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between events. We account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead.
Prevalência de lesões na temporada 2002 da Seleção Brasileira Masculina de Basquete Prevalencia de lesiones en la temporada 2002 de la Selección Brasileña de Básquetbol Masculino Prevalence of injuries of Brazilian Basketball National Team during 2002 season
(66 de 102 consultas, o sea el 64,7% del total. Dentro de las lesiones traumáticas, las más frecuentes fueron los esguinces de tobillo (13 de 102 lesiones con el 12,8% seguido de los traumas directos (contusiones de la región de las manos (9 de 102 lesiones con un 8,8%. En cuanto a la gravedad, las lesiones leves representan el 57,8% seguidas de las moderadas y graves con un 34,4% y 9,8%, respectivamente. En relación a la posición en el juego, los pivots fueron los atletas que presentaron un número mayor de consultas (45 representando el 44,1% del total, siendo estas debidas principalmente al contacto físico de la región con mayor agresividad. De esta forma, por ser un deporte de extremo contacto físico, las lesiones traumáticas principalmente en manos, caderas y los esguinces de tobillo son altamente representativas, siendo los miembros inferiores los mas afectados.The aim of this study is to evaluate injuries, etiology and localization of Brazilian Basketball National Team during 2002 season. All data of this study was collected by the physician's team. The diagnosis performed was clinical, rarely complementary exams were used; 102 complaints were made by athletes during 2002 season (1/7/2002 10/9/2002 performing 6.37 injuries/athlete/season or 2.55 injuries/athlete/month; 64.7% (66/102 athlete's complaints had no trauma relationship (muscle injuries, clinical diseases and tendinous injuries. The traumatic injuries were less frequent (36/102; 35.3%. The most frequent injury was ankle's torsion (13/102; 12.8% followed by hand's trauma (9/102; 8.8%. By localization, the most common injuries were in legs (49/102; 48.0%, arms (14/102; 13.7%, thorax/abdomen (14/102; 13.7%, head and neck (3/102; 3.0%. The systemic diseases (headache, diarrhea, for example were 21.6%. According to position in court, complaints from center players were the most common (45/102; 44.1%, mainly of traumatic injuries. Due to extreme contact sport, traumatic injuries in hands, thigh and
Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas
Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606
Curtis, Claudia K; Laudner, Kevin G; McLoda, Todd A; McCaw, Steven T
Context: Much of the recent focus in shoe design and engineering has been on improving athletic performance. Currently, this improvement has been in the form of “cushioned column systems,” which are spring-like in design and located under the heel of the shoe in place of a conventional heel counter. Concerns have been raised about whether this design alteration has increased the incidence of ankle sprains. Objective: To examine the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in collegiate basketball players with regard to shoe design. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Certified athletic trainers at 1014 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-affiliated schools sponsoring basketball during the 2005–2006 regular season were notified of an online questionnaire. Athletic trainers at 22 of the 1014 schools participated. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 230 basketball players (141 males, 89 females; age = 20.2 ± 1.5 years) from NCAA Division I–III basketball programs sustained lateral ankle sprains. Main Outcome Measure(s): Ankle sprain information and type of shoe worn (cushioned column or noncushioned column) were collected via online survey. The incidence of lateral ankle sprains and type of shoes worn were compared using a chi-square analysis. Results: No difference was noted in ankle sprain incidence between groups (χ2 = 2.44, P = .20, relative risk = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.32, 6.86). The incidence of ankle sprains was 1.33 per 1000 exposures in the cushioned column group (95% CI = 0.62, 3.51) and 1.96 per 1000 exposures in the noncushioned column group (95% CI = 0.51, 4.22). Conclusions: No increased incidence of ankle sprains was associated with shoe design. PMID:18523571
Sampaio, Jaime; McGarry, Tim; Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling I Del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas
Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.
Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.
Veeger, Thom T J; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Van Der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M
This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to assess their mobility performance. To determine which variables were the best predictors of mobility performance, forward stepwise linear regression analyses were performed on a set of 33 characteristics, including ten athlete, nineteen wheelchair and four athlete-wheelchair interface characteristics. Eight of the characteristics turned out to be significant predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Classification, experience, maximal isometric force, wheel axis height and hand rim diameter - which both interchangeable with each other and wheel diameter - camber angle, and the vertical distance between shoulder and rear wheel axis - which was interchangeable with seat height - were positively associated with mobility performance. The vertical distance between the front seat and the footrest was negatively associated with mobility performance. With this insight, coaches and biomechanical specialists are provided with statistical findings to determine which characteristics they could focus on best to improve mobility performance. Six out of eight predictors are modifiable and can be optimized to improve mobility performance. These adjustments could be carried out both in training (maximal isometric force) and in wheelchair configurations (e.g. camber angle).
McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D
The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance.
Begly, John P.; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J.; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J.
Background: Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. Hypothesis: National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 5. Methods: Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. Results: The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m2, and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. Conclusion: The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Clinical Relevance: Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. PMID:26627111
Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.
Busfield, Benjamin T; Kharrazi, F Daniel; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen J; Seegmiller, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of return to play and to quantify the effect on the basketball player's performance after surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Surgical injuries involving the ACL were queried for a 10-year period (1993-1994 season through 2004-2005 season) from the database maintained by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Standard statistical categories and player efficiency rating (PER), a measure that accounts for positive and negative playing statistics, were calculated to determine the impact of the injury on player performance relative to a matched comparison group. Over the study period, 31 NBA players had 32 ACL reconstructions. Two patients were excluded because of multiple ACL injuries, one was excluded because he never participated in league play, and another was the result of nonathletic activity. Of the 27 players in the study group, 6 (22%) did not return to NBA competition. Of the 21 players (78%) who did return to play, 4 (15%) had an increase in the preinjury PER, 5 (19%) remained within 1 point of the preinjury PER, and the PER decreased by more than 1 point after return to play in 12 (44%). Although decreases occurred in most of the statistical categories for players returning from ACL surgery, the number of games played, field goal percentage, and number of turnovers per game were the only categories with a statistically significant decrease. Players in the comparison group had a statistically significant increase in the PER over their careers, whereas the study group had a marked, though not statistically significant, increase in the PER in the season after reconstruction. After ACL reconstruction in 27 basketball players, 22% did not return to a sanctioned NBA game. For those returning to play, performance decreased by more than 1 PER point in 44% of the patients, although the changes were not statistically significant relative to the comparison group. Level IV, therapeutic
Begly, John P; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J
Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Retrospective cohort study. Level 5. Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m(2), and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. © 2015 The Author(s).
Kester, Benjamin S; Behery, Omar A; Minhas, Shobhit V; Hsu, Wellington K
To identify the impact of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on performance and career longevity for National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Seventy-nine players (80 knees) with acute ACL tears in the NBA between the 1984-2014 seasons, and 112 age, height, weight, and performance-matched controls were identified. Pre- and post-injury performance outcomes including seasons played, games played, games started, minutes per game, points per game, field goals, 3-point shots, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, turnovers, personal fouls, usage percentage and player efficiency ratings were compared between cases and controls using independent samples t tests and Fisher's exact tests. Sixty-eight of seventy-nine players (86.1 %) returned to play in the NBA following ACL reconstruction. Mean length of post-operative play was 1.84 years shorter than matched controls (P = 0.001). There was a significantly higher rate of attrition from professional basketball for players with a history of ACL reconstruction (P = 0.014). In the first full season following surgery, players started in 15.5 fewer games (P = 0.001), they played in 17.3 fewer games (P NBA following ACL reconstruction, although playing time, games played, player efficiency ratings and career lengths are significantly impacted in the post-operative period. These data should be used to manage patients' expectations regarding their abilities to return to elite levels of athletic performance.
Castro, P.; Pelegrí, M.
In this paper the WIN Chapters: milestones and future plans are presented. WIN-IAEA has rewarded-in the three last years - to Australia-2014, South-Africa-2013 and Sweden-2012. WIN-Global -specially WiN IAEA- can collaborate a lot with the CTBTO presenting the content of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons actually increasing the signatory members in 2015. Historical decisions on NTP are already affecting WiN IAEA. The research reactors or high flux reactors are important in the field of medical applications and other future applications. In Australia women-scientist of OPAL, can become WiN. Between the OPAL applications there is a production of silicon plates to be used in laptops/mobiles. WIN-Europe activities related with the climatic change and with the academic promotion. 2015 is also a very important year due the celebration of 20th Anniversary of WIN-Spain; plans of this Chapter and Conferences of WIN-Global are presented. In addition there are women working in ITER, in some activities in the EU, China, India, Japan, South Korea, USA and Russia both in the academic (R+D) field and into the Industry. (Author)
Founded in 1992, Women in Nuclear Global (WiN Global) is a worldwide organisation that supports and encourages women working in nuclear and radiation applications. Membership of WiN is made up of chapters and individuals from over 105 countries and various international organisations. As of August 2015, WiN has approximately 25 000 members in total, some of which are men. WiN Australia Inc. (a chapter of WiN Global) was formally founded in 2005 and has grown to approximately 160 members, with two affiliate members from New Zealand. Members work in a variety of fields including research, policy, defence, meteorology, reactor engineering and maintenance, reactor operations, medical physics, law, supporting roles, nuclear medicine and medical physics, mining, academia and safeguards. The objectives of WiN Global and WiN Australia can broadly be summarised as: 1) to increase awareness and information in the public, especially amongst women and the younger generations, about the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, science and technology 2) facilitate networking between individuals, chapters and with other nuclear organisations 3) to support women working in nuclear energy, science and technology 4 )to hold an annual conference and mentor the younger generations of nuclear professionals. The 2015 WiN Annual Global Conference was held in Vienna and attracted over 450 participants from 50 countries, which highlights the remarkable success of Women in Nuclear. Notable activities carried out by WiN Australia over recent years include hosting the 2014 WiN Annual Global Conference in Sydney: securing a WiN Global Executive position for Oceania: participation in workshops, panels and conferences: ongoing leadership of two important WiN Global working groups: and transition to an incorporated Association. A new WiN Australia Executive Committee was elected in September 2015. Future plans for WiN Australia focus on increased engagement and networking with think tanks, nuclear. and
The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)
What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…
The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…
Gencer, Yildirim Gokhan; Coskun, Funda; Sarikaya, Mucahit; Kaplan, Seyhmus
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of intensive basketball competitions (10 official basketball games in 12 days intensive competition period) on blood parameters of basketball players. Blood samples were taken from the basketball players of the university team. The players were training regularly and they had no regular health…
Constructive tension can be healthy for an organization. Although win-lose solutions based on adversarial strategies are common, the management of conflicts in schools should focus on win-win problem solving, which requires creativity. Identifies collaboration as the most desirable conflict resolution strategy, and discusses conflict management…
... employee. (c) Trade or business expenses. The term “WIN expenses” includes only salaries and wages which... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions of WIN expenses and WIN employees. 1... INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50B-1 Definitions of...
P. Dorian Owen
The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.
Ford, H. Thomas, Jr.; Puckett, John R.
The effects of weight-training and basketball programs on four basketball skills were evaluated with a pre- to posttest study of ninth-grade boys. No significant differences or trends were found among groups on the front shot, speed pass, jump and reach, or dribble. (Author/RD)
Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Anthony, Shawn G; Lin, Kenneth M; Wang, Tim; Altchek, David W; Allen, Answorth A
To investigate return to play (RTP) and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in National Basketball Association (NBA) players and to perform a systematic review of the literature to understand RTP after ACLR in professional basketball. NBA players undergoing ACLR between 2008 and 2014 by two surgeons were identified. RTP and performance were assessed based on a review of publically available statistics. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE database. Inclusion criteria were: English language, ACL surgery outcome, professional basketball and RTP outcome. We reviewed studies for RTP rates and RTP performance. Our study included 12 professional basketball players with NBA level experience. Eleven of the 12 players returned to their prior level of play. Eight of the 9 (88.9%) players actively playing in the NBA returned to play in the NBA at a mean 9.8 months. Among players returning to NBA play, during RTP season 1, mean per game statistics decreased for the following: minutes, points, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, turnovers and personal fouls - none of these changes reached statistical significance. Player efficiency ratings significantly declined from pre-injury (12.5) to the first RTP season (7.6) (p = 0.05). By RTP season 2, player performance metrics approximated pre-injury levels and were not significantly different. Six studies met inclusion criteria; reported RTP rates ranged from 78-86%. Identified studies similarly found a decline in functional performance after RTP. There is a high rate (89%) of return to NBA play for NBA players undergoing ACLR. After RTP, however, there is a quantitative decline in initial season 1 RTP statistics with a significant decrease in player efficiency rating. By RTP season 2, performance metrics demonstrated an improvement compared to RTP season 1 but did not reach pre-injury functional performance, though performance metrics are not significantly
Barber Foss, Kim D.; Myer, Greg D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background An estimated 30 to 40 million school children participate in sports in the United States; 34% of middle-school participants become injured and seek medical treatment at an annual cost close to $2 billion. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the injury incidence and rates in female athletes in the middle-school setting during the course of 3 seasons. Methods Female basketball, soccer, and volleyball players were recruited from a single county public school district in Kentucky consisting of 5 middle schools. A total of 268 female athletes (162 basketball, 26 soccer, and 80 volleyball) participated. Athletes were monitored for sports-related injury and number of athlete exposures (AEs) by an athletic trainer. Injury rates were calculated for specific types of injuries within each sport. Injury rates for games and practices were also calculated and compared for each sport. Results A total of 134 injuries were recorded during the 3 sport seasons. The knee was the most commonly injured body part (99 injuries [73.9%]), of which patellofemoral dysfunction (31.3%), Osgood-Schlatter disease (10.4%), and Sinding-Larsen-Johansson/patella tendinosis (9%) had the greatest incidence. The ankle was the second most commonly injured body part, accounting for 16.4% of all injuries. The overall rates of injury by sport were as follows: soccer, 6.66 per 1000 AEs; volleyball, 3.68 per 1000 AEs; and basketball, 2.86 per 1000 AEs. Conclusions Female middle-school athletes displayed comparable injury patterns to those seen in their high-school counterparts. Future work is warranted to determine the potential for improved outcomes in female middle-school athletes with access to athletic training services. Clinical Relevance As the participation levels and number of injuries continue to rise, middle-school athletes demonstrate an increasing need for medical services provided by a certified athletic trainer. PMID:24875981
The report presents information about the establishing, activities and perspectives of WIN Global and WIN Bulgaria - the history of the association, structure, organization, goals and tasks. The social involvement is expressed by issuing of declarations, opinions, memoranda and other documents on important problems in the nuclear area, connected with the power plan, waste management facilities etc
Steingard, S A
The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.
Brumitt, Jason; Engilis, Amy; Isaak, Dale; Briggs, Amy; Mattocks, Alma
Injuries are inherent in basketball with lower extremity (LE) injury rates reported as high as 11.6 per 1000 athletic exposures (AEs); many of these injuries result in time loss from sport participation. A recent trend in sports medicine research has been the attempt to identify athletes who may be at risk for injury based on measures of preseason fitness. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if the standing long jump (SLJ) and/or the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance functional performance tests (FPT) are associated with non-contact time loss lower quadrant (LQ, defined as lower extremities or low back) injury in collegiate male basketball players. It was hypothesized that basketball players with shorter SLJ or SLH measures would be at an increased risk for LQ injury. Seventy-one male collegiate basketball players from five teams completed a demographic questionnaire and performed three SLJ and six SLH (three per lower extremity) tests. Team athletic trainers tracked non-contact LQ time loss injuries during the season. Prospective cohort. Mean SLJ distance (normalized to height) was 0.99 (± 0.11) and mean SLH distances for the right and left were 0.85 ± 0.11 and 0.87 ± 0.10, respectively. A total of 29 (18 initial, 11 subsequent) non-contact time loss LQ injuries occurred during the study. At risk athletes (e.g., those with shorter SLJ and/or SLH) were no more likely to experience a non-contact time loss injury than their counterparts [OR associated with each FPT below cut scores = 0.9 (95% CI: 0.2, 4.9)]. The results from this study indicate that preseason performance of the SLJ and the SLH were not associated with future risk of LQ injury in this population. Preseason SLJ and SLH measures were not associated with non-contact time loss injuries in male collegiate basketball players. However, the descriptive data presented in this study can help sports medicine professionals evaluate athletic readiness prior to discharging
measures and speed and route optimization; Sulphur emissions; Lifecycle emissions; Green rail transportation; Green air transportation; Green inland navigation and possible areas for further research. Throughout, the book pursues the goal of “win-win” solutions and analyzes the phenomenon of “push......This book examines the state of the art in green transportation logistics from the perspective of balancing environmental performance in the transportation supply chain while also satisfying traditional economic performance criteria. Part of the book is drawn from the recently completed European...... Union project Super Green, a three-year project intended to promote the development of European freight corridors in an environmentally friendly manner. Additional chapters cover both the methodological base and the application context of green transportation logistics. Individual chapters look...
A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a complex training program, a combined practice of weight training and plyometrics, on explosive strength development of young basketball players. Twenty-five young male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were assessed using squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT), before and after a 10-week in-season training program. Both the control group (CG; n = 10) and the experimental group (EG; n = 15) kept up their regular sports practice; additionally, the EG performed 2 sessions per week of a complex training program. The EG significantly improved in the SJ, CMJ, ABA, and MBT values (p training to improve the upper and lower body explosivity levels in young basketball players. In conclusion, this study showed that more strength conditioning is needed during the sport practice season. Furthermore, we also conclude that complex training is a useful working tool for coaches, innovative in this strength-training domain, equally contributing to a better time-efficient training.
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
This study examines the recollections of the Sport Education experiences of a cohort of students (15 boys and 19 girls) who had participated in seasons of basketball, soccer and badminton across grades six through eight (average age at data collection = 15.6 years). Using autobiographic memory theory techniques, the students completed surveys and…
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question “how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?” and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality depends crucially on the number of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock. PMID:22295109
Full Text Available In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires, with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA. The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n) is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.
Full Text Available Decision making in sport emerges from the players' interaction with the game context (Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006. Results from studies on the one-on-one in basketball identified interpersonal distance and relative velocity as relevant variables (i.e., control parameters. These results are reinterpreted in the perspective of the General Tau Theory (Lee, 1998, in which movement is regarded as guided by controlling tau motion-gaps (time to fulfil a gap and taucouplings. Further empirical evidence for this argument, came from a recent study in a team ball sport, where the tau variable was considered and verified as significantly related to decisional behaviour. Following this, it is assumed that the focus in candidate control parameters that detach the spatial component from the temporal one, presented in previous studies, may not be sufficient to explain the decisional behaviour in basketball. In this way, the variable tau is proposed as more informative given that enfolds inextricably spatial-temporal information.
Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M
This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.
Maria Abella del Campo
Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance
António Paulo Ferreira
Full Text Available The present paper intends to link positive influence of the evolution in rules and the rising reduction casualty with the basketball game dynamics. Throughout a metaphoric perspective it assumes that casualty factors were somehow covered up since the game invention and they were somehow sleepy during the game evolution. This metaphoric point is justified with an historical analysis to Naismith’s goals, presuming the game was created and reinforced by the evolutionary trends of his rules across the time. It was concluded that casualty role in basketball performance was controlled by an evolutionary direction, where the value of merit, ability and expertise are seen as determinants of basketball dynamics.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors affect basketball players in the transition from junior and amateur to senior and professional sport respectively. The study was a qualitative research which uses a semi-structured interview to get the data. There were interviewed five Spanish basketball players who were starting playing in a team of Basketball Club Association (C.B.A.. The results showed that the participants face several changes both in the sport and in the life outside sport. At the same time, the results indicated the existence of several coping strategies that help the player in his career transition.
Ostojic, Sergej M; Mazic, Sanja; Dikic, Nenad
The purpose of this study was to describe structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different physical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball teams participated in the study and competed in the professional First National League. Physiological measurements were taken of 60 players during the final week of their preparatory training for competition. According to positional roles, players were categorized as guards (n = 20), forwards (n = 20), and centers (n = 20). Guards were older (p Vertical jump power was significantly higher in centers (p basketball.
Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Galazoulas, Christos; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Konstantinos
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged basketball skills training on maximal aerobic power, isokinetic strength, joint mobility, and body fat percentage, in young basketball players, and controls of the same age. Twenty basketball players and 18 control boys participated in the study. Basketball players participated both in their school's physical education program and in a children's basketball team training program. Controls participated only in their school's physical education program. All subjects were tested every 6 months (18 months total, 11(1/2), 12, 12(1/2), 13 years old) for VO(2)max, peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 180 and 300 degrees x s(-1) and range of motion of the knee and hip joints. Body fat percentage was assessed at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. Results showed that the basketball group had lower heart rate values in all ages and higher VO(2) values in the initial test compared with the control in submaximal intensity. The VO(2)max was altered in both groups on the final test, when compared to the initial test. However, the basketball group had a higher VO(2)max on each of the 6-month follow-up measurements, compared to the control group (p trained group had significantly lower percentage body fat values, compared to controls. In conclusion, regular basketball training increased aerobic power and decreased body fat percentage of prepubescent boys, while it did not affect muscle strength and joint mobility of the lower limbs. The major implication suggested by the findings of the present study is that, in order to improve the basic physical components, specific training procedures should be incorporated during the basketball training sessions. It is recommended that all children should be involved in some type of cardiovascular and resistance training program.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of step aerobic exercises on static balance, flexibility and selected basketball skills in young basketball players. A total of 20 basketball players (average age 16.1 ± 0.7 years and average sporting age 4.1 ± 0.7 years) voluntarily joined the study. Participants were randomly…
Schurr, Amos; Ritov, Ilana
Winning a competition engenders subsequent unrelated unethical behavior. Five studies reveal that after a competition has taken place winners behave more dishonestly than competition losers. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that winning a competition increases the likelihood of winners to steal money from their counterparts in a subsequent unrelated task. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the effect holds only when winning means performing better than others (i.e., determined in reference to others) but not when success is determined by chance or in reference to a personal goal. Finally, study 4 demonstrates that a possible mechanism underlying the effect is an enhanced sense of entitlement among competition winners.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J
Declines in high-intensity activity during game play (in-game approach) and performance tests measured pre- and postgame (across-game approach) have been used to assess player fatigue in basketball. However, a direct comparison of these approaches is not available. Consequently, this study examined the commonality between in- and across-game jump fatigue during simulated basketball game play. Australian, state-level, junior male basketball players (n = 10; 16.6 ± 1.1 y, 182.4 ± 4.3 cm, 68.3 ± 10.2 kg) completed 4 × 10-min standardized quarters of simulated basketball game play. In-game jump height during game play was measured using video analysis, while across-game jump height was determined pre-, mid-, and postgame play using an in-ground force platform. Jump height was determined using the flight-time method, with jump decrement calculated for each approach across the first half, second half, and entire game. A greater jump decrement was apparent for the in-game approach than for the across-game approach in the first half (37.1% ± 11.6% vs 1.7% ± 6.2%; P = .005; d = 3.81, large), while nonsignificant, large differences were evident between approaches in the second half (d = 1.14) and entire game (d = 1.83). Nonsignificant associations were evident between in-game and across-game jump decrement, with shared variances of 3-26%. Large differences and a low commonality were observed between in- and across-game jump fatigue during basketball game play, suggesting that these approaches measure different constructs. Based on our findings, it is not recommended that basketball coaches use these approaches interchangeably to monitor player fatigue across the season.
Michael K. Smith
Full Text Available This is a macro which facilitates remote execution of WinBUGS from within SAS. The macro pre-processes data for WinBUGS, writes the WinBUGS batch-script, executes this script and reads in output statistics from the WinBUGS log-file back into SAS native format. The user specifies the input and output file names and directory path as well as the statistics to be monitored in WinBUGS. The code works best for a model that has already been set up and checked for convergence diagnostics within WinBUGS. An obvious extension of the use of this macro is for running simulations where the input and output files all have the same name but all that differs between simulation iterations is the input dataset. The functionality and syntax of the macro call are described in this paper and illustrated using a simple linear regression model.
A summary of the sustainability activities at the 2011 NCAA Women's Final Four Basketball tournament held in Indianapolis, Indiana, a variety of events, initiatives and programs to increase the environmental performance of the event.
Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel
Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency
José M. Palao
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the differences in rugby game statistics between winning and losing teams. The data from 58 games of round robin play from the Six Nations tournament from the 2003-2006 seasons were analyzed. The groups of variables studied were: number of points scored, way in which the points were scored; way teams obtained the ball and how the team used it; and technical and tactical aspects of the game. A univariate (t-test and multivariate (discriminant analysis of data was done. Winning teams had average values that were significantly higher in points scored, conversions, successful drops, mauls won, line breaks, possessions kicked, tackles completed, and turnovers won. Losing teams had significantly higher averages for the variables scrums lost and line-outs lost. The results showed that: a in the phases of obtaining the ball and more specifically in scrummage and line-out, winning teams lose fewer balls than losing teams (winning teams have an efficacy of 90% in both actions; b the winning team tends to play more with their feet when they obtain the ball, to utilize the maul as a way of attacking, and to break the defensive line more often than the losing team does; and c On defence, winning teams recovered more balls and completed more tackles than losing teams, and the percentage of tackles completed by winning teams was 94%. The value presented could be used as a reference for practice and competition in peak performance teams
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training eﬀect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The diﬀerences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the eﬀect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant diﬀerences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant diﬀerences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual diﬀerences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The
Full Text Available Aim of the present research was the determination of the attitudes of Greek Basketball coaches towards their distance learning with the use of ICT in comparison with the classical learning and the examination of the perspective of their distance learning with the use of ICT. Therefore a closed questionnaire was used which included 3 different parts. 60 basketball coaches from Northern Greece comprised the sample (N=60. An interactive software was created which included the teaching of an offensive basketball system. The methodology of distance learning was used for the creation of the offensive system. The software was copied to a CD-Rom and accompanied with the questionnaires it was given to 20 Basketball coaches of Northern Greece as a pilot program. After the corrections of the primary questionnaires, the distribution of the final questionnaire accompanied with the CD-Rom followed. Multiple reciprocations were used for the data analysis. According to the results the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, a the fewer difficulties would the Basketball coaches face by using the distance learning method and b the friendlier and more relaxing would the distance learning method be. Also according to data research: a the more attractive the reading of software was, b the fewer the difficulties during the reading of software and c the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the stronger was the perspective of Basketball coaches to believe in distance learning. In conclusion the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the more positive were the attitudes of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning, while a positive perspective of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning is being formed.
Full Text Available The R2WinBUGS package provides convenient functions to call WinBUGS from R. It automatically writes the data and scripts in a format readable by WinBUGS for processing in batch mode, which is possible since version 1.4. After the WinBUGS process has finished, it is possible either to read the resulting data into R by the package itself--which gives a compact graphical summary of inference and convergence diagnostics--or to use the facilities of the coda package for further analyses of the output. Examples are given to demonstrate the usage of this package.
José Simão Rodrigues Filho
Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.
WIN (Women in Nuclear) now has 900 members from 43 countries. Lithuanian women working at different institutions related with nuclear energy joined this international organization three years ago. Most of these women are working at the Ignalina NPP. It was women employed at the plant who became the first members of the national WIN team. The team has recently grown considerably. The new members are also mostly from the Ignalina NPP (author)
geoscience, to include having applied real problem solving via a robust field camp experience. In addition, we look for the maturity and ability to conduct independent research, to integrate broad suites of data, and to work as a team. We look for the ability to communicate results. We do not look for a focus on petroleum. We have many decades of experience in how to best develop that particular discipline quickly, to meet current and future business conditions. There are recurring themes that facilitate successful transition from Academia to a practicing industry geoscientist. These themes include giving students a good grounding in STEM, not just geology; one-on-one mentoring; sharing our passion for the science by sharing our research; and sharing the entire breadth of career opportunities. Similar best practices have been identified to encourage under-represented minority students and women to study STEM. Perhaps this is a suite of habits we should be practicing more broadly. This suite of habits takes extra time, extra effort, and extra money. But if geoscience mentors in Academia, Industry, and professional societies work together, we will be able to create a win for Academia, a win for Industry, and a win for students. (1) Gonzales and Keane, 2011, "Status of the Geoscience Workforce -- 2011," AGI, p. 123.
Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J
Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine changes in motor and functional skills of women basketball players caused by the influence of six-week training process. Six-week training process (pre-season period of the junior female national basketball team of Serbia for European Championship lasted 43 days, involved 53 workouts and 8 matches. The subjects sample included 13 basketball players, average age 17.76 (±0.43. The first testing was conducted at the beginning of the training program and the second at the end of the program that lasted six weeks. Special tests have been used to assess the following abilities: speed, strength, agility, flexibility and endurance. The research findings show that between the arithmetic mean of initial and final testing, in almost all the tests (Sit and Reach, 10 m Sprint, 10 m Flying sprint, 20 m Sprint , T-test, Half-squat jump, YO YO intermittent test there is a statistically significant difference (p<0.01, while in tests-Counter Movement Jump and Vertical Jump there is a positive difference that is not statistically significant.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1st-division (elite and fifteen 3rd-division (sub-elite Italian men’s championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases, typology (primary and secondary break and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05. Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.
Conte, D; Favero, T G; Niederhausen, M; Capranica, L; Tessitore, A
The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB) actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1 st -division (elite) and fifteen 3 rd -division (sub-elite) Italian men's championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful) was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases), typology (primary and secondary break) and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority) were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05). Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.
Spiteri, Tania; Binetti, Molly; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Dolci, Filippo; Specos, Christina
In female basketball the assumed components of success include power, agility, and the proficiency at executing movements using each limb. However, the importance of these attributes in discriminating between playing levels in female basketball have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to compare lower body power, change of direction (COD) speed, agility, and lower-body sidedness between basketball athletes participating in Division 1 Collegiate basketball (United States), Women's National Basketball League (WNBL) (Australia), and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) (United States). Fifteen female athletes from each league (N = 45) completed a double and single leg counter-movement jump, static jump, drop jump, 5-0-5 COD Test, and an offensive and defensive Agility Test. One-way analysis of variance with post-hoc comparisons, were conducted to compare differences in physical characteristics (height, body mass, age) and performance outcomes (jump, COD, agility assessments) between playing levels. Separate dependent t-tests were performed to compare lower body sidedness (left vs. right lower-limbs) during the single-leg CMJ jumps (vertical jump height) and 5-0-5 COD test for each limb within each playing level. WNBA athletes displayed significantly greater lower body power (P = 0.01 - 0.03) compared to WNBL athletes, significantly faster COD speed (P = 0.02 - 0.03), and offensive and defensive agility performance (P = 0.02 - 0.03) compared to WNBL and Collegiate athletes. WNBL athletes also produced faster defensive agility performance compared to Collegiate athletes (P = 0.02). Further, WNBA and WNBL athletes exhibited reduced lower body sidedness compared to Collegiate athletes. These findings indicate the importance of lower body power, agility, and reduced lower body imbalances to execute more proficient on court movements, required to compete at higher playing levels.
Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A
Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.
Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Rogowski, Joseph P; Stotts, Jeff; Samani, Marisa J; Sikka, Robby; Bedi, Asheesh
Professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during both regular-season and off-season training. Little is known about the incidence of lower extremity bony stress injuries and their impact on return to play and performance in these athletes. Stress injuries of the lower extremity will have significant impact on performance. Case series. Level 4. All bony stress injuries from 2005 to 2015 were identified from the NBA. Number of games missed due to injury and performance statistics were collected from 2 years prior to injury to 2 years after the injury. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of injury for players who returned to sport. A total of 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries involving 75 NBA players (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.1 years) were identified. Fifty-five percent (42/76) involved the foot, and most injuries occurred during the regular season (82.9%, 63/76), with half occurring within the first 6 weeks. Among players who sustained a fifth metatarsal stress fracture, 42.9% were unable to return to professional play. Players who sustained stress injuries had reduced play performance, specifically related to number of games played ( P = 0.014) and number of steals per game ( P = 0.004). Players who had surgery had significantly better performance at 2 years than those who were managed nonoperatively, independent of the type of injury (β = 4.561; 95% CI, 1.255-7.868). Lower extremity bony stress injuries may significantly affect both short- and long-term player performance and career length. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics compared with those treated using conservative methods. Stress injuries result in decreased player performance, and surgical intervention results in improved performance metrics.
Harris, Joshua D; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M; Gupta, Anil K; Cole, Brian J
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Case-control. NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. There is a high RTS rate in the NBA after ACLR, with no difference in performance upon RTS compared with controls.
Benjamin Longarela Pérez
Full Text Available This research examines the behavior of youth club basketball coaches after a shot in real-competition situations. Six licensed coaches of the Spanish Basketball Federation took part in this study; all the teams competed in the Galician league (Spain in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. There were five men’s teams and one women’s team, with players between 11 and 17 years old. To record the behavior, a new instrument was used based mainly on the Coach Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS, which also incorporates some of the adjustments made in the SOCE (Sistema Observación Conductas Entrenador developed by Montero. The instrument was designed to analyze the behavior of coaches after their players have taken shots. In total, 38 official matches were analyzed. Registered behaviors were compared with auto-perceived data in the same situation. From the results obtained, significant differences between the registered behavior and the auto-perception of the coaches are evident.
Ötkan Can Çavin
Full Text Available This research intends to examine goal orientation and group cohesiveness levels of basketball players. 243 mature players who play in the leagues of Turkish Basketball Federation in 2016- 2017 season participated the study. “Task and Ego Orientation in Sports” and “Group Cohesiveness” questionnaires are used in study. While frequency, arithmetic mean and standard deviation is used for the analysis of data, T-Test, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Post-Hoc test statistics (Tukey HSD are used for independent samples. Depending on the variables of gender and educational background of players, a significant difference is identified in sub-dimension of Task Attraction of Group and a low-level negatively significant difference is identified between Ego Orientation in terms of age and sportive age. Significant differences are identified between the Perception of Team Success and sub-dimensions of Social Integration of Group and Social Attraction of Group. No statistically significant difference can be found for the variable of time spent in team in terms of group cohesiveness and goal orientation.
Azarbayjani, M; Nikbakht, H; Rasaee, M J
This study examined the effects of pre season training on restring level and acute response of mucosal immunity in male basketball players. Twenty male basketball players performed 8 weeks progressive exercise training, consisting of interval and continuous parts. Five mL un-stimulated saliva was collected from each subject before, immediately and one hour after the end of one bout of exercise to exhaustion on treadmill at the beginning of the first week and end of 8 weeks to determine the acute responses. At the beginning of each 2 weeks (resting state) induced changes in basal mucosal immunity was evaluated. The concentration of sIgA and total protein was measured by the ELISA and Bradford methods respectively. One bout exercise training at beginning of first week decreased significantly sIgA level but not at the end of 8th week. Total protein did not change significantly at 1st week after exercise, but at eight week significantly increased and remained at high level until one hour after exercise. sIgA to total protein ratio at first week significantly decreased and remained constant one hour after exercise. At the eight week sIgA decreased significantly immediately after exercise and remained low until one hour after exercise. The comparison of sIgA and total protein levels indicates significant decrease after eight weeks training. These results suggest that repetition of single bout of exercise training have a cumulative effect on the mucosal immune system.
Weiss, Kaitlyn J; Allen, Sian V; McGuigan, Mike R; Whatman, Chris S
To establish the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio and lower-extremity overuse injuries in professional basketball players over the course of a competitive season. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined by calculating the sum of the current week's session rating of perceived exertion of training load (acute load) and dividing it by the average weekly training load over the previous 4 wk (chronic load). All injuries were recorded weekly using a self-report injury questionnaire (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Injury Questionnaire 20 ). Workload ratios were modeled against injury data using a logistic-regression model with unique intercepts for each player. Substantially fewer team members were injured after workload ratios of 1 to 1.49 (36%) than with very low (≤0.5; 54%), low (0.5-0.99; 51%), or high (≥1.5; 59%) workload ratios. The regression model provided unique workload-injury trends for each player, but all mean differences in likelihood of being injured between workload ratios were unclear. Maintaining workload ratios of 1 to 1.5 may be optimal for athlete preparation in professional basketball. An individualized approach to modeling and monitoring the training load-injury relationship, along with a symptom-based injury-surveillance method, should help coaches and performance staff with individualized training-load planning and prescription and with developing athlete-specific recovery and rehabilitation strategies.
Ferioli, Davide; Rampinini, Ermanno; Bosio, Andrea; La Torre, Antonio; Azzolini, Matteo; Coutts, Aaron J
This study examined the physical differences in adult male basketball players of different competitive level and playing position using a large cohort. In the middle of the regular season, 129 players from four different Divisions completed a Yo-YoIR1 and, after 3-to-8 days, they performed a 6-min continuous running test (Mognoni's test), a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test and a 5-min High-intensity Intermittent running test (HIT). Magnitude-based inferences revealed that differences in HIT were very likely moderate between Division I and II and likely small between Division II and III. The differences in absolute peak power and force produced during CMJs between Division I and II and between Division II and III were possibly small. Differences in Yo-YoIR1 and Mognoni's test were very likely-to-almost certain moderate/large between Division III and VI. We observed possibly-to-likely small differences in HIT and Mognoni's test between guards and forwards and almost certainly moderate differences in absolute peak power and force during CMJs between guards and centres. The ability to sustain high-intensity intermittent efforts (i.e. HIT) and strength/power characteristics can differentiate between competitive level, while strength/power characteristics discriminate guards from forwards/centres. These findings inform practitioners on the development of identification programs and training activities in basketball.
Brainard, Alan J.
The psychology of competition and winning, especially in relation to learning and motivation, is discussed. The Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) approach to coursework is proposed as a means of using the winning philosophy in education. Also suggested is the inclusion into coursework design of a form of rhetoric developed by Carl Rogers…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian interuniversity basketball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant and Vo2max,with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometriccharacteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables were measured on randomly selected 60 inter-university Indian basketball players (35 males and 25 females aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females. The results indicated that male basketball players were taller (6.63% and heavier (7.31% and female basketball players were slightly taller (0.31% and lighter (3.74% than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p ≤ .004 - .000 between group differences in all the variables (excepthip circumference between basketball players and controls. In basketball players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 12 variables, with percent body fat and 7 variables, with right hand grip strength and 12 variables and with Vo2max and other 9 variables, and significantly negative correlationswere found with BMI and other 1 variable (% lean body mass, with percent body fat and other 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 2 variables and with Vo2max with other 3 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in the game of basketball and its training program development.
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde; Akodu Ashiyat; Oladokun Bayonle; Akinbo Sunday Rufus
Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls...
Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems
INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...
Marmarinos, Christos; Kostopoulos, Nikolaos; Apostolidis, Alexandros
Abstract Team offense in basketball games consists of a set of offensive actions carried out with the cooperation of two or more players. Of these actions, the most commonly used in the last decade is the on-ball screen called the “pick and roll.” The aim of this study was to analyze all of the pick and rolls conducted in the Euroleague championship from all of the 24 participating teams and to investigate the possible relationships between success in the pick and roll and overall success of the teams. For this purpose, 12,376 pick and rolls from 502 matches were analyzed and classified in categories according to the end result of the offensive possession. The results showed that the most effective type of pick and roll offense was when a shot was attempted after 2 passes from the pick and roll occurrence, followed by the screener’s shot when he rolled to the basket. Additionally, linear regression analysis confirmed that pick and roll effectiveness could predict the final classification of the teams. Conclusively, coaches of the high level European clubs should focus on training the players to the most efficient phases of the pick and roll offense, so that the chances of winning the championship to be maximized. PMID:28149375
Full Text Available Team offense in basketball games consists of a set of offensive actions carried out with the cooperation of two or more players. Of these actions, the most commonly used in the last decade is the on-ball screen called the “pick and roll.” The aim of this study was to analyze all of the pick and rolls conducted in the Euroleague championship from all of the 24 participating teams and to investigate the possible relationships between success in the pick and roll and overall success of the teams. For this purpose, 12,376 pick and rolls from 502 matches were analyzed and classified in categories according to the end result of the offensive possession. The results showed that the most effective type of pick and roll offense was when a shot was attempted after 2 passes from the pick and roll occurrence, followed by the screener’s shot when he rolled to the basket. Additionally, linear regression analysis confirmed that pick and roll effectiveness could predict the final classification of the teams. Conclusively, coaches of the high level European clubs should focus on training the players to the most efficient phases of the pick and roll offense, so that the chances of winning the championship to be maximized.
Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E
This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.
Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M
Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.
School students and teachers across Europe and around the world are discovering today who has won fantastic prizes in "Catch a Star", the international astronomical competition run by ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). CAS2008 artwork ESO PR Photo 14/08 One of the winning artworks "We were extremely impressed by the high quality of the entries, and the number of participants was even higher than last year. We wish to congratulate everybody who took part," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. "'Catch a Star' clearly shows astronomy's power to inspire and excite students of all ages," added Fernand Wagner, President of the EAAE. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Roeland Heerema, Liesbeth Schenkels, and Gerben Van Ranst from the Instituut Spijker in Hoogstraten, Belgium, together with their teacher Ann Verstralen. With their "story of aged binary stars... Live and Let Die", they take us on a vivid tour of the amazing zoo of binary stars, and the life and death of stars like our Sun. The students show how state-of-the-art telescopes, particularly those at ESO's sites of La Silla and Paranal, help us understand these stars. They take as an illustrative example the binary star system V390 Velorum. In the last phases of its life, V390 Velorum will shed its outer shell of gas and dust, turning from a celestial chrysalis into a beautiful cosmic butterfly. The students also involved other pupils from their school, showing them how to test their eyesight by observing the binary star system of Alcor and Mizar. But perhaps the most important discovery they made is that, as they write in their report, "Astronomy lives! Discoveries are being made each day and there is still very much to be found and learned by astronomers!" The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - the world's most advanced optical/infrared telescope. At Paranal, they
de Leeuw, Wim C; Rauwerda, Han; Inda, Márcia A; Bruning, Oskar; Breit, Timo M
Our SigWin-detector discovers significantly enriched windows of (genomic) elements in any sequence of values (genes or other genomic elements in a DNA sequence) in a fast and reproducible way. However, since it is grid based, only (life) scientists with access to the grid can use this tool. Therefore and on request, we have developed the SigWinR package which makes the SigWin-detector available to a much wider audience. At the same time, we have introduced several improvements to its algorithm as well as its functionality, based on the feedback of SigWin-detector end users. To allow usage of the SigWin-detector on a desktop computer, we have rewritten it as a package for R: SigWinR. R is a free and widely used multi platform software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The package can be installed and used on all platforms for which R is available. The improvements involve: a visualization of the input-sequence values supporting the interpretation of Ridgeograms; a visualization allowing for an easy interpretation of enriched or depleted regions in the sequence using windows of pre-defined size; an option that allows the analysis of circular sequences, which results in rectangular Ridgeograms; an application to identify regions of co-altered gene expression (ROCAGEs) with a real-life biological use-case; adaptation of the algorithm to allow analysis of non-regularly sampled data using a constant window size in physical space without resampling the data. To achieve this, support for analysis of windows with an even number of elements was added. By porting the SigWin-detector as an R package, SigWinR, improving its algorithm and functionality combined with adequate performance, we have made SigWin-detector more useful as well as more easily accessible to scientists without a grid infrastructure.
Breit Timo M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our SigWin-detector discovers significantly enriched windows of (genomic elements in any sequence of values (genes or other genomic elements in a DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. However, since it is grid based, only (life scientists with access to the grid can use this tool. Therefore and on request, we have developed the SigWinR package which makes the SigWin-detector available to a much wider audience. At the same time, we have introduced several improvements to its algorithm as well as its functionality, based on the feedback of SigWin-detector end users. Findings To allow usage of the SigWin-detector on a desktop computer, we have rewritten it as a package for R: SigWinR. R is a free and widely used multi platform software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The package can be installed and used on all platforms for which R is available. The improvements involve: a visualization of the input-sequence values supporting the interpretation of Ridgeograms; a visualization allowing for an easy interpretation of enriched or depleted regions in the sequence using windows of pre-defined size; an option that allows the analysis of circular sequences, which results in rectangular Ridgeograms; an application to identify regions of co-altered gene expression (ROCAGEs with a real-life biological use-case; adaptation of the algorithm to allow analysis of non-regularly sampled data using a constant window size in physical space without resampling the data. To achieve this, support for analysis of windows with an even number of elements was added. Conclusion By porting the SigWin-detector as an R package, SigWinR, improving its algorithm and functionality combined with adequate performance, we have made SigWin-detector more useful as well as more easily accessible to scientists without a grid infrastructure.
Harold, Simon; Wong, Yan; Baguette, Michel; Bonsall, Michael B; Clobert, Jean; Royle, Nick J; Settele, Josef
BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn't quite make it to the top prize.
For more than sixty years the rock-solid, time-tested advice in this book has carried thousands of now famous people up the ladder of success in their business and personal lives. With more than fifteen million copies sold, How to Win Friends and Influence People is one of the best known motivational books in history, with proven advice for achieving success in life. You’ll learn: three fundamental techniques in handling people; six ways to make people like you; twelve ways to win people to you way of thinking; nine ways to change people without arousing resentment; and much, much more!
BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn’t quite make it to the top prize. PMID:23517630
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P; Wells, Adam J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Cross-sectional study. Setting : Human Performance Laboratory. Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W), these differences were not statistically significant (P = .20). In the present
Mangine, Gerald T.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Scanlon, Tyler; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.
Context Professional basketball players have demanding schedules that, in combination with certain underlying physical characteristics and side-to-side strength and power imbalances, may make them vulnerable to lower extremity injuries. Objective To examine the relationship among skeletal muscle architecture, lower body power, and games missed because of lower extremity injury (%MISS) in professional basketball players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Human Performance Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Nine players under contract for Orlando Magic were assessed. We compared athletes who were injured (n = 4, height = 203.2 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 105 ± 7.5 kg, age = 25.0 ± 2.8 years) and those who remained healthy (n = 5, height = 200.2 ± 12.2 cm, mass = 100.1 ± 16.6 kg, age = 22.4 ± 1.9 years) during the season. Main Outcome Measure(s) Bilateral ultrasonographic measurements of muscle thickness, pennation angle, echo intensity, and cross-sectional area of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis were collected before regular-season play. Subsequently, muscle thickness and pennation angle were used to compute fascicle length. Along with unilateral jumping power, inferences were made upon the magnitude of the relationship between the percentage bilateral difference in these measures and %MISS, as well as between injured and healthy athletes. Results The data indicated likely relationships between %MISS and age (r = 0.772), and between %MISS and bilateral differences in rectus femoris cross-sectional area (7.8% ± 6.4%; r = 0.657) and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (6.2% ± 4.8%; r = 0.521), as well as a possible relationship with vastus lateralis muscle thickness (7.9% ± 8.9%; r = 0.444). Echo-intensity differences in the vastus lateralis were greater in injured (8.0% ± 2.4%) versus healthy athletes (3.2% ± 2.0%). Although a 2-fold difference in mean jumping power was observed between injured (26.3 ± 14.9 W) and healthy athletes (13.6 ± 8.7 W
Ritch, John; Cornish, Emma
on a vast scale Access to energy - and in particular, electricity - will be critical if the world is to achieve these human goals. Access to clean electricity - and on a vast scale - will be necessary if the world is to meet the twin challenges of human need and environmental security. Anti-nuclear forces, which have held sway in the Kyoto process thus far, argue that nuclear energy is a dying technology and assert passionately that it has no place in tomorrow's sustainable development agenda. These ideologically driven arguments ignore underlying realities both as to what is feasible and what is actually occurring. Today, nuclear power plants are operational in countries comprising 64% of the world's population, and new power reactors are in the planning or construction stage in countries representing no less than 50% of the world's population. Among the latter are the world's two largest developing countries, China and India, which alone represent 40% of humankind and about half the developing world. With active nuclear reactor construction under way as we speak, these leading nations have already made nuclear power a part of their sustainable development strategies for the 21st century. Winning the sustainable development debate - This presentation will share information materials about sustainable development. It will describe the work of the World Nuclear Association Sustainable Development Strategy Group, its preparations for the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and how participants to PIME can get involved. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (N = 12, age 24.36 ± 3.9 years, height 196.2 ± 9.6 cm, weight 92.9 ± 13.9 kg performed a 6 week plyometric training (PT programme predominantly focused on explosive strength of the lower body and upper body and was conducted in sixteen training units during pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the Counter Movement Jump Free Arms test and Two Step Run Up Jump test; agility was measured using the “T” Drill test and Hexagonal Obstacle test. The players participated in three measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season, the 2nd (post-testing was done two days after completing the PT programme and the 3rd (post-testing six weeks after completing the PT programme. Friedman’s ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to determine the significance of differences between the measurement sessions (p < .05. RESULTS: A significant effect of the training programme was observed only for the Hexagonal Obstacle test (p = .01. A post hoc analysis revealed a significant increase in test performance between the 1st and 3rd measurement (p < .01 and between the 2nd and 3rd measurement (p < .01. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study of elite basketball players did not positively support the assumption that plyometric exercises can be an effective tool for the improvement of explosive strength and agility. However, in some players the
Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend
Aoki, Marcelo S; Ronda, Lorena T; Marcelino, Pablo R; Drago, Gustavo; Carling, Chris; Bradley, Paul S; Moreira, Alexandre
Aoki, MS, Ronda, LT, Marcelino, PR, Drago, G, Carling, C, Bradley, PS, and Moreira, A. Monitoring training loads in professional basketball players engaged in a periodized training program. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 348-358, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of external training load (eTL) and internal training load (iTL) during seasonal periods, and examine the effect of a periodized training program on physical performance in professional basketball players. Repeated measures for 9 players (28 ± 6 years; 199 ± 8 cm; 101 ± 12 kg) were collected from 45 training sessions, over a 6-week preseason phase and a 5-week in-season phase. Physical tests were conducted at baseline (T1), week 4 (T2), and week 9 (T3). Differences in means are presented as % ± confident limits. A very likely difference was observed during in-season compared with preseason for the eTL variables (measured by multivariable monitoring device), mechanical load (13.5 ± 8.8) and peak acceleration (11.0 ± 11.2), respectively. Regarding iTL responses, a very large decrement in TRIMP (most likely difference, -20.6 ± 3.8) and in session rating of perceived exertion training load (very likely difference, -14.2 ± 9.0) was detected from preseason to in-season. Physical performance improved from T1 to T3 for Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 1 (62.2 ± 34.3, effect size [ES] > 1.2); countermovement jump (8.8 ± 6.1, ES > 0.6); and squat jump (14.8 ± 10.2, ES > 0.8). Heart rate (HR; %HRpeak) exercise responses during a submaximal running test decreased from T1 to T3 (3.2 ± 4.3, ES 1.2). These results provide valuable information to coaches about training loads and physical performance across different seasonal periods. The data demonstrate that both eTL and iTL measures should be monitored in association with physical tests, to provide a comprehensive understanding of the training process.
Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Guerra, Jorge; Buscà, Bernat; Serra, Núria
The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-11 Spanish men's first division volleyball championship. Matches were played by 12 teams composed of 148 players from 17 different nations from October 2010 to March 2011. The variables analyzed were the result of the game, team category, home/away court factors, points obtained in the break point phase, number of service errors, number of service aces, number of reception errors, percentage of positive receptions, percentage of perfect receptions, reception efficiency, number of attack errors, number of blocked attacks, attack points, percentage of attack points, attack efficiency, and number of blocks performed by both teams participating in the match. The results showed that the variables of team category, points obtained in the break point phase, number of reception errors, and number of blocked attacks by the opponent were significant predictors of winning or losing the matches. Odds ratios indicated that the odds of winning a volleyball match were 6.7 times greater for the teams belonging to higher rankings and that every additional point in Complex II increased the odds of winning a match by 1.5 times. Every reception and blocked ball error decreased the possibility of winning by 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively.
Jacobi, L.A.; Carley, R.L.
The current long-term drought in California has generated interest in water transfers. Water transfers from farms to the cities are widely viewed as the next major source of supply to urban California. Ag-to-Urban permanent water transfers may have negative consequences to the agricultural sector and to the environment. This paper presents agricultural water use statistics, discusses sources of water for transfer, and suggests sources of water for win-win transfers
Masui, Toshihiko; Kainuma, Mikiko
This section explores big win-win strategies in directing low carbon resilient development path. There are lots of “leapfrog” development possibilities in developing countries, which go directly from a status of under-development through to efficient and environmentally benign lifestyle. To achieve low carbon resilient paths, not only technology development but also institutional and behavioral changes are required. Science-policy nexus is also discussed.
Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-González, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicolás
The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 years; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg·m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median ± interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nmol·L), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 ± 0.118 μmol·L). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements.
Wadhwa, Monica; Kim, JeeHye Christine
Common intuition and research suggest that winning is more motivating than losing. However, we propose that just failing to obtain a reward (i.e., nearly winning it) in one task leads to broader, positive motivational effects on subsequent unrelated tasks relative to clearly losing or actually obtaining the reward. We manipulated a near-win experience using a game app in Experiments 1 through 3 and a lottery in Experiment 4. Our findings showed that nearly winning in one task subsequently led participants to walk faster to get to a chocolate bar (Experiment 1), salivate more for money (Experiment 2), and increase their effort to earn money in a card-sorting task (Experiment 3). A field study (Experiment 4) demonstrated that nearly winning led people to subsequently spend more money on desirable consumer products. Finally, our findings showed that when the activated motivational state was dampened in an intervening task, the nearly-winning effect was attenuated. © The Author(s) 2015.
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of detraining and of a reduced training program on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. To study this, 15 subjects, aged 14 to 15 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 following groups: reduced training (RT; n = 8) and detraining (DTR; n = 7). The participants were assessed on squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT) after a 10-week in-season complex training program (T0) and at the end of 4 (T4), 8 (T8), 12 (T12), and 16 (T16) weeks of detraining and of the reduced training periods. Both groups showed maintenance of explosive strength values and statistical similarity between them whatever the moment of evaluation. In conclusion, 16 weeks of detraining or of reduced training allow for the maintenance of the gains previously achieved by the application of a 10-week in-season complex training program. However, the lack of differences between detraining and reduced training leads to the conclusion that regular basketball practice can sustain by itself the previously achieved explosive strength gains, considering its mainly explosive characteristics.
de Saá Guerra, Y.; Martín González, J. M.; Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S.; Rodríguez Ruiz, D.; García-Rodríguez, A.; García-Manso, J. M.
The degree of overall competitiveness of a sport league is a complex phenomenon. It is difficult to assess and quantify all elements that yield the final standing. In this paper, we analyze the general behavior of the result matrices of each season and we use the corresponding results as a probably density. Thus, the results of previous seasons are a way to investigate the probability that each team has to reach a certain number of victories. We developed a model based on Shannon entropy using two extreme competitive structures (a hierarchical structure and a random structure), and applied this model to investigate the competitiveness of two of the best professional basketball leagues: the NBA (USA) and the ACB (Spain). Both leagues’ entropy levels are high (NBA mean 0.983; ACB mean 0.980), indicating high competitiveness, although the entropy of the ACB (from 0.986 to 0.972) demonstrated more seasonal variability than that of the NBA (from 0.985 to 0.990), a possible result of greater sporting gradients in the ACB. The use of this methodology has proven useful for investigating the competitiveness of sports leagues as well as their underlying variability across time.
Carvalho, Humberto M; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Grosgeorge, Bernard; Paes, Roberto R
The study examined the validity of the Line Drill test (LD) in male adolescent basketball players (10-15 years). Sensitiveness of the LD to changes in performance across a training and competition season (4 months) was also considered. Age, maturation, body size and LD were measured (n = 57). Sensitiveness of the LD was examined pre- and post-competitive season in a sub-sample (n = 44). The time at each of the four shuttle sprints of the LD (i.e. four stages) was modelled with Bayesian multilevel models. We observed very large correlation of performance at stage 4 (full LD protocol) with stage 3, but lower correlations with the early LD stages. Players' performance by somatic maturity differed substantially only when considering full LD protocol performance. Substantial improvements in all stages of the protocol were observed across the 4-month competitive season. The LD protocol should be shortened by the last full court shuttle sprint, remaining sensitive to training exposure, and independent of maturity status and body size.
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.
Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.
Rubajczyk, Krystian; Świerzko, Kamil; Rokita, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity) of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.
The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…
Martin, Jeffrey J.
In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…
Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.
Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated
Based upon Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of conventional metaphor, this paper takes some basketball jargons as a case for analysis from the cognitive perspective. The analysis verifies the indispensable role that metaphor as an important cogni⁃tive instrument plays in people’s interpreting and understanding the target domain by carrying over concepts from the source domain.
Full Text Available Basketball is in the top of favourite sports. The appearance of private sport clubs on the sports market is caused by the increasingly precarious conditions in state institutions and, at the same time, by the influence of the European Community. We aim at identifying a pattern of activity meant to attract and educated children in the field of basketball through private basketball clubs by making parents aware of the beneficial effects of basketball and of being a member of a sports team. The survey was carried out in 12 private basketball clubs that carry out activities in a consequent manner (in number and in value. Private basketball club managers responded to the questions in our questionnaire showing willingness to cooperate; results show that all private basketball clubs are non-profit organisations and are involved in the competitions organised by the Romanian Federation of Basketball. Private basketball clubs represent half of the affiliated basketball clubs and dominate the competitions reserved to the different age categories, which denotes the efficiency of their activities.
Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball
Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Zribi, Anis; Bouajina, Elyès; Vico, Laurence; Alexandre, Christian; Zaouali, Monia; Ben Nasr, Hela; Masmoudi, Liwa; Tabka, Zouhair
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball and basketball practice on bone acquisition and to determine which of these 2 high-impact sports is more osteogenic in prepubertal period. We investigated 170 boys (aged 10-12 yr, Tanner stage I): 50 volleyball players (VB), 50 basketball players (BB), and 70 controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone area (BA, cm(2)) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. We found that, both VB and BB have a higher BMC at whole body and most weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites than controls, except the BMC in head which was lower in VB and BB than controls. Moreover, only VB exhibited greater BMC in right and left ultra-distal radius than controls. No significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in lumbar spine, femoral neck, and left third D radius BMC. Athletes also exhibited a higher BA in whole body, limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral region than controls. In addition, they have a similar BA in head and left third D radius with controls. The VB exhibited a greater BA in most radius region than controls and a greater femoral neck BA than BB. A significant positive correlation was reported between total lean mass and both BMC and BA in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and right whole radius among VB and BB. In summary, we suggest that volleyball and basketball have an osteogenic effect BMC and BA in loaded sites in prepubescent boys. The increased bone mass induced by both volleyball and basketball training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull BMC. Moreover, volleyball practice produces a more sensitive mechanical stress in loaded bones than basketball. This effect seems translated by femoral neck expansion. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dale C MacKrell
Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.
te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria
Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG,
The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)
McFadden, D.J. [Gowling LaFleur Henderson, LLP, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
The nuclear industry is entering an historic battle for the hearts and minds of Canadians as government decides on nuclear new build. Recent polls indicate that public support is rising for nuclear power. However, the support could be eroded by negative events or intense lobbying by anti-nuclear groups. The nuclear industry must deal with concerns raised about nuclear power, such as cost, safety, reliability and waste. The nuclear industry should build upon the positive movement in public support. The industry must go to Canadians with a credible message which responds effectively to public concerns. It must be remembered that winning public support will be essential to winning and maintaining political support. (author)
Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Larkin, Kevin E; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional basketball players have a high incidence of injuries requiring surgical intervention. However, no studies in the current literature have compared postoperative performance outcomes among common injuries to determine high- and low-risk procedures to these athletes' careers. To compare return-to-play (RTP) rates and performance-based outcomes after different orthopaedic procedures in National Basketball Association (NBA) players and to determine which surgeries are associated with the worst postoperative change in performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes in the NBA undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Achilles tendon repair, lumbar discectomy, microfracture, meniscus surgery, hand/wrist or foot fracture fixation, and shoulder stabilization were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record. The RTP rate, games played per season, and player efficiency rating (PER) were determined before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was used to compare the change between pre- and postsurgical performance among the different injuries. A total of 348 players were included. The RTP rates were highest in patients with hand/wrist fractures (98.1%; mean age, 27.0 years) and lowest for those with Achilles tears (70.8%; mean age, 28.4 years) (P = .005). Age ≥30 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.85; 95% CI, 1.24-11.91) and body mass index ≥27 kg/m(2) (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.05-11.40) were predictors of not returning to play. Players undergoing Achilles tendon repair and arthroscopic knee surgery had a significantly greater decline in postoperative performance outcomes at the 1- and 3-year time points and had shorter career lengths compared with the other procedures. NBA players undergoing Achilles tendon rupture repair or arthroscopic knee surgery had significantly worse performance postoperatively compared with other orthopaedic procedures. © 2016 The Author(s).
Wojciak, P J
This article illustrates how a small manufacturing facility in the Midwest undertook the process of an MRP II implementation and ultimately gained class A status at a true make-or-break time in its history. The control that was gained throughout the entire process has helped create a winning environment and will continue to strengthen our position as we move toward world-class excellence.
Huang, Szu-Chi; Etkin, Jordan; Jin, Liyin
What drives motivation in multiphase competitions? Adopting a dynamic approach, this research examines how temporary standing-being ahead of (vs. behind) one's opponent-in a multiphase competition shapes subsequent motivation. Six competitions conducted in the lab and in the field demonstrate that the impact of being ahead on contestants' motivation depends on when (i.e., in which phase of the competition) contestants learn they are in the lead. In the early phase, contestants are concerned about whether they can win; being ahead increases motivation by making winning seem more attainable. In the later phase, however, contestants are instead driven by how much additional effort they believe they need to invest; being ahead decreases motivation by reducing contestants' estimate of the remaining effort needed to win. Temporary standing thus has divergent effects on motivation in multiphase competitions, driven by a shift in contestants' main concern from the early to the later phase and thus the meaning they derive from being ahead of their opponent. By leveraging insights gained from approaching individuals' self-regulation as a dynamic process, this research advances understanding of how motivation evolves in a unique interdependent self-regulatory context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to give a try for clarifying if there is difference present and how the level of differences is in morphologic characteristics and motor abilities (basic and situational specific to basketball abilities between junior basketball club players and their peers –students from secondary high school and to examine some of the properties(causes reasons of the difference. According to the findings obtained from the research, there was not found any statistically significant difference between scores of the participant sample group (n=24 (young basketball players (12 vs high school students (12. Acoording to the study results obtained, basketball coaches should follow the new strategies and developments of modern basketball if they want to fulfill the goals and objectives of every single team. The lack of expertise and competencies of professional staff (coaches-trainers to fulfill their duties and responsibilities correctly is evident in Kosovo’s Junior Basketball League.
Chaouachi, Anis; Brughelli, Matt; Chamari, Karim; Levin, Greg T; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Laurencelle, Louis; Castagna, Carlo
The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and basketball-relevant tests and the variables that influence agility (T-test) in elite male professional basketball players (n = 14, age 23.3 +/- 2.7 years, height 195.6 +/- 8.3 cm, body mass 94.2 +/- 10.2 kg). T-test performance was significantly related to body mass (r = 0.58, p = 0.03) and to percentage of body fat (r = 0.80, p agility. Squat 1RM performance was the best single predictor of 5-m and 10-m sprint times (p agility should be regarded as a per se physiological ability for elite basketball players. Consequently, basketball-specific agility drills should be stressed in elite basketball training. Given the association between squat 1RM performance and short sprint times, squat exercises should be a major component of basketball conditioning.
Rising, A.; Lopez CArbonell, M.T.; Perez-Griffo, M.L.
WIN is a worldwide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and applications of radiation. The goal of WIN is to contribute to objectively inform the public on nuclear and radiation. WIN's principal objective is to emphasis and support the role that women can and do have in addressing the general public's concerns about nuclear energy and the application of radiation and nuclear technology. WIN is doing this through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. Members of WIN all have one thing in common: they want the general public to have a better understanding of nuclear and radiation matters. Membership status as ao April 21, 1998 was 605 members from 39 countries. During the year 7 new countries have joined to WIN ant two national WIN groups have been formed. Purpose of this paper is to present, to the Spanish Nuclear Society members, the WIN Global activities all over the world for the period 1997/98. The information included herein comes from different sources and WIN members and is, of course, a quick look over those activities. Win Spain activities for the period will be presented in a different paper of this Annual Meeting. (Author) 2 refs
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...
Title: A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14. Objective: Preparation, implementation and evaluation of basketball training units starting by U14 categories. The training units focus on a drill, training game and fitness training following by blending these three components. Methods: Preparing these training units I have used the professional basketball literature. This bachelor work is based on quantitative way of research. The raiting of training units was analyzed...
Urpose: to find out effectiveness of concentrated training technology in students’ basketball trainings. Material: 55 students participated in experiment. The research was being conducted during one academic year. Skillfulness in basketball techniques was determined with the help of tests’ complex. We assessed: basketball techniques’ fulfillment and their quantitative parameters (quickness of dribbling, passes, movements and accuracy of hitting in basket). Every student was offered to fulfill...
Geisler, G; Leith, L M
48 undergraduate women performed basketball foul shots with and without background music. Slow music, fast music, and music personally selected by subjects did not significantly affect shooting performance.
Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde
Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects.
Full Text Available A program for improving the effectiveness of tactical training of basketball teams of students with techniques to enhance the perception of figurative elements of technique and tactics of basketball on the basis of modern information technology. The study involved 23 female basketball players of 18-23 years of student teams, 11 of which were experimental group and 12 - control. Established that the developed system improves the quality of performance technique techniques of basketball, the effectiveness of actions in the game, raising the number of implemented in-game tactical interactions.
Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance expressed through a jump height. Thirteen basketball players (body mass = 73,4 kg, height = 186,58 cm, age = 15.12 ± 0.61 y volunteered as participants. All the subject represented a club which participated in the Croatian cadets 1. league in season 2008/09, and were tested during the season. The subjects performed two experiments. In both experiments, they performed 15 repetitions of countermovement jump, whereas in one of the experiments, during the performance of the jumps they were listening to an audio record of spectators. For both type of jumps, the subjects were instructed to stay in the air as long as possible during a single jump (external focus of attention. To determine the differences between jumps, a paired-sample t-test was used with a level of statistical significance set to p ≤ 0.05. Comparison for jump height between both type of jumps revealed no statistically significant difference, although the presented difference should not be denied considering a real match conditions.
Okoroha, Kelechi R; Marfo, Kojo; Meta, Fabien; Matar, Robert; Shehab, Ramsy; Thompson, Terry; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C
There is limited information on the potential risk factors for sustaining an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes. This study evaluated 83 NBA players who sustained an ACL injury between 1984 and 2015 to determine the influence of minutes played on injury risk. Minutes played in the injury game, during the season, and over their career were assessed, along with the ability to return to play, player efficiency rating, and playing time after return. Athletes in the NBA played significantly fewer minutes before sustaining an ACL injury (17.1 minutes) than their average minutes per game that season (23.5 minutes; PNBA competition the season following ACL injury. Players who were drafted as lottery picks (draft pick 1 to 15) or those who were starters played significantly more minutes the season following injury than those who were not (both PNBA game did not contribute to the risk of sustaining an ACL injury. Although there was a high rate of return to NBA competition the season following injury, those who were elite athletes played more minutes per game than those who were not. Athletes who returned to play sustained a decrease in player efficiency ratings compared with similar athletes without ACL injury. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e658-e662.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M
This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.
Full Text Available The questions of working out of the criteria for assessment the results of students by subject "Physical education" (basketball section are considered. The article focuses on variants of assessing the results physical training employment of the students under the credit and module system. It is set that at the choice of type of sport (or directions motive activity about 40% students of basic separation are given by a preference the playing types of sport. From this number 12% choose basket-ball. Norms in special physical training are given. It's emphasized that there is no common system of assessment the results of students; the model of sectional form of physical training is worked out not enough.
Uphill, Mark; Groom, Ryan; Jones, Marc
This study examined the influence of emotions on performance in basketball. Six female basketball players were videotaped in six games. Frequency of performance behaviours was recorded minute-by-minute and indices of successful (SGI) and unsuccessful (UGI) game involvement derived for each player. Post-game, players reported the intensity of experienced emotions (anger, anxiety, embarrassment, excitement and happiness), and the time of the eliciting incident. The only emotion revealed as a significant predictor of SGI was happiness; both anger and embarrassment were significant predictors of increased UGI. Consideration of individual player analyses suggests that there is variation in the magnitude of the influence of emotions on performance and the extent to which this influence was helpful or harmful to performance. The study provides evidence that emotions are associated with changes in game behaviours in competition. Implications for further research examining the emotion-performance relationship are discussed.
Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the same behavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.
Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to gain insight into the physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium in relation to their position on the field. METHODS: The group consisted of 144 players, divided into 5 groups according to position (point guards [PG], shooting guards [SG], small forwards [SF], power forwards [PF] and centers [C]). The anthropometrics were measured and the subjects underwent fitness tests (incremental running test, 10m-sprint,5x10m,Squat and Counter Move...
A physical model is developed, which suggests a pathway to determining the optimal release conditions for a basketball free throw. Theoretical framework is supported by Monte Carlo simulations and a series of free throws performed and analysed at Southbank International School. The model defines a smile-shaped success region in angle-velocity space where a free throw will score. A formula for the minimum throwing angle is derived analytically. The optimal throwing conditions are determined nu...
Full Text Available Physical characteristics play an important role in the selection of young basketball players and the progress in their playing performance. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in chosen physical characteristics of Slovak U17 female basketball players with respect to their playing positions. We assumed, that there will be statistically significant differences between playing positions in each performance tests results. Chosen characteristics were analyzed for 14 players (mean/SD, age 16.34±0.82; body height 179.72±8.04 cm; body weight 67.62±7.10 kg; body fat 16.59±2.04 %; VO2max 46.20±4.71 ml.kg−1.min−1 according to their playing positions (guard, forward, center. Five specific performance tests for each player were conducted as a 3/4 Basketball court sprint, 10 × 5m Shuttle test, Lane agility drill, No-step vertical jump and Maximum vertical jump. The differences in tests results by playing positions were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences found in results of chosen performance tests between playing positions (p>.05. In spite of fact, that there were no significant differences, we found interesting results between playing positions in physical characteristics. Guards had better results in speed (3.73±0.16 s, quickness (17.43±0.56 s and both lower-body power tests (47.16±3.06 cm; 57.00±3.40 cm than forwards and centers. Forwards had the best results in agility test (12.54±0.43 s. The results of this study produce useful information about physical characteristics of young basketball players according to their playing position and help to diagnose and improve their performance.
Tina Grapar Žargi
Full Text Available Background: Several studies showed that the addition of trunk muscle or core stability exercises in the sport training programs is an eﬀective prevention of spinal and other musculoskeletal injuries. Methods: Twelve female basketball players performed supervised five-week exercise program focused on strengthening the trunk muscles. The program was performed three times per week during pre-season. Sorensen test, Fitnessgram Dynamic Curl-Up test, Prone Plank test and Side Bridge test were used to evaluate trunk muscles performance prior to and immediately after the exercise program completion and again after a three-month follow up period. Results: The results of Sorensen test and Prone Plank test significantly improved immediately after the program, but values returned to baseline at follow-up. In contrast, the results of Fitnessgram Dynamic Curl-Up test and Side Bridge test improved significantly with exercise program and remained significantly higher also at follow-up. Conclusions: Exercise program with emphasis on strengthening the trunk and core muscles can improve muscle performance, however, the results deteriorate shortly after program termination. In order to achieve long-term results, trunk and core muscle exercises have to be performed on regular basis, hence they must be incorporated into general strengthening programs of basketball players.
Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.; van Essen, Hans
The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,87...
Dezman, B; Trninić, S; Dizdar, D
The purpose of the research was to empirically verify the expert model system designed for more efficient orientation of basketball players to particular positions and /or roles in the game (specialization). Participants were 60 randomly chosen male basketball players (12 players per each position) from the 12 Croatian 1st league teams in season 1998/99. Data were gathered from 10 basketball coaches who estimated overall performance (actual quality) of players on defense (7 variables) and on offense (12 variables). Variables were established by Trninić, Perica and Dizdar. A measure of body height was added to the aforementioned group of variables. The results obtained suggest that the proposed decision-making system can be used as an auxiliary instrument in orienting players to the positions and roles in the game. It has been established that the players have attained the highest grades of overall performance exactly at their primary playing positions in the game. The largest differences were determined between point guards (position 1) and centers (position 5). The greatest difficulties have occurred in determining optimal position for small forwards (position 3), then for shooting guards (position 2) and, last, for power forwards (position 4), because all these basketball players are the most versatile ones. Therefore, reliability of the system is the lowest when it is applied for selecting and orientating players to these positions. Convenient body height significantly contributes to aptitude of these players to play multiple positions and to assume multiple roles in the game. This research has reinforced the thesis that body height is a variable with the greatest influence on orientation of players to particular positions and roles in the game.
Fryer, Ashley Marie; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Chow, Graig M
This study was aimed at examining how basketball players view unexpected performance errors in basketball, and under what conditions they perceive them as choking. Fifty-three basketball players were randomly assigned into 2 groups (game half) to evaluate the linkage between performance decline and choking as a function of game-time, score gap and game half. Within each group, players viewed 8 scenario clips, which featured a different player conducting an error, and subsequently rated the extent of performance decline, the instance of choking and the salience of various performance attributions regarding the error. The analysis revealed that choking was most salient in the 2nd half of the game, but an error was perceived as choking more saliently in the beginning of the 2nd half. This trend was also shown for players' perception of performance decline. Players' ratings of the attributions assigned to errors, however, revealed that during the end of the 2nd half, time pressure and lack of concentration were the causes of errors. Overall, the results provide evidence towards a conceptual framework linking performance decline to the perception of choking, and that errors conducted by players are perceived as choking when there is not a salient reason to suggest its occurrence.
Full Text Available Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability
Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.
Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath
The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.
Organisations around the world are today looking for new approaches to maintain or develop competitive advantages, reduce costs, free-up capital and improve quality and service. The traditional customer-supplier relation is characterised by the parties focusing on their own cost reduction, creating win-loose scenarios. Companies today are starting to develop their customer-supplier relations towards more relation-focused approaches. The systems approach is a basis for creating win-win relatio...
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze men's football competitions, trying to identify which game-related statistics allow to discriminate winning, drawing and losing teams. The sample used corresponded to 380 games from the 2008-2009 season of the Spanish Men's Professional League. The game-related statistics gathered were: total shots, shots on goal, effectiveness, assists, crosses, offsides commited and received, corners, ball possession, crosses against, fouls committed and received, corners against, yellow and red cards, and venue. An univariate (t-test and multivariate (discriminant analysis of data was done. The results showed that winning teams had averages that were significantly higher for the following game statistics: total shots (p < 0.001, shots on goal (p < 0.01, effectiveness (p < 0.01, assists (p < 0.01, offsides committed (p < 0.01 and crosses against (p < 0.01. Losing teams had significantly higher averages in the variable crosses (p < 0.01, offsides received (p < 0. 01 and red cards (p < 0.01. Discriminant analysis allowed to conclude the following: the variables that discriminate between winning, drawing and losing teams were the total shots, shots on goal, crosses, crosses against, ball possession and venue. Coaches and players should be aware for these different profiles in order to increase knowledge about game cognitive and motor solicitation and, therefore, to evaluate specificity at the time of practice and game planning
Mochamad Sandy Triady
Full Text Available Billy Beanes’s success in using data-driven decision making in baseball industry is wonderfully written by Michael Lewis in Moneyball. As a general manager in baseball team that were in the bottom position of the league from the financial side to acquire the players, Beane, along with his partner, explored the use of data in choosing the team’s player. They figured out how to determine the worth of every player.The process was not smooth, due to the condition of baseball industry that was not common with using advanced statistic in acquiring players. Many teams still use the old paradigm that rely on experts’ judgments, intuition, or experience in decision making process. Moneyball approached that using data-driven decision making gave excellent result for Beane’s team. The team won 20 gamessequently in the 2002 season and also spent the lowest cost per win than other teams.This paper attempts to review the principles of Moneyball – The Art of Winning an Unfair Game as a process of decision making and gives what we can learn from the story in order to win the games, the unfair games.
Kilic, Özgür; van Os, Vivian; Kemler, Ellen; Barendrecht, Maarten; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (basketball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of basketball injuries. This study aimed to gather systematically the
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In this research a descriptive analysis about some of the parameters implied in the inside play in basketball has been studied. Data of the 16 teams of the A.C.B. league were collected: each team was studied in an official game chosen randomly. Items of observation related with the frequency of apparition of the inside play in the game, with the time expended to offence as well as the way used to finish the play, were established. Data obtained show that in the 41,61% of global possessions appears inside play while in the 37,45% of these take place a pass toward the positions near the basket. The average time expended since starting the possession of the ball until the moment in which a pass is made is 8,41 seconds. The analysis shows the considerable capacity of resolution of players who receives an inside ball, which is represented by the percentage of times in which these players finish the offence (82,78%. A bigger number of direct actions than indirect actions to finish the offence play and a very low degree of opposition to the shot have been detected, overcoat taking in account that these shots were made in areas with a big amount of players.
KEY WORDS: Basketball, inside play, inside pass.
En el presente estudio se ha realizado una análisis descriptivo de algunos parámetros que definen el juego interior en baloncesto. Se tomaron datos de cada uno de los 16 equipos que participan en la liga A.C.B.: cada equipo fue estudiado en un encuentro oficial de competición, elegido de forma aleatoria. Se establecieron conductas de observación relacionadas con la frecuencia de aparición del juego interior en los partidos, con el tiempo empleado en el ataque, así como con la forma de resolución de la jugada. Los datos obtenidos reflejan que en el 4l,61% del total de posesiones se produce juego interior, mientras que en el 37
WinSCP for Windows File Transfers WinSCP for Windows File Transfers WinSCP for can used to securely transfer files between your local computer running Microsoft Windows and a remote computer running Linux
Joannah Caborn Wengler
The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB. Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...
van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J.J.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.; Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
In this study we examined in situ decision-making skills and gaze behaviour of skilled female basketball players. Players participated as ball carriers in a specific 3 vs 3 pick-and-roll basketball play. Playing both on the right and left side of the court and facing three types of defensive play,
de Witte, A.M.H.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Berger, M.A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.
Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.
de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'
De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'
Turna, Bülent; Kilinç, Fatih
The purpose of this study is to determine and compare some biomotoric properties and anthropometric measurements of Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball Team and Football Team. Thirty volunteering players from Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball and Football Teams participated in the study. Fifteen of the participants were…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…
Fox, Jordan L.; Stanton, Robert; Scanlan, Aaron T.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare training and competition demands in basketball. Methods: Fifteen semiprofessional male basketball players wore microsensors during physical conditioning training (PCT), games-based training (GBT), and competition to measure absolute and relative (·min[superscript -1]) PlayerLoad™ (PL)…
Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman
We design an all-pay auction experiment in which we reveal the gender of the opponent. Using this design, we find that women bid higher than men, but only when bidding against other women. These findings, interpreted through a theoretical model incorporating differences in risk attitude and the value of winning, suggest that women have a higher value of winning than men.
Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize News Release: NREL Solar Cell Wins Federal Technology Transfer Prize May 7, 2009 A new class of ultra-light, high-efficiency solar cells developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been awarded a national prize
Huneke, S. C.; Hayward, R.; Toft, Bjarne
For Cylindrical Hex on a board with circumference 3, we give a winning strategy for the end-to-end player. This is the first known winning strategy for odd circumference at least 3, answering a question of David Gale. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Peter D. Dijkstra
Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.
Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van
The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue
Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans
The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.
) cluster. The WinHPC login node (WinHPC02) is intended to allow users with approved access to connect to also be run from the login node. There is a single login node for this system so any applications
Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.
A study by Rowe et al. reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white one during the 2004 Olympics. It was suggested that blue is associated with a higher likelihood of winning through differential effects of colour on opponent visibility and/or an
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.
Lockie, Robert G; Jeffriess, Matthew D; McGann, Tye S; Callaghan, Samuel J; Schultz, Adrian B
Research indicates that planned and reactive agility are different athletic skills. These skills have not been adequately assessed in male basketball players. To define whether 10-m-sprint performance and planned and reactive agility measured by the Y-shaped agility test can discriminate between semiprofessional and amateur basketball players. Ten semiprofessional and 10 amateur basketball players completed 10-m sprints and planned- and reactive-agility tests. The Y-shaped agility test involved subjects sprinting 5 m through a trigger timing gate, followed by a 45° cut and 5-m sprint to the left or right through a target gate. In the planned condition, subjects knew the cut direction. For reactive trials, subjects visually scanned to find the illuminated gate. A 1-way analysis of variance (P basketball players; planned agility did not. To distinguish between male basketball players of different ability levels, agility tests should include a perceptual and decision-making component.
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally comprehensive training program on the Ukrainian national team basketball with hearing impairment in the annual cycle for the major competitions. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Also analyzed the test results and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : We showed the need for a qualitative change in the training process through the development and application of innovative technologies. This allows a greater level of communication between the coach and athletes to intensify training process. Developed and experimentally substantiated comprehensive training program for the Ukrainian national team. In technical training device used light. This increased mobility, agility, activity and intensity workouts. In tactical training improved situational and planned change tactical drawing game using copyright protection of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Conclusions : A positive impact of the developed system for basketball training result in major competitions.
Full Text Available With projections indicating an increase in mobility over the next few decades and annual flight departures expected to rise to over 16 billion by 2050, there is a demand for the aviation industry and associated stakeholders to consider new forms of aircraft and technology. Customer requirements are recognized as a key driver in business. The airline is the principal customer for the aircraft manufacture. The passenger is, in turn, the airline's principal customer but they are just one of several stakeholders that include aviation authorities, airport operators, air-traffic control and security agencies. The passenger experience is a key differentiator used by airlines to attract and retain custom and the fuselage that defines the cabin envelope for the in-flight passenger experience and cabin design therefore receives significant attention for new aircraft, service updates and refurbishments. Decision making in design is crucial to arriving at viable and worthwhile cabin formats. Too little innovation will result in an aircraft manufacturer and airlines using its products falling behind its competitors. Too much may result in an over-extension with, for example, use of immature technologies that do not have the necessary reliability for a safety critical industry or sufficient value to justify the development effort. The multiple requirements associated with cabin design, can be viewed as an area for optimisation, accepting trade-offs between the various parameters. Good design, however, is often defined as developing a concept that resolves the contradictions and takes the solution towards a win-win scenario. Indeed our understanding and practice of design allows for behaviors that enhance design thinking through divergence and convergence, the use of abductive reasoning, experimentation and systems thinking. This paper explores and defines the challenges of designing the aircraft cabin of the future that will deliver on the multiple
Padaki, Ajay S; Cole, Brian J; Ahmad, Christopher S
Various research efforts have studied concussions in the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and the National Hockey League. However, no study has investigated the incidence and return-to-play trends in the National Basketball Association (NBA), which this study aims to do. Increased media scrutiny and public awareness, in addition to the institution of a league-wide concussion protocol, may have resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions to NBA players that were publicly reported in the media from the beginning of the 2006 NBA season to the end of the 2014 season were included. The incidence and return-to-play statistics were generated by synthesizing information from publicly available records. There were 134 publicly reported concussions to NBA players from the beginning of the 2006 season to the conclusion of the 2014 season, resulting in an average of 14.9 concussions per season. The incidence has not changed significantly during this time span. The average games missed after a concussion from 2006 to 2010 was 1.6, significantly less than the 5.0 games missed from 2011 to 2014, following the institution of the NBA concussion protocol (P = .023). Although the incidence of publicly reported concussions in the NBA has not changed appreciably over the past 9 seasons, the time missed after a concussion has. While players often returned in the same game in the 2006 season, the combination of implemented policy, national coverage, medical staff awareness, and player education may have contributed to players now missing an average of 4 to 6 games after a concussion. A multitude of factors has resulted in more conservative return-to-play practices for NBA players after concussions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town (South Africa)
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.
Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M
Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.
Gomes de Araujo Gustavo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis
Full Text Available Basketball in its structure is very complicated and complex activity in which kinesiology success depends on the influence of a large number of anthropological traits and abilities, which are interconnected. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the influence of morphological characteristics as anthropological characteristics of situational-motor, or the accuracy of the basketball game. The survey was conducted in 71 male subjects aged, 15 years ± 6 months, participants school basketball team “Drita” from Gjilani, Kosovo.The sample of variables obtained on the basis of 10 anthropometric measures in the IPB, under which, among other things, three possible estimates of latent anthropometric dimensions of two tests of situational-motor skills and precision. Regression analysis was applied in order to determine the statistical significance of the impact of the entire set of predictive variables on the criterion variable and individual impact of individual predictors on the criterion variable. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 14.0. From the data obtained by regression analysis can be concluded that the better the performance of situational-motor test, or test the accuracy of dribbling in a distance of 5 meters jump shot from the free throw line (MPSŠ in the patients who had a higher level (AVIS, had longer feet (ADUNA, who had a hand longer (ADURO, greater length of the foot (ADUS, the higher the upper arm (AONL and larger volume of lower leg (AOPK. The system of prediction of morphological variables has statistically significant effect on the criterion one free throw in the bin (MPSŠ at 0.000. Morphological analysis of individual predictor variables, we can conclude that a statistically significant effect on the variable with two morphological variables: length of the hand (ADUS and width of the hand (ASSA.
Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.
Nalis, Dario; Schütz, Astrid; Pastukhov, Alexander
In win-win solutions, all parties benefit more from the solution than they would if they each pursued their own individual goals. Such solutions are beneficial at individual and collective levels and thus represent optimal solutions. Win-win solutions are desirable but often difficult to find. To allow the study of individual differences and situational factors that help or hinder the detection of win-win solutions, we created a paradigm that fills a gap in the repertoire of psychological instruments used to assess collaboration, cooperation, negotiation, and prosocial behavior. The new paradigm differs from previous ones in two aspects: (a) In existing paradigms that focus on social motivation, possible strategies are evident, whereas we focused here on the question of whether people can detect the solution and thus disentangle ability from motivation, (b) Paradigms that focus on cooperation typically entail a risk associated with the partner's defection, whereas cooperation in our paradigm is not associated with risk. We adjusted the Trucking Game-a method for assessing bargaining-to include a situation in which two parties can help each other achieve their respective goals and thus benefit over and above the pursuit of individual goals or compromising. We tested scenario-based and interaction-based versions with samples of 154 and 112 participants, respectively. Almost one third of the participants or dyads found the win-win solution. General mental abilities were not related to detecting the win-win solution in either version. The paradigm provides a way to extend research on cooperation and conflict and can thus be useful for research and training.
Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Cushman, Daniel M; Maak, Travis G; Petron, David J; Willick, Stuart E
Injury management is critical in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as players experience a wide variety of injuries. Recently, it has been suggested that game schedules, such as back-to-back games and four games in five days, increase the risk of injuries in the NBA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between game schedules and player injuries in the NBA. Descriptive epidemiology study. The present study analyzed game injuries and game schedules in the 2012-13 through 2014-15 regular seasons. Game injuries by game schedules and players' profiles were examined using an exact binomial test, the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. A Poisson regression analysis was performed to predict the number of game injuries sustained by each player from game schedules and injured players' profiles. There were a total of 681 cases of game injuries sustained by 280 different players during the three years (total N=1443 players). Playing back-to-back games or playing four games in five days alone was not associated with an increased rate of game injuries, whereas a significant positive association was found between game injuries and playing away from home (pNBA. The findings could be useful for designing optimal game schedules in the NBA as well as helping NBA teams make adjustments to minimize game injuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bonato, M; Benis, R; La Torre, A
The study was a two-armed, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial in which 15 teams (160 players) were assigned to either an experimental group (EG, 8 teams n = 86), which warmed-up with bodyweight neuromuscular exercises, or a control group (CG, 7 teams, n = 74) that performed standard tactical-technical exercises before training. All injuries during the 2015-2016 regular season were counted. Epidemiologic incidence proportion and incidence rate were also calculated. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and composite Y-Excursion Balance test (YBT) were used to assess lower limb strength and postural control. A total of 111 injuries were recorded. Chi-square test detected statistically significant differences between EG and CG (32 vs 79, P = .006). Significant differences in the injuries sustained in the EG (21 vs 11, P = .024) and CG (52 vs 27, P = .0001) during training and matches, respectively, were observed. Significant differences in post-intervention injuries were observed between in EG and CG during training (21 vs 52, P training into warm-up routines reduced the incidence of serious lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Delextrat, A; Martinez, A
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 training interventions based on small-sided games (SGG) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on physical and technical performance of male junior basketball players. A secondary objective was to investigate if these effects were similar in starting and bench players. 18 players participated in a pre-testing session, 6-weeks intervention period and a post-testing session. Pre- and post-sessions involved assessments of aerobic fitness, repeated sprint ability (RSA), defensive and offensive agility, upper and lower body power, shooting and passing skills. Mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons examined the effects of time and type of intervention on physical and technical performances. The main results showed that both interventions resulted in similar improvements in aerobic capacity (+3.4% vs. +4.1%), with greater improvements in bench players compared to starting players (+7.1% vs. +1.1%, Pbasketball players during the season. However, when RSA is targeted, more specific training seems necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ricardo E. Izzo; Luca Russo
The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball...
Full Text Available Purpose: assess the level of physical efficiency of students – basketball players by using the Harvard step test. Material & Methods: the analysis of scientific-methodical literature, educational testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. For determination and assessment physical efficiency of students – basketball players used the Harvard step test. In pedagogical testing for assessing special performance was attended by 14 students – basketball players (n=14 men's teams of the Medical Institute of Sumy State University. Results: the analysis of scientific and technical literature showed gaps in training basketball players, namely, to improve the physical performance. Especially these problems are when basketball training sessions combine with study in higher educational institutions. The load that caused a combination of mental and physical labor is enough to affect on the performance, develop resistance to fatigue. Still need to look for approaches that can help in conditions of single 3-4 workouts per week to maintain a high level of physical capacity of basketball players. Conclusions: analyzing the test results of basketball team players at Medical Institute of Sumy State University, we can say that the level of physical performance is satisfactory and functional status is mediocre. Players need more regular training which includes special exercises with high intensity close to competitive conditions
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Taylor, JB, Ford, KR, Schmitz, RJ, Ross, SE, Ackerman, TA, and Shultz, SJ. Biomechanical differences of multidirectional jump landings among female basketball and soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3034-3045, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multidirectional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of 89 female athletes who played competitive basketball (n = 40) or soccer (n = 49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump, double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with either less hip or knee, or both hip and knee excursion during all tasks (p ≤ 0.05) except for the SAGSL task, basketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p = 0.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (p soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J
The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.
Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of young players with the rank of at least four years experience in basketball training, while the second group consists of members of the healthy school population, but with no experience in the continuous training of basketball. The study tested the explosive power of the lower and upper limbs, and the reaction time and agility in the lower limbs. Statistical analysis of results showed significant differences in certain tests between groups and within groups, both among the upper and lower extremities. It can be concluded that basketball as a specific sporting activity has positive influence on the development of the tested variables, while the level of asymmetry at basketball player is less than in the non-basketball population.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.
Guinea, F; Martin-Delgado, M A
We apply several quantization schemes to simple versions of the Chinos game. Classically, for two players with one coin each, there is a symmetric stable strategy that allows each player to win half of the times on average. A partial quantization of the game (semiclassical) allows us to find a winning strategy for the second player, but it is unstable w.r.t. the classical strategy. However, in a fully quantum version of the game we find a winning strategy for the first player that is optimal: the symmetric classical situation is broken at the quantum level. (letter to the editor)
Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Griffiths, Christine M; Woolstenhulme, Emily M; Parcell, Allen C
Stretching is often included as part of a warm-up procedure for basketball activity. However, the efficacy of stretching with respect to sport performance has come into question. We determined the effects of 4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. Subjects participated in 6 weeks (2 times per week) of warm-up and basketball activity. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group). We asked 3 questions. First, what effect does 6 weeks of warm-up exercise and basketball play have on both flexibility and vertical jump height? We measured sit and reach and vertical jump height before (week -1) and after (week 7) the 6 weeks. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group (p vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups. Our second question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height? We measured vertical jump immediately after the warm-up on 4 separate occasions during the 6 weeks (at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Vertical jump height was not different for any group. Finally, our third question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height following 20 minutes of basketball play? We measured vertical jump height immediately following 20 minutes of basketball play at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Only the ballistic stretching group demonstrated an acute increase in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play (p basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.
To present an overview of the medical conditions experienced by athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) from the 1988-1989 through the 1997-1998 seasons. Athletic trainers completed profiles that provided demographic information for each player. Injury reports indicated when and where the injury occurred, pathology, onset, activity, and the mechanism of injury. The amount of time lost, injured list status, hospitalization, and surgery were also reported. Reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care being rendered. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (mean, 3.3 +/- 2.6 seasons). Mean player demographics were age 26.7 (+/- 3.7) years, NBA playing experience 4.1 (+/- 3.7) years, height 200.8 (+/- 9.9) cm, and weight 100.2 (+/- 13.5) kg. Players averaged 52 (+/- 34.7) games and 1263.1 (+/- 1073.8) minutes played. The frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates were then calculated. Ankle sprains were the most frequently occurring orthopaedic injury (942, 9.4%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (803, 8.1%), lumbar strains (491, 5.0%), and knee sprains (258, 2.3%). The greatest number of days missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (7569, 11.5%), knee sprains (5712, 8.6%), ankle sprains (5122, 7.7%), and lumbar strains (3365, 5.1%). Professional athletes in the NBA experience a rate of game-related injuries that is twice as high as their collegiate counterparts. Patellofemoral inflammation is a significant problem among NBA players.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline in which the ankle sprain is the most common injury. It is considered to be an aggravated activity by its dimension of teamwork, contact and requiring a variety of motion dynamics. The aim of this paper is to identify basketball game elements that contribute to the development of traumatic torsion injuries, to present methods of injury prevention and to present possible methods for the rehabilitation of athletes in different stages of injury healing. A sprain and a torsion of the ankle is not a traumatic event defined at one time, but is often a cycle of repetitive trauma. It is also important to educate competitors not to underestimate these types of injuries and to treat them with serious medical and rehabilitation procedures. Rehabilitation of the ankle joint is dependent on the degree of injury, and above all on the extent of the damaged tissue. In order to avoid trauma, proprioception and global stabilization training play a very important role. Unstable ankle instability is associated with serious complications.
Full Text Available Functional movement screen (FMS has been used to establish normative data and determine potential injury risk for young adults and athletes, but there are few data in elementary school-age children. The purpose of this study was to establish fundamental values for the FMS in elementary school-age mini-basketball players. Secondary purposes were to examine relationships between functional movement patterns and age, peak height velocity (PHV, and body mass index (BMI, and to compare functional movement patterns between boys and girls and between individuals with and without a history of injury. The mean composite FMS score was 16.5 ± 2.2 (16.5 ± 2.4 for boys, 16.5 ± 1.7 for girls. The composite FMS score was positively correlated with age (r = .312 and negatively correlated with the BMI (r = − .371. However, the FMS score was not correlated with PHV or with PHV age. The FMS score was not different between boys and girls or between individuals who reported a previous injury and those who did not. However, boys in the mini-basketball teams performed better than girls on the trunk stability push-up and rotary stability tests. Age and the body mass index were significantly associated with better and poorer functional movement, respectively.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline and activity distinguished by a number of advan- tages and therefore it is suitable to be included in different SPORT FOR ALL organiza- tion. This Paper has dealt with research of the effects of basketball games on certain motor and function abiliteies of associates regularly involved. 53 male associates, age 35-50, have undergone testing for seven motor variables where 2 km long walking activity (fitness index = general motor ability mean criteria variable. Systems of predictive motr and criteria variables have been tested in complian- ce with the methodology of Eurofit battery for adults. Based on the results obtained therein and related statistical analysis it has been found that 61 % of variability for criteria variable can be explained by the system of six predictive variables: lying - rising up in sitting position; leaning up forward in sitting position; standing on one leg - “flamingo”; jumping up; hand tapping and flexible han- ging down in bending motions. This statistical effect (at the level of p =.00 has accomplished the overall system of predictive motor variables, but not a snigle variable could have any special statistical effects on criteria variable UKK-2 km
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the morphological and motor status players for both teams, and then based on the results of anthropometric and motor status of this work can also do a comparative analysis between these two sports, volleyball and basketball. Therefore, the present study is in the results (achieved of the differences and their special achievement and to skills top players. In this research, we have participation 30 players (15 for each team volleyball and basketball, the teams is from Pristina. It should be noted that all players are fully able to follow regular exercise in their clubs. Those two clubs in Pristina, have the training five days a week, the clubs are in super league and the current champion in country. We as a coach interesed about the comparisons and differences of these two sports for anthropometric and motor characteristics, and in these sports, in those two sports players have a special that is characterized by height body and explosive power. We think, that this research work serves as a continuation of the way and further research on these two sports that have a significant increase from the psycho-physical and anthropometric aspects
Ricardo E. Izzo
Full Text Available The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball, with 20.9 % – and by the two-handed over the head pass, with 18.2 %, and finally, one- or two-handed indirect passes (bounces, with 11.2 % and 9.8 %. Considering the most used pass in basketball, from the biomechanical point of view, the muscles involved in the correct movement consider all the muscles of the upper extremity, adding also the shoulder muscles as well as the body fixators (abdominals, hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsal flexors of the foot. The technical and conditional analysis considers the throwing speed, the throw height and the air resistance. In conclusion, the aim of this study is to give some guidelines to improve the mechanical execution of the movements in training, without neglecting the importance of the harmony of the movements themselves.
Full Text Available Planning in basketball (like in other sports is one aspect of the job of a sport coach. Every coach while writting (creating, composing the plan and programme of a trainning (trainning proces should have the informations important for achievingsuccess. That kontigent of informations should be hierarchy arranged. Driving the pro- gramme the coach should always barring in mind what is the most important aim which in particular moment he wants to realise. Problem of this work is in fact that difference between coaches is that thay dont give certain importance to the particular informati- ons. Beside the necessity to know wich informations are the most important for solving a problem, it is important to prove their corelations. The aim of the research is to present the importance of identification and using of strategic infomations in planning (and pro- gramming in basketball. According to all infomations colected by coach he creates his strategic koncept. Using the strategic koncept he can create tactical koncept, particular koncept for the particular opponent (tactical plan and to (more or less use intime cer- tain tactical variance on the game (operative tactics. The coach (as the most important in the trainning process should be familiar with the science aspects of sport activities. That way he can overtake expected integral functions and be a lieder who gain the aim.
Attene, G; Pizzolato, F; Calcagno, G; Ibba, G; Pinna, M; Salernitano, G; Padulo, J
This study aimed at comparing the effects of intermittent and repeated sprint ability training on physiological variables. Sixteen young female basketball players were randomly allocated to intermittent training (IT=8) or repeated sprint ability training (RST=8) groups. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks of training: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (Yo-Yo) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) tests. For all the variables investigated the effect of training type showed a different trend respect at current knowledge. In the RSA, best time (BT) was a significant main effect of training time (pre- vs. post-) (Ptraining type/time (P=0.03). The RST showed a decrease in BT of 3.1% (P=0.005) while the IT showed a decrease of 6.2% (Ptraining methods used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing anaerobic and basketball-specific training schedules. Besides, even when IT training is not done at very high speed, it can increase the maximum speed of the RSA.
Dehghansai, N; Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J
Considering the growth in research, examining the development of mainstream sport athletes over the past two decades, studies examining development of athletes with disabilities have been surprisingly limited. While similarities in developmental trajectories between the two cohorts may exist regarding factors such as the value of practice, which tend to be universal regardless of context, disability-related issues (e.g. whether the disability was congenital or acquired) may influence the course of development, affecting variables such as starting age, training and developmental milestones. Fifty-two male and female athletes training with the Wheelchair Basketball Canada National Academy provided detailed training histories. Athletes illustrated similar developmental patterns (e.g. milestones, training adjustments) as they progressed through their sporting career. However, athletes with congenital disabilities started participation in wheelchair basketball and unorganised practice at significantly younger ages (t 49 = -4.35, p training throughout their sporting career. Future work may consider examining developmental trajectories and training histories of athletes in various parasports to extend our understanding of their development and skill acquisition.
Florian Miftari; Hasim Rushiti; Bahri Gjinovci
In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as...
Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A
The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.
Nabli, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; Jabri, Imed; Batikh, Tahar; Chamari, Karim
This study aimed to examine the physical and physiological demands of basketball refereeing. 16 elite-level basketball referees were studied during U-19 basketball games (n=8) for time-motion analyses, exercise heart rates (HR) and blood lactate concentration [La]. Game activities were considered as time spent and distance covered in five locomotors activities (standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting). Referees spent more time (pbasketball refereeing is a moderate intensity activity where referees spent 81% of total game time at low-intensity with bouts of high-intensity activities throughout the game.
Pomeschikova I. P.
Full Text Available The article studies the performance level of the spatial orientation of the basketball teams' pre-basic training, which was determined by standard methods. The study involved 12 athletes for 14 years with four years basketball. Teacher testing conducted to determine the allowed level of basketball and to determine the spatial relationship between the rates of the various manifestations of this ability. The level of spatial orientation of sportsmen evaluated according to the 8 test, methodology suggested V.A. Romanenko, L.P. Sergienko, V.I. Lyakh.
Washburn, Dava Michelle
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of satisfaction of dislocated workers served by WIN Job Centers in the Mississippi Corridor Consortium. Four WIN Job Centers participated in this study: Northeast Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Corinth, Northwest Mississippi Community College WIN Job Center in Oxford,…
CERN's Large Hadron Collider curretn leads project head Amalia Ballarino named superconductor industry person of the year 2006. Former high temperature superconductivity program manager at the US Department of energy James Daley wins lifetime achievement award. (1,5 page)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
Jun 1, 2014 ... Keywords: Tickets, Lottery strategy, Winning numbers, Hypothesis testing, Historical ... Among all the games of ... different kinds of games are organized by .....  Bradley, R.E. (2001), “Euler and the Genoese lottery”, [Online; ...
Chadwick, Heather Riley
Meredith Baber of Cartersville, Va., a fourth-year honors architecture student in the School of Architecture + Design, is the first student in the history of Virginia Tech to win a prestigious Kohn Pederson Fox (KPF) Associates Travelling Fellowship.
Simundza, Julia; Palmer, Matthew; Settele, Josef; Jacobus, Luke M; Hughes, David P; Mazzi, Dominique; Blanchet, Simon
The 2016 BMC Ecology Image Competition marked another celebration of the astounding biodiversity, natural beauty, and biological interactions documented by talented ecologists worldwide. For our fourth annual competition, we welcomed guest judge Dr. Matthew Palmer of Columbia University, who chose the winning image from over 140 entries. In this editorial, we highlight the award winning images along with a selection of highly commended honorable mentions.
Foote, Christopher; Darimont, Chris T; Baguette, Michel; Blanchet, Simon; Jacobus, Luke M; Mazzi, Dominique; Settele, Josef
For the fifth year, BMC Ecology is proud to present the winning images from our annual image competition. The 2017 edition received entries by talented shutterbug-ecologists from across the world, showcasing research that is increasing our understanding of ecosystems worldwide and the beauty and diversity of life on our planet. In this editorial we showcase the winning images, as chosen by our Editorial Board and guest judge Chris Darimont, as well as our selection of highly commended images. Enjoy!
Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse
This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.
Frederic Palomino and Luca Rigotti.
We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incentiv...
Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.
We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...
), login node (WinHPC02) and worker/compute nodes. The head node acts as the file, DNS, and license server . The login node is where the users connect to access the cluster. Node 03 has dual Intel Xeon E5530 2008 R2 HPC Edition. The login node, WinHPC02, is where users login to access the system. This is where
The CERN first team successfully defended the title won last year in the 20th annual Cross Inter-Entreprises held at Collex-Bossy on Saturday 7 October. 101 teams of four runners representing firms from all over the Geneva area finished the 6.2 km race, through forest and over fields. In spite of two members of last years winning team being absent through injury this time, the first team was still 38 seconds faster than in 1999. The second and third CERN teams also excelled with places in the first 15 teams. In this race the teams start at one-minute intervals and the time of each team is that of its third runner to finish, so they try to run in a group of three or four all the way. The full results of all teams can be found at: http://www.Club-association.ch/CHP Placings of the CERN teams 1st 21:53 Cornelis, Ecarnot, Ehmele, Nisbet 6th 22:50 Cornet, Eklund, Rick, Ruiz Llamas 13th 24:24 Dunkel, Guillot, Montejo Raez, Zamiatin 35th 28:22 Cameron, Galbraith, Revol, Scalisi
The Communication Group is organising a competition offering people at CERN the chance to submit their ideas and win a ticket to the Lift10 Conference, which will be held in Geneva from 5 to7 May. Lift is a community of technology "pioneers", created in 2006. It now involves more than 4,000 people from over 60 countries, who meet regularly in Europe and in Asia to explore the social implications of new technologies and the major shifts ahead. CERN is one of the academic partners of the next Lift conference, whose theme is "Connected people”. For this occasion, 10 free tickets to the conference will be awarded to the "CERNois" who come up with the best answers to the question: “How would you contribute to Lift10?” Those taking part in the competition can choose from among the following categories: - run workshop(s); - cover the conference on a blog; - coordinate a discussion during the breaks; - organize a lift@home ...
This paper investigates the possibility of establishing a win-win relationship between a wood pellets manufacturer and its customers when the manufacturer possesses a power plant fueled by biomass and buys wood material from forest companies. Two prerequisites must be fulfilled for this relationship. First, the price of wood pellets should be lower than the fuel currently used by potential wood pellets customers and, second, the price of wood material as a raw material for producing the wood pellets should not jeopardize the profitability of the operations of the wood pellets manufacturer, who also produces electricity from biomass and sells it to the state at the feed-in tariff price. A mathematical model has been developed for each prerequisite and applied to several examples. The results demonstrate that a win-win relation can be established in Croatia and most of the Member States of the EU. (author)
Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane
A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.
Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina
Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (pstaff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.
Min, Byung Joo; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. Y.
International collaboration with WIN-Global. 1) Evaluation on current status for the foundation of WIN-Korea and investigation on the 1st to 8th WIN-Global conferences for the arrangement of 9th WIN-Global conferences 2) Manifestation on the roles of WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 3) Encouragement of active participation for WIN-Global activies -Establishment of internet net working for effective communication through the internet net working between women in science in Korea and other foreign countries. 1) Preparation and Organization of Women in Korea 2) Foundation of WIN-Korea Home Page in Net 3) Assembly of data for the net work construction in Korea - Enhancement of international cooperation between WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 1) Invitation of 9th WIN-Global Conference in Seoul, Korea 2) Enrollment of one of the Executives and Strengthening the activity of WIN-Korea as member of Board members 3) Characterization on main movements of WIN-Global through the active participation in international activities. - Arrangement for the 9th WIN-Global conference 1) Opperation of Organizing Committee and Supporting Committee and Secretariat 2) Supporting the 9th WIN-Global Confernce
Full Text Available In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as: 1. Steady Jump in length, 2 steady jump in height 3.20 meters run from a steady start, 4. Medicine Ball Throw and 5. Agility Test. While from specific motor movement skills are included: 1.20 Meters run with ball, 2. Basketball shooting for 30 seconds round-trip,3. Anaerobic durability with and without ball (kamikaze 4. Intensive Basketball shots-Change of direction and 5. Basketball shots from five positions. Subject to the number of subjects that will be treated in this study, their age and the amount of variables tested, the main objectives of this study, will be limited to achieving the goals. On the basis of test results, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences in the basic motor parameters between the two groups G1 and G2, mostly due to systematic practice effects rather than academy belonging itself.In the other hand, differences between the two groups in the specific basketball motor skills can be clearly identified, in typical basketball movement situations.In addition, comparing the test results of the individuals tested for the purpose if this diagnosis, a much more advanced level of motor skills compared to the normal population of the same group age that don’t engage in basketball activities can be identified. This experimental study carried out in the youth in the age group of 13(-+ 6 months years old that continuously in a systematic manner attend basketball academies in two different basketball schools, with
Billings, Andrew C.; MacArthur, Paul J.; Wu, Dan; Ličen, Simon
Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. Chinain men's basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theo...
The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of ...
Boccolini, Gabriele; Brazzit, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12?weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n?=?11) and isotonic training (ISO, n?=?12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive sea...
Chhaya Verma, Lakshmi Subramanium, Vijaya Krishnan
Background: Plyometric involve high intensity eccentric contraction immediately after a powerful concentric contraction. A vertical leap in basketball also involves rapid & repeated muscle contraction & stretching. Various methods have been used to improve the vertical leap in players, but only few studies mention about plyometrics. Aim: To determine the effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players & compare them with their untrained counterparts. Me...
Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist
Full Text Available Environmental degradation and poverty are linked, and this means that conservation and poverty reduction must be tackled together. However, finding a successful integrated strategy has been an elusive goal. We describe the career of a Chinese scholar, Shixiong Cao, whose persistent efforts to find and follow win-win paths have led to ecological restoration accompanied by long-term benefits for local residents. Cao's story illustrates how development that combines environmental and economic perspectives can both help people to escape the poverty trap and restore degraded environments. His experience demonstrates that when environmental managers find solutions that can mitigate or eliminate poverty through the development of green enterprises, they can combine them with environmental restoration efforts to produce long-term sustainable solutions. In this paper, we share Cao's 28 years of experience because we believe that his scientific and practical spirit, and his belief that it is necessary to work directly with the people affected by environmental projects, will inspire other scholars and practitioners to achieve similar successes.
The hundreds of Fellows and students working at CERN bring precious new blood into the Laboratory. At the same time, CERN offers them invaluable work experience that will have a significant impact on their future careers. It is important that we all work together to make this a win-win situation with lasting positive effects for all concerned over the years to come. Fellows and students are just setting out on a great professional adventure. Some of them are very young, others are a bit more experienced … and what happens during this early period can have vast consequences on their approach to work and indeed on their overall careers. They all come here with their hard earned skills and a high degree of motivation, ready to make the most out of an internship at CERN. Sometimes, they are called to integrate into well-established units; at other times, they are asked to join complex collaborations. Almost always they have to deal with new information, new cultures, new t...
Toklu, Hale Z; Fuller, Jacklyn C
Scholarly activities (i.e., the discovery of new knowledge; development of new technologies, methods, materials, or uses; integration of knowledge leading to new understanding) are intended to measure the quality and quantity of dissemination of knowledge. A successful mentorship program is necessary during residency to help residents achieve the six core competencies (patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, systems-based practice, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills) required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). The role of the mentor in this process is pivotal in the advancement of the residents' knowledge about evidence-based medicine. With this process, while mentees become more self-regulated, exhibit confidence in their performance, and demonstrate more insight and aptitude in their jobs, mentors also achieve elevated higher self-esteem, enhanced leadership skills, and personal gratification. As such, we may conclude that mentoring is a two-sided relationship; i.e., a 'win-win' style of commitment between the mentor and mentee. Hence, both parties will eventually advance academically, as well as professionally.
Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid
Full-text: International and regional cooperation is fundamental for the safe and effective introduction and expansion of nuclear power programme (NPP). A win-win situation can be harnessed as experienced countries in NPP are able to offer a myriad of benefits to new comer countries as well as countries planning for NPP whilst new comer countries are able to offer education and training opportunities and business opportunities to advanced countries in NPP. Countries with long experience in nuclear power programme (NPP) are able to offer experience, knowledge, advisory as well as sharing of resources and facilities with new comer countries. As skilled and competent personnel in the entire nuclear value-chain are critical to support NPP, this paper will provide an overview of some of the experience and resources of advanced countries in NPP that could be shared with new comer countries, with a focus in the area of education and training, as well as in industrial development. The paper will conclude by offering some recommendations as a way forward for establishing international cooperation in Nuclear Education and Training, as well as for industrial development. (author)
Mehmet Fatih Yüksel
Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the anthropometric and biometric features of the elite wheelchair basketball players in different league levels, and to evaluate them with regards to field tests particular to wheelchair basketball. A sample of 21 male players volunteered to participate in the research with similar classification points, 12 of whom were from Turkey Wheelchair Basketball First League and 9 of whom were from the Second League. Anthropometric measurements, biometric features of the players and their skill test scores particular to wheelchair basketball were detected. The anthropometric measurements were taken over dominant extremity. SPSS 21.0 program was used in the analysis of the data, and minimum, maximum, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation values were determined. Intergroup differences were determined with Mann–Whitney U analysis. Significance level was admitted as p < 0.05. As a conclusion, it was determined that wheelchair basketball players had similar anthropometric features in the First and Second League levels, and that there was no difference based on the league level they were playing, and moreover, that bio-motor features and skills particular to wheelchair basketball were decisive on the levels of the leagues the players were taking part.
Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the comparative presentation of the results achieved by the pupils that have been partecipated in basketball tests after the implementation of the alternative curriculum having the basketbal as its contentsl. The research has been done during 2005/2006 school year on the sample of 183 male and female pupils of the fourth grade of the primary school. The pupils have been divided in two experimental groups. The first one has realized its curriculum in basketball playground according to the stan- dards and rules of mini-basket, while the the other, experimental group, has realized its teaching contents in the standard basketball playground. The results have pointed out that the dimension of the ball, such as the height of the basket are very important related to the achievements of certain basketball tests. On the other hand, certain number of the basketball tests has not shown any significant differences that can be statistically confirmed. This work can be useful in the methodical approach while teaching the basic elements of the basketball technique
van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multi-directional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of eighty-nine female athletes who played competitive basketball (n=40) or soccer (n=49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with three-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with less hip and/or knee excursion during all tasks (pbasketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p=.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (pbasketball players. Additionally, the FRONT-SL task elicited greater forces in knee abduction (p=.003) and lesser forces in hip adduction (p=.001) and knee external rotation (pbasketball players. Joint energetics were different during the FRONT-DL task, as basketball players exhibited less sagittal plane energy absorption at the hip (pjump landing tasks, such that soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu
The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...
Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketbal...
Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.
Pfile, Kate R; Gribble, Phillip A; Buskirk, Gretchen E; Meserth, Sara M; Pietrosimone, Brian G
Epidemiological data demonstrate the need for lower-extremity injury-prevention training. Neuromuscular-control (NMC) programs are immediately effective at minimizing lower-extremity injury risk and improving sport-related performance measures. Research investigating lasting effects after an injury-prevention program is limited. To determine whether dynamic balance, landing mechanics, and hamstring and quadriceps strength could be improved after a 6-wk NMC intervention and maintained for a season. Prospective case series. Controlled laboratory. 11 Division I women's basketball players (age 19.40 ± 1.35 y, height 178.05 ± 7.52 cm, mass 72.86 ± 10.70 kg). Subjects underwent testing 3 times, completing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), and isometric strength testing for the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles. Pretest and posttest 1 occurred immediately before and after the intervention, respectively, and posttest 2 at the end of the competitive season, 9 mo after posttest 1. Subjects participated in eighteen 30-min plyometric and NMC-training sessions over a 6-wk period. The normalized SEBT composite score, normalized peak isometric hamstrings:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio, and the LESS total score. The mean composite reach significantly improved over time (F2,10 = 6.96, P = .005) where both posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest (70.41% ± 4.08%) (posttest 1 73.48% ± 4.19%, t10 = -3.11, P = .011) and posttest 2 (74.2% ± 4.77%, t10 = -3.78, P = .004). LESS scores significantly improved over time (F2,10 = 6.29, P = .009). The pretest LESS score (7.30 ± 3.40) was higher than posttest 1 (4.9 ± 1.20, t10 = 2.71, P = .024) and posttest 2 (5.44 ± 1.83, t10 = 2.58, P = .030). There were no statistically significant differences (P > .05) over time for the H:Q ratio when averaging both legs (F2,10 = 0.83, P = .45). A 6-wk NMC program improved landing mechanics and dynamic balance over a 9-mo period in women
Pumpa, Kate; Knight, Emma; Miller, Joanna
Objective To investigate the physiological and perceptual effects of three precooling strategies during pre-exercise rest in athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Randomized, counterbalanced. Participants were precooled, then rested for 60 minutes (22.7 ± 0.2°C, 64.2 ± 2.6%RH). Setting National Wheelchair Basketball Training Centre, Australia. Participants Sixteen wheelchair basketball athletes with a SCI. Interventions Participants were precooled through; 1) 10 minutes of 15.8°C cold water immersion (CWI), 2) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie (S) from sports drink; 3) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie with application of iced towels to the legs, torso and back/arms (ST); or 4) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of room temperature (22.3°C) sports drink (CON). Outcome measures Core temperature (Tgi), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), and thermal and gastrointestinal comfort. Results Following CWI, a significant reduction in Tgi was observed compared to CON, with a greatest reduction of 1.58°C occurring 40 minutes post-cooling (95% CI [1.07, 2.10]). A significant reduction in Tgi following ST compared to CON was also observed at 20 minutes (0.56°C; [0.03, 1.09]) and 30 minutes (0.56°C; [0.04, 1.09]) post-cooling. Additionally, a significant interaction between impairment level and time was observed for Tgi and HR, demonstrating athletes with a higher level of impairment experienced a greater reduction in HR and significant decrease in rate of decline in Tgi, compared to lesser impaired athletes. Conclusion CWI and ST can effectively lower body temperature in athletes with a SCI, and may assist in tolerating warm conditions. PMID:27192132
Siegmund, Julie A; Huxel, Kellie C; Swanik, C Buz
Determining whether there are compensations in those with jumper's knee (JK) might further our understanding of the condition. Comparing lower extremity kinematics and jump performance of basketball athletes with JK with those of healthy controls (C). Repeated-measures control-match design. University laboratory. 24 male basketball players (12 JK, 12 C) matched by height, weight, position, experience, and frequency of play. Standing counter-movement and running layup jumps. Maximum vertical-jump height, footfall landing, and lower extremity sagittal-plane kinematics. There were no significant group differences (P > .05) in vertical-jump height (JK = 64.3 +/- 8.6 cm, C = 63.0 +/- 9.8 cm) or layup height (JK = 71.3 +/- 11.6 cm, C = 73.3 +/- 11.0 cm). JK subjects landed flat footed (50%) more than controls (8%). JK subjects showed significantly more hip flexion (JK = 105 degrees +/- 24.8 degrees, C = 89.8 degrees +/- 14.1 degrees; P = .039) with decreased hip acceleration during the countermovement (JK = -3039 +/- 1392 degrees /s2, C = -4229 +/- 1765 degrees /s2; P = .040). When landing from the countermovement jump, JK subjects had significantly less knee acceleration (JK = -4960 +/- 1512 degrees/s2, C = -6736 +/- 2009 degrees/s2, P = .023) and in the layup showed significantly less ankle dorsiflexion (JK = 106.5 degrees +/- 9.0 degrees, C = 112.5 degrees +/- 7.7 degrees; P = .048) and hip acceleration (JK = -2841 +/- 1094 degrees/s2, C = -3912 +/- 1575 degrees/s2; P = .033). Compensatory strategies observed in JK subjects might help maintain performance, because their jump height was similar to that of healthy controls.
Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari
Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...
Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)
Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision
Iversen, M D; Friden, C
An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; P<0.01). No changes in attitudes toward injury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; P<0.06). Inter-rater reliability of two-footed landings observed was acceptable (kappa=0.72). Videotape analyses revealed a 5.5% increase in landing performance (t(diff)=9.6; P<0.0001). The program increased knowledge about ACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills.
Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S
Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.
Delextrat, A; Gruet, M; Bieuzen, F
The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s). During RS, muscle oxygenation parameters (tissue saturation index (TSI, %), post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that both training interventions similarly improved maximal aerobic speed (VIFT, 3.4 and 4.1%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, Ptraining interventions also resulted in a greater ΔTSI during the second sprint (47.8% to 114%, Ptrainings are applicable methodologies to improve in-season aerobic and anaerobic fitness capacities in junior basketball players.
This book is the first in-depth guide to applying the philosophy, theory, and methods of decision analysis to creating and executing winning legal strategies. With explanations that progress from introductory to advanced and practice problems at the end of each chapter, this is a book the reader will want to use and refer to for years to come. Practicing decision analysts, operations research and management science students, attorneys and law students will find this book an invaluable addition to their knowledge and skills. John Celona has over three decades of experience in teaching and applying decision analysis. John lectures in the School of Engineering at Stanford University and is on faculty at The Stanford Center for Professional Development, the American Course on Drug Development and Regulatory Sciences, and the Academy of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management.
Anita Flanders Rebelo
Full Text Available It's the modern consumer mind - compete to eat, save to the grave, throw to the wind to win! Never the game that's im portant - it's the beer , the fag. . . and if you're broke it's just the "odds" to turn you on. "Socrates didn't play dice games. He drank a lot. And when he was drunk he would go watch the game and give advice. It was because of bad advice that he was eventually sentenced to death. . . Back then it was more fun. Nobody knew anything about odds. It was just put down your money, you toss the dice, you laugh, you take another drink." - to Cassidy,it's knowing the odds that's put everybody on pot. Rack Cassidy's Winning at Poker and Games of Chance lampoons the illogic logic of modern "instructed" man. It is a disturbingly funny caricature of a nonsensical consumer's mind trying to ratio nalize the game of life, and what comes out is "hash" - not meat and potatoes. The book is high philosophical slapstick comedy ila Charlie Chaplin on paper in today's scene. To Cassidy, consumer thinking has made intellectual nitwits of us. We're always ex plaining in detail about what we don't have the slightest real understanding of, but we go on and on like automats spitting out words and words which in the long run make no sense to our__ selves and much less to the other poor broken down human calculat ing machines - especially when we try to give logic to our il/logical vices and fears.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basketball performance can be classified as an intermittent physical activity due to the changing situational game conditions and the number of intervening variables. It is necessary to have detailed knowledge about the performance of basketball players during a match as a background for more specific planning of the training process. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the indicators of internal and external load of basketball player’s performance during a match of U18 top men basketball players as a background for the planning of specific training processes. METHODS: Thirty-two Czech top junior basketball players (male, aged 16.88 ± 0.72 years participated in this research. The heart rate was recorded and time-motion analysis was conducted during six warm-up matches. RESULTS: The average heart rate was measured to be 167.47 ± 13.01 beats • min.–1, which corresponded to 85.06 ± 6.40% of peak heart rate. The percentages of the total time spent over and under 85% were 63.12% and 36.88%, respectively. Average distance covered was measured to be 5,880.91 ± 831.01 meters. The average work : rest ratio was 1 : 7.95 ± 1.83, ranging from 1 : 4.80 to 1 : 10.92. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these matches suggest that the exercise intensity and sprint activity observed during junior basketball are dependent on the player's position and partly on the level of the performance. The heart rate during a match was not dependent on the positions, however, time-motion analysis revealed significant differences between three basketball positions during a match. The combination of heart rate and time-motion analysis is recommended.
Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura
Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.
Cowley, Hanni R; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Kernozek, Thomas W; Hewett, Timothy E
High school female athletes are most likely to sustain a serious knee injury during soccer or basketball, 2 sports that often involve a rapid deceleration before a change of direction or while landing from a jump. To determine if female high school basketball and soccer players show neuromuscular differences during landing and cutting tasks and to examine neuromuscular differences between tasks and between dominant and nondominant sides. A 3-way mixed factorial design investigating the effects of sport (basketball, soccer), task (jumping, cutting), and side (dominant, nondominant). Laboratory. Thirty high school female athletes who listed either basketball or soccer as their only sport of participation (basketball: n = 15, age = 15.1 +/- 1.7 years, experience = 6.9 +/- 2.2 years, height = 165.3 +/- 7.9 cm, mass = 61.8 +/- 9.3 kg; soccer: n = 15, age = 14.8 +/- 0.8 years, experience = 8.8 +/- 2.5 years, height = 161.8 +/- 4.1 cm, mass = 54.6 +/- 7.6 kg). Ground reaction forces, stance time, valgus angles, and valgus moments were assessed during (1) a drop vertical jump with an immediate maximal vertical jump and (2) an immediate side-step cut at a 45 degrees angle. Basketball athletes had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump, whereas soccer players had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump. Greater valgus moments (P = .006) were noted on the dominant side during cutting. Our subjects demonstrated differences in ground reaction forces and stance times during 2 movements associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Knee valgus moment and angle were significantly influenced by the type of movement performed. Sport-specific neuromuscular training may be warranted, with basketball players focusing on jumping and landing and soccer players focusing on unanticipated cutting maneuvers.
José Ignacio Alonso Roque
Full Text Available Resumen El reglamento de Minibasket no ha sufrido modificaciones significativas desde sus inicios. Para la temporada 2005/2006 la Federación Española de Baloncesto propuso unas modificaciones al reglamento, de las cuales destaca una línea de tres puntos con forma rectangular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la bibliografía con respecto a las modificaciones reglamentarias y a la línea de tres puntos en Minibasket, desde un enfoque formativo para el jugador. Las reglas de los deportes de iniciación y en concreto de Minibasket deben responder a las demandas de los sujetos, sus necesidades y motivaciones con el fin de lograr un aprendizaje óptimo. En este sentido, tras revisar la bibliografía, no se encuentran estudios científicos que se centren en analizar la inclusión de la línea de tres puntos, ni que analicen la posición y distancia a la que se debe situar dicha línea para mejorar el juego en Minibasket. Sin embargo, la inclusión de la línea de tres puntos, en las competiciones de las cuales se ha encontrado referencias, fue todo un éxito. Por lo que son necesarias investigaciones que ayuden a esclarecer las limitaciones que existen a la hora de proponer una línea de tres puntos, adaptada a las necesidades formativas y a las características de los jugadores de Minibasket, para favorecer el lanzamiento y obtener éxito desde posiciones alejadas. Abstract Mini-basketball rules do not have been changed in a significant way regarding the original idea. For the season 2005-2006, the Spanish Federation of Basketball proposed some changes in its rules, from which a rectangular three-point line stands out. The aim of this study was to examine the bibliography with respect to the rule modifications and to the three-point line in Mini-basketball from a formative point of view. In sport initiation and in Mini-basketball, rules must improve the skill efficiency, performance, enjoyment and satisfaction to the learners. After review
Harris, Samuel J.
We consider quantum XOR games, defined in the work of Regev and Vidick [ACM Trans. Comput. Theory 7, 43 (2015)], from the perspective of unitary correlations defined in the work of Harris and Paulsen [Integr. Equations Oper. Theory 89, 125 (2017)]. We show that the winning bias of a quantum XOR game in the tensor product model (respectively, the commuting model) is equal to the norm of its associated linear functional on the unitary correlation set from the appropriate model. We show that Connes' embedding problem has a positive answer if and only if every quantum XOR game has entanglement bias equal to the commuting bias. In particular, the embedding problem is equivalent to determining whether every quantum XOR game G with a winning strategy in the commuting model also has a winning strategy in the approximate finite-dimensional model.
Schilsky, Richard L
The worldwide innovative networking (WIN) consortium comprises a global alliance of 28 academic and clinical cancer centres, 11 pharmaceutical and technology companies and five charitable or health payer organisations. Since its inception the consortium has striven to provide a forum for all of its members to network, share information and experience, and perform clinical trials with the overarching goal of advancing the care of patients with cancer through the use of precision medicine. The annual 2-day WIN Symposium is the most visible output of the consortium and provides an opportunity for around 400 experts and other delegates to meet and discuss the latest research and initiatives in personalised cancer medicine. The seventh WIN Symposium, held in Paris, France, 29-30 June 2015, consisted of nine plenary and eight poster sessions that covered the overarching theme of novel targets, innovative agents, and advanced technologies being a winning strategy. Highlights included discussions of immune mechanisms and ways to target the cancer immunome and systems biology approaches to supporting personalised cancer. The latest data from the BATTLE-2 and WINther trials were discussed, and round table discussions were held that focused on how best to design the next generation of clinical trials, which included SPRING, SUMMER, and BOOSTER being initiated by the WIN Consortium.
Harold, Simon; Henderson, Caspar; Baguette, Michel; Bonsall, Michael B; Hughes, David; Settele, Josef
BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal's Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn't let you miss out on.
Owino, Victor O; Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Omollo, Selina
during randomized, controlled trials (WinFood Study) designed to assess the efficacy of locally produced complementary foods based on traditional animal-source foods (edible termites and spiders) to support growth and nutritional status in Kenyan and Cambodian infants. METHODS: In a randomized......, controlled design, infants received WinFood or corn-soy blend (CSB) for 9 months from 6 to 15 months of age. Lean mass accrual and blood nutrition indicators (lipid profile, iron and zinc status) were measured cross-sectionally at 9 and 15 months of age, respectively. Lean mass was determined by measuring...
BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal’s Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn’t let you miss out on. PMID:25178017
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde
Full Text Available Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls; with age range 15 – 18 years who participated in the 2010 National Finals of the Nigeria Nestlé Milo Basketball Competition. Basketball-related injury data were collected by an assessor during the competition using a standardized basketball injury report form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 32 injuries were recorded with an incidence of 22.7 injuries per 100 participants same for boys and girls. This is equivalent to 1.1 injury per match for boys and 0.9 injuries per match for girls. Jumping/landing was the most common cause of injury (28.1%, N = 9. Most of the injuries were at the lower extremities (75%, N = 24; with majority at the knee joint (40.6%, N = 13. Ligament sprain was the most common types of injury. The pattern of injuries among boys did not significantly differ from that of girls (P > 0.05. Most injuries (N = 13, 41% occurred in the offensive half of the court and cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion The overall incidence of match injury among adolescent amateur basketball players during a national competition in Nigeria was 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match. The pattern of injuries was similar in both genders and consistent with what has been previously reported in literature for adolescent basketball players. Exercise-based injury prevention programmes aimed at improving core strength and
Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.
Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija
The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.
The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.
Attene, G; Iuliano, E; Di Cagno, A; Calcagno, G; Moalla, W; Aquino, G; Padulo, J
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric training versus basketball technique training on improving neuro-muscular performance. Thirty-six (age 14.9±0.9 years, body height 164.0±7.6 cm, body weight 54.0±8.7 kg, BMI 20.1±2.4 kg·m-2) basketball players girls were randomly allocated to 2 groups: Basketball Plyometric Training (BPT, N.=18) and Basketball Technique Training (BTT, N.=18). The players were tested by two specific tests: counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) before and after 6 training weeks. The jump height, as dependent variable, showed a different trend as an effect of the different training protocols, in contrast with the current knowledge. Manova did not show significant interactions between the two groups for the height of jumps, while significant differences were found for interaction time × training (Ptraining, the BPT group increased significantly CMJ performance by 11.3% (Ptraining protocols proposed in this study improved vertical jump performance. However, a combination of the two protocols, plyometric training and sport-specific-exercises, could be useful to optimize performance by an easy transition from controlled a-specific to sport-specific performance requirements. In conclusion, BPT is a safe and effective method of achieving a favourable neuro-muscular performance than BTT in female basketball players.
Canal Bruland, R.; Balch, L.; Niesert, L.
Skilled basketball players are supposed to hit more often from the free throw distance than would be predicted by their shooting performances at adjacent distances. This is dubbed an especial skill. In the current study, we examined whether especial skills in free throw performance in basketball map
Coelho e Silva, M. J.; Moreira Carvalho, H.; Goncalves, C. E.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Philippaerts, R. M.; Malina, R. M.
Aim. The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Methods. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured.
de Witte, AMH; Hoozemans, MJM; Berger, MAM; van der Slikke, R.M.A.; van der Woude, LHV; Veeger, H.E.J.
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation
de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Slikke, Rienk M. A.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of
de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan (H E J)
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of
From the Myth of Level Playing Fields to the Reality of a Finite Planet: Comment on "A Global Social Support System: What the International Community Could Learn From the United States' National Basketball Association's Scheme for Redistribution of New Talent".
Despite the mythology that the global economy with its trade rules creates a 'level playing field,' international trade has never involved 'level players.' The inequalities in outcomes generated by the more powerful winning more frequently has led to innovative ideas for ex post redistribution to make the matches between the players both fairer, and in the analogy to basketball used by the authors, more interesting and even more competitive. The proposal for a Global Social Protection Fund, financed by a small tax on the winners to enhance social protection spending for the losers, presumably increasing the latter's capabilities to compete more effectively in the global market game, is one such idea. It has much to commend it. Several problems, however, stand in its way, apart from those inherent within nations themselves and to which the authors give some attention. First, much global trade is now intra-firm rather than international, making calculations of which nations win or lose exceedingly difficult. Second, tax havens persist without the transparency and global regulatory oversights that would allow a better rendering of where winnings are stashed. Third, pre-distribution inequalities (those arising from market activities before government tax and transfer measures apply) are still increasing as labour's power to wrestle global capital into some ameliorative social contract diminishes. Fourth, there are finite limits to a planet on the cusp of multiple environmental crises. These problems do not diminish the necessity of alternative policy playbooks such as the proposed Fund, but point to the need to embrace the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a single set, such that economic growth for the bottom half of humanity includes deep structural reforms to both pre-distribution and redistribution, if the targets for environmental survival are to be met. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
The Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) Program System Design Description contains a discussion of the design details for the WinCal product. Information in this document will assist a developer in maintaining the WinCal system. The content of this document follows the guidance in WHC-CM-3-10, Software Engineering Standards, Standard for Software User Documentation
Full Text Available Many authors emphasize the importance of warm-up. Warm-up in team games aims at enhancing the body adaptation to the physical activity and to activate physiological functions from the rest state to the active state. Warm-up brings many different benefits, for example: physiological, psychological, and preventive, regardless of the classification of the above. From a psychological standpoint, the warm-up is performed to create the body "alertness", activity and readiness, and a willingness to act effectively. It was found that the players who perform the correct warm-up are better mentally prepared than those who do not perform it. After a well performed warm-up, the athlete is self-confident and has a positive attitude to the match. It is believed that the warm-up can also be the way to relieve tension and anxiety and to increase concentration and motivation before the match. Warm-up also improves the emotional states and reduces fear of failure. It has been verified that the warm-up, performed under appropriate conditions, improves focus, visual perception, action accuracy, self-confidence, speed and responsiveness, speed of processing and decision making. From the physiological point of view, the warm-up is an activity that adapts the basketball player’s body to an effort. It is an important factor that affects the effect of participation in the competition. Data from the literature suggest that the warm-up individualization is necessary in terms of duration and intensity. There are two types of warm-ups: passive and active. Passive warm-up is the one that is performed by using hot showers, baths, saunas, and steam baths or by using energetics massage. Active warm-up requires a lot of commitment and determination from the athlete during exercises that prepare the body and muscles for an effort. The training measures used during this part of warm-up are the general exercises that improve strength, stretch, coordination
Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Rudzitis, Andris; Spunde, Andris; Brice, Tamara; Nitiss, Edgars
We recorded eye movements of eight elite junior basketball players. We hypothesized that a more stable gaze is correlated to a better shot rate. Upon preliminary testing we invited male juniors whose eyes could be reliably tracked in a game situation. To these ends, we used a head-mounted video-based eye tracker. The participants had no record of ocular or other health issues. No significant differences were found between shots made with and without the tracker cap, Paired samples t-test yielded p= .130 for the far and p=..900 > .050 for the middle range shots. The players made 40 shots from common far and middle range locations, 5 and 4 meters respectively for aged 14 years As expected, a statistical correlation was found between gaze fixation (in milliseconds) for the far and middle range shot rates, r=.782, p=.03. Notably, juniors who fixated longer before a shot had a more stable fixation or a lower gaze dispersion (in tracker's screen pixels), r=-.786, p=.02. This finding was augmented by the observation that the gaze dispersion while aiming at the basket was less (i.e., gaze more stable) in those who were more likely to score. We derived a regression equation linking fixation duration to shot success. We advocate infra-red eye tracking as a means to monitor player selection and training success.
The White House, 2011
In his State of the Union, the President made it clear that the most important contest this country faces today is not between Democrats and Republicans, but with competitors around the world for the jobs and industries of our time. To win that contest and secure prosperity for all Americans, the nation must out-innovate, out-educate, and…
Creany, Anne Drolett
The likelihood that books can shape children's gender role attitudes and transmit gender role stereotypes increases the need for non-sexist children's literature. This paper explores the appearance of gender in Caldecott Award winning children's books. Picture books, trade books, content books and basal readers were inspected in the 1970s for the…
Interior Design students in the School of Architecture + Design at Virginia Tech won two of the four awards presented in the 2004-2005 Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC) Student Design Competition. Winners were selected at the International IDEC Conference in Savannah, Ga. with Virginia Tech Interior Design students winning second place and honorable mention.
Maxwell, Lesli A.
It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…
D. Igan (Deniz); T. Lambert (Thomas); W.B. Wagner (Wolf); Q. Zhang (Quxian)
textabstractWe study how lobbying affects the resolution of failed banks, using a sample of FDIC auctions between 2007 and 2014. We show that bidding banks that lobby regulators have a higher probability of winning an auction. In addition, the FDIC incurs higher costs in such auctions, amounting to
Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...
Ohio-Based NREL Subcontractor Wins Major Small Business Award For more information contact: e:mail alternative fuel vehicles has won a major award from the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. (ATL) of East Liberty, Ohio was named the SBA's Midwest Regional Small Business
Livingston, Jennifer; Jun, Alexander
Exploring the development of excellent teachers could contribute to the revision of current practices in faculty recruitment, evaluation, workload expectations, and reward systems. This grounded theory study examined the professional careers of nine award-winning faculty members of a faith-based institution of higher education. The data, collected…
Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.
We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it.Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either
Goossens, Dries R.; Kempeneers, Jurgen; Koning, Ruud H.; Spieksma, Frits C. R.
In this contribution, we study whether fatigue resulting from the previous match affects a player's chances of winning his (or her) next match in Grand Slum tennis. We measure relative fatigue levels of two opponents by looking at the difference in number of sets played in their previous match. We
Apr 28, 2016 ... Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan ... The new planter, developed by researchers at Sudan's Agricultural ... Senegal: Staying home at all costs ... This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on participatory geographic information systems (P-GIS) in Africa.
Haak, Laurel L
Women in Neuroscience (WIN) is an international organization whose major goal is to promote the professional advancement of women neuroscientists. To this end, WIN facilitates contacts and communication among women working in neuroscience, and organizes appropriate activities at the annual Society for Neuroscience (SfN) meeting. WIN was created in 1980, when despite major changes and advances in 'equal opportunities', women were still not achieving a proportionate level of success in the subdiscipline of neurosciences. In 1980, women made up 40 to 50% of entering classes in medical schools or graduate programs, but often comprised only 5 to 15% of leadership in respective organizations. Although there had been women elected to serve as SfN presidents, council, and committee members, women were under-represented in other positions of the Society, such as symposium and session chairs. There was an even lesser degree of representation in leadership positions at universities and medical schools in terms of full professorships, chairs, and program directors, as well as on editorial boards, advisory boards, and councils. Over the years, WIN has worked with success toward increasing the participation of women in neuroscience.
Graydon, Candice; Stange, Madison; Dixon, Mike J
Multiline slots are exciting games that contain features which make them alluring. One such feature is a loss disguised as a win (LDW); wherein, players win less than they wager (e.g., bet 2 dollars, win back 50 cents), but this net loss is disguised by flashing graphics and winning sounds. Research to date concludes that LDWs are both rewarding and reinforcing. Here, we investigated whether LDWs affect players' game selection. Thirty-two undergraduate students with experience playing slot machines played 100 spins on four games-two had positive payback percentages (115%) and two had negative payback percentages (85%) after 100 spins. For each payback percentage condition, there was a game with no LDWs and a game with a moderate number of LDWs. For the 100 spins, players could choose to play whichever game they wished. They then rated their preference for each game following the 100-spins and chose a game to continue playing. The majority of players preferred playing the positive payback percentage game with LDWs and chose to continue playing this game over the three other games. We conclude that in addition to LDWs being reinforcing and rewarding, LDWs do in fact influence game selection. We conclude that responsible gambling initiatives should educate players about LDWs.
Perreault, Stephane; Vallarand, Robert J
Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study examined the sport motivation and coping skills of male and female wheelchair basketball players with and without disability (N = 72). In line with SDT, results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation was found to be present in this sample of wheelchair basketball players. Results also demonstrated that the participants surveyed in the present study scored higher on self-determined types of motivation than non self-determined types of motivation, thus replicating past research with athletes without disability. Furthermore, wheelchair basketball players with and without disability did not differ significantly with respect to sport motivation and coping skills, suggesting that they are more alike than dissimilar. Finally, results revealed that self-determined motivation is associated with enhanced psychological functioning.
M\\u00AA Isabel Pi\\u00F1ar
Full Text Available This study presents the differences of competition between mini-basketball with the traditional rules (5-a-side and minibasket with rule modifications (3-a-side such as: reduced number of players on court, compulsory participation in 2 of the match's 4 periods, reduced court size, placing the free throw line at 3m from the basket, and including a three-point line. The sample that was selected included 47 mini-basketball players, and the study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design without a control group. The aim was to determine the effect of rule modifications on the participation of the player with the ball. It was demonstrated that the degree of individual participation is greater in mini-basketball with modified rules.
Maffiuletti, N A; Cometti, G; Amiridis, I G; Martin, A; Pousson, M; Chatard, J C
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week 8). At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p jump increased significantly by 14% at week 4 (p jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat-jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17% (ptraining program enhanced knee extensor strength and squat jump performance of basketball players.
Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M
The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.
Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B
Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as TEE - 0.1 TEE - REE. Fat mass (FM), FFM, and bone mineral were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; changed body energy stores were calculated as 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). Total-body water (TBW) and its compartments were assessed through dilution techniques, and total-body protein was calculated from a four-compartment model, with body volume assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Although a negative EB of -17.4 ± 72.7 kcal·d was observed (P sports and across sex groups resulting in a net weight increase (0.7 ± 2.3 kg) that is attributable to significant changes in FFM (1.2 ± 1.6 kg) and FM (-0.7 ± 1.5 kg) (P sports, and age. The mean negative EB observed over the season resulted from the rate of FM use and FFM accretion, but with a large variation by sex and sports. TBW, but not total-body protein or mineral balance, explained the magnitude of EB, which means that athletes under a positive or a negative EB showed a TBW expansion or shrinkage, respectively, specifically within the cells, over one athletic season.
Seifert, Davor; Lešić, Nikolina; Šostar, Zvonimir
Injuries are common during sport activities, a part of which is also injuries to the stomatognathic system. According to the data from literature orofacial injuries are frequent, but relatively minor. World Dental Federation has listed basketball as a medium-risk sport in sustaining orofacial injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to determine incidence, type and severity of orofacial injuries during basketball and frequents of mouthguard use. The sample consisted of 195 athletes who actively participate in basketball, 60 amateurs/non-professional and 135 professionals. A total of 2 265 injuries to the stomatognathic system were documented in this research; 200 (8.8%) of those injuries refer to the non-professionals and 2 065 (91.2%) to the professionals. The most common injuries are lacerations and contusions of soft tissue (a total of 2 208 or 97.5%), followed by dental injuries (a total of 57 or 2.5%). Out of all recorded laceration injuries 59.8% lacerations of soft tissue occurred during practice (12.6% amateurs and 87.4% professionals), while 40.2% of them occurred during games (2.5% amateurs and 97.5% professionals). Of a total of 57 dental injuries recorded during an athletes career, in 78.9% it were the professionals who suffered an injury, and in 21.1% of them the amateurs. Out of a total of 195 basketball players only 1% (2 players - one professional and one amateur) frequently used mouthguard during practice and games, while 93.3% of them never tried to wear a mouthguard. Such low percentage of mouthguard use in basketball players reflects poor awareness and education of athletes and coaches, as well as insufficient role of dentists in education. Orofacial injuries during basketball are not severe (80% lacerations), and therefore do not stimulate the use of a protecting devices even their use will totally diminish this type of injuries.
Gil Susana María
Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw. The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05 to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84, the maximal pass (r=0.67 and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67. Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01: 5 m (r= −0.80 and 20 m (r= −0.77 and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01. Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68 and the T-test (r= −0.57 correlated (p<0.05 with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.
Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.
Fox, Jordan L; Scanlan, Aaron T; Stanton, Robert
Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, and Stanton, R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2021-2029, 2017-Effective monitoring of players in team sports such as basketball requires an understanding of the external demands and internal responses, as they relate to training phases and competition. Monitoring of external demands and internal responses allows coaching staff to determine the dose-response associated with the imposed training load (TL), and subsequently, if players are adequately prepared for competition. This review discusses measures reported in the literature for monitoring the external demands and internal responses of basketball players during training and competition. The external demands of training and competition were primarily monitored using time-motion analysis, with limited use of microtechnology being reported. Internal responses during training were typically measured using hematological markers, heart rate, various TL models, and perceptual responses such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rate was the most commonly reported indicator of internal responses during competition with limited reporting of hematological markers or RPE. These findings show a large discrepancy between the reporting of external and internal measures and training and competition demands. Microsensors, however, may be a practical and convenient method of player monitoring in basketball to overcome the limitations associated with current approaches while allowing for external demands and internal responses to be recorded simultaneously. The triaxial accelerometers of microsensors seem well suited for basketball and warrant validation to definitively determine their place in the monitoring of basketball players. Coaching staff should make use of this technology by tracking individual player responses across the annual plan and using real-time monitoring to minimize factors such as fatigue
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The jump landing is the leading cause for ankle injuries in basketball. It has been shown that the use of ankle brace is effective to prevent these injuries by increasing the mechanical stability of the ankle at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. Objective: To investigate the effects of ankle brace on the ground reaction force (GRF during the simulation of a basketball rebound jump. Method: Eleven young male basketball players randomly carried out a simulated basketball rebound jump under two conditions, with and without ankle brace (lace-up. Dynamic parameters of vertical GRF (take-off and landing vertical peaks, time to take-off and landing vertical peaks, take-off impulse peak, impulse at 50 milliseconds of landing, and jump height and medial-lateral (take-off and landing medial-lateral peaks, and time to reach medial-lateral peaks at take-off and landing were recorded by force platform during rebound jumps in each tested condition. The comparisons between the tested conditions were performed by paired t test (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of ankle brace during basketball rebound jumps attenuates the magnitude of medial-lateral GRF on the landing phase, without changing the vertical GRF. This finding indicates that the use of brace increases the medial-lateral mechanical protection by decreasing the shear force exerted on the athlete’s body without change the application of propulsive forces in the take-off and the impact absorption quality in the landing during the basketball rebound jump.
Leppänen, M; Pasanen, K; Kulmala, J-P; Kujala, U M; Krosshaug, T; Kannus, P; Perttunen, J; Vasankari, T; Parkkari, J
Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players. Peak knee valgus and flexion angles during the VDJ were analyzed by 3D motion analysis.Larger knee valgus angles were observed among basketball players (- 3.2°, 95%CI -4.5 to - 2.0) compared with floorball players (- 0.9°, 95%CI -2.3 to 0.6) (P=0.022). Basketball players landed with a decreased peak knee flexion angle (83.1°, 95%CI 81.4 to 84.8) compared with floorball players (86.5°, 95%CI 84.6 to 88.4) (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between basketball and floorball players. Female athletes exhibited significantly greater valgus angles than males. This study revealed that proper knee control during jump-landing does not seem to develop in young athletes simply by playing the sport, despite the fact that jump-landings occur frequently in practice and games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo; Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias; Vicente Ávila-Gandía; Cristian Marín-Pagán; Antonio Luque; Pedro E. Alcaraz
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) during incremental test could be used to estimate ventilatory threshold (VT) in professional basketball players, with sufficient precision to be used in their training. Furthermore, the second aim was to analyse the association between HRV and 3 methods of VT determination by gas analysis. Methods: Twenty-four professional basketball players (age: 23.4 ± 4.9 years; height: 195.4 ± 9.8 cm; body mass: 92.2 ± 11.9...
K. Rejinadevi; Dr. C. Ramesh
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of core training on selected haematological variables among basketball players. For the purpose of the study forty men basketball players were selected as subjects from S.V.N College and Arul Anandar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. The selected subjects are divided in to two groups of twenty subjects each. Group I acted as core training group and Group II acted as control group. The experimenta...
Luca P. Ardigò; Goran Kuvacic; Antonio D. Iacono; Giacomo Dascanio; Johnny Padulo; Johnny Padulo
The three-point shot (3S) is a fundamental basketball skill used frequently during a game, and is often a main determinant of the final result. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different metabolic conditions, in terms of heart rates, on 3S accuracy (3S%) in 24 male (Under 17) basketball players (age 16.3 ± 0.6 yrs). 3S performance was specifically investigated at different heart rates. All sessions consisted of 10 consecutive 3Ss from five different significant field spot...
Jourdan R Myles; C. Matt Lee; Marialice Kern
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of three recovery strategies during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Nine male basketball players (age, 23.11 ± 2.8 years; height, 1.83 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 81.87 ± 11.2 kg) completed a series of 3 randomized trials. Each trial consisted of a basketball exercise simulation test (BEST), a series of performance tests, one of three recovery modalities, and a subsequent series of performance tests. The performance tests included the agility t-...
Hürmüz KOÇ; Atilla PULUR; Ebru Olcay KARABULUT
In this study, some motoric characteristics of basketball and handball players with similar physical characteristics were compared. 24 handball players at the age of 12.5 ± 0.6 (mean ± sd) years old and 18 basketball players at the age of 12.8 ± 0.8 (mean ± sd) years old, all of whom have trained regularly for at least 3 years, participated in the study. Parameters such as, age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, flexibility, upper extremity velocity (arm movement velocity), equilibriu...
Full Text Available For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
Koster, Jeremy; Aven, Brandy
For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes experience a high rate of injuries. Injury prevention requires identifying observable and controllable risk factors. To examine the relationship among game load, fatigue, and injuries in NBA athletes. Cross-sectional study. Game statistics and injury reports over 3 NBA seasons (2012-2015). Data represented 627 players (height = 200.7 ± 8.9 cm, mass = 100.6 ± 12.1 kg, NBA experience = 4.8 ± 4.2 years, pre-NBA experience = 3.2 ± 1.9 years), 73 209 games, and 1663 injury events. An injury event was defined as a player missing or leaving a game due to injury. Logistic multilevel regression was used to predict injuries from time-lagged fatigue and game load with between-subjects differences explained by demographic variables. The odds of injury increased by 2.87% ( P NBA experience and 10.59% ( P = .02) for a 6-cm decrease in height. I observed variability in the intercepts ( P NBA experience, and being shorter than average. Both baseline injury risk and the magnitude of the load-injury and fatigue-injury associations varied across individuals. Researchers should explore the nature of these relationships.
Full Text Available Home advantage was defined as the fact that home teams win more than the 50% of their matches (Courneya & Carron, 1992. The aim of this work was to investigate the home advantage in the ACB league and identify the game-related statistics which best discriminate home and away teams. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Association for the period 2007-2008 ACB league (n= 306. Game related statistics were normalized to 100 ball possessions. In order to compare game related statistics in home and away teams, a discriminative analysis was employed. This analysis identifies the game related statistics that best discriminate between home and away teams. The function obtained was interpreted with the structural canonical coefficients (SC, with values higher than |.30|. In the 2007-2008 ACB league, the home teams won the 55.22% (n=169 of the games. The analysis identifying the two-point field goals made, blocks made, dunks, the defensive rebounds and the assists as common to the mean vectors that discriminate home teams in all games. Blocks received contribute to discriminate away teams in ACB league. These results could be used by the psychologist who works with the team. They must design specific programs to decrease anxiety levels, and to improve motivation and concentration levels in basketball players before a competition.
Svilar, Luka; Castellano, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Casamichana, David
The purpose of this paper was to study the structure of interrelationships among external training load measures and how these vary among different positions in elite basketball. Eight external variables of jumping (JUMP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC) and change of direction (COD), and two internal load variables (RPE and sRPE) were collected from 13 professional players with 300 session records. Three playing positions were considered: guards (n=4), forwards (n=4) and centers (n=5). High and total external variables (hJUMP and tJUMP, hACC and tACC, hDEC and tDEC, hCOD and tCOD) were used for the principal component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at the eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract multiple principal components. The analysis showed that all positions had two or three principal components (explaining almost all of the variance), but the configuration of each factor was different: tACC, tDEC, tCOD and hJUMP for centers, hACC, tACC, tCOD and hJUMP for guards, and tACC, hDEC, tDEC, hCOD, and tCOD for forwards are specifically demanded in training sessions and, therefore, these variables must be prioritized in load monitoring. Furthermore, for all playing positions, RPE and sRPE have high correlation with the total amount of ACC, DEC and COD. This would suggest that, although players perform the same training tasks, the demands of each position can vary. A particular combination of external load measures is required to describe training load of each playing position, especially to better understand internal responses among players.
Full Text Available Evaluations of the physical fitness of Thoroughbred racehorses have been correlated with race earnings, but few reports exist about the influence of the distance exercised during training on both physical conditioning indices and financial productivity. During one training season sixteen claiming Thoroughbred horses were subjected to submaximal training and monitored by a global positioning system (GPS coupled to a heart rate monitor. After initial and single monitoring, the horses were distributed into two groups of eight individuals each; one group exercised short distances (SD between 1600 and 1900m, while the other exercised long distances (LD between 2000 and 2350m. The duration (min and mean and maximal velocities (ms-1attained during each session were determined, as well as the difference in distances exercised (m between official races and each training session. Blood lactate concentration ([LA] during recovery was also determined. Student's t-test was used for a non-paired analysis, with P≤0.05 considered significant. The winnings (USD of each horse were correlated with the peak heart rate (HRpeak attained during the training session. The distances exercised in the training sessions were greater in relation to the official races distances by 24.7% and 40% for SD and LD, respectively. Lactatemia did not differ between the groups. The HRpeak obtained during the training session was lower in LD group. The velocity at which the heart rate reached 200 bpm (V200 was higher in LD group. There was a moderate correlation (r= 0.42 between the highest winnings and lowest HRpeak. The horses that ran longer distances during their submaximal training session had better cardiac conditioning and tendency to increase financial productivity
Par, Prateek; Gupt, Ankit Kumar; Singh, Samarth; Khare, Neelu; Bhattachrya, Sweta
As we are proceeding towards an internet driven world, the impact of internet is increasing in our day to lives. This not only gives impact on the virtual world but also leave a mark in the real world. The social media sites contains huge amount of information, the only thing is to collect the relevant data and analyse the data to form a real world prediction and it can do far more than that. In this paper we study the relationship between the twitter data and the normal data analysis to predict the winning team in the NFL (National Football League).The prediction is based on the data collected on the on-going league which includes performance of each player and their previous statistics. Alongside with the data available online we are combining the twitter data which we extracted by the tweets pertaining to specific teams and games in the NFL season and use them alongside statistical game data to build predictive models for future or the outcome of the game i.e. which team will lose or win depending upon the statistical data available. Specifically the tweets within the 24 hours of match will be considered and the main focus of twitter data will be upon the last hours of tweets i.e. pre-match twitter data and post-match twitter data. We are experimenting on the data and using twitter data we are trying to increase the performance of the existing predictive models that uses only the game stats to predict the future.
Hardesty, Kelly; Hegedus, Eric J.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh‐Dung
Background ACL injury prevention programs are less successful in female basketball players than in soccer players. Previous authors have identified anthropometric and biomechanical differences between the athletes and different sport‐specific demands, including a higher frequency of frontal plane activities in basketball. Current injury risk screening and preventive training practices do not place a strong emphasis on frontal plane activities. The medial and lateral triple hop for distance tests may be beneficial for use in the basketball population. Hypothesis/Purpose To 1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral triple hop tests in healthy female collegiate athletes, and 2) analyze differences in test scores between female basketball and soccer players. It was hypothesized that due to the frequent frontal plane demands of their sport, basketball players would exhibit greater performance during these frontal plane performance tests. Study Design Cross‐sectional. Methods Thirty‐two NCAA Division‐1 female athletes (20 soccer, 12 basketball) performed three trials each of a medial and lateral triple hop for distance test. Distances were normalized to height and mass in order to account for anthropometric differences. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to identify statistically significant main effects of sport (basketball vs. soccer), and side (right vs. left), and sport x side interactions. Results After accounting for anthropometric differences, soccer players exhibited significantly better performance than basketball players in the medial and lateral triple hop tests (p jumped farther on their left (400.3 ± 41.5 cm) than right (387.9 ± 43.4 cm) limbs, but no side differences were identified in the lateral triple hop. No significant side x sport interactions were identified. Conclusions Women's basketball players exhibit decreased performance of frontal plane hop tests when compared to women's soccer players. Additionally
Ciprian M. Crainiceanu
Full Text Available Penalized splines can be viewed as BLUPs in a mixed model framework, which allows the use of mixed model software for smoothing. Thus, software originally developed for Bayesian analysis of mixed models can be used for penalized spline regression. Bayesian inference for nonparametric models enjoys the flexibility of nonparametric models and the exact inference provided by the Bayesian inferential machinery. This paper provides a simple, yet comprehensive, set of programs for the implementation of nonparametric Bayesian analysis in WinBUGS. Good mixing properties of the MCMC chains are obtained by using low-rank thin-plate splines, while simulation times per iteration are reduced employing WinBUGS specific computational tricks.
Koopmann, Till; Steggemann-Weinrich, Yvonne; Baumeister, Jochen; Krause, Daniel
Purpose: In sports games, coaches often use tactic boards to present tactical instructions during time-outs (e.g., 20 s to 60 s in basketball). Instructions should be presented in a way that enables fast and errorless information processing for the players. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different orientations of visual tactical…
Kuigi uus Leedu kodakondsusseaduse muudatus lubab anda Leedu koondises mängivatele välismaa tippsportlastele Leedu kodakondsuse, lükkas president Valdas Adamkus USA korvpalluri Kathryn Douglas'e kodakondsustaotluse tagasi. Sama ka: Adamkus denies U.S. basketball star citizenship//The Baltic Times 2006, 24-30 aug., lk 4
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.
The goal of this study was to analyse with which ball the participants attempted a greater number of shots and achieved more successful shots from distances greater than four meters and from positions outside the free throw lane. The 54 participants included nine to 11-year-old children from six basketball teams.
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.
Zhao, Yu; Yang, Rennong; Chevalier, Guillaume; Shah, Rajiv C.; Romijnders, Rob
Data analytics helps basketball teams to create tactics. However, manual data collection and analytics are costly and ineffective. Therefore, we applied a deep bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) and mixture density network (MDN) approach. This model is not only capable of predicting a
Pappano, Laura; Tracy, Allison J.
Tickets to college sports--and men's and women's Division I college basketball in particular--may appear on the surface no different than tickets members of the public may buy to attend professional sporting events. But unlike professional franchises, colleges are non-profit organizations and, in many cases, public institutions. Decisions around…
Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Collins, Dave; Paes, Roberto R
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities. Fifty-eight male basketball players aged 9.5 to 15.5 years were considered. Variables included chronological age, estimated age at peak height velocity, stature, body mass and sitting height by anthropometry; the Work and Family Orientation and Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaires were also used. Finally, the Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) tests were used as functional capacities indicators for basketball. Variance components models derived from series of multilevel linear regression models revealed a substantial variation by maturity status for body size, functional capacities indicators, mastery and will to excel. The influence of estimated maturity status on mastery and will to excel was independent of age and years of experience. In contrast, no relationships were observed between psychological variables and functional capacities indicators. We conclude that growth-related changes are relevant to understanding players´ motivations for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice. This should be of interest to those involved in the selection and development of youth basketball players.
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Div. for Girls and Women's Sports.
The official American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) rules for girls and women's basketball, July 1972 - July 1973 are listed. Exact court measurements are given as are official scoring rules, timing procedures, duties of officials, definition of playing terms, violations and penalties, and officials' signals.…
Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.
Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…
Scanlan, Aaron T; Dascombe, Ben J; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Peucker, Jessica L; Dalbo, Vincent J
To compare game activity demands between female and male semiprofessional basketball players. Female (n=12) and male (n=12) semiprofessional basketball players were monitored across 3 competitive games. Time-motion-analysis procedures quantified player activity into predefined movement categories across backcourt (BC) and frontcourt (FC) positions. Activity frequencies, durations, and distances were calculated relative to live playing time (min). Work:rest ratios were also calculated using the video data. Game activity was compared between genders for each playing position and all players. Female players performed at greater running work-rates than male players (45.7±1.4 vs. 42.1±1.7 m/min, P=.05), while male players performed more dribbling than female players (2.5±0.3 vs. 3.0±0.2 s/min; 8.4±0.3 vs. 9.7±0.7 m/min, P=.05). Positional analyses revealed that female BC players performed more low-intensity shuffling (P=.04) and jumping (P=.05), as well as longer (P=.04) jogging durations, than male BC players. Female FC players executed more upper-body activity (P=.03) and larger work:rest ratios (Pbasketball. Furthermore, position-specific variations between female and male basketball players should be considered. These data may prove useful in the development of gender-specific conditioning plans relative to playing position in basketball.
Noble, Bruce J.; Maresh, Carl M.
In general, basketball players with moderately high aerobic power who reside at an altitude of 1,000 m do not display the hypoxic response to an altitude of 2,200 m expected of sea level residents and aerobically trained athletes. (JD)
de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.
For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
Conclusion: These findings provide a practical, inexpensive approach for evaluating specific training loads when determining VT2 in basketball players. Therefore, HRV is an alternative method to determine VT2 without the application of expensive technology that limits its use to laboratories.
Fortunato, John A.
Identifies and analyzes the exposure and portrayal framing methods that are utilized by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Notes that key informant interviews provide insight into the exposure framing method and reveal two portrayal instruments: cameras and announcers; and three framing strategies: depicting the NBA as a team game,…
Xavi Schelling, Lorena Torres
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the workload during basketball-specific drills measured through microtechnology. Twelve professional male basketball players from the Spanish 1st Division were monitored over a 4-week period. Data were collected from 16 sessions, for a total of 95 ± 33 drills per player. Workload data (Acceleration load; AL were obtained from a tri-axial accelerometer at 100Hz sampling frequency, and were expressed over time (AL.min-1. Comparisons among training drills (i.e., 2v2, 3v3, 4v4, and 5v5 were assessed via standardized mean differences. Full-court 3v3 and 5v5 showed the highest physical demand (AL.min-1: 18.7 ± 4.1 and 17.9 ± 4.6, respectively compared with other traditional balanced basketball drills such as 2v2 and 4v4 (14.6 ± 2.8 and 13.8±2.5, respectively. The AL.min-1 on half-court showed trivial-to-moderate differences with a likely increase of ~10-20% in 2v2 drill compared with any other formats. This study provides insight into the specific requirements of a range of exercises typically performed in basketball sessions. The use of accelerometer data is presented as a useful tool in assessing the workload.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.
Clark, Langston; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Bimper, Albert Y.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze the insights and experiences of the 1st African American student-athlete (in basketball) at a prominent predominantly White institution in the Deep South as well as the later insights and experiences of his sons at the same university; and (b) to present a counterstory to the dominant…
Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T
The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.
Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.; Keating, Tedd
The additive effects of self-regulation training in forethought, performance, and self-reflection phase processes on acquiring a novel motoric skill (i.e., basketball free throws) and self-reflective beliefs were studied with 50 college students. The results showed a positive linear trend between the number of self-regulatory phases, in which the…
This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…
The effects of basketball training on the maladaptive behaviors of 19 children (ages 10-14) with mental retardation were investigated. Results indicated the children showed a reduction in their level of maladaptive behavior at home and in school. This reduction was maintained 45 days later in a follow-up assessment. (Author/CR)
Colson, Serge S; Pensini, Manuela; Espinosa, Julien; Garrandes, Frederic; Legros, Patrick
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training added to the conventional training of basketball players. Eighteen competitive basketball players (13 male symbol, 5 female symbol, 18-24 years old) were randomly assigned to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 10; 7 male symbol and 3 female symbol) or a control group (CG, n = 8; 6 male symbol and 2 female symbol). During the 4-week period, all subjects maintained their conventional basketball training program. The members of WBVG were additionally trained 3 times a week for 20 minutes on a vibration platform (10 unloaded static lower limb exercises, 40-Hz, 4-mm, Silverplate). Testing was performed before and after the 4-week period and comprised strength assessment, vertical jump performance, and a 10-m sprint test. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors significantly increased (p training, as did squat jump (SJ) height (p training program added to the conventional training of basketball players during the preseason is an effective short-term stimulus to enhance knee extensor strength and slightly SJ performance.
Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre
This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.
In the current study, a method was tested to train visual control in basketball shooting. Using a sender/receiver system, Plato liquid-crystal goggles were wirelessly and manually controlled by the experimenter to manipulate vision of players while they were shooting. During the training the goggles
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent
This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.
Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo
The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p agility (p Under-20 > Under-18, p agility and 5- and 10-m performances. Power forwards and centers were stronger than the rest of players' positions in the bench press 1RM (p basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.
Stojanovic, M D; Ostojic, S M; Calleja-González, J; Milosevic, Z; Mikic, M
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between explosive strength and aerobic power with basketball-specific repeated sprint ability in elite male basketball players. Twenty-four elite basketball players (age 22.2±3.4 years, height 197.1±6.2 cm, weight 95.7±8.8 kg; training experience 11.0±3.1 years; mean±SD), participated in the study. Subjects performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test and incremental pseudo-ramp test protocol with measured CMJ height and VO2max, respectively. Specific repeated sprint ability (RSA) test was conducted, with total sprinting time (summation of 10 sprint times - RSAtot) and sprint decrement (fatigue index - RSAFI) calculated. Significant decrements in sprint performance from the eight 30-m sprint (Pbasketball players. It seems that coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should devote additional time for explosive strength development in elite basketball players during preparatory period to enhance RSA performance.
Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie
The main purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n=26; 15 observational and 11 experimental) examining vertical jump (VJ) performances in female and male basketball players. Information on the tests used in these studies and their specific protocols, and the training programs conducted to improve VJ ability in elite basketball players, was assessed. It was found that vertical jump values varied greatly, from 22 to 48 cm in female players and from 40 to 75 cm in male players. These large variations can be explained mostly by the differences in testing protocols (each VJ protocol examined different physiological pathways) and skill level of players. The variations in VJ values among studies were greatly reduced when they used the same protocol. In addition, short plyometric training sessions as part of the strength and conditioning program were found to enhance VJ performances in basketball players. Based on the reviewed studies, five limitations associated with the testing protocols and the strength and conditioning programs used in the studies were outlined, among them the use of multiple testing protocols and lack of experimental studies. Three recommendations for basketball and strength and conditioning coaches were suggested, for one of which was including plyometric training in the annual training program. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J
There is a lack of information about the influence of age on functional movement tests (FMT) and performance tests as well as in their relationships in young basketball players. The purpose of the present study was to determine the variations in FMT and jump and/or sprint performance scores between age groups (U-14 vs. U-16) in Highly-trained young basketball players. The second purpose was to investigate the relationship between FMT for lower body and jump and/or sprint performance in highly-trained young (U-14 and U-16) male basketball players. Descriptive study. Thirty elite young (U-14 to U-16) male basketball players performed several FMT (weight-bearing dorsiflexion test [WB-DF] and a modified Star Excursion Balance test [SEBT]) and performance including unilateral and bilateral countermovement jumps, unilateral horizontal jumping, linear sprinting and performance tests. All anthropometric and performance tests showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump with left leg (p=0.127). Five out of the eight FMT performed showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump and/or sprint performance test between age groups (U-16 vs U-14). The findings of this study support the idea that the age of the player should be considered when interpreting FMT scores, which could have implications when implementing the FMT for injury risk prediction. 2b.
Garatachea, Nuria; Verde, Zoraida; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Yvert, Thomas; Rodriguez-Romo, Gabriel; Sarasa, Francisco J; Hernández-Sánchez, Sonsoles; Santiago, Catalina; Lucia, Alejandro
To determine the association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with leg-muscle explosive power in Spanish (white) elite basketball players and controls. 100 (60 men) elite basketball players (cases) and 283 nonathletic controls. The authors assessed power performance by means of the vertical-squat and countermovement-jump tests. Genotype distributions did not differ between groups (cases: 37.0% [RR], 42.0% [RX], and 21.0% [XX]; controls: 31.8% [RR], 49.8% [RX], and 18.4% [XX]; P = .353). The authors did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in either group, including when they performed the analyses separately in men and women. They found no association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite basketball player using the dominant or the recessive model, and the results remained unaltered when the analyses were adjusted for sex, weight, height, and age or when performed for men and women separately. Although the ACTN3 R577X is associated with explosive muscle performance and this phenotype is important in the sport of basketball (ie, during jumps), the authors found no association with leg explosive power in elite basket players or with the status of being this type of athlete.
Jesús Gil Gómez
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players. mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.
Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…
Potenski, Catherine J; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Baguette, Michel; Clobert, Jean; Hughes, David; Settele, Josef
For the third time, BMC Ecology is delighted to announce the winners of our Image Competition. This year featured entries from all over the world and showcased not only the creativity and talent of the participants, but also the exquisite beauty and diversity of our planet. We are pleased to present the winning selections of the editorial board of the journal and guest judge Dr. Ana Luz Porzecanski, as well as some highly commended images that are sure to impress.
Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia. They did this while battling an insurgency by the Viet Cong. The Central Highlands along the Cambodian and South...in the twentieth century, Chinese communist revolutionary leader Mao Tse -Tung wrote that guerilla warfare was making front lines out of the enemy’s...17 Pape, Bombing to Win, 31-21. 18 Mao Tse -Tung, Selected Military Writings of Mao Tse -Tung, Problems of Strategy in Guerrilla War Against Japan
Daniel Mihai Amariei
Full Text Available In the present paper we are presenting a problem of distribution using the Network Modeling Module of the WinQSB software, were we have 5 athletes which we must assign the optimal sample, function of the obtained time, so as to obtain the maximum output of the athletes. Also we analyzed the case of an accident of 2 athletes, the coupling of 3 athletes with 5 various athletic events causing the maximum coupling, done using the Hungarian algorithm.
Osorio, Jose [Rede Electrica Nacional, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal)
While objectives proposed for Smart Grids and Smart metering may seem to be able to win easily end user's supports, a considerable amount of studies on social behavior concerning energy efficiency and sustainability show the gap between the values people would like to fulfill and their real life performance. As TSOs envision here a source of System Ancillary Services, measures to make the source really dependable, so that an adequate market design may really work are pointed out. (orig.)
Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A
Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.
Coal winning in one production district at Rheinpreussen Colliery is described. Extracted seam thickness is 2.95 m, of which 1.15 m is dirt. Eickhoff double-ended ranging shearer loaders with Eicotrack chainless haulage have proved successful, even though this coal is difficult to cut because of the dirt bands. The introduction of twin-belt conveyor drives allowed the distances between centers in the long-haul belt systems to be increased, thereby improving safety.